RU2097960C1 - Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage - Google Patents

Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage Download PDF

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RU2097960C1
RU2097960C1 RU97102443A RU97102443A RU2097960C1 RU 2097960 C1 RU2097960 C1 RU 2097960C1 RU 97102443 A RU97102443 A RU 97102443A RU 97102443 A RU97102443 A RU 97102443A RU 2097960 C1 RU2097960 C1 RU 2097960C1
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grain
carried
sowing
crops
drying
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RU97102443A
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Russian (ru)
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RU97102443A (en
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Николай Павлович Селиванов
Сергей Николаевич Селиванов
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Николай Павлович Селиванов
Сергей Николаевич Селиванов
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Publication of RU97102443A publication Critical patent/RU97102443A/en

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Abstract

FIELD: agriculture. SUBSTANCE: method involves using container with filtering surface area exceeding that of air-permeable portion of container by 1.002-230 times; providing filtering surface formed as three-dimensional enclosure with uniform and/or variable curvature or combined configuration. Apex of enclosure is separated by maximum distance from plane aligned with at least one nonlinear length of air-permeable portion contour or from plane of horizontal projection of related air-permeable portion. This distance is 0.02-78 diameters of air-permeable portion diameter. EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced grain loss by improved quality and effective aspiration process. 13 cl

Description

 The invention relates to agriculture, and in particular to methods for the production of cereals and / or legumes, post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain, and can be used in stationary conditions, including direct, indoor or open, or temporary currents, at harvest enterprises, elevators, grain cleaning stations, grain cleaning and drying stations and any other enterprises that are engaged in the cultivation and / or processing of grain and / or leguminous crops, transportation and a grain wound.
 Known accepted for the closest analogue of the first claimed method is the method of production and harvesting of cereal grains and / or legumes, post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain, including pre-sowing tillage by plowing with or without turnover, harrowing and cultivation, preparing seeds for sowing by pre-sowing treatment, including with aspiration sorting and, if necessary, with air-sieve cleaning, sowing, rolling, harrowing, fertilizing crops with mineral / or organic fertilizers, the destruction of weeds and pests by chemical and / or biological treatment, harvesting by direct combining with mowing and threshing and / or two-phase (separate) harvesting with mowing plants in rolls, their selection and threshing, and / or harvesting threshing in stationary conditions, including direct, indoor or open, or temporary current, preliminary cleaning of grain from weeds and / or grains, and / or metal-magnetic impurities with screening and / or processing on an air-sieve machine x, aspiration by passing air through the filter surface of the aspiration system or device at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or backup storage tank with lids with the release of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities and / or broken grain, at least at least once repeated cleaning of grain, including with separation of grain size into fractions and waste - aspiration, large and seeding, cleaning of long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from hard-to-separate seeds of foreign crops and weeds, transporting and loading grain into dryers, transporting non-grain parts for processing or warehousing, feeding grain to storages and / or elevators and storing with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain weight (see Klenin N .AND. and other agricultural and reclamation machines. M. Kolos, 1980, p. 3-657).
 In the second part of the claimed method, the closest known method adopted as the closest analogue is the method of post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain, including feeding grain for preliminary cleaning at elevators and / or harvesting enterprises, and / or mechanized currents, and / or grain cleaning points, and / or grain cleaning and drying stations, preliminary cleaning of grain from weeds and / or grains, and / or metallomagnetic impurities with screening and / or processing on air- for non-jet machines, aspiration by passing air through the filter surface of an aspiration system or device, at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or backup storage tank with lids with the release of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities and / or broken grain, at least a single re-purification of grain, including separation of its size into fractions and waste, suction, large and seeding, cleaning of long and short impurities using triers and finally cleaning grain from hard-to-separate seeds of foreign crops and weeds, transporting and loading grain into dryers, transporting non-grain parts for processing or warehousing, feeding grain to storages and / or elevators and storing with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass (cm . Grain Processing Technology, ed. Doctor of Technical Sciences G.A. Egorova. M. Kolos, 1977, p. 72 -117).
 The disadvantages of the known methods are the relatively high loss of seeds and grains during processing due to insufficient use in the delivery and / or unloading and / or cleaning of seeds and / or crops and / or grains of the aspiration process.
 The objective of the present invention is to reduce product losses at the stages of seed delivery and processing, delivery and / or pneumatic transportation and grain cleaning through the use of a highly reliable filter surface of the aspiration system, due to the selection of the optimal filter surface area and its forms.
 The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of production and harvesting of cereal grains and / or legumes, post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain, including pre-sowing tillage by plowing with or without turnover, harrowing and cultivation, preparing seeds for sowing by pre-sowing treatment, including with aspiration sorting and, if necessary, with air-sieve cleaning, sowing, rolling, harrowing, fertilizing crops with mineral and / or organic fertilizers cultivation of weeds and pests by chemical and / or mechanical and / or biological treatment, harvesting by direct combining with mowing and threshing, and / or two-phase (separate) harvesting with mowing plants in rolls, their selection and threshing, and / or cleaning with threshing under stationary conditions, including direct, indoor or open, or temporary current, preliminary cleaning of grain from weeds and / or grains, and / or metallomagnetic impurities with screening and / or processing on air-sieve machines, as irradiation by passing air through the filtering surface of the aspiration system or device, at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or reserve storage tank with lids with the release of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities and / or broken grain re-cleaning of grain, including separation of its size into fractions and waste suction, large and seeding, cleaning of long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from difficult divisible seeds of foreign crops and weeds, transporting and loading grain into dryers, transporting non-grain parts for processing or warehousing, feeding grain to storages and / or elevators, and storing withstanding the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass, while carrying out aspiration, the capacity and / or containers are connected to an aspiration system or device and / or to each other with the possibility of a combination and / or selective switching of at least one additional duct ohm and the formation of the area of the filtering surface of at least one container, with the excess of the area of the corresponding air-transparent portion of the surface of this capacity in the range from 1.002 to 230 reduced diameters of the area of the air-transparent portion, and the shape of the filtering surface in the form of a spatial shell of constant and / or curvature or combined configurations with the maximum distance of its apex from the plane, combined with at least one non-linear segment of the contour of the air-transparent section or from the plane bone horizontal projection corresponding aeroprozrachnogo portion by a distance of from 0.02 to 78 aeroprozrachnogo reduced diameter portion area.
 At the same time, when carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air filter insert can be used as a filter surface, which is installed in the lid cavity of the main and / or reserve storage tanks, or at least one air filter membrane serving simultaneously as the main and / or reserve storage capacity, or at least one insert for filtering the supply air to the filter is used as a filter surface they are installed in the upper part of the wall of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, and in this case, the insert for filtering the supplied air is made in the form of a fragment of a cylindrical surface or double curvature, or in the form of a polyhedron, concave or convex, or convex relative to the surface walls of the tank, or in a combined form from a combination of straight and / or curved sections, or in the form of a continuous ring or discrete shell.
 When carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air filter element can be used as a filter surface, which is made in the form of a removable shell, while in the upper part of at least one main and / or backup storage tank a cut is made in which a casing with an air filter element is installed moreover, the area of the cut out area is at least 1% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding container with a multifaceted configuration, or at least 2.3% of the cross-sectional area the corresponding capacity of circular cylindrical or variable curvature or combined configuration.
When carrying out the aspiration process, at least two air filter inserts, air filter membranes, inserts for filtering the supplied air and air filter elements can be used as a filter surface, while the area ratio of any two filter elements is 1: 1 o C15.
 To seal the main and backup storage tanks, any filtering elements that make up the filter surface are connected to the tanks by means of clamps with sealant, and at least some of the connections are detachable.
 For carrying out preventive or repair work during the aspiration process, the main and / or reserve storage tanks can be additionally equipped with airtight membranes, which are installed to ensure complete cessation of air supply to the replaceable filter element.
 An air filter insert or an air filter membrane or an insert for filtering the supplied air, or an air filter element can be made in the form of a shell containing at least one double curvature section or at least one single curvature section, or combinations thereof, or from combinations of curvilinear and / or rectilinear sections.
 In the process of aspiration, air is injected with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed by at least two jointed fragments of cylinders of constant and variable curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one conical or polyconic section formed from fragments of conical and / or polyconic curvature directly connected to each other but either by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed from fragments of cylindrical and poly-cylindrical curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical and / or conical and / or spherical and / or spheroidal and / or ellipsoidal and / or parabolic and / or hypovaroid and / or toroidal region.
 The shell may be provided with an inner frame.
 The filtering surface is made of high-strength woven or fibrous non-woven material, moreover, for example, overcoat cloth is used as a high-strength woven material, and for example, as a fibrous non-woven cloth.
The design for aspiration with a filter surface can be made of at least two filter layers with different strength and transmittance, which are arranged in order to increase their strength and transmittance or fastened together to form cavities, at least one of which is at least partially filled granular filler, while the differentiated throughput in at least one layer is formed providing a pressure differential between the internal and external e with surfaces in the range from 0.1 to 0.2 MPa at operating speeds of pneumatic delivery of dispersed particles suspended in the air flow, and the minimum cross-sectional area of the holes in the filter surface is at least 60 μm 2 .
 The filtering surface can be subjected to vibrational effects, ensuring the restoration of its transmittance, while the vibrational effects are created by the pressure drop in the tank.
 To carry out the aspiration process, additional containers are installed, which are equipped with filters and connected to the general aspiration system with additional air ducts.
On winter crops and crops of perennial grasses, snow retention can be carried out using live and dead wings, shields, brushwood, and in the presence of a snow cover of 15 o C20 cm snowfalls with depth limits are used.
 Live scenes are created by sowing in a clean pair of tall plants of sunflower, corn, mustard in strips of 2-3 rows across the prevailing winds or slope, and winter crops are sown across the wings.
 Dead backstage can be formed from the dry stalks of sunflower, reeds, brushwood, which are planted on winter crops or chaff from autumn until the soil freezes.
The wings are performed in one, two and three rows, positioned at a distance of 10 ° C15 m from each other and rearranged several times during the winter.
 The brushwood can be laid out across the field in a checkerboard pattern after 3-4 m, and, as snow is introduced, the brushwood is raised to the surface or transported to another site.
 Snow retention can be performed using bricks or slabs of snow, which are arranged in the form of shields.
Shields are made of boards, brushwood, straw and installed with gaps equal to 1/2 o C3 / 4 of the shield area, and with a smaller clearance shields are installed in elevated places, and with a large on lowered ones.
It is possible to de-chaff winter fall and / or blacken snow with dark-colored soil in strips of 1 o C1.5 m every 10 o C15 m across the slope and / or arrange ridges (shafts) and heaps from snow.
 Under spring crops, autumn tillage is carried out by peeling stubble (after grains) and plowing with plows with skimmers to the depth of the arable layer.
 On waterlogged lands in spring, early autumn plowing is used, followed by autumn cultivations.
 The last pre-sowing treatment is carried out immediately before sowing across the direction of sowing.
 To reduce moisture loss and accelerate the maturation of the soil, early spring harrowing of the winter chicks is carried out, and after harrowing under the early spring crops, cultivation is carried out.
On heavy structureless soils, cultivation to a depth of 12 o C14 cm can be carried out.
When cultivating the soil for winter crops, after harvesting the steam-growing crops and non-steam precursors, the field can be discarded in 1 o C2 trail until the vegetation is completely destroyed.
In the period between the main processing and sowing to maintain the field in a condition free of weeds, it can be harrowed or cultivated at 6 o C8 see
 When winter crops are placed after harvested crops (potatoes, corn, peas) and after predecessors, disking can be carried out with subsequent cultivation to the depth of disking, and before sowing, processing with combined units or cultivation with rolling ring-spur rollers.
 When cultivating the soil for winter crops, the layer of perennial grasses can be lifted by plows immediately after the first mowing, and before plowing, the layer is pre-disks.
 Before sowing winter crops, the layer can be treated with paw cultivators, and with a small arable layer, with disk cultivators with simultaneous harrowing.
 At least twice the soil can be cultivated with peeling, and when the soil is compacted or weeds appear, the field is cultivated with cultivators to the depth of the drill coulters with simultaneous harrowing.
 When plowing organic fertilizers or when processing the field to a depth of less than 20 cm, plows without skimmers are used.
 When plowing a layer of perennial grasses, plows with screw dumps or two-tier plows are used.
 For plowing fields with a greater mass of crop residues, two-tier plows can be used.
 When plowing the soil under winter crops, combined arable aggregates are used that level the surface, reducing the clumpiness and compaction of the surface layer.
 Plowing is carried out by dumping or slaughtering with alternating corrals.
 In areas with short gon, you can use the loopless combined way of moving the unit.
 In large fields of a rectangular or trapezoidal shape, a circular method of moving the unit is used.
 When marking up the field for plowing, the headlands are pushed in and out with alternating corrals, the headlands are measured and the towers are set up, then the inside borders of the headlands are marked with plowing, after which the line of the first pass of the unit is hung in the middle of the pens that are plowed in, the first two passes of the unit on each corral being plowed dumped, perform with ensuring the depth of plowing by the front casing equal to half the set, and the last set depth.
 When preparing the field for work using loopless and combined methods, the first line can be hung at a distance equal to 3/4 of the corral width, all the rest at a distance equal to the corral width, the first dump furrows are drawn along these lines.
 In the fields of a triangular shape with a small width of the base, a processing method is used that is used for processing with a break furrow along the median of the triangle.
 The field in the form of irregular polygons can be divided into corrals to obtain sections with parallel sides along a given direction of plowing and sections of a triangular shape.
 Fields of irregular configuration with a curved contour are divided into rectangular sections, which are processed by the corral method with straight working strokes, on the remaining wedges or segments using curved working strokes of the arable unit.
 Cultivation can be carried out by loosening the soil to a depth of 6 to 12 cm and bringing this layer to a fine-grained state, leveling the surface of the field, destroying weeds and planting fertilizers.
 On soils of light mechanical composition, as well as sufficiently cultivated and not swimming in the spring, cultivation is carried out to the depth of sowing by cultivators with lancet paws.
 Soils that are highly compacted by spring are treated to a depth of 10-12 cm by cultivators with spring or gruber working bodies.
 Cultivation is performed with simultaneous harrowing.
 Continuous cultivation can be carried out transversely or at an angle to the direction of plowing, and re-cultivation across the direction of previous cultivations.
 On the slopes, cultivation can be carried out across the direction of the slope to reduce water erosion.
 The cultivation field is prepared by beating off the headlands, breaking the field into corrals and hanging the line of the first pass of the unit.
 You can use shuttle or diagonal-angular methods of movement of the unit or the method of movement by overlapping.
 The shuttle method is used in fields of small sizes, moreover, they use one mounted cultivator and form a headland with a width equal to three grips of the unit during loop rotation and two for loopless rotation.
 The diagonal-angular method is used when the lanes are positioned at an angle to the lateral boundaries of the field, and the headlands are beaten off on all four sides of the field with a width corresponding to the width of the headlands in the shuttle method with loop rotation.
 The overlapping movement method can be used during operation of wide-grip aggregates, as well as on short runners, moreover, the width of the lanes is taken to correspond to the width of the turning lanes in the shuttle mode of movement with a loopless rotation.
 When using the processing of the chisel plow, the field is freed from foreign objects and plant debris and the shuttle method of movement of the unit is used.
 On light soils of sandy, sandy, sandy, loamy soil, harrowing can be done with a plow harrow or medium, or light, or spring harrows. On heavy, dense and swimming soils with heavy tooth harrows.
 In the presence of a firm and dense crust, a pre-emergence harrowing is carried out from sowing to the appearance of seedlings.
 On light soils, crops can be harrowed in one track across rows or at an angle; on wet soils with well-developed crops, harrowing is carried out in two tracks with medium or heavy harrows.
 In areas where bulging of plants is observed, crops can be rolled in ring rollers without harrowing.
 Harrowing of chill and vapors is carried out across the direction of plowing or diagonally, pre-sowing across or at an angle to the direction of sowing, ordinary crops across rows.
 Sites with gonons 500 m or more in length can be harrowed by shuttle.
 Fields of square or rectangular shape are harrowed cross-diagonal way.
 In small fields, harrowing is carried out in a circular manner.
 Large fields of a rectangular shape before the harrowing are divided into squares and placed on the corners of the plots, with the pole placed at the end of the plot at a distance of 0.7 working widths of the aggregate, the first pass is divided along the diagonal of all squares, and the subsequent parallel to the first, blocking the previous pass by the next less than 15 cm, while the processing is completed by passing the unit along the borders of the squares.
 On washed away soils with a small humus horizon, plowing is carried out with loosening of the subsurface layer of soil.
 The subsoil layer of the soil can be loosened by hulls with subsoil or cut-out subsoil hulls, mainly on soils littered with stones.
 Pre-sowing tillage with simultaneous sowing of spring crops can be carried out in the early stages.
 When harrowing the soil, it is possible to produce its aeration treatment.
 After aeration processing of the soil, a sizing is performed, after which at the same time mineral fertilizers and seeds are incised on the entire surface, and then rolling is carried out.
 After plowing, the headlands and field edges are plowed, and the ridges and split furrows are leveled.
 Seeds can be etched with wetting or semi-dry or wet methods, or inlaid.
 When pickling with moisture, seed treatment with macro- and micronutrient fertilizers and weak moistening are simultaneously carried out.
 Semi-dry etching is carried out by applying aqueous suspensions or solutions of pesticides to the surface of the seeds, followed by languishing for 3-4 hours.
 Wet dressing is carried out by abundant moistening or soaking of seeds in solutions, suspensions, emulsions, followed by languishing for 2 hours.
 For dressing seeds of spring and winter wheat, granosan or pentathiuran, or hexathiuran, or gammahexane, or vitavans, or vitavax-200, or benlat, or baytan, or universal baitan, or TMTD can be used.
 For dressing winter rye seeds, granosan or pentatiuram, or gammahexane, or benlat, or TMTD are used.
 For dressing barley seeds, granosan or formalin, or Vitavax, or Vitavax-200, or Benomyl, or Baytan, or Universal Baytan are used.
 For dressing oat seeds, granosan or formalin, or Vitavax, are used.
 Seed inlay treatment is carried out by applying pesticides to the surface of the seeds in film-forming formulations.
 You can use a film-forming composition based on water-soluble polymers of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose Na CMC brand 75/400 and 70/300 and polyvinyl alcohol brand 16/1; paste-like film-forming preparations "Uncle A", "Uncle T", "Uncle PT", "Orlok", "Karayar", water-soluble preparations "Blister" and "Kinol".
 Pests, diseases, weeds, and lodging are controlled by cultivating crop rotation and placing crops according to the best predecessors, a rational soil cultivation system, fertilizing, taking into account the biological characteristics of crops and varieties, soil and climatic features of the zone and meteorological conditions of the growing season, optimal timing sowing and seeding rates, cultivation of grain varieties resistant to lodging, pests and diseases.
You can use the biological method of combating diseases and pests
entomophages and bactericidal drugs.
 Chemical control measures herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and retardants can be applied.
 The optimal sowing depth of winter wheat is 4-5 cm on heavy and 5-6 cm on light soils; winter rye 3-4 cm on heavy and 4-5 cm on light soils; spring grain 2-3 cm on heavy, 3-4 cm on medium and light loam and 5-6 cm on sandy and sandy soils.
 Sowing is performed across the plowing and the last pre-sowing tillage or at an angle to them, on slopes at an acute angle to the prevailing direction of the slope or across the slope.
 When sowing, leaving the tramline, you can use the shuttle method of movement of the units.
 When sowing without leaving the tramline, the shuttle method is used when operating single- or double-seeder units in fields with a headland of more than 200 m in large areas of a triangular shape; driving when working with multi-seeder units in large fields; overlapping in square fields with short to 200 m driving, as well as in narrow areas.
 Before sowing, fields of large sizes of irregular configuration are divided into smaller sections of a rectangular or square shape, marked out with poles and pegs indicating the boundaries of the corral, headlands and the line of the first pass of the unit on the corral.
 Sowing can be performed in continuous row and / or narrow row, and / or cross, and / or wide row, and / or dotted, and / or tape.
 Spring wheat can be sown in narrow row and / or cross methods.
 Corn can be sown in a dotted way.
 Millet, buckwheat, hemp can be sown with a tape method, for example, two-, or three- or four-line.
 When sowing winter rye, it is placed in a crop rotation according to the best predecessors, and the steam-harvesting crop is harvested no later than two weeks before the sowing of rye, while local and mineral fertilizers are applied both to steam-harvesting crops and directly under rye with maximum accumulation and preservation of soil moisture .
 Peas with different ripening periods are used as a precursor.
 At least part of the winter crops can be sown in pure vapors.
 Before sowing, the rye seeds adjusted to the sowing conditions and calibrated are etched with granosan in the amount of 100 g per 1 c of seeds or with mercury in the amount of 150 g per 1 c of seeds or pre-sowing dusting of seeds with powdery superphosphate in the amount of 1.5-2.0 kg per 1 c seed.
 During the flowering period of rye, additional pollination of rye is carried out for 3-5 days in the morning in calm, calm weather.
 Winter wheat is placed in protected areas with a relatively even relief, with a small western or eastern slope.
 In the presence of pure vapors, winter wheat can be placed on them first, and the soil is cultivated as black steam: in August, podzolic chicks are raised with plows with skimmers to the full depth of the arable horizon, and on chernozems by 25-27 cm.
 On clean pairs create backstage from sunflower, which is sown in late June or in the first five days of July.
 In the absence of pure steam, wheat is placed after the precursors are harvested early, after harvesting which semi-steam tillage is carried out, plowing with skimmers and plowing of wings from the sunflower are carried out.
 Before sowing, wheat seeds can be aired, dried in the sun for 3-5 days, etched with granosan and dusted with hexachlorane, and cross-sectional and narrow-row planting methods are used.
 Spring wheat is sown mainly on chernozem soils.
 Soft and / or durum wheat of predominantly strong varieties can be sown.
 Durum, strong spring wheat can be sown on fertilized winter rye or in the cultivated method when fertilizing under them or on legumes.
 Durum wheat can be sown over a layer of perennial grasses.
 The bulk of the fertilizer is applied before the sowing of spring wheat, and top dressing is carried out only in wet weather and early application.
 On chernozem soils under wheat, phosphorus fertilizers can be applied, and on sod-podzolic and forest-steppe nitrogen fertilizers.
 Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied for autumn plowing, and nitrogen fertilizers for pre-sowing cultivation.
 When sowing wheat on winter and leguminous predecessors, it is possible to carry out stubble-peeling and early deep plowing for winter chills with plows with skimmers.
 With early plowing of winter fallow, autumn cultivation can be used.
 It is possible to grow winter and spring forms of barley, and row crops such as potatoes, fodder root crops, sugar beets, and corn, under which organic and mineral fertilizers are used, are used as precursors.
 As precursors use winter and legumes.
 Barley is used as an unpaired precursor for winter crops.
 Oats can be grown on sandy, loamy, clayey, peat and bog soils.
 When growing rice, alfalfa, clover, leguminous soybeans, peas, mung bean, vetch, as well as winter crops - wheat and barley and tilled corn, soybeans are used as the best predecessors.
 After legumes and perennial herbs, rice is sown for 2-3 years in a row.
 In warm areas, you can use the sowing of winter crops - wintering peas, wikis, shabdara.
 The soil for sowing rice is cultivated by autumn plowing to a depth of an arable layer of 25-27 cm with plows with skimmers with a deep incorporation of the upper heavily clogged layer, and the soil plowed from autumn is left in ridges to enhance aeration and drying.
 In the spring, under the rice, two presowing treatments of 12-16 cm with a chisel cultivator or an aggregate of disk and tooth harrows can be carried out, the first treatment being carried out before the start of field work, and the second is performed 1-2 days before rice sowing, followed by rolling, and between by processing level the surface of the checks with scrappers and graders or special planners.
 You can plant rice seedlings and / or sowing seeds.
 When sowing seeds, seeds of large fractions are used, which are treated with rice cleaners and passed through sorting-separators.
 When processing seeds, they are sorted by specific gravity in a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate, and the pop-up slopped grain and weeds are removed.
 Soak or germinate the seeds before sowing.
Soaking the seeds is carried out by immersing them completely in water and keeping them for 2-3 days at 18-20 o C, followed by ventilation until they become friable.
When germinating, the seeds are kept for 24 hours in water at a temperature of 24-26 o C until they completely swell, after which they are germinated for 24-48 hours in the collars before peeling, followed by ventilation and drying to flowability, which is carried out by sprinkling the seeds with a thin layer and keeping in the shadows.
 When germinating, semi-dry seed treatment with formalin solution can be used.
 They can use air-heat heating of seeds for 5-7 days, after which the seeds are etched with granosan.
Rice can be sown at the time of heating of the topsoil and irrigation water to 12-15 o C and the exclusion of frost.
 You can use the ordinary method of sowing rice with seeding 0.5-1 cm and immediate flooding with a layer of water 6-8 cm thick.
 Before sowing, the soil is rolled in smooth rollers, and restrictive flanges are installed on the coulters of the seeder.
 In clean fields, after steam and perennial grasses, the seeds are planted to a depth of 4-5 cm, after the emergence of rice shoots, the sowing is treated with a herbicide and then flooded.
 You can apply aerial sowing on a flooded field.
 When growing rice, constant or shortened, or intermittent flooding, or periodic wetting is used.
 Constant flooding is carried out by creating a variable layer of water and maintaining it on the field during the rice growing season.
 Constant flooding is used when sowing rice with minimal seed placement, and until the seeds emerge completely, the checks are poured with water with a layer of 8-10 cm and, as the plants grow, the depth is gradually increased to 12-15 cm and maintained until the rice ripens, after which the water is gradually drained.
 Shortened flooding is used when sowing rice to a depth of 4-5 cm and is produced after the emergence of mass seedlings and treatment with herbicides, filling the field with a layer of 6-8 cm, and after all the plants come to the surface, the water layer is gradually increased to 12-15 cm and dumped water when sowing early ripe varieties in full ripeness of grain, and in late ripening into waxy ripeness of grain.
 Intermittent flooding is carried out by filling the field with water for 6-8 cm after sowing the rice, and at the beginning of the seed peeling, the water is discarded, and at the beginning of the emergence of rice and millet, the checks are treated with the herbicide, and after 2-3 days they are again filled with water 10-15 cm , at the beginning of tillering, the water level is lowered to 5 cm, and at the end of this phase it is increased to 10-13 cm and maintained until the pre-harvest discharge, while the water is drained gradually.
 Periodic moistening is carried out by maintaining soil moisture of 65-70% until seedlings appear, and subsequently 75-80% of field moisture capacity.
 Periodic wetting is done by watering or sprinkling, or by natural rainfall.
 Carry out at least one loosening of the field under water.
 From the emergence of seedlings to the release of plants into the tube, 6-7 loosening is carried out.
 Crops can be treated twice with herbicides.
 The destruction of algae in crops can be done by treatment with copper sulfate.
 Drying of the field is carried out within 5-7 days.
 Sorghum can be placed after winter, legumes, corn.
 Sorghum is used as a precursor for spring crops, and early-growing sorghum varieties as a precursor for winter crops.
 The soil under sorghum is cultivated by peeling stubble and deep, 25-30 cm, autumn plowing, and after early spring harrowing, two presowing cultivations of 5-6 cm are carried out.
 Before sowing, the seeds are sorted, subjected to air-thermal heating and pickled with granosan.
 Sorghum can be sown in a dotted and / or square-nested manner, and when cultivating sorghum on green fodder and hay, use the ordinary and two-line methods.
 After sowing, the soil is rolled up with ribbed or ring rollers.
 When the soil crust or weeds appear, the field can be harrowed across the rows before germination or germination.
 As the soil is compacted and weeds sprout, 2-3 inter-row cultivations are carried out.
 To control weeds, sorghum crops can be sprayed with herbicides in the tillering phase.
 After the first loosening, plants can be fed with slurry or bird droppings, or ash.
 Sorghum crops can be carried out in a mixture with leguminous soybeans, ranch, beans, vetch, and the bean crop is sown in independent rows between rows of sorghum or in a cross direction.
 Sorghum sowing can be carried out in a mixture with corn.
 Before sowing, oats seeds are calibrated, heated, ventilated with warm air and etched with formaldehyde in a dry or wet way, and if they are affected by a dusty smut, they are disinfected thermally.
 With a lack of moisture in the upper layers of the soil, it is possible to carry out rolling before and after sowing oats.
 As the precursors of millet, winter and row crops are used - sugar beets, potatoes, and millet is sown a month later than the early spring crops, while the soil for sowing is thoroughly cleaned of weeds, seasoned with fertilizers and store the accumulated moisture with two or three cultivations of the winter chaff, at least the last cultivation is accompanied by rolling.
When sowing millet, large calibrated seeds of high sowing conditions are used, and two days before sowing, the seeds are soaked in cold water with a temperature below 10 o C for 12-14 hours, then the water is drained and the seeds are poured into small heaps 20-40 cm high and a day is kept at a temperature of 15-20 o C, after which they are scattered with a thin layer and dried to a state of flowability.
 Before sowing, millet seeds are treated with phosphorobacterin.
 It is possible to produce wide-row sowing of millet, followed by sowing, rolling, and 3-4 days after sowing harrowing across the rows of sowing light harrows.
 In the fields intended for buckwheat, snow retention can be carried out in winter, and melt water can be retained in spring, and sowing begins one month after moisture closure, during this month at least three soil loosening is carried out: the first time the soil is cultivated 2-3 days after moisture closure to a depth of 8-10 cm, and strongly swollen by 12-14 cm, the second cultivation is carried out as the weeds germinate in 10-15 days to a depth of 6-8 cm, the third cultivation is carried out 1-2 days before sowing at the planting depth seed.
 On poor podzolic and heavy soils, organic buckwheat fertilizers are applied in the form of rotted manure or peat-humus compost with a seal for the main autumn plowing.
 Phosphate fertilizers are added to all soils under buckwheat.
 On podzolic and gray forest soils under buckwheat, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers can be applied, mainly ash.
 Legumes are sown at the earliest dates on non-acidic and non-swampy soils.
 Potato, corn and sugar beets can be used as precursors for legumes, and in preparing the soil for legumes, early deep chill or peeling stubble is used after harvesting the precursor, followed by deep chaffing by plows with skimmers, and in the spring they are harrowed and 1-2 times cultivated.
 Sowing crops can be done before cultivating the soil.
 Legumes can be sown in the aisles of stubble of sorghum grain varieties left for the winter, and at the same time, sowing of leguminous stalks of sorghum is earthed.
 When cultivating soybeans on irrigated lands, sowing can be done by narrow-row or cross-sowing by early ripening soybean varieties, and herbicides are introduced 14-20 days before pre-sowing irrigation.
 When cultivating soybean on irrigated lands, sowing of seeds can be carried out at the end of the optimal period and after 3-4 days pre-emergence harrowing across rows.
 When cultivating peas, sowing of seeds is carried out in a continuous narrow-row way, and harrowing is carried out twice pre-emergence and post-emergence.
 To increase the yield of peas, it is possible to roll the crops with smooth light rollers in the afternoon in the direction from north to south.
 Rolling is carried out at the beginning of budding or in the phase of mass flowering of peas, or at the end of flowering of the upper buds, pouring the leaves and forming seeds in the lower beans, the formation of flat beans in the middle tiers.
 Legumes can be sown in conjunction with annual cereals.
 When cultivating alfalfa on seeds, sowing is carried out in a wide-row way, and the plants are cared for by siping across the crops and hilling the plants with a soil roller at the beginning of the budding and mowing phase.
 In the first year of cultivating alfalfa, they carry out harrowing of crops, row cultivating, top dressing with micronutrient fertilizers, hilling, and in the second and subsequent years they carry out disking, row row cultivating, top dressing with micronutrient fertilizers, hilling and horizontal cutting of roots.
 When cultivating alfalfa on seeds, sowing can be carried out in a wide-row way across the direction of the prevailing winds, and at the same time sowing alfalfa sow wings from tall stalks of perennial cereal grasses.
A separate method of harvesting is used for crops having a stalk density of at least 300 plants per 1 m 2 at a height of not less than 60 cm.
 Direct harvesting can be used to clean evenly ripened crops, as well as areas with sowing of perennial grasses.
With a separate method of harvesting, the mowing of breads in rolls begins in the middle phase of wax ripeness at a grain moisture content of 25-35%
With direct combine harvesting of bread is carried out at the beginning of the phase of full ripeness with grain moisture not exceeding 20-25%
When milling bread in rolls, stubble is left 15-18 cm high, and for higher and thicker breads 18-25 cm.
 Bread is placed in rolls across the direction of sowing with a slope of the stems, providing a flow of water from the spike to the butt, and the rolls are laid with a mass corresponding to the throughput of the combine threshing machine at its optimal speed.
 The rolls are selected after the ripening of the grain and drying of the leaf-stem mass.
 When mowing bread into rolls, you can use the corral clockwise movement method of the life of the aggregates or the corral counterclockwise with the expansion of the swaths, or shuttle method.
 The clockwise corral method is used in rectangular fields with a head length of more than 600 m.
 The counterclockwise driving method is used in areas with a gutter length of 400-600 m, and mowing begins with swathing between adjacent corrals and subsequently expanding it, mowing their long sides, and when the swath width reaches the width of each of the remaining uncut parts of the first and second corrals, cough up on both sides, first the first, and then the second corrals.
 The shuttle method can be used in the formation of twin rolls with one reaper in fields having free exit on the end sides of the corral.
 The circular mode of movement can be used in fields of irregular configuration with a small headland.
 With direct combining, a corral and circular motion methods are used.
 The corral method is used when harvesting rectangular areas with a head length of more than 500 m.
The circular method with loopless one-way turns is used in areas with a headland of up to 500 m, and for longer circular methods with swaths at an angle of 45 o .
 The circular method of movement with reversing or turning “closed loop” is used in short sections with a head length of 100-300 m and in small fields of complex configuration.
When harvesting laden bread, the direction of movement is chosen at an angle of 30-45 o to the direction of lodging.
 With continuous one-sided lodging, the movement of the aggregates is carried out across the lodging when the ears are directed to the right in the direction of travel.
 In areas with different directions of lodging, circular motion can be used.
 On uneven fields, the long sides of the pens can be oriented along the slope.
 Fields of non-rectangular shape are marked with the formation of pens with longitudinal parallel sides, with the remaining sections with non-parallel sides being placed at the edges.
 Plots with dead stems and plots on which the bread ripens later than in the main part of the field are allocated into separate pens.
 With separate harvesting of spiked crops, headlands and corner swaths are prepared 2-3 days before the start of mass mowing into rolls.
 Slopes and swaths between field pens are carried out in the same agrotechnical time frame.
 The lateral sides of the fields during separate harvesting and the end sides with direct combine harvesting can be cut off during the period of ripeness of grain.
 Post-harvest processing can be carried out directly at cultivation sites, at indoor and / or open currents, and / or at elevators, and / or flour mills, and / or cereals, and / or feed mills and / or plants by accepting grain, forming lots, cleaning, drying, active ventilation and shipment.
 All harvested grain is processed in places of cultivation according to a three-link system: combine-current-harvesting enterprise.
 All grain can be processed at the procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of growing enterprises according to a two-link system: combine harvesting enterprise.
 Part of the grain can be processed at the procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of growing enterprises, and part remaining in the agricultural complex, at a current or at an agricultural point.
 In post-harvest grain processing after the arrival of car lots, samples are taken, quality is determined and the place of grain unloading is determined, weighing on a truck scale, mechanized unloading is carried out, then grain is preliminarily cleaned, in the presence of rice, the spikes are separated, corn is threshed and corn is cleaned after threshing, then form batches of crops and quality in storage tanks, weigh and transfer grain to the operational capacity of the elevator, where they dry grain to a state that is stable in storage and clean it on air screen separators from short impurities, long impurities, stone separation machines, pneumatic sorting tables, air aspirators with the release of suitable grain, cooling it with artificially cooled air, then atmospheric air and sending grain storage with the parallel collection of waste, the destruction of unusable waste disposal of waste and / or their disposal for processing.
 Acceptance of grain and / or its release is carried out respectively from water transport and to water transport, from railway transport and to railway transport.
 Operations on post-harvest preparation and / or cleaning of the initial grain raw materials are carried out on elevators, including a working building with technological and transport equipment, silos with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain, interconnected via silos and / or bins, and / or equipment from cars and / or wagons, and / or ships, devices for dispensing grain to various modes of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems.
 In the working building of the elevator, acceptance is carried out from automobile, railway and water transport, technological processing, quality control or cleaning, distribution to silos or warehouses associated with the elevator, vacation to automobile, railway, water transport or to an enterprise.
 Separation can be carried out by cleaning grain from impairing conditions for its processing or reducing the quality of the finished product impurities and sorting the grain mixture into fractions of different quality for separate processing.
 The separation is carried out according to the thickness and / or width, and / or length, and / or the shape of the cross section, and / or the speed of rotation, and / or density, and / or density and the coefficient of friction, and / or elasticity and the coefficient of impact friction, and / or the coefficient of friction, and / or slip, and / or rolling, and / or the magnetic susceptibility, and / or the dielectric constant, and / or the reflection coefficient of the light flux.
 Separation can be done by exposing the grain mixture to aerodynamic forces and / or volume forces of inertia, varying in magnitude and direction, and / or gravitational forces of gravity by centrifugal inertia and gravity, and / or magnetic and / or electric forces, and / or sequential and / or a combination of forces combined over time on the grain mixture.
 After separation and separation of various impurities from the grain mixture, the grain surface is cleaned from mineral dust and / or microorganisms, and / or contaminants, and / or particles of fruit membranes.
 Cleaning the grain surface is carried out by treating the grain in washing machines with an abrasive surface or with a steel cylinder, and then in the brushing machines in a dry and / or wet way using washing machines.
 In enterprises with mechanical and pneumatic transport of grain products, radial scouring machines with an emery or steel cylinder and brushing machines can be used, and the peripheral speed of the scouring drum is selected depending on the hardness of the processed crop, increasing for softer grain and decreasing for harder.
The peripheral speed of the scouring drum for rye is taken equal to 15-18 m / s, for soft wheat 13-15 m / s, for durum wheat 10-11 m / s, and processing is carried out to obtain the grain surface without damage, and dust ash not less 10%
Processing in brushing machines is carried out until separation of the exfoliated particles of the shells and removal of dust from the surface and from the groove of the grain and the receipt of waste in an amount of 0.2-0.3% with respect to the weight of the grain with an ash content of 4.0-4.5% and in the process the processing adjusts the gap between the working surfaces of the brushes while maintaining its value in the range from 3 to 6 mm.
 When cleaning the surface of the grain, mainly rye, in husking machines, the upper most contaminated shells, mineral dust, bacteria and molds are removed while reducing the ash content by 0.10-0.11, fiber content by 0.92-0.96% and increasing the relative starch content by 2.44-2.62% and bulk density by 56-58 g / l.
 Processing in the washing machines is subjected to grain, mainly defective, affected by smut, or bitter wormwood, and the grain is cleaned of dust and microorganisms with the simultaneous release of heavy and light impurities.
 Grain processing in the washing machine is carried out by ascending jets of water, which are created by a rotating auger, with the grain moving and keeping it in suspension, the stones and sand being released mineral impurities are moved in the lower level in the opposite direction, collected in appropriate periodically emptied containers, and In the washing bath, the grain is fed into the alloy chamber, in which light mixtures float and are periodically removed, and then, under the pressure of water, the grain is fed to the squeezing column at the same time rinse it and produce dehydration of the grain and its peeling, and the washing water is subjected to purification in a liquid separator.
 Before cleaning, you can add coagulant aluminum sulfate in an amount of from 0.1 to 0.5% and after cleaning, the bacteriologically clean centrate is returned to the production for washing grain.
 At the same time as washing the grain, it can be sonicated and / or hydrocyclones used.
 The washing water is purified by sending it to a grain collector and separating large impurities, after which the water is sent to a separator where it is purified, then the filtered water is poured into the chlorination tank, and after settling, the purified and disinfected water is pumped into the tank, mixed with clean water and returned to the grain washing, and the selected large impurities are squeezed in a press and dried in a screw dryer.
 To directionally change the initial technological properties of grain and enhance the various properties of shells and endosperm, hydrothermal processing of grain is performed, and when hydrothermally processed in a flour mill, the strength of endosperm is reduced, and the strength of shells is increased, and when hydrothermally processed in a cereal plant, the strength of endosperm is increased and the strength of shells is reduced .
 Hydrothermal processing of grain at the flour mill can be carried out by cold or hot, or high-speed conditioning.
 Cold conditioning is carried out by wetting the grain and then draining, moreover, wetting is carried out by washing or by feeding the estimated amount of drip-liquid water to the grain mass.
 The grain of high vitreous after trimming can be dampened and re-smoothed.
 Hot conditioning is carried out by washing, treating in an air-water conditioner and smoothing.
 Before processing in an air-water conditioner, the grain is processed in a steamer or steam column until the desired temperature is obtained by the grain.
 Before raking, the grain can be dampened.
 High-speed conditioning is carried out by short-term steaming, keeping in a heated state in a thermally insulated lock and subsequent washing with cold tap water.
 After washing, the grain is treated in a dehumidifier or dampened.
 Hydrothermal treatment at the Greek, oats, and peas plants is carried out by steaming in batch or continuous units and subsequent drying to increase the strength of the core and the fragility of the flower films to increase the efficiency of the peeling process.
 Peeling of the grain is carried out on mills and / or peeling machines, and / or on peeling machines with abrasive disks and a steel surface, and / or on scouring (scouring) machines.
 Peeling of the grain can be done either by creating compressive and shear forces that cause chipping and breaking of the films during grain processing on waltzdeck machines and / or machines with rubber rolls and / or on peeling machines, or by friction on an abrasive and steel surface, which causes a long scrubbing the shells, or by impact, causing splitting of the shells and the accompanying frictional effect of the abrasive or metal surface of the parts Flail machines.
 For peeling buckwheat, they use a valdedec machine with a deck, in which the radius of curvature is equal to the radius of the roll, while in the working position the deck is moved parallel to the roll so that the working surface of the deck is offset relative to the surface of the roll, and when processing buckwheat of the first and second fractions, the peripheral speed of the roll is taken 14-15 m / s, the third and fourth 12-14 m / s, the fifth and sixth 10-12 m / s, and the arc length of the deck's working area is 180-200 mm.
 For peeling millet, a maltice machine with a roll of abrasive mass and a peripheral speed of 15 m / s is used, and technical rubber decks with fabric layers and an arc length of 300 mm.
 To peel the millet, use a double-decked valcedek machine and the grain is subjected to double processing.
 For rice peeling, machines with rubber rolls rotating towards each other at different speeds are used, which are set with a gap of one relative to another equal to 0.6-0.8 mm, and the ratio of the speed of the rapidly rotating and the peripheral speed of the slowly rotating roll is 1.45.
 To peel oats and rice, use a stand with a lower runner and two disks, the working surface of which is covered with abrasive mass, one of which is stationary and the other is located on a vertical rotating shaft, and the peripheral speed of the rotating disk is taken with primary peeling of 13-15 m / s, and when peeling off similar products 12 m / s.
 For peeling barley, wheat, oats with a moisture content of more than 13% and corn, striking scouring machines are used; moreover, peeling of grain with a moisture content of more than 14% is carried out at higher speeds than peeling of dry grain, while peeling does not take the peripheral speed of pests more than 20 m / s, with the first peeling of wheat 16-18 m / s, with the second 14 m / s, with peeling of oats 20-22 m / s, and corn 10-14 m / s.
 Grain can be dried in a drum dryer.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 18%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken as 180-C, and the maximum grain heating is 45 o C.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 20%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 120 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 45 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is up to 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 110 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain 43 o C.
When the initial grain moisture content is above 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 105 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 40 o C.
When drying food grain, the temperature of the drying agent can be increased to 170 o C200 o C, and heating the grain by 5-10 o C above the values of these temperatures, while the temperature of heating of the grain should not be higher than +60 o C.
 Grain drying is carried out in a shaft dryer.
At the initial grain moisture content of grain crops up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 70 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C.
At an initial moisture content of grain of grain crops up to 26%, two passes of grain are produced through drying, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 65 ° C, the maximum heating of grain is 38 ° C, and at the second pass, respectively 70 ° C and 40 ° C.
When the initial grain moisture content of grain crops exceeds 26%, three passes of material can be made through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 60 ° C, and the maximum heating of grain is 35 ° C, at the second pass, respectively 60 ° C and 38 ° C, and at the third 70 o C and 40 o C.
When the initial grain moisture of legumes up to 20%, one drying can be carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 60 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C.
With an initial grain moisture content of up to 26%, two passes of the material through the dryer can be produced, at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 55 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 38 o C, at the second pass, respectively 60 o C and 40 o C.
At an initial grain moisture content of more than 26%, three passes of the material through the dryer are produced, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 50 ° C, the maximum grain heating is 35 ° C, at the second pass, respectively 55 ° C and 38 ° C, and at the third pass 60 ° C and 40 o C.
When drying food grain, the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 90-110 o C, and the heating of the grain is 5-10 o C higher than the values of the indicated temperatures, while the temperature of heating the grain does not exceed 60 o C.
 Grain is dried in a batch dryer.
The temperature of the drying agent, for example air, is taken at 40-50 o C and fed into the chamber for two hours, after which it is stopped and the grain is left in the dryer for two days for passive heating.
The temperature of the drying agent can be taken 50 o C, and the limiting heating of the grain 37-38 o C.
The temperature of the drying agent can be taken 40-45 o C, and the limiting heating of the grain 28-32 o C.
With a grain moisture content of 43-45%, it can be dried in a dryer chamber at a coolant temperature of not higher than 65 o C, while the coolant (drying agent) is supplied to the grain mass from the bottom up with its simultaneous suction after heat transfer from the upper layers.
With increased moisture content of the grain up to 45%, it can be dried in a continuous active ventilation dryer with recirculation of the coolant at a temperature of the latter not higher than 65 o C.
Grain drying can be carried out in a dryer with a drying louvre chamber, while drying the grain in a fixed bed at a temperature of the drying agent 45-50 o C.
 Grain can be dried in a multi-chamber floor dryer.
When the initial grain moisture is up to 19%, the height of the embankment of the material can be set within 0.7-0.8 m, drying is carried out with heated air at its temperature of 61-65 o C and preliminary heating of the grain 40-42 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is 19-22%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.6-0.7 m, drying is carried out for 30 minutes with an unheated agent, and then until the agent finishes drying, it is heated to 56-60 o C at the maximum heating of the grain 36-39 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is 23-26%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.5-0.6 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, the agent is heated to 51-55 o C and 18 min
unheated with extreme heating of the grain 33-35 o C.
When the initial grain moisture is above 26%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.4-0.5 m, drying for 1 hour is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, the agent is heated to 45-50 o C and 30 minutes unheated agent at the limiting heating of grain 30-32 o C.
Drying of grain seeds can be carried out at an agent temperature of 40-45 o C, and legumes 30-35 o C.
 After threshing, the seed material is thoroughly cleaned, dried, calibrated and brought to the sowing condition, after which it is deposited in storage.
 Before loading grain storage is disinfected.
 Storage bins are performed without cracks to prevent clogging of one variety by others.
 The cultures in the bins are stacked alternately and each bunker is not added up to 15-20 cm.
 Grain can be placed in the warehouse by grades, reproductions, categories and classes.
 Grain and / or seeds are laid in bulk and / or packaged.
 Bags with rye or wheat, or barley, or buckwheat are stacked in stacks of 8 rows of bags in the warm and cold season, bags of peas and vetch are stacked in stacks of 8 rows in the cold season and 6 rows in the warm season. , and when stored in bulk, the height of the embankment is raised by 2.5 m in cold time, and by 2 m in warm time.
 When storing seeds in bulk, thermal rods or iron or wooden rods are put in a heap and constant monitoring of the condition of the seeds is carried out.
 In case of undesirable changes in the state of the grain, it can be dried or further cleaned or cooled.
 In wet and cold weather, the doors and windows of the vaults are closed, and in dry and warm weather they open.
 Seed grain, as well as seeds arriving for storage in small quantities, are stored in soft containers.
 Rigid containers are used for grain transportation.
 When storing grain in bulk, floor storage and silage are used.
 At floor storage, the height of the embankment is taken not exceeding 6 m, and when stored in silos, the height of the embankment is up to 40 m.
 You can use granaries for temporary and long-term storage.
 Temporary granaries are made in the form of canopies and are used during the period of mass receipt of grain and / or full filling of granaries with long-term storage.
 Long-term storage granaries are performed in the form of mechanized warehouses and elevators that do not have stationary mechanization.
 Mechanized warehouses perform with horizontal and / or inclined floors.
 Warehouses with inclined floors are self-unloading, and warehouses with horizontal floors are partially unloaded by gravity onto the lower container.
 The walls of the storages are gas-tight, low heat conductive with good hygroscopicity of the inner surface.
 The elevators are equipped with a working building with transport and other equipment, a silo with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars, wagons and ships, devices for dispensing grain to various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems.
 You can use intermediate elevator enterprises, which are located at the junction of railway stations and / or at the intersections of railway and waterways.
 Intermediate elevator enterprises are equipped with devices for receiving and dispensing grain and are used to transfer grains from one mode of transport to another.
 When overloading grain, pneumatic transport is used with simultaneous aspiration of the product.
 At least part of the grains is sent for long-term storage to reserve elevators.
 Grain sent for long-term storage, as well as for export, is subjected to additional aspiration, cleaning and drying.
 Grain sent for storage can be decontaminated.
 In the process of grain storage, humidity and temperature are monitored and, in preparation for shipment, depending on the state of grain, it is dried or cooled, or refreshed.
 The main cleaning of harvested dry and medium-dry grain, as well as dried, can be performed during storage in preparation for shipment.
 Disinfection can be carried out by carbonation and / or by passing through a grain dryer.
 Grain in storages is subjected to active ventilation.
The storage temperature is maintained at 25 o C ± 2 o C with a relative humidity of 65% and grain humidity of 14%
The problem is also solved due to the fact that in the method of post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain, including the supply of grain for preliminary cleaning at elevators and / or procurement enterprises, and / or mechanized currents, and / or grain cleaning stations, and / or grain cleaning drying stations, preliminary cleaning of grain from weed and / or grain, and / or metallomagnetic impurities with sifting and / or processing on air-sieve machines, aspiration by passing air through the filter surface of asp an irrational system or device at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or reserve storage tank with lids of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities and / or broken grain, at least one repeated cleaning of grain, including separation its size by fractions and waste, suction, large and seeding, cleaning from long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from hard to separate seeds of extraneous and weeds, transportation and loading grain to dryers, transportation for processing or warehousing of the non-grain portion, grain supply to storages and / or elevators and storage with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass, when carrying out aspiration, the container and / or containers are connected to an aspiration system or device and / or with each other with the possibility of combined and / or selective switching by at least one additional duct and the formation of the filtering surface area of at least one container with overestimating the area of the corresponding air-transparent portion of the surface of this container in the range from 1.002 to 230 given diameters of the area of the air-transparent portion and the shape of the filter surface in the form of spatial curvature or combined configuration with the maximum distance of its apex from the plane aligned with at least one non-linear segment of the contour of the air-transparent portion or from the horizontal projection plane of the corresponding air-transparent section at a distance of 0.02 to 78 reduced diameters area of an airtight area.
 At the same time, during the aspiration process, at least one air filter insert can be used as a filter surface, which is installed in the lid cavity of the main and / or reserve storage tanks, or at least one air filter membrane is used as a filter surface, which serves as the main and / or reserve storage capacity, or at least one insert for filtering the supply air to the filter is used as a filter surface they are installed in the upper part of the wall of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, and in this case, the insert for filtering the supplied air is made in the form of a fragment of a cylindrical surface or double curvature, or in the form of a concave or convex polyhedron, or convex relative to the wall surface containers, or in a combined form from a combination of straight and / or curved sections, or in the form of a continuous ring or discrete shell.
 When carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air-filtering element is used as a filter surface, which is made in the form of a removable shell, while in the upper part of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, a cut is made in which a casing with an air-filtering element is installed, moreover, the area of the cut-out area is at least 1% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding container with a multifaceted configuration or at least 2.3% of the cross-sectional area of appropriate capacity of circular cylindrical or variable curvature, or combined configuration.
 When carrying out the aspiration process, at least two air-filtering inserts, air-filtering membranes, inserts for filtering the supplied air and air-filtering elements are used as a filter surface, while the area ratio of any two filtering elements is 1: 1-15.
 To seal the main and backup storage tanks, any filtering elements that make up the filter surface can be connected to the tanks by means of clamps with sealant, and at least some of the connections are detachable.
 For carrying out preventive or repair work during the aspiration process, the main and / or reserve storage tanks can be additionally equipped with airtight membranes, which are installed to ensure complete cessation of air supply to the replaceable filter element.
 An air filter insert or an air filter membrane, or an insert for filtering the supplied air, or an air filter element can be made in the form of a shell containing at least one double curvature section or at least one single curvature section, or a combination thereof, or from combinations of curved and / or rectilinear sections .
 In the process of aspiration, air is injected with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed by at least two jointed fragments of cylinders of constant and variable curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one conical or polyconic section formed from fragments of conical and / or polyconic curvature directly connected to each other but either by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed from fragments of cylindrical and / or poly-cylindrical curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical and / or conical and / or spherical and / or spheroidal and / or ellipsoidal and / or parabolic and / or hypovoid and / or toroidal a.
 The shell can be provided with an internal frame.
 The filtering surface is made of high-strength woven or fibrous non-woven material, moreover, for example, overcoat cloth is used as a high-strength woven material, and for example, as a fibrous non-woven cloth.
The design for aspiration with a filter surface is made of at least two filter layers with different strength and transmittance, which are arranged in order of increasing their strength and transmittance or fastened together to form cavities, at least one of which is at least partially filled with granular filler, while the differentiated throughput in at least one layer is formed providing a pressure differential between its internal and external surfaces in the range from 0.1 to 0.2 MPa at operating speeds of pneumatic delivery of dispersed particles suspended in the air flow, and the minimum cross-sectional area of the holes in the filtering surface is at least 60 μm 2 .
 The filtering surface is subjected to vibrational effects, ensuring the restoration of its transmittance.
 Vibrational effects can be created by differential pressure in the tank.
 To carry out the aspiration process, additional containers are installed, which are equipped with filters and connected to the general aspiration system with additional air ducts.
 Post-harvest processing is carried out directly at the cultivation sites, on indoor and / or open currents and / or at elevators, and / or feed mills, and / or plants by accepting grain, forming lots, cleaning, drying, active ventilation and shipment.
 All harvested grain is processed in places of cultivation according to a three-link system: a combine harvester is a procurement enterprise.
 All grain is processed at a procuring enterprise with the return of part of the cleaned grain to the disposal of growing enterprises according to a two-tier system: combine harvesting enterprise.
 Part of the grain can be processed at the procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the location of the growing enterprises, and part remaining in the agricultural complex, at the current or at the agricultural point.
 In post-harvest grain processing after the arrival of car lots, samples are taken, quality is determined and the place of grain unloading is determined, weighing on a truck scale, mechanized unloading is carried out, then grain is preliminarily cleaned, in the presence of rice, the spikes are separated, corn is threshed and corn is cleaned after threshing, then form batches of crops and quality in storage tanks, weigh and transfer grain to the operational capacity of the elevator, where producing drying grain to a state of storage stability and cleaning on air screen separators from short impurities, from long impurities, on stone separation machines, pneumatic sorting tables, on air aspirators with the release of grain, cooling it with artificially cooled air, and then atmospheric air, and sending for storage with parallel collection of waste, destruction of unusable, sale of suitable waste and / or their disposal for processing.
 Acceptance of grain and / or its release can be carried out respectively from water transport and to water transport, from railway transport and to railway transport.
 Operations on post-harvest preparation and / or cleaning of the initial grain raw materials are carried out on elevators, including a working building with technological and transport equipment, silos with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain, interconnected via silos and / or bins, and / or equipment from cars, and / or wagons, and / or ships, devices for dispensing grain to various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, an aspiration and waste disposal system.
 In the working building of the elevator, acceptance from road, rail and water transport, technological processing, quality control or preparation of grinding lots, distribution to silos or warehouses associated with the elevator, and vacation to automobile, rail, water transport or to an enterprise are carried out.
 Grain drying is carried out in a drum dryer.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 18%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 130 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 45 o C.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 20%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 120 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 45 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is up to 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 110 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain 43 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken 105 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain 40 o C.
When drying food grain, the temperature of the drying agent can be increased to 170-200 o C, and heating the grain by 5-10 o C above the values of these temperatures, while the temperature of heating of the grain should not be higher than 60 o C.
 Grain drying is carried out in a shaft dryer.
At the initial grain moisture content of grain crops up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 70 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C.
At an initial moisture content of grain of grain crops up to 26%, two passes of grain are produced through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 65 o C, and the maximum heating of grain is 38 o C, at the second pass, respectively 70 o C and 40 o C.
When the initial grain moisture content of grain crops exceeds 26%, three passes of material can be made through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 60 ° C, and the maximum heating of grain is 35 ° C, at the second pass, respectively 65 ° C and 38 ° C, and at the third 70 o C and 40 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain of leguminous crops up to 20% is carried out one drying, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 60 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C.
When the initial grain moisture up to 26% can produce two passes of the material through the dryer, wherein during the first passage of the drying agent temperature taking 55 o C, and limiting grain heating 38 o o C, respectively, the second pass 60 o C and 40 o C.
With an initial grain moisture content of more than 26%, three passes of the material can be made through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 50 ° C, the maximum heating of grain is 35 ° C, at the second pass, 55 ° C and 38 ° C, respectively, and at the third 60 o C and 40 o C.
When drying food grain, the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 90-110 o C, and the heating of grain by 5-10 o C above the values of these temperatures, while the temperature of heating of the grain does not exceed 60 o C.
 Grain is dried in a batch dryer.
The temperature of the drying agent, for example air, is taken at 40-50 o C and fed into the chamber for two hours, after which it is stopped and the grain is left in the dryer for two days for passive heating.
The temperature of the drying agent take 50 o C, and the limiting heating of the grain is 37-38 o C.
The temperature of the drying agent can be taken 40-45 o C, and the limiting heating of the grain 28-32 o C.
With increased moisture content of the grain 43-45%, it is dried in a chamber dryer at a coolant temperature of not higher than 65 o C, while the coolant (drying agent) is fed into the grain mass upward with simultaneous suction after heat exchange from the upper layers.
At high grain moisture up to 45%, its drying is carried out in a continuous active ventilation dryer with recirculation of the coolant at a temperature of the latter not higher than 65 o C.
Grain drying can be carried out in a dryer with a drying louvre chamber, while drying the grain in a fixed bed at a temperature of the drying agent 45-50 o C.
 Grain can be dried in a multi-chamber floor dryer.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 19%, the height of the mound of material is set within 0.7 0.8 m, drying is carried out with heated air at its temperature of 61-65 o C and maximum grain heating of 40-42 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is 19-22%, the height of the embankment of the material can be set within 0.6-0.7 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, and then until the drying agent finishes drying, it is heated to 56-60 o C with extreme heating grains 36-39 o C.
At an initial grain moisture content of 23-26%, the height of the mound of material is set within 0.5-0.6 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, the agent is heated to 51 o C55 o C and 18 min unheated with extreme heating of the grain 33-35 o C.
When the initial grain moisture is higher than 26%, the height of the material mound is set within 0.4-0.5 m, drying for 1 hour is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, the agent is heated to 45-50 o C and 30 minutes unheated at maximum grain heating 30 o C32 o C.
Drying of grain seeds is carried out at a temperature of the agent 40-45 o C and legumes 30-35 o C.
 Separation is carried out by cleaning grain from impairing conditions for its processing or reducing the quality of the finished product impurities and sorting the grain mixture into fractions of different quality for separate processing.
 The separation is carried out according to the thickness and / or width, and / or length, and / or the shape of the cross section, and / or the speed of rotation, and / or density, and / or density and the coefficient of friction, and / or elasticity and the coefficient of impact friction, and / or the coefficient of friction and / or slip, and / or rolling, and / or the magnetic susceptibility, and / or the dielectric constant, and / or the reflection coefficient of the light flux.
 Separation is carried out by exposing the grain mixture to aerodynamic forces and / or volume forces of inertia, varying in magnitude and direction, and / or gravitational forces of gravity by centrifugal inertia and gravity, and / or magnetic and / or electric forces, and / or combined in time impact on the grain mixture by a combination of forces.
 After separation and separation of various impurities from the grain mixture, the surface of the grain is cleaned of mineral dust and / or microorganisms and / or contaminants and / or particles of fruit membranes.
 The grain surface is cleaned at flour mills by treating grain in scouring machines with an abrasive surface or with a steel cylinder, and then in brushing machines using the dry and / or wet method using washing machines.
 At enterprises with mechanical and pneumatic transport of grain products, radial scouring machines with an emery or steel cylinder and brushing machines are used, and the peripheral speed of the scouring ram is selected depending on the hardness of the processed crop, increasing for softer grain and decreasing for harder.
The peripheral speed of the scouring drum for rye can be taken equal to 15-18 m / s, for soft wheat 13-15 m / s, for durum wheat 10-11 m / s, and processing is carried out to obtain the grain surface without damage, and dust ash not less than 10%
Processing in brushing machines is carried out until separation of the exfoliated particles of the shells and removal of dust from the surface and from the groove of the grain and the receipt of waste in an amount of 0.2-0.3% with respect to the weight of the grain with an ash content of 4.0-4.5% and in the process the processing adjusts the gap between the working surfaces of the brushes while maintaining its value in the range from 3 to 6 mm.
 When cleaning the surface of the grain, mainly rye, in husking machines, the upper most contaminated shells, mineral dust, bacteria and molds are removed while the ash content is reduced by 0.10-0.11% fiber content by 0.92-0.96% and increasing the relative starch content by 2.44-2.62% and bulk density by 56-58 g / l.
 Processing in the washing machines is subjected to grain, mainly defective, affected by smut, or bitter wormwood, and the grain is cleaned of dust and microorganisms with the simultaneous release of heavy and light impurities.
 Grain processing in the washing machine is carried out by ascending jets of water, which are created by a rotating auger, with the grain moving and keeping it in suspension, the stones and sand being released mineral impurities are moved in the lower level in the opposite direction, collected in appropriate periodically emptied containers, and In the washing bath, the grain is fed into the alloy chamber, in which light mixtures float and are periodically removed, and then, under the pressure of water, the grain is fed to the squeezing column at the same time rinse it and produce dehydration of the grain and its peeling, and the washing water is subjected to purification in a liquid separator.
 Before cleaning, you can add coagulant aluminum sulfate in an amount of from 0.1 to 0.5% and after cleaning, the bacteriologically clean centrate is returned to the production for washing grain.
 At the same time as washing the grain, it is treated with ultrasound and / or ultraviolet radiation and / or hydrocyclones are used.
 The washing water is purified by sending it to a grain collector, separating large impurities, after which the water is sent to a separator where it is purified, then the profiled water is poured into the chlorination tank, and after settling, the purified and disinfected water is pumped into the tank, mixed with clean water and returned to the grain washing, and the selected large impurities are squeezed in a press and dried in a screw dryer.
 Hydrothermal processing of grain is carried out in flour mills and cereals to directionally change the initial technological properties of grain and to enhance differences in the properties of shells and endosperm, and when hydrothermal processing in a flour mill, the strength of the endosperm is reduced, and the strength of the shells is increased.
 Hydrothermal processing of grain at the flour mill can be carried out by cold or hot, or high-speed conditioning.
 Cold conditioning is carried out by wetting the grain and then draining, moreover, wetting is carried out by washing or by feeding the estimated amount of drip-liquid water to the grain mass.
 The grain of high vitreous after trimming can be dampened and re-smoothed.
 Hot conditioning is carried out by washing, treating in an air-water conditioner and smoothing.
 Before processing in an air-water conditioner, the grain can be processed in a steamer or steam column until the desired temperature is obtained by the grain.
 Before raking, the grain can be dampened.
 High-speed conditioning can be carried out by short-term steaming, keeping in a heated state in a thermally insulated crate and subsequent washing with cold tap water.
 After washing, the grain is treated in a moisture carrier or dampened.
 Hydrothermal treatment at the Greek, oats, and peas plants is carried out by steaming in batch or continuous units and subsequent drying to increase the strength of the core and the fragility of the flower films to increase the efficiency of the peeling process.
 Peeling of the grain is carried out on mills and / or on machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, and / or on peeling machines with abrasive disks and a steel surface, and / or on scouring (scouring) machines.
 Peeling of the grain is carried out either by creating compressive and shear forces, causing chipping and breaking of the films during grain processing on waltzdec machines and / or on peeling stands, or by friction on an abrasive and steel surface, causing shell scraping during prolonged treatment on the sheller, or by exposure a blow causing splitting of the shells and the accompanying frictional effect of the abrasive or metal surface of the parts of scouring and scouring machines.
For buckwheat peeling, a valdedec machine with a deck is used, in which the radius of curvature is equal to the radius of the roll, while in the working position the deck is moved parallel to the roll so that the working surface of the deck is offset relative to the surface of the roll, and when processing buckwheat of the first and second fractions, the peripheral speed of the roll is taken 14 -15 m / s, third and fourth
12-14 m / s, fifth and sixth 10-12 m / s, and the length of the arc of the working zone of the deck 180-200 mm.
 For peeling millet, a maltice machine with a roll of abrasive mass and a peripheral speed of 15 m / s is used, and technical rubber decks with fabric layers and an arc length of 300 mm.
 For peeling millet, you can use a maker with two decks and subject the grain to double processing.
 For rice peeling, machines with rubber rolls rotating towards each other at different speeds are used, which are set with a gap of one relative to another equal to 0.6-0.8 mm, and the ratio of the peripheral speed of the fast-rotating and the peripheral speed of the slow-rotating rolls is 1.45.
 To peel oats and rice, use a setter with a lower runner and two disks, the working surface of which is covered with abrasive mass, one of which is stationary and the other is mounted on a vertical rotating shaft, and the peripheral speed of the rotating disk is taken with primary peeling of 13-15 m / s, and when peeling off similar products 12 m / s.
 For peeling barley, wheat, oats with a moisture content of more than 13% and corn, percussion flushing striking machines can be used, moreover, peeling of grain with a moisture content of more than 14% is carried out at higher speeds than peeling of dry grain, while when peeling off similar products, the peripheral speed of pests is taken no more than 20 m / s, at the first peeling of wheat 16-18 m / s, and corn 10-14 m / s.
 After threshing, the seed material is thoroughly cleaned, sorted, dried, calibrated and brought to the sowing condition, after which it is deposited in the storage.
 The store is disinfected before loading grain.
 Storage bins must be carried out without cracks to prevent clogging of one variety by another.
 The cultures in the bins are stacked alternately and each bunker is not added up to 15-20 cm.
 Grain is placed in the warehouse by grades, reproductions, categories and classes.
 Grain and / or seeds are laid in bulk and / or packaged.
 Bags with rye or wheat, or barley, or buckwheat are stacked in stacks of 8 rows of bags in the warm and cold season, bags of peas and vetch are stacked in stacks of 8 rows in the cold season and 6 rows in the warm season. , and when stored in bulk, the height of the embankment in the cold season is 2.5 m, and in the warm 2 m.
 When storing seeds in bulk, you can put thermal rods or iron or wooden rods in a heap and constantly monitor the condition of the seeds.
 In case of undesirable changes in the state of grain, it is dried or additionally cleaned or cooled.
 In wet and cold weather, the doors and windows of the vaults are closed, and in dry and warm weather they open.
 Seed grain, as well as seeds that are stored in small quantities, can be stored in soft containers.
 For transportation of grain, you can use rigid containers.
 When storing grain in bulk, floor storage and silage are used.
 For floor storage, the height of the embankment is taken not exceeding 6 m, and when stored in silos up to 40 m.
Can use granaries of temporary and long
Granaries of temporary and long-term storage can be used.
 Temporary granaries are made in the form of canopies and are used during the period of mass receipt of grain and / or full filling of granaries with long-term storage.
 Long-term storage granaries are performed in the form of mechanized warehouses and elevators that do not have stationary mechanization.
 Mechanized warehouses can be made with horizontal and / or inclined floors.
 Warehouses with inclined floors are self-unloading, and warehouses with horizontal floors are partially unloaded by gravity to the lower conveyor.
 The walls of the storages are gas-tight, low heat conductive with good hygroscopicity of the inner surface.
 Elevators can be equipped with a working building with transport and other equipment, a silo and transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars, devices for dispensing grain to various types of vehicles and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, aspiration and waste disposal systems.
 You can use intermediate elevator enterprises, which are located at the junction of railway stations and / or at the intersections of railway and waterways.
 Intermediate elevator enterprises are equipped with devices for receiving and dispensing grain and are used to reload grain from one type of transport to another.
 When overloading grain, pneumatic transport with simultaneous aspiration of the product can be used.
 At least part of the grain is sent for long-term storage to reserve elevators.
 Grain sent for long-term storage, as well as for export, is subjected to additional aspiration, cleaning and drying.
 The grain sent for storage is disinfected.
 In the process of grain storage, humidity and temperature are monitored and, in preparation for shipment, depending on the state of grain, it is dried or cooled, or refreshed.
 The main cleaning of the prepared dry, medium dry, as well as dried grain is performed during storage in preparation for shipment.
 Disinfection can be carried out by carbonation and / or by passing through a grain dryer.
 Grain in storages is subjected to active ventilation.
The storage temperature is maintained at 25 o C ± 2 o C with a relative humidity of 65% and grain humidity of 14%
The methods are as follows.
 Production and harvesting of grain cereals and / or legumes, post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain include pre-sowing tillage by plowing with or without turnover, harrowing and cultivation, preparation of seeds for sowing by pre-sowing, including aspiration sorting and , if necessary, with air-sieve cleaning, sowing, rolling, harrowing, fertilizing crops with mineral and / or organic fertilizers, destruction of weeds and pests using chemical and / or biological treatment, harvesting by direct combining with mowing and threshing, and / or two-phase (separate) harvesting with mowing plants into rolls, their selection and threshing, and / or harvesting with threshing in stationary conditions, including permanent, indoor or open or temporary current, preliminary cleaning of grain from weeds and / or grains, and / or metallurgical impurities with sifting and / or processing on air-sieve machines, aspiration by passing air through the filter surface of the suction system s or devices, at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or reserve storage tank with lids of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities, and / or broken grain, at least once re-cleaning of grain, including separation its size by fractions and waste, suction, large and seeding, cleaning from long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from hard to separate seeds of foreign crops and weeds, transportation and loading of grain in loungers, transportation for processing or warehousing of the non-cereal part, grain supply to storages and / or elevators and storage with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass.
 When carrying out aspiration, the container and / or containers are connected to the aspiration system or device and / or with each other with the possibility of combining and / or selective switching with at least one additional duct and the formation of the filter surface area of at least one container with the excess of the area of the corresponding air-transparent surface area this capacity in the range from 1.002 to 230 reduced diameters of the area of the translucent section, and the shape of the filter surface in the form of a spatial shell constant and / or variable curvature or combined configuration with the maximum distance of its apex from the plane aligned with at least one non-linear segment of the contour of the air-transparent section or from the horizontal plane of the projection of the corresponding air-transparent section at a distance from 0.02 to 78 reduced diameters of the air-transparent section.
 At the same time, when carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air filter insert can be used as a filter surface, which is installed in the lid cavity of the main and / or reserve storage tanks, or at least one air filter membrane serving simultaneously as the main and / or at least one insert for filtering the supply air, which is installed in the upper part of the walls, is used as a filter surface and at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, and in this case, the insert for filtering the supplied air is made in the form of a fragment of a cylindrical surface or double curvature, or in the form of a concave or convex polyhedron, or convex relative to the surface of the walls of the container, or in a combined a view from a combination of straight and / or curved sections, or in the form of an annular continuous or discrete shell.
 When carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air-filtering element can be used as a filtering surface, which is made in the form of a removable shell, while in the upper part of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank a cut is made in which a casing with an air-filtering element is installed moreover, the area of the cut out area is at least 1% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding container with a multifaceted configuration, or at least 2.3% of the cross-sectional area the corresponding capacity of circular cylindrical or variable curvature, or a combined configuration.
 When carrying out the aspiration process, at least two air-filtering inserts, air-filtering membranes, inserts for filtering the supplied air and air-filtering elements are used as a filter surface, while the area ratio of any two filtering elements is 1: 1-15.
 To seal the main and backup storage tanks, any filtering elements that make up the filter surface can be connected to the tanks by means of clamps with sealant, and at least some of the connections are detachable.
 For carrying out preventive or repair work during the aspiration process, the main and / or reserve storage tanks can additionally be equipped with airtight membranes, which are installed to ensure complete cessation of air supply to the replaceable filter element.
 An air filter insert or an air filter membrane, or an insert for filtering the supplied air, or an air filter element is made in the form of a shell containing at least one double curvature section or at least one single curvature section, or combinations thereof, or from combinations of curved and / or rectilinear sections.
 In the process of aspiration, air is injected with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed by at least two jointed fragments of cylinders of constant and variable curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one conical or polyconic section formed from fragments of conical and / or polyconic curvature directly connected to each other but either by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed from fragments of cylindrical and / or poly-cylindrical curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical and / or conical and / or spherical and / or spheroidal and / or ellipsoidal and / or parabolic and / or hypovoid and / or toroidal a.
 The shell is provided with an inner frame.
 The filtering surface is made of high-strength woven or fibrous non-woven material, moreover, for example, overcoat cloth is used as a high-strength woven material, and for example, as a fibrous non-woven cloth.
The design for aspiration with a filter surface is made of at least two filter layers with different strength and transmittance, which are arranged in order of strength and transmittance or fastened together to form cavities, at least one of which is at least partially filled with granular filler , while the differentiated ability, in at least one layer, is formed providing a pressure differential between its internal and external surfaces in the interval e from 0.1 to 0.2 MPa at operating speeds of pneumatic transmission of dispersed particles suspended in the air flow, and the minimum cross-sectional area of the holes in the filtering surface is at least 60 μm 2 .
 The filtering surface can be subjected to vibrational influences, ensuring the restoration of its transmittance.
 Vibrational effects are created by differential pressure in the tank.
 To carry out the aspiration process, additional containers can be installed that are equipped with filters and connected to the general aspiration system with additional air ducts.
 On winter crops and crops of perennial grasses, snow retention is performed using live and dead wings, shields, brushwood, and in the presence of a snow cover of 15-20 cm, snow cover with depth limiters is used.
 Live scenes are created by sowing in a clean pair of tall plants of sunflower, corn, mustard in strips of 2-3 rows across the prevailing winds or slope, and winter crops are sown across the wings.
 Dead backstage is formed from dry stalks of sunflower, reeds, brushwood, which are planted on winter crops or chaff from autumn, until the soil freezes.
 The wings are performed in single, double and triple rows, positioned at a distance of 10-15 m from each other and rearranged several times during the winter.
 The brushwood is laid out staggered across the field after 3-4 m, as the brushwood is brought in with snow, it is raised to the surface or transported to another site.
 Snow retention is performed using bricks or slabs of snow, which are arranged in the form of shields.
 Shields are made of boards, brushwood, straw and installed with gaps equal to 1 / 3-3 / 4 of the shield area, and with a smaller clearance, the shields are installed in elevated places, and with a large on lowered ones.
 Chaffing is carried out in autumn and / or snow is blackened with dark-colored soil in strips of 1-1.5 m every 10-15 m across the slope, and / or the device is made of compacted ridges (shafts) and piles of snow.
 Under spring crops, autumn tillage is carried out by peeling stubble (after grains) and plowing with plows with skimmers to the depth of the arable layer.
 On waterlogged lands in spring, early autumn plowing is used, followed by autumn cultivations.
 The last pre-sowing treatment is carried out immediately before sowing across the direction of sowing.
 To reduce moisture loss and accelerate the maturation of the soil, early spring harrowing of the winter chicks is carried out, and after harrowing under the early spring crops, cultivation is carried out.
On heavy structureless soils, cultivation is carried out to a depth of 12 o C14 see
 When cultivating the soil for winter crops, after harvesting the steaming crops and the non-steam predecessors, the field is discarded in 1 2 traces until the vegetation is completely destroyed.
 In the period between the main processing and sowing, to maintain the field in a state that is clean from weeds, it is harrowed or cultivated by 6-8 cm.
 When winter crops are placed after late-harvested crops (potatoes, corn, peas) and after steam predecessors, disking is carried out, followed by cultivation to the depth of disking, and before sowing, processing with combined units or cultivation with rolling ring-spur rollers.
 When cultivating the soil for winter crops, the layer of perennial grasses is raised by plows immediately after the first mowing, and before plowing, the layer is pre-discovated.
 Before sowing winter crops, the raised layer is treated with paw cultivators, and with a small arable layer, with disk cultivators with simultaneous harrowing.
 The soil is at least twice cultivated with peeling, and when the soil is compacted or weeds appear, the field is cultivated with cultivators to the depth of the drill coulters with simultaneous harrowing.
 When plowing organic fertilizers or when processing the field to a depth of less than 20 cm, plows without skimmers are used.
 When plowing a layer of perennial grasses, plows with screw dumps or two-tier plows are used.
 For plowing fields with a large mass of crop residues, two-tier plows are used.
 When plowing the soil for winter crops, combined arable aggregates are used that level the surface, reducing the clumpiness and compaction of the surface layer.
 Plowing is carried out by dumping or slaughtering with alternating corrals.
 In areas with short gon, a loopless combined method of moving the unit is used.
 In large fields of a rectangular or trapezoidal shape, a circular method of moving the unit is used.
 When marking up the field for plowing, the headlands are pushed in and out with alternating corrals, the headlands are measured and the towers are set up, then the inside borders of the headlands are marked with plowing, after which the line of the first pass of the unit is weighed in the middle of the pens plowed in, the first two passes of the unit on each corral being plowed dumped, perform with ensuring the depth of plowing by the front body equal to half the set, and the last set depth.
 When preparing the field for work using loopless and combined methods, the first line is weighed at a distance equal to 3/4 of the corral width, all the others at a distance equal to the corral width, the first dump furrows are drawn along these lines.
 In the fields of a triangular shape with a small width of the base, a processing method is used that is used for processing with a break furrow along the median of the triangle.
 The field in the form of irregular polygons is divided into corrals to obtain sections with parallel sides along a given direction of plowing and sections of a triangular shape.
 Fields of irregular configuration with a curved contour are divided into rectangular sections, which are processed by the corral method with straight working strokes, on the remaining wedges or segments using curved working strokes of the arable unit.
 Cultivation is carried out by loosening the soil to a depth of 6 to 12 cm, bringing this layer to a small-crumpy state, leveling the surface of the field, destroying weeds and planting fertilizers.
 On soils of light mechanical composition, as well as sufficiently cultivated and not swimming in the spring, cultivation is carried out to the depth of sowing by cultivators with lancet paws.
 Soils that are highly compacted by spring are treated to a depth of 10-12 cm by cultivators with spring or gruber working bodies.
 Cultivation is performed with simultaneous harrowing.
 Continuous cultivation is carried out transversely or at an angle to the direction of plowing, and re-processing across the direction of previous cultivations.
 On the slopes, cultivation is carried out across the direction of the slope to reduce water erosion.
 The cultivation field is prepared by beating off the headlands, breaking the field into corrals and hanging the line of the first pass of the unit.
 You can use the shuttle or diagonal-angular methods of movement of the unit, or the method of movement by overlapping.
 The shuttle method is used in fields of small sizes, moreover, they use one mounted cultivator and form a headland with a width equal to three grips of the unit during loop rotation and two for loopless rotation.
 The diagonal-angular method is used when the lanes are positioned at an angle to the lateral boundaries of the field, and the headlands are beaten off on all four sides of the field with a width corresponding to the width of the headlands in the shuttle method with loop rotation.
 The overlapping movement method is used during operation of wide-grip aggregates, as well as on short runners, the width of the lanes being assumed to be the corresponding width of the turning lanes in the shuttle mode of movement with loopless rotation.
 When used for processing a chisel plow, the field is freed from foreign objects and plant debris and the shuttle method of movement of the unit is used.
 On light soils of sandy, sandy loam, light loamy harrowing, a plow-harrow is made with either a medium or light, or spring harrow, on heavy, dense and swimming soils with heavy tooth harrows.
 In the presence of a firm and dense crust, a pre-emergence harrowing is carried out from sowing to the appearance of seedlings.
 On light soils, the crops are harrowed in one track across the rows or at an angle; on wet soils with well-developed crops, harrowing is carried out in two tracks with medium or heavy harrows.
 In areas where bulging of plants is observed, crops are rolled in ring rollers without harrowing.
 Harrowing of chill and vapors is carried out across the direction of plowing or diagonally, pre-sowing across or at an angle to the direction of sowing, ordinary crops across rows.
 Sites with gonons 500 m or more in length are harrowed by shuttle.
 Fields of square or rectangular shape are harrowed cross-diagonal way.
 In small fields, harrowing is carried out in a circular manner.
 Large fields of a rectangular shape before the harrowing are divided into squares and placed on the corners of the plots, with the pole placed at the end of the plot at a distance of 0.7 working widths of the aggregate, the first pass is divided along the diagonal of all squares, and the subsequent parallel to the first, blocking the previous pass with the next less than 15 cm, while the processing is completed at the borders of the squares.
 On washed away soils with a small humus horizon, plowing is carried out with loosening of the subsurface layer of soil.
 The subsoil layer of the soil is loosened by hulls with subsoil or cut-out subsoil hulls, mainly on soils littered with stones.
 Pre-sowing tillage with simultaneous sowing of spring crops is carried out in the early stages.
 When harrowing the soil produce its aeration treatment.
 After aeration treatment, the soil is snapped, after which at the same time mineral fertilizers and seeds are embedded on the entire surface, and then rolling is carried out.
 After plowing, the headlands and field edges are plowed, and the ridges and split furrows are leveled.
 Seeds are etched with wetting or semi-dry or wet methods, or inlaid.
 When pickling with moisture, seed treatment with macro- and micronutrient fertilizers and weak moistening are simultaneously carried out.
 Semi-dry etching is carried out by applying aqueous suspensions or solutions of pesticides to the surface of the seeds, followed by languishing for 3-4 hours.
 Wet dressing is carried out by abundant moistening or soaking of seeds in solutions, suspensions, emulsions, followed by languishing for 2 hours.
 For dressing seeds of spring and winter wheat, granosan or pentathiuran, or hexathiuram, or gammahexane, or Vitavax-200, or benlat, or Baytan or Baytan universal, or TMTD are used.
 For dressing winter rye seeds, granosan or pentatiuram, or gammahexane, or benlat, or TMTD are used.
 For dressing barley seeds, granosan or formalin, or Vitavax, or Vitavax-200, or Benomyl, or Baytan, or Universal Baytan are used.
 For dressing oat seeds, granosan or formalin, or Vitavax, are used.
 Inlaid seed treatment is carried out by applying pesticides on their surface in film-forming formulations.
 You can use film-forming compositions based on water-soluble polymers of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose NaKMTS brand 75-400 and 70/300 and polyvinyl alcohol brand 16/1; paste-like film-forming preparations "Uncle A", "Uncle T", "Uncle PT", "Orlok", "Karayar", water-soluble preparations "Blister" and "Kinol".
 Pests, diseases, weeds and lodging are controlled by cultivating crop rotation and placing crops according to the best predecessors, a rational soil cultivation system, fertilizing, taking into account the biological characteristics of crops and varieties, soil and climatic features of the zone and meteorological conditions of the growing season, optimal timing sowing and seeding rates, the impact of varieties of grain crops resistant to lodging, pests and diseases.
You can use the biological method of combating diseases and pests
entomophages and bactericidal drugs, as well as chemical control measures - herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and retardants.
 The optimal sowing depth of winter wheat is 4-5 cm on heavy and 5-6 cm on light soils, for winter rye 3-4 cm on heavy and 4-5 cm on light soils; for spring cereals 2-3 cm on heavy, 3-4 cm on medium and light loams and 5-6 cm on sandy and sandy soils.
 Sowing is performed in continuous row and / or narrow row, and / or cross, and / or wide row, and / or dotted, and / or tape.
 Spring wheat is sown in narrow row and / or cross ways.
 Corn is sown in a dotted manner.
 Millet buckwheat, hemp is sown by a tape method, for example, two-, three-, or four-line.
 When sowing winter rye, it is placed in a crop rotation according to the best predecessors, and the steam-harvesting crop is harvested no later than two weeks before the sowing of rye, and local and mineral fertilizers are applied both to steam-harvesting crops and directly under rye with maximum accumulation and preservation of soil moisture.
 Sowing is performed across the plowing and the last pre-sowing tillage or at an angle to them, on slopes at an acute angle to the prevailing direction of the slope or across the slope.
 When sowing with leaving the tramline, the shuttle method of movement of the aggregates is used.
 When sowing without leaving the tramline, the shuttle method is used when working single- or double-seeder aggregates in driving fields of more than 200 m in large triangular sections, driving in multi-seeder work in large fields, overlapping in square fields with short to 200 m driving, as well as in narrow areas.
 Before sowing, large irregularly sized fields are divided into smaller sections of a rectangular or square shape, marked with poles and pegs indicating the boundaries of the corral, headlands and the line of passage of the unit on the corral.
 Sowing is performed in continuous row and / or narrow row, and / or cross, and / or wide row, and / or dotted, and / or tape.
 Spring wheat is sown in narrow row and / or cross ways.
 Corn is sown in a dotted manner.
 Millet, buckwheat, hemp are sown by the tape method, for example, two-, three-, or four-line.
 When sowing winter rye, it is placed in a crop rotation according to the best predecessors, and the steam-harvesting crop is harvested no later than two weeks before the sowing of rye, and local and mineral fertilizers are applied both to steam-harvesting crops and directly under rye with maximum accumulation and preservation of soil moisture.
 Peas with different ripening periods are used as a precursor.
 At least part of the winter crops are sown in pure vapors.
 Before sowing, the rye seeds adjusted to the sowing condition and calibrated seeds are pickled with granosan in the amount of 100 g per 1 kg of seeds or with mercury in the amount of 150 g of seeds, or pre-sowing dusting of the seeds with powdery superphosphate in the amount of 1.5-2.0 kg per 1 c of seeds.
 During the flowering period of rye, additional pollination of rye is carried out for 3-5 days in the morning in calm, calm weather.
 Winter wheat is placed in protected areas with a relatively even relief, with a small western or eastern slope.
 In the presence of pure vapors, winter wheat is first placed on them, and the soil is cultivated as black steam: in August, podzolic chicks are raised with plows with skimmers to the full depth of the arable horizon, and on chernozems by 25-27 cm.
 On clean pairs create backstage from sunflower, which is sown in late June or in the first five days of July.
 In the absence of pure steam, wheat is placed after the early harvested precursors, after harvesting of which semi-steam cultivation of the soil is carried out, plowing with skimmers and plowing of wings from the sunflower.
 Before sowing, the wheat seeds are aired, dried in the sun for 3-5 days, etched with granosan and dusted with hexachlorane, and cross and narrow row planting methods are used.
 Spring wheat is sown mainly on chernozem soils.
 Soft and / or durum wheat of predominantly strong varieties can be sown.
 Durum, strong spring wheat is sown on fertilized winter rye or in the cultivated method when fertilizing under them, or on legumes.
 Durum wheat is sown over a layer of perennial grasses.
 The bulk of the fertilizer is applied before the sowing of spring wheat, and top dressing is carried out only in wet weather and in the early lines of application.
 Phosphate fertilizers are applied on chernozem soils under wheat, and nitrogen on sod-podzolic and forest-steppe soils.
 Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied under a winter outbreak, and nitrogen fertilizers under pre-sowing cultivation.
 When sowing wheat on winter and leguminous predecessors, a deep flash is carried out for stubble peeling with a plow with skimmers.
 In case of early plowing, the chillies use autumn cultivation.
 Winter and spring forms of barley are grown, and row crops (potatoes, fodder root crops, sugar beets, corn) are used as precursors, under which organic and mineral fertilizers are applied.
 As precursors use winter and legumes.
 Barley is used as an unpaired precursor for winter crops.
 Oats are grown on sandy, loamy, clayey, peat and bog soils.
 When growing rice, alfalfa, clover, leguminous soybeans, peas, mung bean, vetch, as well as winter crops - wheat and barley and tilled corn, soybeans are used as the best predecessors.
 After legumes and perennial herbs, rice is sown for 2-3 years in a row.
 In warm areas, winter crops of intermediate crops are used - wintering peas, wikis, shabdara.
 The soil for rice cultivation is cultivated by autumn plowing to a depth of an arable layer of 25-27 cm with plows with skimmers with deep incorporation of the upper strongly pointed layer, and the soil plowed from autumn is left in ridges to enhance aeration and drying.
 In the spring, under the rice, two presowing treatments of 12-16 cm with a chisel cultivator or an aggregate of disk and tooth harrows are carried out, the first treatment being carried out before the start of field work, and the second is performed 1-2 days before sowing the rice with subsequent rolling, and the surface is leveled between treatments checks by scrappers and graders or special planners.
 Rice seedlings are planted and / or sown with seeds.
 When sowing seeds, seeds of large fractions are used, which are treated with rice cleaners and passed through sorting-separators.
 When processing seeds, they are sorted by specific gravity in a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate, and the pop-up slopped grain and weeds are removed.
 Before sowing, the seeds are soaked or germinated.
Soaking the seeds is carried out by immersing them completely in water and keeping them for 2-3 days at 18-20 o C, followed by ventilation until they become friable.
When germinating, the seeds are incubated for 24 hours in water at a temperature of 24-26 o C until they completely swell, after which they are germinated for 24-48 hours in bales before peeling, followed by ventilation and drying to flowability, which is carried out by sprinkling the seeds with a thin layer and keeping in the shadows.
 When germinating, semi-dry seed dressing is used with formalin solution.
 Air-thermal heating of seeds is used for 5-7 days, after which the seeds are etched with granosan.
Rice is sown at the time of heating of the upper layer of soil and irrigation water to 12-15 o C and the exclusion of frost.
 Use the ordinary method of sowing rice with seed placement at 0.5-1 cm and immediate flooding with a layer of water 6-8 cm thick.
 Before sowing, the soil is rolled in smooth rollers, and restrictive flanges are installed on the coulters of the seeder.
 In the clean fields of steam and perennial grasses, the seeds are planted to a depth of 4-5 cm, and after the emergence of rice shoots, the crops are treated with a herbicide and then flooded.
 Use air seeding on a flooded field.
 When growing rice, constant or shortened, or intermittent flooding, or periodic wetting is used.
 Constant flooding is carried out by creating a variable layer of water and maintaining it on the field during the growing season of rice.
 Constant flooding is used when sowing rice with minimal seed placement, and until the seeds emerge completely, the checks are poured with water with a layer of 8-10 cm and, as the plants grow, the depth is gradually increased to 12-15 cm and maintained until the rice ripens, after which the water is gradually drained.
 Shortened flooding is used when sowing rice to a depth of 4-5 cm and is produced after the emergence of mass seedlings and treatment with herbicides, filling the field with a layer of 6-8 cm, and after all the plants come to the surface, the water layer is gradually increased to 12-15 cm and dumped water when sowing early ripe varieties during the period of full ripeness of grain, and when late ripening during the period of ripeness of grain.
 Intermittent flooding is carried out by filling the field with water for 6-8 cm sowing rice, and at the beginning of the seed peeling, the water is discarded, and at the beginning of the emergence of rice and millet, the checks are treated with a herbicide, and after 2-3 days they are again filled with water 10-15 cm, at the beginning of tillering, the water level decreases to 5 cm, and at the end of this phase it is increased to 10-12 cm and maintained until the pre-harvest discharge, while the water is gradually released.
 Periodic moistening is carried out by maintaining soil moisture of 65-70% until seedlings appear, and subsequently 75-80% of field moisture capacity.
 Periodic wetting is done by watering or sprinkling, or by natural rainfall.
 Carry out at least one loosening of the field under water.
 From the emergence of seedlings to the release of plants into the tube, 6-7 loosening is carried out.
 Crops are treated twice with herbicides.
 The destruction of algae is produced in crops by treatment with copper sulfate.
 Drying of the field is carried out within 5-7 days.
 Sorghum is placed after winter, legumes, corn.
 Sorghum is used as a precursor for spring crops, and early-growing sorghum varieties as a precursor for winter crops.
 The soil under sorghum is cultivated by peeling stubble and 25-30 cm deep autumn plowing, and after early weighted harrowing, pre-sowing cultivations of 5-6 cm are carried out.
 Before sowing, the seeds are sorted, subjected to air-thermal heating and pickled with granosan.
 Sorghum is sown in a dotted manner and / or square-nested, and when cultivating sorghum on green fodder and hay, ordinary and two-line methods are used.
 After sowing, the soil is rolled up with ribbed or ring rollers.
 When the soil crust or weeds appear, the field is harrowed across the rows before germination or germination.
 As the soil is compacted and weeds sprout, 2-3 inter-row cultivations are carried out.
 To control weeds, sorghum crops are sprayed with herbicides in the tillering phase.
 After the first loosening, the plants are fed slurry or bird droppings, or ash.
 Sorghum crops are carried out in a mixture with leguminous soybeans, grapefruit, beans, vetch, and the bean crop is sown in independent rows between rows of sorghum or in a cross direction.
 Sorghum crops can be mixed with corn.
 Before sowing, oats seeds are calibrated, heated, ventilated with warm air and etched with formaldehyde in a dry or wet way, and if they are affected by a dusty smut, they are disinfected thermally.
 With a lack of moisture in the upper layers of the soil, rolling is carried out before and after sowing oats.
 As the precursors of millet, winter and row crops are used - sugar beets, potatoes, while millet is sown a month later than early spring crops, and the sowing soil is thoroughly cleaned of weeds, fertilized and retained moisture with two to three winter chill cultivations, at least the last cultivation is accompanied by rolling.
When sowing millet, large calibrated seeds of high sowing conditions are used, and two days before sowing, the seeds are soaked in cold water with a temperature below 10 o C for 12-14 hours, then the water is drained and the seeds are poured into small heaps 20-40 cm high and a day is kept at a temperature of 15-20 o C, after which they are scattered with a thin layer and dried to a state of flowability.
 Before sowing, millet seeds are treated with phosphorobacterin.
 A wide-row sowing of millet is carried out, followed by sowing and rolling, and 3-4 days after sowing, harrowing across the rows of sowing is done with light harrows.
 In the fields intended for buckwheat, snow retention is carried out in winter, and melt water is retained in spring, and sowing begins one month after moisture closure, and during this month at least three soil loosening is carried out: the soil is cultivated for the first time 2 days after moisture closure on depths of 8-10 cm, and strongly swam by 12-14 cm, the second cultivation is carried out as the weeds germinate in 10-15 days to a depth of 6-8 cm, the third cultivation is carried out 1-2 days before sowing to the depth of seed placement.
 On poor podzolic and heavy soils, organic buckwheat fertilizers are applied in the form of quail manure or peat compost with embedment for the main autumn plowing.
 Phosphate fertilizers are added to all soils under buckwheat.
 On podzolic and gray forest soils under buckwheat, phosphoric potassium fertilizers are applied, mainly ash.
 Legumes are sown at the earliest dates on non-acidic and non-swampy soils.
 Potato, corn and sugar beets are used as precursors for legumes, and when preparing soil for legumes, early deep chilly or stubble stubble is used after harvesting the precursors, followed by deep plowing by plows with skimmers, and in the spring they are harrowed and 1-2 times cultivated.
 Sowing crops is carried out before cultivating the soil.
 Legumes are sown in the rows between stubble stems of sorghum grains left for the winter, and at the same time, sowing of legume stalks of sorghum is spudded.
 When cultivating soybeans on irrigated lands, sowing is carried out by narrow-row or cross-sowing with early ripening soybean varieties, and herbicides are introduced 14-20 days before pre-sowing irrigation.
 When cultivating soybeans on irrigated lands, sowing of seeds is carried out at the end of the optimal period, and after 3-4 days, pre-emergence harrowing is carried out across rows.
 When cultivating peas, sowing of seeds is carried out in a continuous or narrow-row way, and harrowing is carried out twice pre-emergence and post-emergence.
 To increase the yield of peas, the crops are rolled in with smooth light rollers in the afternoon in the direction from north to south.
 Rolling can be done at the beginning of budding or in the phase of mass flowering of peas, or at the end of flowering of the upper buds, pouring the leaves and forming seeds in the lower beans, the formation of flat beans in the middle tiers.
 Legumes are sown together with annual cereals.
 When cultivating alfalfa on seeds, sowing is carried out in a wide-row way, and the plants are cared for by siping across the crops, hilling the plants with a soil roller at the beginning of the budding and mowing phase.
 When cultivating alfalfa on seeds, sowing is carried out in a wide-row way, and in the first year they carry out harrowing of crops, row-spacings, fertilizing with microfertilizers, hilling, and in the second and subsequent years they carry out disking, row-spacings, fertilizing with microfertilizers, hilling and horizontal cutting of roots.
 When cultivating alfalfa on seeds, sowing is carried out in a wide-row way across the direction of the prevailing winds, and at the same time sowing alfalfa sow wings from high-stalk perennial cereal grasses.
A separate method of harvesting is used for crops having a stalk density of at least 300 plants per 1 m 2 at a height of not less than 60 cm.
 Directly combining remove evenly ripened crops, as well as areas with sowing of perennial grasses.
With a separate method of harvesting, the mowing of breads in rolls begins in the middle phase of wax ripeness at a grain moisture content of 25-35%
With direct combine harvesting of bread is carried out at the beginning of the phase of full ripeness with grain moisture not exceeding 20-25%
When milling bread in rolls, stubble is left 15-18 cm high, and for higher and thicker breads 18-25 cm.
 Bread is placed in rolls across the direction of sowing with a slope of the stems, providing a flow of water from the spike to the butt, and the rolls are laid with a mass corresponding to the throughput of the combine threshing machine at its optimal speed.
 The rolls are selected after the ripening of the grain and drying of the leaf-stem mass.
 When mowing bread into rolls, use the clockwise drive method of movement of the harvesting units or the drive counterclockwise with the expansion of the swaths, or the shuttle method.
 The clockwise corral method is used in rectangular fields with a head length of more than 600 m.
 The counterclockwise driving method is used in areas with a gutter length of 400-600 m, and mowing begins with swathing between adjacent corrals and subsequently expanding it, mowing their long sides, and when the swath width reaches the width of each of the remaining uncut parts of the first and second corrals, cough up on both sides, first the first, and then the second corrals.
 I use the shuttle method in the formation of twin rolls with one reaper in fields having free exit on the end sides of the corral.
 The circular way of movement is used in fields of irregular configuration with a small headland.
 With direct combining, a corral and circular motion methods are used.
 The corral method is used when harvesting rectangular areas with a head length of more than 500 m.
The circular method with loopless one-way turns is used in areas with a headland of up to 500 m, and for longer circular methods with swaths at an angle of 45 o .
 The circular method of movement with reversing or turning “closed loop” is used in short sections with a head length of 100-300 m and in small fields of complex configuration.
When harvesting laden bread, the direction of movement is chosen at an angle of 30-45 o to the direction of lodging.
 With continuous one-sided lodging, the movement of the aggregates is carried out across the lodging when the ears are directed to the right in the direction of travel.
 In areas with different directions of lodging, circular motion is used.
 On uneven fields, the long sides of the pens are oriented along the slope.
 Fields of non-rectangular shape are marked with the formation of pens with longitudinal parallel sides, with the remaining sections with non-parallel sides being placed at the edges.
 Sites with dead stems and areas where bread ripens later than in the main part of the field are allocated into separate pens.
 With separate harvesting of spiked crops, headlands and corner swaths are prepared 2-3 days before the start of mass mowing into rolls.
 Braids and swaths between field corrals are carried out at the same agrotechnical dates.
 The lateral sides of the fields during separation harvesting and the end sides with direct combine harvesting are cut around during the ripening period of the grain.
 Post-harvest processing can be carried out directly at the cultivation sites at indoor and / or open currents and / or at elevators, and / or flour mills, and / or cereals, and / or feed mills and / or plants by accepting grain, forming lots, cleaning, drying, active ventilation and shipment.
 All harvested grain is processed in places of cultivation according to a three-link system: combine-current-harvesting enterprise.
 All grain is processed at a procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of growing enterprises according to a two-tier system: combine harvesting enterprise.
 Part of the grain is processed at a procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of growing enterprises, and part remaining in the agricultural complex, at a current or agricultural point.
 In post-harvest grain processing, after the arrival of car lots, samples are taken, quality is determined and the place of unloading of grain is determined, weighing on a truck scale, mechanized unloading is carried out, after which grain is pre-cleaned: in the presence of rice, the spikes are separated, in the presence of corn, the ears are threshed and the grain is cleaned after threshing, then form batches of crops and quality in storage tanks, weigh and transfer grain to the operational capacity of the elevator, where producing drying grain to a state of storage and cleaning on air screen separators of short impurities, long impurities, stone separation machines, pneumatic sorting tables, air aspirators with the release of suitable grain, cooling it with artificially cooled air, then atmospheric air and sending grain for storage with parallel collection of waste, destruction of unusable, sale of suitable waste and / or their disposal for processing.
 Acceptance of grain and / or its release can be carried out respectively from water transport and to water transport, from railway transport and to railway transport.
 Post-harvest preparation and / or cleaning of the initial grain raw materials is carried out on elevators, including a working building with technological and transport equipment, a silo building with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars and / or wagons, and / or ships, devices for dispensing grain to various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems.
 In the working building of the elevator, acceptance from road, rail and water transport, technological processing, quality control or preparation of grinding lots, distribution to silos or warehouses associated with the elevator, and vacation to automobile, rail, water transport or to an enterprise are carried out.
 Grain drying can be carried out in a drum dryer.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 18%, the temperature of the agent is taken at 130 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 45 o C.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 20%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 120 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 45 o C.
When the initial grain moisture content is up to 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 110 o C, and the maximum grain heating 43 o C.
When the initial grain moisture content is above 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 105 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 40 o C.
When drying food grain, the temperature of the drying agent can be increased to 170-200 o C, and heating the grain by 5-10 o C above the values of these temperatures, while the temperature of heating of the grain should not be higher than 60 o C.
 Grain is dried in a shaft dryer.
At the initial grain moisture content of grain crops up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 70 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C.
At an initial moisture content of grain of grain crops up to 26%, two passes of grain are produced through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 65 o C, and the maximum heating of grain is 38 o C, at the second pass, respectively 70 and 40 o C.
With an initial moisture content of grain of cereals of more than 26%, three passes can be made through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 60 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 35 o C, at the second pass, respectively 65 and 38 o C, at the third 70 and 40 o C.
When the initial grain moisture of legumes up to 20%, one drying can be carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 60 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is up to 26%, two passes of the material are carried out through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 55 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 38 o C, at the second pass, respectively 60 and 40 o C.
At an initial grain moisture content of more than 26%, three passes of the material through the dryer are produced, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 50 ° C, the maximum heating of grain is 35 ° C, at the second pass, 55 and 38 ° C, respectively, and at the third, 60 ° C and 40 o C.
When drying food grain, the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 90-110 o C, and the heating of the grain is 5-10 o C higher than the values of the indicated temperatures, while the temperature of heating the grain does not exceed 60 o C.
 Grain drying is carried out in a batch drying.
The temperature of the drying agent, for example air, is taken at 40-50 o C and fed into the chamber for two hours, after which the flow is stopped and left in the dryer for two days for passive heating.
The temperature of the drying agent can be taken 50 o C, and the limiting heating of the grain 37-38 o C.
The temperature of the drying agent can be taken 40-45 o C, and the limiting heating of the grain 28-32 o C.
With increased moisture content of grain 43-45%, it is dried in a chamber dryer at a coolant temperature of not higher than 65 o C, while the coolant (drying agent) is supplied to the grain mass from the bottom up with its simultaneous suction after heat exchange from the upper layers.
When the grain moisture is increased to 45%, its drying is carried out in a continuous active ventilation dryer with recirculation of the coolant at the temperature of the latter not higher than 65 o C.
The drying of grain is carried out in a dryer with a drying louver chamber, while drying the grain in a fixed bed at a temperature of the drying agent of 45-50 o C.
 Grain can be dried in a multi-chamber floor dryer.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is up to 19%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.7-0.8 m, drying is carried out with heated air at its temperature of 61-65 o C and maximum grain heating of 40-42 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is 19-22%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.6-0.7 m, drying is carried out for 30 minutes with an unheated agent, and then until the agent finishes drying, it is heated to 56-60 o C at the maximum heating of the grain 36-39 o C.
When the initial moisture content of the grain is 23-26%, the height of the mound of material is set within 0.5-0.6 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, the agent is heated to 51-55 o C and 18 min - unheated agent at the maximum heating of the grain 33-35 o C.
When the initial grain moisture is above 26%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.4-0.5 m, drying for 1 hour is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, the agent is heated to 45-50 o C and 30 minutes unheated with extreme heating of the grain 30-32 o C.
Drying of seeds of grain crops can be carried out at a temperature of 40-45 o C, and legumes 30-35 o C.
 Separation is carried out by cleaning the grain from impairing conditions for its processing or reducing the quality of the finished product impurities and sorting the grain mixture into fractions of different quality for separate processing.
 The separation is carried out according to the thickness and / or width, and / or length, and / or the shape of the cross section, and / or the speed of rotation, and / or density, and / or density and the coefficient of friction, and / or elasticity and the coefficient of impact friction, and / or the coefficient of friction, and / or slip, and / or rolling, and / or the magnetic susceptibility, and / or the dielectric constant, and / or the reflection coefficient of the light flux.
 Separation is carried out by exposing the grain mixture to aerodynamic forces and / or volume forces of inertia, varying in magnitude and direction, and / or gravitational gravity by centrifugal inertia and gravity, and / or magnetic and / or electric forces, and / or sequential and / or a combination of forces combined over time on the grain mixture.
 After separation and separation of various impurities from the grain mixture, the grain surface is cleaned from mineral dust and / or contaminants and / or particles of fruit membranes.
 Cleaning the surface of the grain is carried out at flour mills by treating the grain in the washing room with an abrasive surface or with a steel cylinder, and then in the brushing machines in a dry and / or wet way using washing machines.
 At enterprises with mechanical and pneumatic transport of grain products, radial scouring machines with an emery or steel cylinder and brushing machines are used, and the peripheral speed of the scouring drum is selected depending on the hardness of the processed crop, increasing for softer grain and decreasing for harder.
The peripheral speed of the scouring drum for rye is taken equal to 15-18 m / s, for soft wheat 13-15 m / s, for durum wheat 10-11 m / s, and processing is carried out until the grain is obtained without damage, and the ash content of the dust is at least 10%
Processing in brushing machines is carried out until separation of the exfoliated particles of the shells and removal of dust from the surface and from the groove of the grain and the receipt of waste in an amount of 0.2-0.3% with respect to the weight of the grain with an ash content of 4.0-4.5% and in the process the processing adjusts the gap between the working surfaces of the brushes while maintaining its value in the range from 3 to 6 mm.
 When cleaning the surface of the grain, mainly rye, in husking machines, the upper most contaminated shells, mineral dust, bacteria and molds are removed while the ash content is reduced by 0.10-0.11% fiber content by 0.92-0.96% and increasing the relative starch content by 2.44-2.62% and bulk density by 56-58 g / l.
 Processing in the washing machines is subjected to grain, mainly defective, affected by smut, or bitter wormwood, and the grain is cleaned of dust and microorganisms with the simultaneous release of heavy and light impurities.
 Grain processing in the washing machine is carried out by ascending jets of water, which are created by a rotating auger, with the grain moving and keeping it in suspension, the stones and sand being released mineral impurities are moved in the lower level in the opposite direction, collected in appropriate periodically emptied containers, and In the washing bath, the grain is fed into the alloy chamber, in which light mixtures float and are periodically removed, and then, under the pressure of water, the grain is fed to the squeezing column at the same time rinse it and produce dehydration of the grain and its peeling, and the washing water is subjected to purification in a liquid separator.
 Before cleaning, coagulant aluminum sulfate in an amount of 0.1-0.5% is added to the washing water, and after cleaning, the bacteriologically pure centrate is returned to production for washing grain.
 At the same time as washing the grain, they are treated with ultrasound and / or ultraviolet radiation and / or hydrocyclones are used.
 The washing water is purified by sending it to a grain collector, separating large impurities, after which the water is sent to a separator, where it is purified, then the filtered water is poured into the chlorination tank, and after settling, the purified and disinfected water is pumped into the tank, mixed with clean water and returned to the grain washing, and the selected large impurities are squeezed in a press and dried in a screw dryer.
 Hydrothermal processing of grain is carried out by cold or hot, or high-speed conditioning.
 Cold conditioning is carried out by wetting the grain and then draining, moreover, wetting is carried out by washing or by feeding the estimated amount of drip-liquid water to the grain mass.
 The grain of high vitreous moisture after wetting is moistened and re-moistened.
 Hot conditioning is carried out by washing, treating in an air-water conditioner and smoothing.
 Before processing in an air-water conditioner, the grain is processed in a steamer or steam column until the desired temperature is obtained by the grain.
 Before raking, the grain is moistened.
 High-speed conditioning is carried out by short-term steaming, keeping in a heated state in a thermally insulated lock and subsequent washing with cold tap water.
 After washing, the grain is treated in a dehumidifier or dampened.
 Hydrothermal treatment at cereals: Greek, oat and pea plants is carried out by steaming in batch or continuous units and subsequent drying to increase the strength of the core and the fragility of the flower films to increase the efficiency of the peeling process.
 Peeling of grain in cereals is carried out on mills and / or on machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, and / or peeling machines with abrasive disks and a steel surface, and / or on scouring (scouring) machines.
 Peeling of grain in cereals is carried out either by creating compressive and shear forces that cause chipping and breaking of the films during grain processing on waltzdeck machines and / or machines with rubber rolls and / or on peeling machines, or by friction on an abrasive and steel surface, causing shell scraping during prolonged peeling, or by impact, causing splitting of the shells and the accompanying frictional effect of the abrasive or metal surface of the part lei of scouring and whipping machines.
 To peel buckwheat, they use a valdedec machine with a deck, in which the radius of curvature is equal to the radius of the roll, while in the working position the deck is moved parallel to the roll so that the working surface of the deck is offset relative to the surface of the roll, and when processing buckwheat of the first and second fractions, the peripheral speed of the roll is taken 14-15 m / s, the third and fourth 12-14 m / s, the fifth and sixth 10-12 m / s, and the arc length of the deck's working area is 180-200 mm.
 For peeling millet, a maltice machine with a roll of abrasive mass and a peripheral speed of 15 m / s is used, and technical rubber decks with fabric layers and an arc length of 300 mm.
 To peel the millet, use a double-decked valcedek machine and the grain is subjected to double processing.
 For rice peeling, machines with rubber rolls rotating towards each other at different speeds are used, which are set with a gap of one relative to another equal to 0.6-0.8 m, and the ratio of the peripheral speed of the fast-rotating and the peripheral speed of the slow-rotating rolls is 1.45.
 To peel oats and rice, use a setter with a lower runner and two disks, the working surface of which is covered with abrasive mass, one of the disks is stationary, and the other is mounted on a vertical rotating shaft, and the peripheral speed of the rotating disk is taken with primary peeling 13-15 m / s, and when peeling off similar products 12 m / s.
 For peeling barley, wheat, oats with a moisture content of more than 13% and corn, striking scouring machines are used, moreover, peeling of grain with a moisture content of more than 14% is carried out at higher speeds than peeling of dry grain, while peeling does not take the peripheral speed of pests more than 20 m / s, with the first peeling of wheat 16-18 m / s, with the second 14 m / s, with peeling of oats 20-22 m / s, and corn 10-14 m / s.
 After threshing, the seed material is thoroughly cleaned, sorted, dried, calibrated and brought to the inoculum condition, after which it is deposited in the warehouse.
 Vaults are disinfected before loading grain.
 Storage bins are performed without cracks to prevent clogging of one variety by another.
 The cultures in the bins are stacked alternately and each bunker is not added up to 15-20 cm.
 Grain is placed in the warehouse by grades, reproductions, categories and classes.
 Grain and / or seeds are laid in bulk and / or packaged.
 Bags with rye or wheat, or barley, or buckwheat are stacked in stacks of 8 rows high in the warm and cold season, bags with peas and vetch are stacked in stacks of 8 rows in the cold season, and 6 rows in the warm season, and when stored in bulk, the height of the embankment in the cold season is 2.5 m, and in the warm 2 m.
 When storing seeds in bulk, thermal rods or iron or wooden rods are put in a heap and constant monitoring of the condition of the seeds is carried out.
 In case of undesirable changes in the state of the grain, it is dried or further purified, or cooled.
 In wet and cold weather, the doors and windows of the vaults are closed, and in dry and warm weather they open.
 Seed grain, as well as seeds arriving for storage in small quantities, are stored in soft containers.
 Rigid containers are used for grain transportation.
 When storing grain in bulk, floor storage and silage are used.
 At floor storage, the height of the embankment is taken not exceeding 6 m, and when stored in silos, the height of the embankment is taken up to 40 m.
 Granaries of temporary and long storage can be used.
 Temporary granaries are made in the form of canopies and are used during the period of mass receipt of grain and / or full filling of granaries with long-term storage.
 Long-term storage granaries are performed in the form of mechanized warehouses and elevators that do not have stationary mechanization.
 Mechanized warehouses perform with horizontal and / or inclined floors.
 Warehouses with inclined floors are self-unloading, and warehouses with horizontal floors are partially unloaded by gravity to the lower conveyor.
 The walls of the storages are gas-tight, low-conductive, with good hygroscopicity of the inner surface.
 The elevators are equipped with a working building with transport and other equipment, a silo with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars, wagons and ships, devices for dispensing grain to various types of transport grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems.
 You can use intermediate elevator enterprises, which are located at the junction of railway stations and / or at the intersections of railway and waterways.
 Intermediate elevator enterprises are equipped with devices for receiving and dispensing grain and are used to reload grain from one type of transport to another.
 When overloading grain, pneumatic transport is used with simultaneous aspiration of the product.
 At least part of the grain is sent for long-term storage to reserve elevators.
 Grain sent for long-term storage, as well as for export, is subjected to additional aspiration, cleaning and drying.
 The grain sent for storage is disinfected.
 In the process of grain storage, humidity and temperature are monitored and, in preparation for shipment, depending on the state of grain, it is dried or cooled, or refreshed.
 The main cleaning of the prepared dry and medium-dry grain, as well as dried, is performed during storage in preparation for shipment.
 Disinfection is carried out by carbonation and / or by passing through a grain dryer.
 Grain in storages is subjected to active ventilation.
The storage temperature is maintained at 25 o C ± 2 o C with a relative humidity of 65% and grain humidity of 14%

Claims (12)

 1. The method of production and harvesting of cereal grains and / or legumes, post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain, including pre-sowing tillage by plowing with or without turnover, harrowing and cultivation, preparing seeds for sowing by pre-sowing, including including with suction sorting and, if necessary, with air-sieve cleaning, sowing, rolling, harrowing, fertilizing crops with mineral and / or organic fertilizers, destruction of weeds and pests during chemical, and / or mechanical, and / or biological treatment, harvesting by direct combining with mowing and threshing, and / or two-phase (separate) harvesting with mowing plants into rolls, their selection and threshing, and / or harvesting with threshing in stationary conditions, including direct, indoor or open, or temporary current, preliminary cleaning of grain from weeds, and / or grains, and / or metallomagnetic impurities with screening and / or processing on air-sieve machines, aspiration by passing air through a filter the surface of the suction system or device, at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or reserve storage tank with caps, with the release of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities and / or broken grain, at least once repeated cleaning grain, including the separation of grain size into fractions and waste, suction, coarse and sowing, cleaning of long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from hard to separate seeds of foreign crops and weeds plants, transportation and loading of grain, transportation for processing or warehousing of the non-grain part, feeding grain to storages and / or elevators and storage with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration, the tank and / or containers connected to an aspiration system, or device, and / or with each other with the possibility of a combination and / or selective switching of at least one additional duct and the formation of the area f pouring surface of at least one container within the range of 1.002 230.0 reduced diameters of the area of the airtight portion and the shape of the filtering surface in the form of a spatial shell of constant and / or variable curvature or a combined configuration with a maximum distance of its vertex from the plane combined with at least one non-linear a segment of the contour of the air-transparent section, or from the horizontal projection plane of the corresponding air-transparent section to a distance of 0.02 78.0 reduced diameters of the area and aeroprozrachnogo portion.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air-filtering insert is used as a filter surface, which is installed in the lid cavity of the main and / or backup storage tanks, or at least one is used as a filter surface one air-filtering membrane, which serves simultaneously as the cover of the main and / or reserve storage tank, or at least one filtering insert is used as a filter surface air, which is installed in the upper part of the wall of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, and in this case, the insert for filtering the supplied air is made in the form of a fragment of a cylindrical surface or double curvature, or in the form of a polyhedron, concave or convex-concave , or convex relative to the surface of the walls of the tank, or in a combined form from a combination of straight and / or curved sections, or in the form of a continuous or discrete annular shell, or during At least one air-filtering element is used as a filtering surface, and it is made in the form of a removable casing, and a cut is made in the upper part of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, into which a casing with an air-filtering element is installed, and the cut-out area is at least 1% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding container with a multifaceted configuration, or at least 2.3% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding tank and round cylindrical or variable curvature or combined configuration, or when carrying out the aspiration process, at least two air filter inserts, air filter membranes, inserts for filtering the supplied air and air filter elements are used as a filter surface, while the area ratio of any two filter elements is 1 1 15, moreover, for sealing the main and backup storage tanks, any filtering elements included in the filter surface, they are connected to the containers by means of clamps with a sealant, and at least part of the connections are detachable, and for maintenance or repair work during the aspiration process, the main and / or backup storage tanks are additionally equipped with airtight membranes, which are installed to ensure complete cessation of air supply to replaceable filter element, while the air filter insert, or air filter membrane, or insert for filtering air or an air filter element is made in the form of a shell containing at least one single curvature section, or combinations thereof, or from combinations of curved and / or rectilinear sections, moreover, during the aspiration process, air is injected with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or multicylindrical a site formed by at least two articulated fragments of cylinders of constant and variable curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of the shape of the shell containing at least one conical or polyconic section formed from fragments of conical and / or polyconic curvature interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of the shape of the shell containing at least one cylindrical or multicylindrical section formed from fragments of cylindrical and / or multicylindrical curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of the frame of the shell containing at least one cylindrical and / or conical and / or spherical and / or spheroidal and / or ellipsoidal and / or parabolic and / or hypovoid and / or toroidal section, the shell is provided with an internal frame, and the filtering surface is made of high-strength woven or fibrous non-woven material, moreover, for example, overcoat cloth is used as a high-strength woven material, and for example, as a fibrous non-woven fabric, or a design for suction with a filter its surface is made of at least two filter layers with different strength and transmittance, which are arranged in order of increasing their strength and transmittance, or fastened together to form cavities, at least one of which is at least partially filled with a granular filler, with this differentiated throughput in at least one layer is formed providing a pressure differential between its internal and external surfaces in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 MPa at operating speeds of the pneumatic supply of dispersed particles suspended in the air flow, and the minimum cross-sectional area of the holes in the filter surface is taken to be at least 60 μm 2 , and the filter surface is subjected to vibrational influences, which restore its transmission capacity, which is created by the pressure drop in the tank, and for additional containers are installed in the aspiration process, which are equipped with filters and connected to a common aspiration system with additional air odes, and on winter crops and plantings of perennial grasses, snow retention is performed using live and dead wings, shields, brushwood, and in the presence of a snow cover of 15 20 cm snowfalls with depth limits are used, while live wings are created by sowing in a clean pair of tall plants sunflower, corn, mustard in strips of 2 to 3 rows across the prevailing winds or slope, and winter crops are sown across the wings, dead wings are formed from brushwood and placed on winter crops or winter crops from autumn until the soil freezes, when the backstage is performed in one, two, and three rows, arranged at a distance of 10-15 m from one another during the winter, rearranged several times, spread the brushwood across the field in a checkerboard pattern after 3-4 meters, and as the brushwood is brought into the snow, it is raised to the surface or they are transported to another site, or snow retention is carried out using bricks or slabs, which are arranged in the form of shields, which are made of boards, brushwood, straw and installed with gaps 1/2 3/4 of the shield area, and with a smaller clearance shields are installed on in high places, and with large ones on lowered ones, wintering is chipped from the fall and / or snow is blackened with dark-colored soil in strips of 1.0 1.5 m every 10 15 m across the slope, and / or the compaction of snow packed faces (shafts) and heaps, and under spring crops they spend autumn tillage by peeling stubble (after grains) and plowing with skimmers to the depth of the arable layer, and on spring-moistened lands, use spring autumn tillage with subsequent autumn cultivations, the last presowing cultivation they are cultivated immediately before sowing across the direction of sowing, in order to reduce moisture loss and accelerate the maturation of the soil, early spring harrowing of the winter chaffs is carried out, and after harrowing under early spring grains, cultivation is carried out, and on heavy structureless soils to a depth of 12-14 cm, while cultivating the soil for winter crops after harvesting the steaming crops and the non-steam precursors, the field is discarded in 1 2 traces until the vegetation is completely destroyed, and in the period between the main processing and sowing to keep the field clean it is harrowed or cultivated from weeds by 6–8 cm, when winter crops are placed after late-harvested crops (potatoes, corn, peas) and after steam predecessors, they are discarded, followed by cultivation to a depth of discing, and before sowing, treatment with combined aggregates or cultivation with rolling ring-shaped spur rollers, and during tillage for winter crops, the layer of perennial grasses is raised by plows immediately after the first mowing, and before plowing, the layer is pre-discontinued, while before in winter crops, the raised layer is treated with paw cultivators, and with a small arable layer, disk cultivators with simultaneous harrowing, or the soil is at least twice cultivated with peeling, and when the soil is compacted or weeds appear, the field is cultivated with cultivators to the depth of the drill coulters with simultaneous harrowing, while when plowing organic fertilizers or when processing the field to a depth of less than 20 cm, plows without skimmers are used, when plowing a layer of perennial grasses, plows with screws are used with dumps or two-tier plows, for plowing fields with a large mass of crop residues, two-tier plows are used, when plowing the soil for winter crops, combined arable units are used to level the surface, reducing the clumpiness and compaction of the surface layer, and plowing is carried out by dumping or slashing with alternating corrals on areas with short gon use a loopless combined method of moving the unit; in large fields of a rectangular or trapezoidal shape, a circular sp soob of the movement of the unit, and when marking the field for plowing, the headlands are slammed and broke with alternating corrals and the towers are set up, then the internal boundaries of the headlands are plowed, then the line of the first passage of the unit is weighed in the middle of the corrals plowed up by the dump, the first two passes of the unit on each corral plowed up, they perform with ensuring the depth of plowing by the front casing equal to half the set, and the last set depth, and when preparing the field for work, By net and combined methods, the first line is weighed at a distance of 3/4 of the corral width, all the others are hung at a distance of the corral width, the first dump grooves are drawn along these lines, in the triangular fields with a small base width, the processing method is used to break with the break furrow along the median of the triangle, field in the form of irregular polygons, they are divided into corrals to obtain sections with parallel sides along a given direction of plowing and sections of a triangular shape, irregularly shaped fields with a curve with a frost contour, they are divided into rectangular sections, which are driven by a straight-line working strokes, on the remaining wedges or segments, curved working strokes of the arable unit are used, and cultivation is carried out by loosening the soil to a depth of 6 to 12 cm and bringing this layer to a shallow state, leveling the surface of the field, the destruction of weeds and the incorporation of fertilizers, and on soils of light mechanical composition, as well as sufficiently cultivated and not swimming in the spring, cultivation is carried out on hl cultivators with lancet paws that cultivate soil with soil that are highly compacted by spring are cultivated to a depth of 10 12 cm with cultivators with spring or grubber working bodies, cultivation is carried out with simultaneous harrowing, or continuous cultivation is carried out transversely or at an angle to the direction of plowing, and re-cultivation in the direction previous cultivations, on the slopes cultivation is carried out across the direction of the slope to reduce water erosion, and the cultivation field is prepared by beating lanes, dividing the field into corrals and hanging the line of the first pass of the unit, using the shuttle or diagonal-angular methods of movement of the unit, or the method of movement overlapping, and the shuttle method is used on fields of small size, and use one mounted cultivator and form a headland width equal to three captures of the unit during a loop rotation and two when loopless, the diagonal-angular method is used when the lanes are positioned at an angle to the side borders of the field, and the lanes are beaten off on all four sides of the field with a width corresponding to the width of the headlands in the shuttle method with loop turning, the overlapping method is used when working with wide-grip aggregates, as well as on short ruts, and the width of the bands is taken to correspond to the width of the headlands in the shuttle way with loopless by turning, and when used for processing a chisel plow, the field is freed from foreign objects and plant debris and use the shuttle method of movement of the unit, Moreover, on light soils of sandy, sandy, sandy, light-loamy harrowing, a harrow is plowed with a harrow or medium, or light, or spring harrows, on heavy, dense, and floating soils with heavy tooth harrows, and in the presence of a hard, dense crust, from the time of sowing to emergence, they are carried out pre-emergence harrowing, and on light soils, the crops are harrowed in one track across rows or at an angle, on moist, swimming soils, with well-developed crops, harrowing is carried out in two tracks with medium or heavy harrows, in the places where plant bulging is observed, the crops are rolled in ring rollers without harrowing, the chow and vapors are harrowed across the direction of plowing or diagonally, pre-sowing across or at an angle to the direction of sowing, row crops across rows, sections with gones 500 m or more in length harrow in a shuttle way, square or rectangular fields are harrowed in a cross-diagonal way, in small fields harrowing is done in a circular way, large rectangular fields are harrowed before the harrowing begins squares, and at the corners of the plots, the poles are placed, and at the extreme site, the pole is placed at a distance of 0.7 of the width of the aggregate, the first pass is divided along the diagonal of all squares, and the next pass parallel to the first, blocking the previous pass by at least 15 cm the treatment is completed by passing the unit along the borders of the squares, on washed-out soils with a small humus horizon, plowing is carried out with loosening of the subsoil layer of the soil with hulls with subsoil or cut-out subsoil hulls mainly on soils littered with stones, while presowing tillage with simultaneous sowing of spring grain crops is carried out in the early stages, and when harrowing the soil, it is aerated, after which they are snapped, after which mineral fertilizers and seeds are incised all over the surface, and then rolling is carried out, and after the end of plowing, the headlands and edges of the fields are smelled, and the ridges and split furrows are leveled, and the seeds are etched with moisture or the floor with a broomstick or wet method, or inlay is used; when dressing with moistening, seeds are treated simultaneously with macro- and micronutrient fertilizers and weakly moistened, and semi-dry dressing is carried out by applying aqueous suspensions or solutions of pesticides to the seed surface followed by languishing for 3-4 hours, wet dressing carry out by abundant moistening or soaking of seeds in solutions, suspensions, emulsions, followed by languishing for 2 hours, and for seed dressing in spring and winter wheat, is used they use granosan, or pentathiuram, or hexathiuram, or gammahexane, or vitavax, or vitavax-200, or benlat, or baitan or universal baitan, or TMTD, or use granosan, or pentathiuram, or gammahexane, or benlat, or TMTD, or for barley seed dressing, use granosan, or formalin, or Vitavax, or Vitavax-200, or Benomil, or Baytan, or Universal Baytan, or granozan, or formalin, or Vitavax are used to dress oat seeds, or etching inlay seeds are produced by applying pesticides to the surface of the seeds in film-forming compositions, which are film-forming compositions based on water-soluble polymers of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC) grade 75/400 and 70/330 and polyvinyl alcohol grade 16/1, paste-like film-forming preparations " Uncle A "," Uncle T "," Uncle PT "," Orlok "," Karayar ", water-soluble preparations" Blister "and" Kinol ".
 3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control of pests, diseases, weeds and lodging of crops is carried out by developing crop rotation and placing crops according to the best predecessors, a rational system of tillage, fertilizing, taking into account the biological characteristics of crops and varieties, soil -climatic features of the zone and meteorological conditions of the growing season, optimal sowing dates and seeding rates, cultivation of varieties of grain crops that are resistant to lodging, pests and diseases. Olza biological control of pests and diseases Entomophages and microbicides, or chemical control measures herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and retardants.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the optimum sowing depth of winter wheat is 4 5 cm on heavy and 5 6 cm on light soils, for winter rye 3 4 cm on heavy and 4 5 cm on light soils, for spring cereals 2 3 cm on heavy, 3 4 cm on medium and light loams and 5 6 cm on sandy and sandy soils, and sowing is carried out across the plowing and the last presowing tillage or at an angle to them, on slopes at an acute angle to the prevailing direction of the slope or across the slope, while sowing with leaving a tramline using call the shuttle method of movement of aggregates, when sowing without leaving the tramline, use the shuttle method when operating single- or double-seeder aggregates in fields with a head length of more than 200 m, in large areas of a triangular shape, driving in multi-seeder aggregates in large fields, overlapping in the fields square form with short, up to 200 m, rutting, as well as in narrow sections, before sowing, large irregularly sized fields are divided into smaller sections of rectangular or square shape, mark with their towers and pegs, indicating the boundaries of the corral, headlands and the line of the first pass of the unit on the corral, the sowing is performed as a continuous row, and / or narrow-row, and / or cross-section, and / or wide-row, and / or dotted, and / or tape, spring wheat is sown in a narrow-row and / or cross-sectional way, corn in a dotted way, millet, buckwheat, hemp in a ribbon way, for example, two-, three-, or four-line, when planting winter rye, it is placed in a crop rotation according to the best predecessors, and the harvesting crop is not harvested pos less than two weeks before sowing rye, and local and mineral fertilizers are applied both under steam-harvesting crops and directly under rye with maximum accumulation and preservation of soil moisture, with peas with different ripening periods being used as a precursor, at least part of winter crops are sown on clean vapors, before sowing, adjusted to sowing conditions and calibrated rye seeds are pickled with granosan in the amount of 100 g per 1 c of seeds or with mercurran in the amount of 1500 g per 1 c of seeds or pre-sowing is carried out seeds are pulverized with superphosphate powder in an amount of 1.5 to 2.0 kg per 1 kg of seeds; during the flowering period of rye, rye is additionally pollinated for 3 to 5 days in the morning in calm, calm weather, winter wheat is placed in protected areas with a relatively even relief, with a small western or eastern slope, in the presence of clean vapors, winter wheat is first placed on them, and the soil is cultivated as black steam: in August, they are raised on podzolic winter plows with plows with skimmers to the full depth of arable horizon, and on chernozem soil 25-27 cm, or on clean pairs, create scenes from sunflower, which is sown at the end of June or in the first five days of July, and in the absence of clean steam, wheat is placed after the early harvested precursors, after which they are harvested by semi-steam tillage, plowing with plows with skimmers and sowing the wings from the sunflower, while before sowing the wheat seeds are aired, dried in the sun for 3 to 5 days, etched with granosan and dusted with hexachloran, and used cross and narrow-row sowing methods, spring wheat is sown mainly on chernozem soils, and soft and / or durum wheat of predominantly strong varieties are sown, and strong, strong spring wheat is sown by fertilized winter rye, or cultivated by fertilizing, or by legumes, or durum wheat is sown over a layer of perennial grasses, while the bulk of the fertilizer is applied before sowing spring wheat, and fertilizing is carried out only in wet weather and early application, and phosphorus is applied on chernozem soils for wheat e fertilizers, and on sod-podzolic and forest-steppe nitrogen, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied under autumn plowing, and nitrogen under pre-sowing cultivation, when sowing wheat on winter and leguminous predecessors, they carry out peeling and early deep plowing on chaff, autumn plowing is used for plowing chaff; in the cultivation of winter and spring forms of barley, row crops are used as precursors - potatoes, fodder root crops, sugar beets, and corn, under which they bring organic and mineral fertilizers, or winter and legumes are used as precursors, and barley is used as a non-steam precursor for winter crops; when growing rice, alfalfa, clover, legumes, soybeans, peas, mung bean, vetch, and winter wheat and barley and tilled corn, soybeans, and after legumes and perennial grasses, rice is sown 2 3 times in a row, and in warm areas they use winter crops of winter crops of winter peas, vetch, sabdar, soil for rice cultivation they are plowed with autumnal plowing to a depth of the arable layer of 25 27 cm with plows with skimmers with deep seeding of the upper heavily clogged layer, and the soil plowed from autumn is left in the ridges to enhance aeration and drying, and in spring, two presowing cultivations of 12 16 cm are carried out under a rice cultivator or an aggregate of disk and tooth harrows, the first treatment being carried out before the start of field work, and the second one 1 2 days before sowing the rice with subsequent rolling, and between the treatments the surface of the scrapie checks is leveled and graders or special planners, whereby rice is planted with seedlings and / or seeds, while seeds are sown in large fractions, which are treated with rice cleaners and passed through sorting separators, and when processing seeds, they are sorted by density in a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate moreover, the pop-up punctured grain and weeds are removed, and before sowing the seeds are soaked or germinated, the seeds are soaked by immersing them completely in water and keeping them for 2 3 days at 18–20 ° С followed by aeration until they become free-flowing, and when germinating, the seeds are kept for 24 hours in water at 24–26 ° С until they completely swell, after which they are germinated for 24–48 hours in a pile before nibbling, followed by ventilation and drying until they become loose which is carried out by scattering seeds with a thin layer and keeping in the shade, or when germinating, use semi-dry seed dressing with formalin solution, or use air-thermal heating of seeds for 5-7 days, after which the seeds are rubbed pour granozan, and rice is sown at the time of heating of the top layer of soil and irrigation water to 12 15 ° C and the exclusion of frost, while using the ordinary method of sowing rice with seed placement at 0.5 1.0 cm and immediate flooding with a layer of water with a thickness of 6 8 cm, before the sowing, the soil is rolled in with smooth rollers, and restrictive flanges are installed on the coulters of the seeders, in clean fields after steam and perennial grasses the seeds are sealed to a depth of 4-5 cm, and after the emergence of rice seedlings, the crops are treated with a herbicide and then fired, whether air sowing is used over a flooded field, or when rice is growing, constant, or shortened, or intermittent flooding or periodic wetting is used, moreover, constant flooding is carried out by creating a layer of water of variable size and maintaining the rice field during vegetation, or constant flooding is used when sowing rice with minimal seed placement, and until the seedlings are fully emerged, the checks are filled with water with a layer of 8 10 cm and as the plants grow, the depth is gradually increased to 12 15 cm and maintained until ripening rice, after which the water is gradually drained, shortened flooding is used when sowing rice to a depth of 4 5 cm and is produced after mass emergence and treatment with herbicides, filling the field with a layer of 6 8 cm, and after all plants come to the surface, the water layer is gradually increased to 12 15 cm and discharge water when sowing early ripening varieties into full ripeness of grain, and in late ripening into wax ripeness of grain, intermittent flooding is performed by filling the field with 6 8 cm after sowing rice, and at the beginning of seeding water is discarded, and at the beginning of the emergence of rice and millet seedlings, the checks are treated with a herbicide and after 2 3 days they are again filled with 10 15 cm water, at the beginning of tillering the water level is reduced to 5 cm, and at the end of this phase it is increased to 10 12 cm and maintained before the pre-harvest discharge, while the water is drained gradually, and periodic moistening is carried out by maintaining soil moisture 65 70% until seedlings appear, and subsequently 75 80% of the field moisture capacity, and periodic wetting is carried out by irrigation, or sprinkling, and / or natural rainfall and carry out at least one loosening of the field under water, with 6
7 loosening, and the crops are treated twice with herbicides, or the algae are destroyed in the crops by treatment with copper sulfate, or the field is dried for 5-7 days, and sorghum is placed after winter crops, legumes, corn, and sorghum is used as a precursor for spring crops, and early ripening sorghum varieties as a precursor for winter crops, while the soil under sorghum is cultivated by peeling stubble and 25-30 cm deep autumn plowing, and two presowing crops are carried out after early spring harrowing ultivations by 5 6 cm, and before sowing, the seeds are sorted, subjected to air-heat heating and pickled with granosan, while sorghum is sown in the dotted and / or square-nested manner, when cultivating sorghum on green fodder and hay, the row and two-line methods are used, and after the sowing soil is rolled up with ribbed or ringed rollers, and when the soil crust or weeds appear, the field is harrowed across the rows before germination or sprouting, and as the soil becomes denser and the weeds sprout, they carry out 2 3 inter-row cultivations, except oh, to control weeds, sorghum crops are sprayed with herbicides in the tillering phase, and after the first loosening, the plants are fed with slurry, or bird droppings, or ash, or sorghum is sown in a mixture with legumes - soybeans, chin, beans, vetch, and bean culture sown in independent rows between rows of sorghum or in a cross direction, or sow sorghum in a mixture with corn, and oats are grown on sandy, loamy, clay, peat and bog soils, and oat seeds before sowing potassium they are bathed, heated, ventilated with warm air and etched with formaldehyde in a dry or wet way, and if the smut suffers from smut smut, they are thermally disinfected, when there is a lack of moisture in the upper layers of the soil, they are rolled before and after sowing of oats, and when sowing millet, winter and tilled sugar beets, potatoes, and millet is sown a month later than the early spring crops, the soil for sowing is thoroughly cleaned of weeds, seasoned with fertilizers and retain accumulated moisture with two or three cultivations of winter fallow, at least the last cultivation is accompanied by rolling, while sowing millet using large calibrated seeds of high sowing conditions, and two days before sowing, the seeds are soaked in cold water with a temperature below 10 ° C 12-14 hours, then the water is drained, and the seeds are poured into small heaps 20-40 cm high and kept at 15-20 o C for a day, after which they are scattered with a thin layer and dried to flowability, in addition, before sowing, millet seeds are treated with osforobacterin and produce a wide-row sowing, followed by sowing, rolling, and 3-4 days after sowing, harrowing across the rows of sowing with light harrows, and in the fields intended for buckwheat, snow retention in winter, and in the spring retention of melt water, and sowing begins in a month after moisture closure, at the same time, at least three soil loosening is carried out during this month: the first time the soil is cultivated 2 3 days after the moisture is closed to a depth of 8 10 cm, and strongly swam to 12 14 cm, the second cultivation they are carried out as weeds germinate in 10–15 days to a depth of 6–8 cm, the third cultivation is carried out 1–2 days before sowing to the depth of seed placement, while on poor podzolic and heavy soils organic fertilizers for buckwheat are applied in the form of rotted manure or peat compost with by cultivating under the main autumnal plowing, phosphate fertilizers are applied on all soils under buckwheat, and phosphorus-potash fertilizers, mainly ash, are applied on podzolic and gray forest soils under buckwheat, and legumes are sown at the earliest possible date on non-acidic and non-swampy soils, while potato, corn and sugar beets are used as precursors for legumes, and when preparing the soil for legumes, early deep chill or stubble stubble is used after harvesting the precursor followed by deep chaffy plowing by plows with coulters in spring, and they cultivate 1 2 times, sowing of grain crops is carried out before cultivating the soil, and legumes are sown in the rows between the stubble of sorghum grain varieties left for the winter, and Simultaneously with the sowing of leguminous plants, sorghum stems are spudded; when cultivating soybeans on irrigated lands, sowing is done by narrow-row or cross-sowing by early ripening soybean varieties, and herbicides are introduced 14 to 20 days before pre-sowing irrigation, and when cultivating soybeans on irrigated lands, sowing of seeds is carried out at the end of the optimal and after 3 to 4 days, pre-emergence harrowing is carried out across rows, when cultivating peas, sowing of seeds is carried out in a continuous or narrow-row way, and harrowing is carried out twice before emergence and after seed, and to increase the yield of peas, the crops are rolled in with smooth light rollers in the afternoon from north to south, and rolled at the beginning of budding, or in the phase of mass flowering of peas, or at the end of flowering of the upper buds, filling the leaves and forming seeds in lower beans, the formation of flat beans in the middle tiers, while legumes are sown together with annual cereal crops, when cultivating alfalfa on seeds, sowing is carried out in a wide-row way, and care asthenia is carried out by sieving along the crops, hilling the plants with a soil roller at the beginning of the budding and mowing phase, or in the first year they carry out harrowing of crops, row-dressing, fertilizing with micronutrient fertilizers, hilling, and in the second and subsequent years, disking, row-dressing, fertilizing with micronutrient fertilizers, hilling and horizontal pruning of the roots, or sowing is carried out in a wide-row way across the direction of the prevailing winds, and at the same time, sowing alfalfa is carried out sowing backstage from tall stalks of perennial cereal grasses.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a separate method of harvesting is used for crops having a stalk density of at least 300 plants per 1 m 2 at a height of not less than 50 cm, and evenly ripened crops, as well as areas with sowing of perennial grasses, with a separate method of harvesting, the mowing of breads in rolls begins in the middle phase of wax ripeness at a grain moisture of 25 35%, and with direct combining, the bread is harvested at the beginning of the full ripeness phase with a grain moisture not exceeding 20 25%, while mowing When storing bread in rolls, the stubble is left with a height of 15 18 cm, and for higher and thicker breads 18 25 cm, the bread is laid in rolls across the direction of sowing with the slope of the stems providing a flow of water from the spike to the butt, and the rolls are laid with a mass corresponding to the throughput of the thresher the harvester at the optimum speed of its movement, and the rolls are selected after the ripening of the grain and the drying of the leaf-stem mass, when mowing bread into the rolls, use the clockwise driven movement method of the harvesting units, or the driven turning clockwise with an extension of swaths, or a shuttle method, the clockwise driving method is used in rectangular fields with a head length of more than 600 m, the counterclockwise driving method in areas with a head length of 400 600 m, and the mowing starts with swath between adjacent corrals and subsequently expand it, mowing the long sides, and when the width of the swath reaches the width of each of the remaining mowed parts of the first and second corrals, first and then the second corrals are additionally cut from both sides, the nightly method is used in the formation of twin rolls with one reaper in fields having free exit on the end sides of the corral, the circular method of movement is used in fields of irregular configuration with a short headland, with direct combining, the corral and circular methods of movement are used, the corral method is used when harvesting rectangular sections with a headland of more than 500 m, a circular method with loopless one-way turns in areas with a headland of up to 500 m, and for longer circular methods with swaths at an angle 45 o, circular way of movement with the rotation of reversing or turning a "closed loop" is used in short with a length of bout 100 300 m sections and small fields of complex configuration, and when cleaning of laid loaves movement direction is selected at 30 45 o to the direction of lodging, moreover, in case of continuous one-sided lodging, the movement of the aggregates is carried out across the lodging when the ears are directed to the right in the direction of travel, round-robin movements are used in areas with different lodging directions, long sides are closed on uneven fields they are oriented along the slope, fields of a non-rectangular shape are marked with the formation of pens with longitudinal parallel sides, with the remaining sections with non-parallel sides being placed at the edges, sections with dead stems and sections on which the bread ripens later than on the main part of the field are separated into separate pens , during separate harvesting of spiky crops, headlands and corner swaths are prepared 2 3 days before the start of mass mowing into rolls, swaths and swaths between corrals of the fields are carried out in the same agricultural of sul terms, and the sides of the fields for separate cleaning and front sides by direct combining obkashivayut during wax ripeness.
 6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the postharvest treatment is carried out directly in the places of cultivation: in indoor and / or open currents, and / or in elevators, and / or flour mills, and / or cereals and / or feed mills, and / or plants by accepting grain, forming lots, cleaning, drying, active ventilation and shipment, and all harvested grain is processed in places of cultivation using a three-link combine-harvesting system, or all grain is processed at a harvesting plant with return parts of refined grain at the disposal of growing enterprises using a two-tier system combine harvesting enterprise, part of the grain is processed at the procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of growing enterprises, and the part remaining in the agricultural complex, at current or at an agricultural point, while during post-harvest processing grain after receipt of car lots produce sampling, determining the quality and establishing the place of unloading of grain, weighing on a with a mobile balance, mechanized unloading, after which grain is preliminarily cleaned, in the presence of rice, the spikes are separated, corn is threshed and corn is cleaned after threshing, then batches of crops and quality are formed into storage tanks, grain is weighed and transferred to operational elevator tanks where grain is dried to a state that is stable in storage, and cleaning on air sieve separators from short impurities, from long impurities, on stone separation machines, on pneumos sorting tables, on air aspirators with the release of suitable grain, cooling it with artificially cooled air, then atmospheric air and sending the grain for storage with the parallel collection of waste, the destruction of unfit, the sale of suitable waste and / or sending them for processing.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the acceptance of grain and / or its release is carried out respectively from water transport and to water transport, from railway transport and to railway transport, and operations on post-harvest preparation and / or cleaning of the source of grain raw materials on elevators, including interconnected via silos, and / or hoppers, and / or equipment, a working building with technological and transport equipment, a silo building with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain and of cars, and / or wagons, and / or ships, devices for dispensing grain to various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems, while receiving from automobile, railway and water vehicles in the elevator’s working building, technological processing, quality control or preparation of grinding lots, distribution to silos or warehouses associated with the elevator, leave for automobile, railway, water transport or enterprise, grain drying is carried out in drum dryer, moreover, with an initial grain moisture content of up to 18%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 130 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 45 o C, with an initial grain moisture content of up to 20% the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 120 ° C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 45 ° C, when the initial moisture content of the grain is up to 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 100 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 43 ° C, when the initial humidity of the grain is above 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken 105 ° C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C, when drying food grain temperature of the drying agent is increased to 170 200 ° C, and heating grain is 5 10 ° C higher than the specified temperatures, while the temperature of grain heating should not be higher than 60 ° C, or grain drying is carried out in a shaft dryer, and at the initial grain moisture content of grain crops up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken 70 o C, and the limit heating of the grain is 40 ° C, with an initial grain moisture content of grain crops of up to 26%, two passes of the grain through the dryer are produced, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 65 ° C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 38 o C, at the second pass respectively 70 and 40 o C, n and the initial moisture content of grain crops than 26% produce three passes of the material through the dryer, wherein during the first pass the temperature of drying agent taking 60 o C, and limiting heating grain 35 o C, the second pass - respectively 65 and 38 o C, and in the third 70 and 40 o C, at the initial grain moisture content of legumes up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 60 o C, and the grain is heated at maximum 40 o C, at the initial grain moisture up to 26%, two passes of the material through the dryer , and at the first skip tempera py agent drying take 55 o C, and limiting heating grain 38 ° C, the second pass - 60 and 40 ° C, at an initial grain moisture more than 26% produce three passes of the material through the dryer, wherein during the first pass the temperature of the drying agent taking 50 ° C, the maximum grain heating is 35 ° C, with a second pass 55 and 38 ° C, respectively, and with a third pass 60 and 40 ° C, while drying the food grain, the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 90 100 ° C, and the grain heating temperature is 5 10 ° C above the indicated temperatures, while the temperature is heating grain does not exceed 60 ° C, or grain drying is carried out in a batch dryer, and the temperature of the drying agent, for example air, is taken at 40 ° -50 ° C and fed into the chamber for 2 hours, after which it is stopped and grain is left in the dryer in for two days for its passive heating, either the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 50 ° C, and the maximum heating of grain is 37 38 ° C, or the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 40 45 ° C, and the maximum heating of grain is 28 32 ° C, in addition, when grain humidity 43 45%, it is dried in a chamber dryer at a temperature the coolant temperature is not higher than 65 ° C, while the coolant (drying agent) is supplied to the grain mass from the bottom up with its simultaneous suction after heat transfer from the upper layers, or with increased grain moisture up to 45%, it is dried in a continuous active dryer with by recirculation of the coolant at a temperature of the latter not higher than 65 ° C, or grain drying is carried out in a dryer with a drying louvre chamber, while the grain is dried in a fixed bed at a temperature of the drying agent 45 50 o C, or the grain is dried in a multi-chamber floor dryer, and with an initial grain moisture content of up to 19%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.7 0.8 m, drying is carried out with heated air at its temperature of 61 65 ° C and ultimate heating of the grain - 40 42 o C, with the initial grain moisture 19 22% the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.6 0.7 m, drying is carried out for 30 minutes with an unheated agent, and then until the agent has dried with a heated agent to 56 60 o C at maximum grain heating of 36 39 o C, at the initial humidity grain 23 26% the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.5 0.6 m, drying for 30 minutes are carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, heated to 51.55 ° C with an agent and 18 minutes with an unheated agent at a maximum grain temperature of 33 35 o C, at an initial grain moisture content above 26%, the height of the material mound is set within 0.4 0.5 m, drying for 1 h is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 h of drying, with an agent preheated to 45-50 ° C and 30 min with an unheated agent at a maximum grain temperature of 30 32 o C, and drying of grain seeds is carried out at the temperature of the agent 40 45 o C, and legumes 30 36 o C.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the separation is carried out by cleaning the grain from impairing conditions for its processing or reducing the quality of the finished product impurities and sorting the grain mixture into fractions of different quality for separate processing, while the separation is made by thickness, and / or width, and / or length, and / or sectional shape, and / or speed of rotation, and / or density, and / or density and coefficient of friction, and / or elasticity and coefficient of shock friction, and / or coefficient of friction, and / or sliding, and / or rolling, and / and and magnetic susceptibility, and / or dielectric constant, and / or the reflection coefficient of the light flux, and separation is carried out by exposing the grain mixture to aerodynamic forces and / or bulk inertia forces that vary in magnitude and direction, and / or gravitational forces gravity by centrifugal inertia and gravity, and / or magnetic and / or electric forces, and / or sequential and / or combined in time exposure to the grain mixture by a combination of forces, and, in addition, after parry and separation of various impurities from the grain mixture, the surface of the grain is cleaned from mineral dust and / or microorganisms, and / or contaminants, and / or particles of fruit shells, and the surface of the grain is cleaned at flour mills by treating grain in scouring machines with an abrasive surface or with a steel cylinder, and then in dry and / or wet brushing machines using washing machines, and in enterprises with mechanical and pneumatic transport of grain products, scouring machines are used radial scouring machines with an emery or steel cylinder and brushing machines, moreover, the peripheral speed of the scouring drum is selected depending on the hardness of the treated crop, increasing for softer grain and decreasing for harder grain, while the peripheral speed of the scouring drum for rye is taken to be 15 18 m / s, for soft wheat 13 15 m / s, for durum wheat 10 11 m / s, moreover, the treatment is carried out until the grain surface is obtained without damage, and the dust ash is not less than 10%; processing in brushing machines is carried out t until the separation of exfoliated particles of the shells, dust removal from the surface and from the groove of the grain and the receipt of waste in an amount of 0.2 0.3% by weight of grain with an ash content of 4.0 4.5%, and during the processing, the clearance between the working surfaces of the brushes is controlled while maintaining its value in the range of 3–6 mm, when cleaning the surface of the grain, mainly rye, in the husking machines, the upper most contaminated shells, mineral dust, bacteria and molds are removed, while the ash content is reduced by 0.10 0.11% containing fiber by 0.92 0.96% and increase the relative content of starch by 2.44 2.62% and bulk density by 56 58 g / l, grain is processed in washing machines, mainly defective, affected by smut, or bitter wormwood, and the grain is cleaned of dust and microorganisms with the simultaneous release of heavy and light impurities, and the grain is treated in the washing machine with ascending jets of water, which are created by a rotating auger with the grain moving and maintaining it in suspension, and the mineral if there are stones and sand, they are moved in the lower level in the opposite direction, collected in appropriate periodically emptied containers, and grain is fed from the washing bath into the alloy chamber, in which light mixtures float and periodically are removed, and then the grain is fed into the squeezing column with water pressure at the same time, it is rinsed and the grain is dehydrated and peeled off, moreover, the washing water is purified in a liquid separator and coagulant aluminum sulfate is added to the washing water before cleaning 0.1 0.1%, and after cleaning, the bacteriologically clean centrate is returned to the grain washing plant, and at the same time the grain is treated with ultrasound and / or ultraviolet irradiation and / or hydrocyclones are used, and the washing water is purified by sending it to the grain collector , the separation of large impurities, after which the water is sent to a separator, where it is purified, then the filtered water is poured into the chlorination tank, and after settling, the purified and disinfected water is pumped into the tank, mix t of it with clean water and returned to the grain washer, and the separated large impurities are squeezed out in a press and dried in a screw dryer, moreover, the hydrothermal treatment of the grain is carried out by cold, or hot, or high-speed conditioning, cold conditioning is carried out by moistening the grain and subsequent rinsing, humidification is carried out by washing or by feeding the calculated amount of drip-liquid water to the grain mass, the grain of high vitreous moisture after moistening is moistened and re-moistened, th air conditioning is carried out by washing, processing in an air-water conditioner and cooling, and before processing in an air-water conditioner, the grain is processed in a steamer or steam column until the desired temperature is obtained by the grain, the grain is dampened before cooling, high-speed conditioning is carried out by short-term steaming, keeping in heated condition in a thermally insulated crate and subsequent washing with cold tap water, and after washing the grain is processed in a moisture collector or moisturize, while hydrothermal treatment at cereal plants: heat, oat and pea plants is carried out by steaming in batch or continuous units and subsequent drying to increase the strength of the core and the fragility of the flower films to increase the efficiency of the peeling process, which is at the cereal plants carried out on mills, and / or on machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, and / or on peeling machines with abrasive disks and a steel surface , and / or on scouring (scouring) machines, or by creating compressive and shear forces causing chipping and breaking of the films during grain processing on waltzdeck machines and / or peeling machines, or by friction on an abrasive and steel surface, which causes a long processing on the scrubber scraping of the shells, or by exposure to a blow causing cracking of the shells, and the accompanying frictional effect of the abrasive or metal surface of parts of scouring and scouring machines, while for buckwheat peelings use a roll-rolling machine with a deck whose radius of curvature is equal to the radius of the roll, while in the working position the deck is moved parallel to the roll so that the working surface of the deck is offset relative to the surface of the roll, and when processing buckwheat of the first and second fractions, the peripheral speed of the roll is 14 15 m / s, the third and fourth - 12 14 m / s, the fifth and sixth 10 12 m / s, and the arc length of the working zone of the deck is 180 200 mm, for peeling millet use a milling machine with a roll of abrasive mass and a peripheral speed of 15 m / s, and technical rubber decks with fabric layers and an arc length of 300 mm, or for peeling millet, use a rolling machine with two decks and the grain is subjected to double processing, for peeling rice, machines with rubber rolls rotating towards each other with different speeds, which are set with a gap relative to each other 0.6 0.8 mm, and the ratio of the peripheral speed of the rapidly rotating and the peripheral speed of the slowly rotating rolls is 1.45, for peeling oats and rice use a set with a lower run one and two discs, the working surface of which is coated with an abrasive mass, one of which is stationary, and the other is mounted on a vertical rotating shaft, and the peripheral speed of the rotating disk is taken with primary peeling 13 13 m / s, and when peeling off the by-products 12 m / s, for peeling of barley, wheat, oats with a moisture content of more than 13% and corn, striking scouring machines are used, moreover, peeling of grain with a moisture content of more than 14% is carried out at higher speeds than peeling of dry grain, while of fresh products, the peripheral speed of pests is taken no more than 20 m / s, with the first peeling of wheat 16 18 m / s, with the second 14 m / s, with peeling of oats 20 22 m / s, and corn 10 14 m / s, while seed the material after threshing is thoroughly cleaned, sorted, dried, calibrated and brought to the sowing condition, after which it is deposited in storage, which is disinfected before loading grain, and the bins in the storages are made without cracks to exclude clogging of one variety by another, the cultures in bins are placed with alternating and each lock does not add up to 1 5 20 cm, the grain is placed in the warehouse according to grades, reproductions, categories and classes, and the grain and / or seeds are laid in bulk and / or packaged, bags with rye, or wheat, or barley, or buckwheat are stacked in stacks of 8 rows of bags in the warm and cold season, bags of peas and vetch in the cold season are stacked in stacks of 8 rows, and in the warm season in 6 rows, and when stored in bulk, the height of the embankment in the cold season is 2.5 m, and in warm 2 m, and when storing seeds in bulk, heats of iron or wood are placed in a heap bars and carry out constant monitoring of the condition of the seeds, while in case of undesirable changes in the state of the grain, it is dried, or additionally cleaned or cooled, the doors and windows of the storehouse are closed in wet and cold weather, and open in dry and warm weather, and the seed grain , as well as seeds that are stored in small quantities, are stored in soft containers, and containers are used for transporting grain, while floor storage and bulk silos are used for bulk storage of grain, and with floor x In case of injury, the embankment height is taken no more than 6 m, and when stored in silos, the embankment height is taken up to 40 m, in addition, temporary and long-term storage granaries are used, and temporary granaries are made in the form of canopies and used during the period of mass receipt of grain and / or full filling granaries of long-term storage, granaries of long-term storage are performed in the form of mechanized warehouses and elevators that do not have stationary mechanization, mechanized warehouses are made with horizontal and / or slope floors, warehouses with inclined floors are self-unloading, and warehouses with horizontal floors are partially unloaded by gravity to the lower conveyor, the walls of the storages are gas-tight, low heat-conductive, with good hygroscopicity of the inner surface, while the elevators are equipped with a working building with transport and other equipment, a silo building with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars, wagons and ships, devices for dispensing grain for various types of trans ports and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems, and also use intermediate elevator enterprises that are located at junction railway stations and / or at the intersections of railway and waterways and equipped with devices for receiving and dispensing grain and use for grain transshipment one type of transport to another, and when overloading grain, pneumatic transport is used with simultaneous aspiration of the product, and at least part of the grain is sent for long-term storage storage at the elevators, and the grain sent for long-term storage, as well as for export, is subjected to additional aspiration, cleaning and drying, the grain sent for storage is decontaminated, during the storage of grain, humidity and temperature are controlled and, when preparing grain for shipment, depending on the state of the grain, it is dried, or cooled, or refreshed, while the main cleaning of the prepared dry and medium-dry grain, as well as dried, is carried out during storage in preparation for handling, and disinfection is carried out by gas and / or by passing through a grain dryer, in addition, the grain in the storages is subjected to active ventilation, and the temperature is kept in the store (25 ± 2) o С at a relative humidity of 65% and grain humidity 14%
9. A method of post-harvest processing of grain, transportation and storage of grain, including the supply of grain for preliminary cleaning at elevators and / or harvesting enterprises, and / or mechanized currents, and / or grain cleaning stations, and / or grain cleaning and drying stations, grain preliminary cleaning from weeds and / or grains and / or metallomagnetic impurities with screening and / or processing on air-sieve machines, aspiration by passing air through the filtering surface of the aspiration system or device, according to at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or reserve storage tank with caps, with the release of suitable grain, and / or mineral impurities, and / or broken grain, at least a single repeated cleaning of the grain, including with its separation by size for fractions and waste, suction, large and seeding, cleaning from long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from hard-to-separate seeds of foreign crops and weeds, transportation and loading of grain in dryers, transportation for processing or warehousing of the non-grain portion, feeding grain to storages and / or elevators and storage with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration, the container and / or containers are connected to an aspiration system or device and / or with each other with the possibility of combined and / or selective switching by at least one additional duct and the formation of the filtering surface area of at least one tank with an excess of the area of the corresponding air-transparent portion of the surface of this container within 1.002 230.0 of the given diameters of the area of the air-transparent portion and the shape of the filter surface in the form of a spatial shell of constant and / or variable curvature or a combined configuration with a maximum distance of its vertex from the plane, at least with one non-linear segment of the contour of the air-transparent section or from the plane of horizontal projection of the corresponding air-transparent section to the distance yanie 0.02 78.0 aeroprozrachnogo reduced diameter portion area.
10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air-filter insert is used as a filter surface, which is installed in the lid cavity of the main and / or reserve storage containers, or at least one is used as a filter surface one air-filtering membrane serving simultaneously as the cover of the main and / or reserve storage tank, or at least one filtering insert is used as a filter surface air, which is installed in the upper part of the wall of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, and in this case, the insert for filtering the supplied air is made in the form of a fragment of a cylindrical surface, or double curvature, or in the form of a polyhedron, concave or convex concave, or convex relative to the surface of the walls of the tank, or in a combined form from a combination of straight and / or curved sections, or in the form of a continuous or discrete annular shell, or when At least one air-filtering element is used as a filtering surface, and it is made in the form of a removable casing, and a cut is made in the upper part of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, into which a casing with an air-filtering element is installed, and the cut-out area is at least 1% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding container with a multifaceted configuration, or at least 2.3% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding tank of round cylindrical or variable curvature or a combined configuration, or when carrying out the aspiration process, at least two air filter inserts, air filter membranes, inserts for filtering the supplied air and air filter elements are used as the filter surface, while the area ratio of the two filter elements is 1 1 15, and for sealing the main and reserve storage tanks, any filtering elements that make up the filter surface, connect they are sealed with containers by means of clamps with a sealant, and at least some of the connections are detachable, and for maintenance or repair work during the aspiration process, the main and / or reserve storage tanks are additionally equipped with airtight membranes, which are installed to ensure complete cessation of air supply to replaceable filter element, while the air filter insert, or air filter membrane, or insert for filtering the supplied air, or the air filter element is made in the form of a shell containing at least one double curvature section, or at least one single curvature section, or combinations thereof, or from combinations of curvilinear and / or rectilinear sections, moreover, during the aspiration process air is injected to form a shell containing at least one cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed by at least two articulated fragments of cylinders of constant and variable curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one conical or polyconic section formed from fragments of conical and / or polyconic curvature connected directly to each other or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or a poly-cylindrical section formed from fragments of cylindrical and / or poly-cylindrical curvature, interconnected directly or by means of an internal lower diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical and / or conical and / or spherical and / or spheroidal and / or ellipsoidal and / or parabolic and / or hypovaroid and / or toroidal section , the casing is provided with an inner frame, and the filtering surface is made of high-strength woven or fibrous non-woven material, moreover, for example, overcoat cloth is used as a high-strength woven material, and for example, as a fibrous non-woven cloth, or the aspiration design with a filter surface is made of at least two filter layers with different strength and transmittance, which are arranged in order of increasing their strength and transmittance or fastened together to form cavities, at least one of which is at least partially filled with granular filler, while differentiated throughput in at least one layer is formed to provide a pressure differential between its internal and external by the radii in the range of 0.1 0.2 MPa at the pneumatic delivery speeds of dispersed particles suspended in the air flow, and the minimum cross-sectional area of the holes in the filter surface is at least 60 μm 2 , and the filter surface is subjected to vibrational influences, ensuring restoration of its transmittance, which are created by differential pressure in the tank, and for carrying out the aspiration process, additional containers are installed, which are equipped with filters and connected to a common system aspiration by additional air ducts.
 11. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the postharvest treatment is carried out directly in the places of cultivation on indoor and / or open currents, and / or elevators, and / or flour mills, and / or cereals, and / or feed shops, and / or plants by receiving grain, forming lots, cleaning, drying, active ventilation and shipment, and all the harvested grain is processed in places of cultivation using a three-link combine-harvesting system, or all grain is processed at a harvesting plant with a return of h If the refined grain is at the disposal of the growing enterprises using a two-link system, the harvesting enterprise or part of the grain is processed at the procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of the growing enterprises, and the part remaining in the agro-industrial complex, at the current or at the agricultural point, while post-harvest grain processing after receipt of car lots produce sampling, determining the quality and establishing a place for cutting grain, weighing on a machine abundant scales, mechanized unloading, after which grain is preliminarily cleaned, in the presence of rice, the spikes are separated, corn is threshed and corn is cleaned after threshing, then batches of crops and quality are formed into storage tanks, grain is weighed and transferred to operational elevator tanks where grain is dried to a state that is stable in storage, and cleaning on air screen separators from short impurities, from long impurities on stone separating machines, on pneumatic sorting leveling tables, on air aspirators with the release of suitable grain, cooling it with artificially cooled air, then atmospheric air and sending the grain for storage with parallel waste collection, destruction of unfit, sale of suitable waste and / or sending them for processing.
12. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the acceptance of grain and / or its release is carried out, respectively, from water transport and to water transport, from railway transport and to railway transport, and operations on post-harvest preparation and / or cleaning of the initial grain raw materials at elevators, including interconnected via silos, and / or hoppers, and / or equipment, a working building with technological and transport equipment, a silo building with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain of cars, and / or wagons, and / or ships, devices for dispensing grain for various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems, in the working building of the elevator, they accept from automobile, railway and water transport, technological processing , quality control or preparation of grinding batches, distribution to silos or warehouses connected with an elevator, leave for automobile, railway, water transport or enterprise, grain drying is carried out in a drum dryer, moreover, with an initial grain moisture content of up to 18%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 130 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 45 o C, with an initial grain moisture content of 20%, respectively 120 and 45 ° C, and with an initial grain moisture content of 26%, respectively 110 and 43 o C, with an initial grain moisture content of more than 26% - 105 and 40 o C, respectively, when drying food grains, the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 170 200 ° C, and grain heating is 5 10 ° C higher than the specified temperatures, while grain heating temperature should not be higher than 60 ° C, or grain drying is carried out in a shaft dryer e, moreover, at the initial grain moisture content of grain crops up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 70 ° C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 40 ° C, at the initial grain moisture content of grain crops up to 26%, two passes of the grain through the dryer are carried out, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 65 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 38 ° C, with the second pass 70 and 40 o C, respectively, with the initial grain moisture content of grain crops above 26%, three passes of the material through the dryer are produced, and at the first pass the temperature of the agent sous the pulleys take 60 o C, and the maximum grain heating is 35 o C, with a second pass of 65 and 38 ° C, respectively, and with a third pass of 70 and 40 ° C, with the initial grain moisture of legumes up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent at this is taken at 60 ° C, and the maximum grain temperature is 40 ° C, with an initial grain moisture content of up to 26%, two passes of the material through the dryer are made, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is 55 ° C, and the maximum grain temperature is 38 ° C, with the second a pass of 60 and 40 ° C, respectively, with an initial grain moisture content of over 26%, produce three passes of the material through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 50 ° C, the maximum grain heating is 35 ° C, at the second pass, 55 and 38 ° C, respectively, and at the third pass 60 and 40 ° C, while drying food grain the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 90 110 o C, and the grain is heated by 5 10 o C above the values of the indicated temperatures, while the temperature of heating the grain does not exceed 60 ° C, or the grain is dried in a dryer with a cyclic action, and the temperature of the drying agent, for example air , take 40 to 50 ° C and serve it in kama y for 2 hours, after which supply it was stopped and allowed grain drier for two days to its passive heating, or the temperature of the drying agent taking 50 ° C, and limiting heating of grain 37 38 o C, or the temperature of the drying agent taking 40 45 ° C, and the maximum grain heating is 28 32 ° C, in addition, with increased grain moisture 43 45%, it is dried in a chamber dryer at a coolant temperature not higher than 65 o C, while the coolant (drying agent) is supplied to the grain mass from below up with simultaneous suction after heat exchange from layers, with increased grain moisture up to 45%, its drying is carried out in a continuous active ventilation dryer with recirculation of the coolant at a temperature of the latter not higher than 65 o C, or grain drying is carried out in a dryer with a drying louvre chamber, while the grain is dried in a fixed layer at the temperature of the drying agent 45 50 o C, or dry the grain in a multi-chamber floor dryer, and with the initial moisture content of the grain up to 19%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.7 0.8 m, drying is carried out with heated air at its temperature of 61 65 ° C and maximum grain heating 40 42 ° C, with an initial grain moisture content of 19 22%, the height of the material embankment is set within 0.6 0.7 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, and then to the end of drying with a heated agent to 55 - 60 o C at the maximum grain heating of 36 39 ° C, with an initial grain moisture of 23 26%, the height of the material embankment is set within 0.5 0.6 m, drying is carried out for 30 minutes with an unheated agent, then alternated: after 1 hour of drying - preheated to 51 55 o C agent and 18 min unheated agent at the maximum grain heating 33 35 o C, at the initial grain content above 28%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.4 0.5 m, drying for 1 hour is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 hour of drying, the agent is heated to 45-50 ° C and 30 minutes with an unheated agent at maximum heating grain 30 32 o C, and drying the seeds of grain crops is carried out at a temperature of the agent 40 45 o C, and legumes 30 35 ° C.
 13. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the separation is carried out by cleaning the grain from impairing conditions for its processing or reducing the quality of the finished product impurities and sorting the grain mixture into fractions of different quality for separate processing, while the separation is made by thickness, and / or width, and / or length, and / or sectional shape, and / or speed of rotation, and / or density, and / or density and coefficient of friction, and / or elasticity and coefficient of impact friction, and / or coefficient of friction, and / or sliding, and / or rolling, and / and whether by magnetic susceptibility, and / or by permittivity, and / or by reflection coefficient of the light flux, and separation is carried out by exposing the grain mixture to aerodynamic forces and / or volume forces of inertia, varying in magnitude and direction, and / or gravitational gravity centrifugal inertia and gravity, and / or sequential and / or time-combined exposure of the grain mixture to a combination of forces, in addition, after separation and separation from the grain mixture impurities clean the grain surface from mineral dust, and / or microorganisms, and / or contaminants, and / or particles of fruit shells, moreover, the grain surface is cleaned at flour mills by treating grain in wall-cleaning machines with an abrasive surface or with a steel cylinder, and then in brush machines dry and / or wet with the use of washing machines, and in enterprises with mechanical and pneumatic transport of grain products, radial scouring scouring machines with emery or with a full cylinder and brushing machines, moreover, the peripheral speed of the scouring drum is selected depending on the hardness of the treated crop, increasing for softer grain and decreasing for harder grain, while the peripheral speed of the scouring drum for rye is taken to be 18-18 m / s, for soft wheat 13 15 m / s, for durum wheat 10 11 m / s, the treatment being carried out to obtain a grain surface without damage, and a dust ash of at least 10%, the treatment in brushing machines is carried out until separation of exfoliated shell particles and removing dust from the surface and from the groove of the grain and receiving waste in an amount of 0.2 0.3% by weight of the grain with an ash content of 4.0 4.5%, and during the processing, the clearance between the working surfaces of the brushes is controlled while maintaining the value within 3 6 mm, when cleaning the surface of the grain, mainly rye, in scaling machines, the upper most contaminated shells, mineral dust, bacteria and molds are removed while reducing the ash content by 0.10 0.11% fiber content by 0.92 0.96% and increase relative the starch content of 2.44 2.62% and bulk density of 56 58 g / l, the grain is treated in a washing machine, mainly defective, smut or bittersweet, and the grain is cleaned of dust and microorganisms with the simultaneous release of heavy and light impurities moreover, the processing of grain in the washing machine is carried out by ascending jets of water, which are created by a rotating screw, with the movement of grain and maintaining it in suspension, the stones and sand being displaced from the mineral impurities being moved in the underlying ur outside in the opposite direction, they are collected in appropriate periodically emptied containers, and grain is fed from the washing bath into the alloy chamber, in which light mixtures float and periodically are removed, and then, under water pressure, the grain is fed into the squeezing column with its simultaneous rinsing and grain dehydration and peeling it, moreover, the washing water is subjected to purification in a liquid separator, and a coagulant aluminum sulfate in the amount of 0.1-0.5% is added to the washing water before cleaning after cleaning bacteriologically the centrate is returned to the production for grain washing, at the same time as the grain washing, it is treated with ultrasound and / or ultraviolet irradiation and / or hydrocyclones are used, and the washing water is purified by sending it to the grain collector, separating large impurities, and then the water is sent to a separator, where it is cleaned, then filtered water is poured into the chlorination tank, and after settling, the purified and disinfected water is pumped into the tank, mixed with clean water and returned to the grain sink, and The separated large impurities are squeezed out in a press and dried in a screw dryer, whereby the hydrothermal treatment of the grain is carried out by cold, or hot, or high-speed conditioning, cold conditioning is carried out by moistening the grain and then smoothing it off, and wetting is carried out by washing or by feeding the estimated amount of drip into the grain mass - liquid water, the grain of high vitreous humidification after wetting is re-moistened and re-softened, hot conditioning is carried out by washing, processing in an air-water conditioner and tear-off, and before processing in an air-water conditioner, the grain is treated in a steamer or steam column until the desired temperature is obtained by the grain, the grain is moistened before tearing, high-speed conditioning is carried out by short-term steaming, keeping heated in a heat-insulated lock and subsequent washing with cold tap water, and after washing the grain is treated in a dehumidifier or dampened, while hydrating The milling at cereal plants: Greek, oat and pea mills, is carried out by steaming in batch or continuous machines and subsequent drying to increase the strength of the core and the fragility of the flower films to increase the efficiency of the peeling process, which is carried out at the cereal mills on rolling machines, and / or on machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, and / or on peeling machines with abrasive disks and a stable surface, and / or on scouring (scouring) machines, or then the creation of compressive and shear forces causing chipping and breaking of the films during grain processing on waltzdeck machines, and / or machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, or by friction on abrasive and steel surfaces, causing scraping during prolonged processing on a peeling machine shells, or by impact, causing splitting of the shells and the accompanying frictional effect of the abrasive or metal surface of the parts of scouring and scouring machines, while for peeling g The hedgehogs use a rolling machine with a deck, in which the radius of curvature is equal to the radius of the roll, while in the working position the deck is moved parallel to the roll to ensure that the working surface of the deck is offset relative to the surface of the roll, and when processing buckwheat of the first and second fractions, the peripheral speed of the roll is 14 15 m / s, the third and fourth 12 14 m / s, the fifth and sixth 10 12 m / s, and the arc length of the working zone of the deck is 180 200 mm, to peel the millet, use a rolling machine with a roll of abrasive mass and a peripheral speed of 15 m / s, and decks from technical rubber with interlayers of fabric and an arc length of 300 mm; for peeling millet, use a double-decked valcedec machine and the grain is subjected to double processing; for peeling rice, machines with rubber rollers are used, rotating towards each other at different speeds, which are set relative to each other with a gap 0.6 0.8 mm, and the ratio of the peripheral speed of the rapidly rotating and the peripheral speed of the slowly rotating rolls is 1.45, for peeling oats and rice, use a stand with a lower runner and two discs and, the working surface of which is coated with an abrasive mass, one of which is stationary and the other is mounted on a vertical rotating shaft, and the peripheral speed of the rotating disk is taken with primary peeling 13 15 m / s, and when peeling off the by-products 12 m / s, for peeling barley , wheat, oats with a moisture content of more than 13% and maize use flashing striking machines with impact, moreover, peeling of grain with a moisture content of more than 14% is carried out at higher speeds than peeling of dry grain, while peeling of similar products the desired speed of pests is taken no more than 20 m / s, with the first peeling of wheat 15 18 m / s, with the second 14 m / s, with peeling oats 20 22 m / s, and corn 10 14 m / s, while the seed after threshing is thoroughly cleaned, sorted, dried, calibrated and brought to the sowing condition, after which it is deposited in storage, which is disinfected before loading grain, and the bins in the stores are made without cracks to exclude clogging of one variety by another, the crops in bins are laid alternately and each bunker is not added to 15 20 cm, grain is in the warehouse placed by grades, reproductions, categories and classes, and the grain and / or seeds are laid in bulk and / or packaged, bags with rye, or wheat, or barley, or buckwheat are stacked in stacks of 8 rows of bags in the warm and cold season, bags with peas and vetch in the cold season in stacks 8 rows high, and in the warm season 6 rows, and when stored in bulk, the embankment height is 2.5 m in the cold season, 2 m in the warm season, and when storing seeds in bulk put in a heap thermal rods or iron or wooden bars and carry out constant observation of the condition of the seeds, while in case of undesirable changes in the state of the grain, it is dried, or additionally cleaned, or cooled, the doors and windows of the storages are closed in wet and cold weather, and open in dry and warm weather, and the seed grain, as well as the seeds, received in storage in small quantities, stored in soft containers, and containers are used for transporting grain, bulk storage and silage are used when storing grain in bulk; moreover, the bulk height is not accepted for floor storage more than 6 m, and when stored in silos up to 40 m, in addition, granaries of temporary and long-term storage are used, and temporary granaries are made in the form of canopies and used during the period of mass receipt of grain and / or full filling of granaries of long-term storage, and granaries of long-term storage performed in the form of mechanized warehouses and elevators that do not have stationary mechanization, mechanized warehouses perform with horizontal and / or inclined floors, warehouses with inclined floors perform self-discharge shrinking, and warehouses with horizontal floors, partially unloaded by gravity to the lower conveyor, the walls of the storages are gas-tight, low heat conductive with good hygroscopicity of the inner surface, while the elevators are equipped with a working building with transport and other equipment, a silo building with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars, wagons and ships, devices for dispensing grain to various modes of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, with suction and waste disposal systems, as well as using intermediate elevator enterprises, which are located at junction railway stations and / or at the intersections of railway and waterways, are equipped with devices for receiving and dispensing grain and are used to reload grain from one mode of transport to another, grain transfer using pneumatic transport with simultaneous aspiration of the product, and at least part of the grain is sent for long-term storage in reserve elevators, and the grain sent for a length of After storage, as well as for export, they are subjected to additional aspiration, cleaning and drying, the grain sent for storage is decontaminated, humidity and temperature are controlled during the storage of grain, and when preparing for shipment, it is dried or cooled, depending on the state of grain, or refresh, while the main cleaning of the prepared dry and medium dry grains, as well as dried, is performed during storage in preparation for shipment, and disinfection is carried out by aeration and / or by skipping Erez drier furthermore grain in storage is subjected to aeration, and the repository podderzhiayut temperature (25 ± 2) ° C at a relative humidity of 65% and moisture content of grain 14%
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RU2646092C1 (en) * 2017-02-03 2018-03-01 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Кубанский государственный аграрный университет имени И.Т. Трубилина" Protein feed line
RU2691685C1 (en) * 2018-04-13 2019-06-17 Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение "Прикаскийский аграрный Федеральный научный центр Российской академии наук" (ФГБНУ "ПАФНЦ РАН") Method for cultivation of winter triticale on junk rice paddy field in conditions of astrakhan region
RU2742339C1 (en) * 2020-04-27 2021-02-04 Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение "Прикаспийский научно-исследовательский институт аридного земледелия" Method for cultivation of leguminous crops on irrigation in conditions of arid zone of northern caspian

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