RU97102443A - Method for producing and harvesting cereals, cereals and / or cerebrates, harvesting, handling, transportation and storage of grains and how to handling harvesting, transport - Google Patents

Method for producing and harvesting cereals, cereals and / or cerebrates, harvesting, handling, transportation and storage of grains and how to handling harvesting, transport

Info

Publication number
RU97102443A
RU97102443A RU97102443/13A RU97102443A RU97102443A RU 97102443 A RU97102443 A RU 97102443A RU 97102443/13 A RU97102443/13 A RU 97102443/13A RU 97102443 A RU97102443 A RU 97102443A RU 97102443 A RU97102443 A RU 97102443A
Authority
RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
grain
carried
sowing
drying
crops
Prior art date
Application number
RU97102443/13A
Other languages
Russian (ru)
Other versions
RU2097960C1 (en
Inventor
Н.П. Селиванов
С.Н. Селиванов
Original Assignee
Н.П. Селиванов
С.Н. Селиванов
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Н.П. Селиванов, С.Н. Селиванов filed Critical Н.П. Селиванов
Priority to RU97102443A priority Critical patent/RU2097960C1/en
Priority claimed from RU97102443A external-priority patent/RU2097960C1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of RU2097960C1 publication Critical patent/RU2097960C1/en
Publication of RU97102443A publication Critical patent/RU97102443A/en

Links

Claims (13)

1. The method of production and harvesting of cereal grains and / or legumes, post-harvest processing, transportation and storage of grain, including pre-sowing tillage by plowing with and without turnover, harrowing and cultivation, preparing seeds for sowing by pre-sowing, including including with suction sorting and, if necessary, with air sieve cleaning, sowing, rolling, harrowing, fertilizing crops with mineral and / or organic fertilizers, weed and pest destruction with chemical and / or mechanical and / or biological treatment, harvesting by direct combining with mowing and threshing, and / or two-phase (separate) harvesting with mowing plants into rolls, their selection and threshing, and / or harvesting with threshing in stationary conditions , including direct, indoor or open, or temporary current, preliminary cleaning of grain from weeds and / or grains, and / or metal-magnetic impurities with screening and / or processing on air-sieve machines, aspiration by passing air through a filter the surface of the aspiration system or device, at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or reserve storage tank with caps, with the release of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities and / or broken grain, at least once repeated cleaning grain, including with the separation of its size into fractions and waste - aspiration, large and seeding, cleaning of long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from hard to separate seeds of foreign crops and weeds plants, transportation and loading of grain into dryers, transportation for processing or warehousing of the non-grain part, feeding of grain to storages and / or elevators and storage with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration, the capacity and / or containers are connected with an aspiration system or device, and / or with each other with the possibility of combining and / or selective switching with at least one additional duct and the formation of spares of the filtering surface of at least one container in the range from 1.002 to 230 reduced diameters of the area of the air-transparent portion, and the shape of the filtering surface in the form of a spatial shell with a constant and / or variable curvature or combined configuration with the maximum distance of its apex from the plane, combined with at least one rectilinear segment of the contour of the translucent section, or from the plane of horizontal projection of the corresponding translucent section at a distance from 0.02 to 78 of the given dia meters of area of an airtight area.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air-filter insert is used as a filter surface, which is installed in the lid cavity of the main and / or reserve storage containers, or at least at least one filter surface is used. one air-filtering membrane, which serves simultaneously as the cover of the main and / or reserve storage tank, or at least one filtering insert is used as a filter surface air, which is installed in the upper part of the wall of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, and in this case, the insert for filtering the supplied air is made in the form of a fragment of a cylindrical surface, or double curvature, or in the form of a concave or convex polyhedron, or convex relative to the surface of the walls of the tank, or in a combined form from a combination of straight and / or curved sections, or in the form of a continuous or discrete annular shell, or during at least one air filter element is used as a filter surface, which is made in the form of a removable shell, while in the upper part of at least one main and / or backup storage tank a cut is made in which a casing with an air filter element is installed, wherein the cut-out area is at least 1% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding container with a multifaceted configuration or at least 2.3% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding tank and round-cylindrical or variable curvature or a combined configuration, or when carrying out the aspiration process, at least two air filter inserts, air filter membranes, inserts for filtering the supplied air and air filter elements are used as a filter surface, while the ratio of the areas of any two filter elements is 1: 1- 15, and for sealing the main and backup storage tanks, any filtering elements included in the filter surface, they are connected to the containers by means of clamps with a sealant, and at least part of the connections are detachable, and for maintenance or repair work during the aspiration process, the main and / or backup storage tanks are additionally equipped with airtight membranes, which are installed to ensure complete cessation of air supply to replaceable filter element, while the air filter insert, or air filter membrane, or insert for filtering air or an air filter element is made in the form of a shell containing at least one single curvature section, or combinations thereof, or from combinations of curved and / or rectilinear sections, moreover, during the aspiration process, air is injected with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical or multicylindrical a site formed by at least two articulated fragments of cylinders of constant and variable curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or and with the formation of the shape of the shell containing at least one conical or polyconic section formed from fragments of conical and / or polyconic curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of the shape of the shell containing at least one cylindrical or multicylindrical section from fragments of cylindrical and / or multicylindrical curvature, interconnected directly or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of shell frames containing at least one cylindrical and / or conical and / or spherical and / or spheroidal and / or ellipsoidal and / or parabolic and / or hypovoid and / or toroidal sections; the shell is provided with an internal frame, the filtering surface is made of a high-strength woven or fibrous non-woven material, moreover, for example, overcoat cloth is used as a high-strength woven material, for example, a felt or a fibrous non-woven fabric, or a design for suction with a filter the surface is made of at least two filter layers with different strength and transmittance, which are arranged in order of increasing their strength and transmittance, or fastened together with the formation of cavities at least one of which is at least partially filled with a granular filler, while differentiated bandwidth in at least one layer is formed providing a pressure differential between its internal and external surfaces in the range from 0.1 to 0.2 MPa operating speeds Suction suspended in an air stream of dispersed particles, the minimum cross-sectional area of holes take at least 60 microns in the filtering surface 2, the filter surface is subjected to vibrational impact, ensuring recovery of its transmitting power, which is generated by the differential pressure in the vessel, wherein during process additional containers are installed by suction, which are equipped with filters and connected to a common aspiration system with additional air snow, winter and sowing perennial grasses produce snow retention using live and dead wings, shields, brushwood, in the presence of a snow cover of 15 - 20 cm, snow cover is used with depth limiters, while live wings are created by sowing in a clean pair of tall plants - sunflower, corn, mustard - in stripes of 2 to 3 rows across the prevailing winds or slope, winter crops are sown across the wings, dead wings are formed from brushwood and planted on winter crops or winter chills from autumn until the soil freezes, p By the way, the backstage is performed in one-, two- and three-row, placed at a distance of 10-15 m from each other and rearranged several times during the winter, the brushwood is laid out in a checkerboard pattern after 3-4 m, and, as the brushwood is brought into the snow, it is lifted to the surface or transported to another site, or snow retention is performed using bricks or slabs of snow, which are arranged in the form of shields, which are made of boards, brushwood, straw and installed with gaps equal to 1/2 - 3/4 of the shield area, and with less clearance you install in elevated places, with a large clearance - in lower places, conduct wintering of the winter fall and / or blackening of snow with dark-colored soil in strips of 1.0 - 1.5 m every 10 - 15 m across the slope, and / or the device from snow-sealed ridges (shafts) and heaps under spring crops carry out autumn tillage by peeling stubble (after grains) and plowing with skimmers to the depth of the arable layer, and early spring plowing with subsequent autumn cultivations is used on waterlogged lands in spring, the last pre-sowing treatment is carried out immediately before sowing across the direction of sowing, to reduce moisture loss and accelerate the maturation of the soil, early spring harrowing of the winter chaff is carried out, after harrowing under the early spring grain crops, cultivation is carried out, and on heavy structureless soils - to a depth of 12-14 cm, while processing Soils for winter crops after harvesting steam-harvesting crops and non-steam predecessors, the field is discarded in 1 - 2 tracks until the vegetation is completely destroyed, between the main treatment and sowing to maintain the field in a condition free of weeds, it is harrowed and cultivated by 6-8 cm, when winter crops are placed after late-harvested crops (potatoes, corn, peas) and after steam predecessors, disking is carried out, followed by cultivation to a depth of disking, before sowing, processing combined units or cultivation with rolling ring-spur rollers, when processing under winter crops, the layer of perennial grasses is raised by plows immediately after the first mowing, and before plowing, the layer will precede they flaxen the disk, and before sowing the winter crops, the raised stratum is treated with paw cultivators, with a small arable layer - with cultivators with simultaneous harrowing, or the soil is at least twice cultivated with peeling, and when the soil is compacted or weeds appear, the field is cultivated with cultivators to the depth of the seeders simultaneous harrowing, while plowing organic fertilizers or processing the field to a depth of less than 20 cm, use plows without skimmers, when plowing perennial grasses plows with screw dumps or two-tier plows are used; for plowing fields with a large mass of crop residues, two-tier plows are used, when plowing the soil under winter crops, combined arable units are used to level the surface, reducing the clumpiness and compaction of the surface layer, plowing is carried out or plowed with alternation , in areas with short gones use a loopless combined method of movement of the unit, in large fields of rectangular or trapezoidal shape they use a circular method of movement of the unit, for example, when marking up a field for plowing, the headlands are measured or laid out with alternating corrals, the headlands are measured and towers are installed, then the inside borders of the headlands are marked with plowing, and then the line of the first pass of the unit is hung in the middle of the enclosures plowed up, the first two the passage of the unit on each paddock plowed, perform with ensuring the depth of plowing the front body equal to half the specified, and the last - the specified depth, when preparing e fields for working in a hassle-free and combined way, the first line is weighed at a distance equal to 3/4 of the corral width, all the rest at a distance equal to the corral width, the first dump grooves are drawn along these lines, in the triangular fields with a small base width the processing method is used with a breakup furrow along the median of a triangle, a field in the form of irregular polygons is divided into corrals to obtain sections with parallel sides along a given direction of plowing and sections of a triangular shape, fields irregular configurations with a curved contour are divided into rectangular sections, which are driven by a straight-line working strokes using the driven method, the remaining wedges or segments use curved working strokes of the arable unit, cultivation is carried out by loosening the soil to a depth of 6 to 12 cm and bringing this layer to a shallow state, leveling the surface of the field, the destruction of weeds and planting fertilizers, moreover, on soils of light mechanical composition, as well as sufficiently cultivated and not swimming cultivators in the spring, cultivation is carried out to the depth of sowing by cultivators with lancet paws, soils that are highly compacted by spring are cultivated to a depth of 10-12 cm by cultivators with spring or grubber working bodies, and cultivation is carried out with simultaneous harrowing, or continuous cultivation is carried out transversely or at an angle to the direction plowing, reprocessing - across the direction of previous cultivations, on the slopes, cultivation is carried out across the direction of the slope to reduce water erosion, a field for cultivation they are prepared by beating off the headlands, dividing the field into corrals and hanging the lines of the first pass of the unit, using the shuttle or diagonal-angular methods of moving the unit, or the method of movement overlapping, and the shuttle method is used on large fields, using one mounted cultivator and form a headland with a width equal to three grips of the unit with a loop turn and two with a loopless, diagonal-angular method is used when the lanes are located at an angle to the field’s boundaries, and the headlands are beaten off on all four sides of the field with a width corresponding to the width of the headlands in the shuttle method with loop turning, the overlapping method is used when working with wide-range aggregates, as well as on short ruts, and the width of the bands is taken to correspond to the width of the headlands when shuttle method of movement with a loopless rotation, when used for processing chisel plow, the field is freed from foreign objects and plant debris and use h the way of movement of the aggregate, and on light soils - sandy, sandy loam, light loamy - harrowing is done with a plow harrow or medium, or light or spring harrows, on heavy, dense and swimming soils - with heavy tooth harrows, in the presence of a hard and dense crust in pre-emergence harrowing is carried out from sowing to emergence of seedlings, and on light soils, crops are harrowed in one track across rows or at an angle, on moist soils that are swimming, with well-developed crops, harrowing is carried out in two tracks medium or heavy harrows, in areas where plant bulging is observed, the crops are rolled in ring rollers without harrowing, harrowing of chill and vapors is carried out across the direction of plowing or diagonally, pre-sowing across or at an angle to the direction of sowing, row crops - across rows, sections with harrows with a length of 500 m or more are harrowed by shuttle method, square or rectangular fields are harrowed by the cross-diagonal method, in fields of small sizes harrowing is carried out in a circular manner, large fields are straight Before the start of the harrowing, they are divided into squares and placed pushpins on the corners of the plots, with the pole placed at the end of the plot at a distance of 0.7 times the working width of the aggregate, the first pass is divided along the diagonal of all squares, and the subsequent ones parallel to the first, blocking the previous pass with at least than 15 cm, while the treatment is completed by passing the unit along the borders of the squares, on washed-out soils with a small humus horizon, plowing is carried out with loosening of the subsoil layer of the soil with hulls with subsoilers or a cut with soil-digging hulls, mainly on soils littered with stones, while presowing tillage with simultaneous sowing of spring grain crops is carried out in the early stages, when harrowing the soil, it is aerated, after which they are saped, after which mineral fertilizers are incised all over the surface and seeds, then rolling, after plowing, the headlands and edges of the fields are plowed, the ridges and split furrows are leveled, and the seeds they are etched with humidification or semi-dry or wet, or inlaid is used; when pickling with moistening, seeds are treated simultaneously with macro- and micronutrient fertilizers and weakly moistened, and semi-dry etching is carried out by applying aqueous suspensions or solutions of pesticides to the surface of the seeds, followed by languishing for 3 - 4 hours, wet dressing is carried out by abundant moistening or soaking of seeds in solutions, suspensions, emulsions, followed by languishing for 2 hours, for dressing The seeds of spring and winter wheat use granosan, or pentathiuram, or hexathiuram, or gammahexane, or Vitavax, or Vitavax-200, or Benlat, or Baytan, or Baytan-universal, or TMTD, or granozan is used to dress winter rye seeds, or pentathiuram, or gammahexane, or benlat, or a TMTD preparation, or for barley seed dressing, use granosan, or formalin, or Vitavax, or Vitavax-200, or Baesomil, or Baytan, or universal Baytan, or use granozan for dressing oats or formalin, or tavax or seed incrustation is carried out by applying pesticides to the seed surface in film-forming compositions, which are film-forming compositions based on water-soluble polymers - sodium carboxymethyl cellulose Na CMC grade 75/400 and 70/330 and polyvinyl alcohol grade 16 / I, pasty film-forming preparations "Uncle A", "Uncle T", "Uncle PT", "Orlok", "Karayar", water-soluble preparations "Blister" and "Kinol".
 3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control of pests, diseases, weeds and lodging of crops is carried out by the development of crop rotation and placement of crops according to the best predecessors, a rational system of tillage, fertilizing, taking into account the biological characteristics of crops and varieties, soil -climatic features of the zone and meteorological conditions of the growing season, optimal sowing dates and seeding rates, cultivation of varieties of grain crops that are resistant to lodging, pests and diseases. Olza biological control of pests and diseases - Entomophages and microbicides, or chemical control measures - herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and retardants.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the optimal sowing depth of winter wheat is 4-5 cm on heavy and 5-6 cm on light soils, for winter rye 3-4 cm on heavy and 4-5 cm on light soils; for spring cereals - 2–3 cm — on heavy, 3–4 cm — on medium and light loams, and 5–6 cm — on sandy and sandy soils, and sowing is carried out across the plowing and the last presowing tillage or at an angle to them , on slopes - at an acute angle to the prevailing direction of the slope or across the slope, while sowing while leaving the tramline, the shuttle method of moving aggregates is used, when sowing without stopping the tramline, the shuttle method is used when working single or double seeder units on fields x with a driving length of more than 200 m, in large areas of a triangular shape, driving - when working multi-seeder units in large fields, overlapping - in square fields with short - up to 200 m driving, as well as in narrow areas, before sowing large fields irregular configurations are divided into smaller sections of a rectangular or square shape, marked with poles and pegs indicating the boundaries of the corral, headlands and the line of the first pass of the unit on the corral, the sowing is performed in a continuous row, and / or narrow-row, and / whether cross, and / or broad-row, and / or dashed, and / or tape, spring wheat is sown in narrow-row and / or cross-ways, corn is sown in the dotted way, millet, buckwheat, hemp is sown in a tape way, for example, two-, or three- or four-line, when sowing winter rye, it is placed in a crop rotation according to the best predecessors, and the steam-harvesting crop is harvested no later than two weeks before sowing rye, and local and mineral fertilizers are applied both under steam-harvesting crops and directly under rye at maximum the accumulation and preservation of soil moisture, with peas with different ripening periods being used as a precursor, at least part of winter crops are sown in clean pairs, before sowing, adjusted to sowing conditions and calibrated rye seeds are pickled with granozan in the amount of 100 g per 1 c of seeds or with mercury in 150 g per 1 kg of seeds, or pre-sowing dusting of seeds with powdery superphosphate is carried out in an amount of 1.5 - 2.0 kg per 1 kg of seeds; during the flowering period of rye, additional pollination of rye is carried out for 3-5 days winter hours in calm, calm weather, winter wheat is placed in protected areas with a relatively even relief, with a small western or eastern slope, in the presence of clean vapors, winter wheat is first placed on it, and the soil is treated like black steam: for podzolic - chilly raise in August with plows with skimmers to the full depth of the arable horizon, and on chernozem - 25 - 27 cm, or in clean pairs create backstage from sunflower, which is sown in late June or in the first five days of July, when in the absence of pure steam, wheat is placed after the precursors are harvested early, after which they are harvested by semi-steam tillage, plowing with skimmers and sowing the wings from the sunflower, while before sowing, the wheat seeds are aired, dried in the sun for 3 to 5 days, etched with granozan and dusted hexachlorane, moreover, cross-sectional and narrow-row methods of sowing are used, spring wheat is sown mainly on chernozem soils, and soft and / or durum wheat is sown, mainly but strong varieties, durum, strong spring wheat are sown on fertilized winter rye or tilled when applying fertilizer under them, or on legumes, or durum wheat is sown on a layer of perennial grasses, while the bulk of the fertilizer is applied before sowing spring wheat, top dressing is carried out only when in wet weather and early periods of application, with phosphoric fertilizers applied on chernozem soils for wheat, nitrogen fertilizers on sod-podzolic and forest-steppe soils, under phosphate-potash fertilizers for autumn plowing, nitrogen fertilizers for pre-sowing cultivation, when sowing wheat on winter and leguminous predecessors, stubble cultivation and early deep plowing for chilling are carried out by plows with skimmers, in the early plowing of chaff, autumn cultivation is used, when growing winter and spring forms of barley, row crops such as potatoes, forage root crops are used as precursors. , corn, under which organic and mineral fertilizers are applied, or winter and legumes are used as precursors, barley is used as an unpaired precursor and for winter crops, when growing rice, alfalfa, clover, legumes - soybeans, peas, mung bean, vetch, and winter crops - wheat and barley and row crops - corn, soybeans are used as the best predecessors, after rice and perennial herbs, rice is sown 2 - 3 consecutive years, and in warm areas they use winter crops of winter crops - wintering peas, wikis, shabdara, the soil for rice crops is cultivated by autumn plowing to the depth of the arable layer - 25 - 27 cm with plows with skimmers with deep incorporation of the upper heavily littered layer, moreover soil from the autumn is left in the ridges to enhance aeration and drying; in spring, two pre-sowing treatments of 12-16 cm are carried out under rice with a chisel cultivator or an aggregate of disk and tooth harrows, the first treatment is carried out before the start of field work, the second is performed in 1 - 2 days prior to sowing rice with subsequent rolling, between the treatments the surface of the checks is leveled with scrappers and graders or special planners, and rice is planted with seedlings and / or sown with seeds, while using sowing with seeds I use tons of seeds of large fractions, which are treated with rice cleaners and passed through sorting - separators, when sorting the seeds they are sorted by specific gravity in a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate, and the poppy seedy and weeds are removed, and before sowing the seeds are soaked or germinated, the seeds are soaked by immersion them completely in water and aging 2 - 3 days at 18 - 20 o C, followed by winding up the acquisition of flowability at day germinated seeds incubated in water at 24 - 26 o C to complete abuhany, after which germination is carried out for 24 to 48 hours in bales before peeling, followed by ventilation and drying to flowability, which is carried out by sprinkling seeds with a thin layer and keeping in the shade, or when germinating, use semi-dry seed dressing with formalin solution, or use air thermal heating seeds for 5 - 7 days, after which seeds are etched granozanom, wherein Fig seeded when warm topsoil and irrigation water to 12 - 15 o C and the appearance of freeze exclusion s, using the ordinary method of sowing rice with seeding 0.5 - 1.0 cm and immediately flooding with a layer of water 6 - 8 cm thick, before sowing, the soil is rolled with smooth rollers, restrictive flanges are installed on the coulters of the seeder, in clean fields after steam and perennial grasses, the seeds are planted to a depth of 4 - 5 cm, after the emergence of rice seedlings, the crops are treated with a herbicide, then they are fired, or air-sowing is used over a flooded field, or when growing rice, constant or shortened or intermittent flooding or periodic wetting, and constant flooding is carried out by creating a variable layer of water and keeping it on the field during the rice growing season, or constant flooding is used when sowing rice with minimal seed placement, and until the seedlings are fully emerged, the checks are poured with a layer of 8-10 cm and as the growth of plants, the depth is gradually increased to 12 - 15 cm and maintained until rice is ripened, after which the water is gradually lowered, shortened flooding is used when sowing rice to a depth of 4 - 5 cm and produced after emergence seedlings and treatment with herbicides, filling the field with water with a layer of 6-8 cm, and after all the plants come to the surface, the water layer is gradually increased to 12-15 cm and the water is discarded when sowing early ripe varieties into full ripeness of grain, and during late ripening into wax grain ripeness, intermittent flooding is carried out by filling the field with water at 6-8 cm after sowing rice, and at the beginning of gluing seeds, water is discarded, at the beginning of emergence of rice and millet seedlings, the checks are treated with a herbicide, after 2 to 3 days, they are again filled with water for 10 - 15 from m, at the beginning of tillering, the water level is lowered to 5 cm, and at the end of this phase it is increased to 10 - 12 cm and maintained until the pre-harvest discharge, while the water is drained gradually, periodic moistening is carried out by maintaining soil moisture of 65 - 70% until emergence, subsequently 75 - 80% of the field moisture capacity, and periodic wetting is carried out by irrigation, or sprinkling, and / or natural precipitation, and at least one field loosening under water is carried out, while 6 to 7 loosening is carried out from emergence to the emergence of plants in the tube , crops are treated twice with herbicides, or they destroy algae in crops by treatment with copper sulfate, or the field is dried for 5-7 days, and sorghum is placed after winter crops, legumes, corn, and sorghum is used as a precursor for spring, early ripening varieties sorghum - as a precursor for winter crops, while the soil under sorghum is cultivated by stubble cultivation and deep, 25-30 cm, autumn plowing, and after pre-spring harrowing, two presowing cultivations are carried out 5-6 cm cm, before sowing, the seeds are sorted, air-heated and pickled with granosan, and sorghum is sown in the dotted and / or square-nested manner; when cultivating sorghum on green fodder and hay, the row and two-line methods are used, after sowing, the soil is rolled ribbed or ringed rollers, and when the soil crust or weeds appear, the field is harrowed across the rows before germination or sprouting and, as the soil becomes denser and the weeds germinate, 2–3 inter-row cultivations are carried out, in addition, for boron In the case of weeds, sorghum crops are sprayed with herbicides in the tillering phase, and after the first loosening, the plants are fed with slurry or bird droppings, or ash, or sorghum is sown in a mixture with legumes - soybeans, chin, beans, vetch, and the bean crop is sown in rows between rows of sorghum or in the cross direction, or sow sorghum in a mixture with corn, and oats are grown on sandy, loamy, clay, peat and bog soils, and the seeds of oats are calibrated before sowing, about they are heated, ventilated with warm air and etched with formalin semi-dry or wet, if they are affected by dust smut, they are disinfected thermally, when there is a lack of moisture in the upper layers of the soil, they are rolled before and after sowing oats, and when sowing millet, winter and row-crop sugar beets are used as millet precursors , potatoes, and millet is sown a month later than the early spring crops, the soil for sowing is thoroughly cleaned of weeds, seasoned with fertilizers and retain the accumulated moisture from the introduction of two to three cultivations of winter fallow, at least the last cultivation is accompanied by rolling, while sowing millet using large calibrated seeds of high sowing conditions, and 2 days before sowing, the seeds are soaked in cold water at a temperature of 12 - 14 below 10 o C h, then the water is drained, the seed are poured into small pile height 20 - 40 cm and maintained at day 15 - 20 o C, after which they spread in a thin layer and dried to a state of fluidity, in addition, before sowing millet seeds treated phosphobacterin and produce a wide-row sowing of millet, followed by sowing, rolling, 3–4 days after sowing - harrowing across the rows of sowing with light harrows, in the fields intended for buckwheat, snow retention is carried out in winter, and in the spring, melt water is retained, and sowing begins in a month after the moisture is closed, at the same time, at least three soil loosening is carried out during this month: the first time the soil is cultivated 2 to 3 days after the moisture is closed to a depth of 8 to 10 cm, strongly swollen to 12 to 14 cm, the second cultivation is carried out about the rate of weed germination - after 10 - 15 days to a depth of 6 - 8 cm, the third cultivation is carried out 1 - 2 days before sowing to the depth of seed placement, while on poor podzolic and heavy soils organic fertilizers for buckwheat are applied in the form of rotted manure or peat compost with embedment for the main autumn plowing, phosphoric fertilizers are applied on all soils under buckwheat, phosphoric potassium fertilizers are applied on podzolic and gray forest soils under buckwheat, mainly ash, legumes are sown at the earliest possible date on Neka cultivated and non-swamped soils, with potato, corn and sugar beets being used as precursors for legumes; moreover, when preparing soil for legumes, early deep chill or stubble stubble is used after harvesting the precursor, followed by deep chaff plowing with plows with skimmers, in the spring - 2 times cultivate, sowing of grain crops is carried out before tillage, and legumes are sown in the rows between stubble stubble crops of sorghum left for the winter, and at the same time Sowing sorghum stems with sowing of leguminous crops, sowing soybean on irrigated lands, sowing is done by narrow-row or cross-sowing with early ripening soybean varieties, and herbicides are introduced 14-20 days before pre-sowing irrigation, when soybean is cultivated on irrigated land, the seeds are sown at the end of the optimal term and after 3 to 4 days, pre-emergence harrowing is carried out across rows, when cultivating peas, the seeds are sown in a continuous or narrow row way, and harrowing is carried out twice - pre-emergence and post-emergence, to increase the yield of peas, the crops are rolled by smooth light rollers in the afternoon from north to south, and rolled at the beginning of budding, or in the phase of mass flowering of peas, or at the end of flowering of upper buds, pouring leaves and forming seeds in lower beans , the formation of flat beans in the middle tiers, while legumes are sown together with annual cereal crops, when cultivating alfalfa on seeds, sowing is carried out in a wide-row way, caring for plants and they are carried out by sieving along the crops, cultivating the plants with a soil roller at the beginning of the budding and mowing phase, or in the first year they carry out harrowing of crops, row cultivating, fertilizing with micronutrient fertilizers, hilling, in the second and subsequent years they carry out disking, row cultivating, fertilizing with micronutrient fertilizers, and hilling and horizontal pruning of the roots, or sowing is carried out in a wide-row way across the direction of the prevailing winds, and simultaneously with sowing alfalfa carry out planting tall-scenes of perennial grasses.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a separate method of harvesting is used for crops having a stalk density of at least 300 plants per 1 m 2 at a height of at least 50 cm, and evenly ripened crops, as well as areas with sowing of perennial grasses, with a separate method of harvesting, the mowing of breads in rolls begins in the middle phase of wax ripeness at a grain moisture of 25 - 35%, with direct combine harvesting of breads is carried out at the beginning of the phase of full ripeness with grain moisture not exceeding 20 - 25%, while at ck When stitching bread into rolls, the stubble is left with a height of 15–18 cm, for higher and thicker breads 18–25 cm, bread is laid in rolls across the direction of sowing with the slope of the stems providing a flow of water from the spike to the butt, and the rolls are laid with a mass corresponding to the throughput combine threshers at the optimum speed of its movement, and the rolls are selected after the ripening of the grain and the drying of the leaf-stem mass, when mowing bread into the rolls, the clockwise driven movement method of the harvesting units is used, or driven th counterclockwise with an extension of the swaths, or the shuttle method, while the clockwise folding method is used in rectangular fields with a head length of more than 600 m, the counterclockwise driving method is used in areas with a head length of 400 - 600 m, and mowing begins from the swath between adjacent corrals and subsequently expand it, mowing the long sides, and when the width of the swath reaches the width of each of the remaining mowed parts of the first and second corrals, first the first, then the second oh corrals, the shuttle method is used when double rolls are formed by one reaper in fields having free exit on the end sides of the corral, the circular method of movement is used on fields of irregular configuration with a short head length, with direct combining they use the corral and circular methods of movement, the corral method is used when cleaning of rectangular sections with a headland of more than 500 m, the circular method with loopless one-sided turns is used in areas with a headland of 500 m, on longer ones - a circular method with swaths at an angle of 45 o , the circular way of movement with reverse or turn “closed loop” is used in short sections with a head length of 100 - 300 m and in small fields of complex configuration; when harvesting lodged bread, the direction of movement is chosen at an angle of 30 - 45 o to the direction of lodgings, and with continuous movement unilaterally lodging units is performed across the lodgings at right ears towards the direction of travel, on sections with different directions of movement round lodging used on uneven floor x the long sides of the pens are oriented along the slope, the fields of non-rectangular shape are marked with the formation of pens with longitudinal parallel sides, with the remaining sections with non-parallel sides being placed at the edges, the sections with laid stems and the sections where the bread ripens later than on the main part of the field, in separate pens, with separate harvesting of spike crops, headlands and corner swaths are prepared 2 to 3 days before the start of mass mowing into rolls, swaths and swaths between field corrals by in the same agro-technical terms, the sides of the fields for separate cleaning and front sides by direct combining obkashivayut during wax ripeness.
 6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the postharvest treatment is carried out directly at the cultivation sites, at indoor and / or open currents, and / or at elevators, and / or flour mills, and / or cereals, and / or feed mills, and / or factories by accepting grain, forming lots, cleaning, drying, active ventilation and shipment, and all harvested grain is processed in places of cultivation using a three-link system: combine-current-harvesting enterprise, or all grain is processed at the harvesting enterprise with return parts of refined grain at the disposal of growing enterprises according to a two-tier system: a combine-harvesting enterprise, part of the grain is processed at the procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of growing enterprises, and the part remaining in the agricultural complex - on current or at an agricultural point, while during post-harvest grain processing after the arrival of car lots, samples are taken, quality is determined and the place of grain unloading is established, weighing on on a truck scale, mechanized unloading, after which grain is preliminarily cleaned, in the presence of rice, separation of awns, in the presence of corn, threshing of ears and grain cleaning after threshing, then batches are formed by crops and quality into storage tanks, weighing and transferring grain to operational grain elevator tanks, where grain is dried to a state of storage and cleaning that is stable on air screen separators, from short impurities, from long impurities, on stone separation machines, on air osortirovalnyh tables in air aspirator with allocation of suitable grain, cooling it artificially cooled air, then sending the atmospheric air and deposited grains with parallel collection of waste, the destruction of unusable, the realization of suitable waste and / or direction of their processing.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the acceptance of grain and / or its release is carried out respectively from water transport and to water transport, from railway transport and to railway transport, and operations on post-harvest preparation and / or cleaning of the source of grain raw materials on elevators, including interconnected via silos, and / or hoppers, and / or equipment, a working building with technological and transport equipment, a silo building with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain and of cars, and / or wagons, and / or ships, devices for dispensing grain to various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems, while receiving from automobile, railway and water vehicles in the elevator’s working building, technological processing, quality control or preparation of grinding lots, distribution to silos or warehouses associated with the elevator, leave for automobile, railway, water transport or enterprise, grain drying is carried out in drum dryer, moreover, with an initial grain moisture content of up to 18%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 130 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 45 o C, with an initial grain moisture content of 20% of the temperature of the drying agent is taken 120 o C, the maximum heating of the grain is 45 o C, initial grain moisture up to 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 110 o C, separate heating of the grain is 43 o C, with the initial moisture content of grain above 26% the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 105 o C, the maximum heating of the grain is 40 o C, when drying food grain, the temperature of the drying agent raised to 170 - 200 o C, heating the grain and 5 - 10 o C higher than the values specified temperature, the grain, the heating temperature should not be above 60 o C, or grain drying is conducted in a shaft oven, wherein during the initial moisture content of grain crops to 20% have one drying, the drying agent temperature taking 70 o C, the limit heating of the grain is 40 o C, at the initial grain moisture content of the grain crops up to 26%, two passes of grain are carried out through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is 65 o C, the maximum heating of the grain is 38 o C, at the second pass, respectively 70 and 40 o C, when initially the moisture content of grain crops over 26% produce three passes of the material through the dryer, and at the first pass the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 60 o C, the maximum heating of the grain is 35 o C, at the second pass respectively 65 and 38 o C, at the third 70 and 40 o C, at the initial grain moisture content of legumes up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to be 60 o C, the grain is heated at maximum 40 o C, and at the initial grain moisture content of 26%, two passes of the material through the dryer are made, the first pass drying agent temperature receive are 55 o C, limiting the heating of grain 38 o C, the second pass 60 and 40 o C, when the initial grain moisture more than 26% produce three passes of the material through the dryer, wherein during the first pass the temperature of the drying agent taking 50 o C, limiting the heating of grain 35 o C, with a second pass, respectively 55 and 38 o C, and with a third 60 and 40 o C, while drying the food grain, the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 90 - 110 o C, the temperature of heating the grain by 5 - 10 o C higher than the specified temperatures, while the temperature of heating the grain does not exceed 60 o C, or grain drying is carried out in the dryer cyclic operation, wherein the drying medium temperature, for example air, take 40 - 50 o C and feed it to the chamber for 2 hours, after which supply it was stopped and allowed grain dryer for 2 days for its passive heating, or the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 50 o C, the maximum heating of grain is 37 - 38 o C, or the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 40 - 45 o C, the maximum heating of grain is 28 - 32 o C, in addition, at high humidity grain 43 - 45% drying is carried out in a chamber dryer at a coolant temperature e above 65 o C, while supplying the coolant (drying agent) is carried out in the grain mass from the bottom upwards with simultaneous suction it after heat from the upper layers, or moisture grain to 45% of its drying is performed in dryer aeration continuous recirculating coolant at a temperature of the latter not higher than 65 o C, or grain drying is carried out in a dryer with a drying louvre chamber, while drying the grain in a fixed bed at a temperature of the drying agent 45 - 50 o C, or drying the grain in a multi-chamber floor dryer, moreover, with an initial grain moisture content of up to 19%, the height of the mound of material is set within 0.7 - 0.8 m, drying is carried out with heated air at 61 - 65 o C and maximum grain heating of 40 - 42 o C, with an initial grain moisture of 19 - 22 % the height of the embankment of the material is set to 0.6 - 0.7 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, and then until the end of drying - with a heated agent to 56 - 60 o C at maximum grain heating of 36 - 39 o C, at the initial humidity grains 23-26% the height of the embankment of the material is set to 0.5 - 0.6 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate : After 1 hour drying - heated to 51 - 55 o C and 18 minutes agent - agent with unheated limiting heating grain 33 - 35 o C, when the initial grain moisture above 26% of the fill height set to a range of 0.4 - 0.5 m, drying for 1 h is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 h of drying, with an agent preheated to 45 - 50 o C and 30 min - with an unheated agent with a maximum grain heating of 30 - 32 o C, and drying of seeds of grain crops is carried out at the temperature of the agent 40 - 45 o C, and legumes 30 - 35 o C.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the separation is carried out by cleaning the grain from impairing conditions for its processing or reducing the quality of the finished product impurities and sorting the grain mixture into fractions of different quality for separate processing, while the separation is made by thickness, and / or width, and / or length, and / or sectional shape, and / or speed of rotation, and / or density, and / or density and coefficient of friction, and / or elasticity and coefficient of shock friction, and / or coefficient of friction, and / or sliding, and / or rolling, and / and and magnetic susceptibility, and / or dielectric constant, and / or the reflection coefficient of the light flux, and separation is carried out by exposing the grain mixture to aerodynamic forces and / or volume forces of inertia, varying in magnitude and direction, and / or gravitational gravity - centrifugal forces of inertia and gravity, and / or magnetic, and / or electric forces, and / or sequential and / or combined in time exposure to the grain mixture by a combination of forces, in addition, after of aeration and isolation of various impurities from the grain mixture, the surface of the grain is cleaned of mineral dust and / or microorganisms and / or contaminants and / or particles of fruit shells, and the surface of the grain is cleaned in flour mills by treating grain in scouring machines with an abrasive surface or with a steel cylinder, then in brush machines with a dry method and / or wet with the use of washing machines, in enterprises with mechanical and pneumatic transport of grain products, scouring machines are used s radial scourge type with an emery or steel cylinder and brush machines, and the peripheral speed of the scouring drum is chosen depending on the degree of hardness of the processed crop with increasing for softer grain and decreasing for harder, while the peripheral speed of the scouring drum for rye is equal to 15 - 18 m / s, for soft wheat 13 - 15 m / s, for durum wheat 10 - 11 m / s, and the treatment is carried out until the grain surface is damaged, the ash content of the dust is at least 10%, processing in brushing machines to separate the exfoliated particles of the shells and remove dust from the surface and from the groove of the grain and receive waste in an amount of 0.2 - 0.3% relative to the weight of the grain with an ash content of 4.0 - 4.5%, and during the processing, the gap is regulated between the working surfaces of the brushes with the preservation of its value within 3 - 6 mm, when cleaning the surface of the grain, mainly rye, in peeling machines, the upper most contaminated shells, mineral dust, bacteria and molds are removed while reducing the ash content by 0.10 - 0.11%, fiber content by 0.92 - 0.96% and increase the relative starch content by 2.44 - 2.62% and bulk density by 56 - 58 g / l, processing in washing machines subjected to grain, mainly defective, affected by smut, or bitter wormwood, and the grain is cleaned of dust and microorganisms with the simultaneous release of heavy and light impurities, moreover, the grain is treated in a washing machine with ascending water jets that create a rotating screw with the grain moving and maintaining it in suspension, with mineral impurities - stones and sand are moved in the opposite direction in the opposite direction, collected in appropriate periodically emptied containers, and grain is fed from the washing bath into the alloy chamber, in which light mixtures float and periodically are removed, then grain is fed to the squeeze column under water pressure with its simultaneous rinsing and dehydration of the grain and its peeling, the washing water is subjected to purification in a liquid separator, a coagulant - chamois is added to the washing water before cleaning acid aluminum in an amount of 0.1 - 0.5%, after cleaning, the bacteriologically clean centrate is returned to production for washing grain, and at the same time as washing the grain, it is treated with ultrasound and / or ultraviolet irradiation, and / or hydrocyclones are used, washing water is purified by directing it to a grain catcher, separating large impurities, after which the water is sent to a separator where it is purified, then the filtered water is poured into the chlorination tank, and after settling, the purified and disinfected water is pumped it is fed into the tank, mixed with clean water and returned to the grain washer, the separated large impurities are squeezed out in a press and dried in a screw dryer, moreover, the hydrothermal treatment of the grain is carried out by cold or hot, or high-speed conditioning, cold conditioning is carried out by moistening the grain and then conditioning moreover, humidification is carried out by washing or by feeding into the mass of grain the calculated amount of drip-liquid water, the grain of high vitreous moisture after wetting is moistened and repeated but they take it off, hot conditioning is carried out by washing, processing and air-water conditioner and weaning, moreover, before processing in an air-water conditioner, the grain is processed in a steamer or steam column until the desired temperature is obtained by the grain, the grain is moistened before being tempered, high-speed conditioning is carried out by short-term steaming , keeping in a heated state in a thermally insulated bin and subsequent washing with cold tap water, after washing grain about processed in a moisture collector or dampen, while hydrothermal treatment at cereals - Greek, oats, and peas is carried out by steaming in apparatuses of periodic or continuous action and subsequent drying to increase the strength of the core and the fragility of the floral films to increase the efficiency of the peeling process, which at cereals, they are carried out on mills, and / or on machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, and / or on peeling machines with abrasive disks and steel surface, and / or on scouring (scouring) machines, or by creating compressive and shear forces causing chipping and breaking of the films when processing grain on waltzdeck machines and / or peeling machines, or by friction on an abrasive and steel surface, which causes long-term processing on the scrubber scraping of the shells, or by exposure to a blow causing cracking of the shells, and the accompanying frictional effect of the abrasive or metal surface of the parts of scouring and scouring Ashin, while peeling buckwheat, they use a valdedec machine with a deck, in which the radius of curvature is equal to the radius of the roll, while in the working position the deck is moved parallel to the roll, ensuring that the working surface of the deck is offset from the surface of the roll, and when processing buckwheat of the first and second fraction the peripheral speed of the roll is 14 - 15 m / s, the third and fourth 12 - 14 m / s, the fifth and sixth 10 - 12 m / s, the arc length of the working zone of the deck is 180 - 200 mm, for peeling the millet use a roll mill with a roll of abrasive mass and about at a circular speed of 15 m / s, decks made of technical rubber with interlayers of fabric and an arc length of 300 mm, or to peel millet use a waldeck machine with two decks and the grain is subjected to double processing, to peel rice using machines with rubber rollers rotating towards each other with different speeds, which are set with a gap relative to each other 0.6 - 0.8 mm, and the ratio of the peripheral speed of the rapidly rotating and the peripheral speed of the slowly rotating roll is 1.45, for peeling oats and rice use leaving with a lower runner and two disks, the working surface of which is covered with abrasive mass, one of which is stationary, the other is mounted on a vertical rotating shaft, and the peripheral speed of the rotating disk is taken with primary peeling 13 - 15 m / s, with peeling of similar products 12 m / c, for peeling barley, wheat, oats with a moisture content of more than 13% and maize, striking scouring machines are used, moreover, peeling of grain with a moisture content of more than 14% is carried out at higher speeds than peeling of dry grain, while When peeling off by-products, the peripheral speed of pests is no more than 20 m / s, during the first peeling of wheat 16 - 18 m / s, during the second 14 m / s, when peeling oats 20 - 22 m / s, corn 10 - 14 m / s in this case, the seed material after threshing is thoroughly cleaned, sorted, dried, calibrated and brought to the sowing condition, after which it is deposited in storage, which is disinfected before loading grain, and bins in storage are performed without cracks to exclude clogging of one variety by another, crops in bins stacked alternately and each closed they are not topped up by 15–20 cm, the grain is placed in the warehouse according to grades, reproductions, categories and classes, with the grain and / or seeds stacked in bulk and / or packaged, bags with rye or wheat, or barley, or buckwheat stacked in piles high in 8 rows of bags in the warm and cold season, bags of peas and vetch in the cold season are stacked in stacks of 8 rows high, in warm time - in 6 rows, when stored in bulk, the height of the embankment in the cold season is 2.5 m , in warm time 2 m, when storing seeds in bulk, heats are placed in heaps or iron or wooden rods and carry out constant monitoring of the condition of the seeds, while in case of undesirable changes in the state of the grain it is dried, or additionally cleaned or cooled, the doors and windows of the storehouse are closed in wet and cold weather, they are opened in dry and warm weather, and the seed the grain, as well as seeds that are stored in small quantities, are stored in soft containers, hard containers are used for transporting grain - containers, while storing grain in bulk use floor storage and silage, m for outdoor storage, the embankment height is taken not exceeding 6 m, when stored in silos, the embankment height is taken up to 40 m, in addition, the granary is used for temporary and long-term storage, and temporary granaries are made in the form of canopies and used during the period of mass receipt of grain and / or full filling of long-term storage granaries, long-term storage granaries are carried out in the form of mechanized warehouses and elevators that do not have stationary mechanization, mechanized warehouses are carried out from the horizon with steel and / or inclined floors, warehouses with inclined floors are self-unloading, warehouses with horizontal floors are partially unloaded by gravity onto the lower conveyor, the walls of the storages are gas-tight, low heat conductive with good hygroscopicity of the inner surface, while the elevators are equipped with a working building with transport and other equipment, silo case with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars, wagons and ships, devices for dispensing grain to various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems, and also use intermediate elevator enterprises that are located at railway junction stations and / or at the intersections of railway and waterways and are equipped with devices for receiving and dispensing grain and use for transshipment grain from one type of transport to another, and when overloading grain using pneumatic transport with simultaneous aspiration of the product, at least part of the grain is sent for long-term storage in reserve elevators, and the grain sent for long-term storage, as well as for export, is subjected to additional aspiration, cleaning and drying, the grain sent for storage is decontaminated, in the process of grain storage, humidity and temperature are controlled and in preparation for shipment depending on the state of grain, it is dried or cooled, or refreshed, while the main cleaning of the prepared dry and medium-dry grain, as well as dried, is carried out during storage under preparing for shipment, disinfection is carried out by gas and / or by passing through a grain dryer, in addition, the grain in the storages is subjected to active ventilation, and the temperature is kept at 25 o C ± 2 o C at a relative humidity of 65% and grain humidity of 14%.
 9. A method of post-harvest processing of grain, transportation and storage of grain, including the supply of grain for preliminary cleaning at elevators and / or harvesting enterprises, and / or mechanized currents, and / or grain cleaning stations, and / or grain cleaning and drying stations, preliminary cleaning of grain from weed and / or grain and / or metallomagnetic impurities with screening and / or processing on air-sieve machines, aspiration by passing air through the filtering surface of the aspiration system or device, according to at least functionally combined with at least one main and / or reserve storage tank with lids with the release of suitable grain and / or mineral impurities and / or broken grain, at least a single repeated cleaning of the grain, including with its separation according to size of fractions and waste - suction, large and seeding, cleaning from long and short impurities using triers and final cleaning of grain from hard-to-separate seeds of foreign crops and weeds, transportation and loading of grain in dryers, t transportation for processing or warehousing of the non-grain part, feeding grain to storages and / or elevators and storage with maintaining the required technological temperature and humidity conditions in the grain mass, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration, the container and / or containers are connected to an aspiration system or device, and / or with each other with the possibility of combined and / or selective switching by at least one additional duct and the formation of the filtering surface area of at least one tank bones with an excess of the area of the corresponding air-transparent portion of the surface of this container in the range from 1.002 to 230 reduced diameters of the area of the air-transparent portion, and the shape of the filter surface in the form of a spatial shell of constant and / or variable curvature or combined configuration with the maximum distance of its vertex from the plane, aligned at least with at least one non-linear segment of the contour of the translucent section or from the horizontal plane of the projection of the corresponding translucent section and a distance of 0.02 - 78 aeroprozrachnogo reduced diameter portion area.
10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that when carrying out the aspiration process, at least one air-filter insert is used as a filter surface, which is installed in the lid cavity of the main and / or reserve storage containers, or at least one is used as a filter surface one air-filtering membrane serving simultaneously as the cover of the main and / or reserve storage tank, or at least one filtering insert is used as a filter surface air, which is installed in the upper part of the wall of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, and in this case, the insert for filtering the supplied air is made in the form of a fragment of a cylindrical surface, or double curvature, or in the form of a concave or convex polyhedron, or convex relative to the surface of the walls of the tank, or in a combined form from a combination of straight and / or curved sections, or in the form of a continuous or discrete annular shell, or during At least one air-filtering element is used as a filtering surface, and it is made in the form of a removable shell, and a cutout is made in the upper part of at least one main and / or reserve storage tank, into which a casing with an air-filtering element is installed, the cut-out area is at least 1% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding container with a multifaceted configuration, or at least 2.3% of the cross-sectional area of the corresponding tank of round cylindrical or variable curvature, or a combined configuration, or when carrying out the aspiration process, at least two air filter inserts, air filter membranes, inserts for filtering the supplied air and air filter elements are used as the filter surface, while the ratio of the areas of the two filter elements is 1: 1 - 15, and for sealing the main and backup storage tanks, any filtering elements that make up the filter surface are connected they melt with containers by means of clamps with sealant, and at least some of the connections are detachable, and for maintenance or repair work during the aspiration process, the main and / or backup storage tanks are additionally equipped with airtight membranes, which are installed to ensure complete cessation of air supply to replaceable filter element, wherein the air filter insert, or the air filter membrane, or the insert for filtering the supply air a, or the air filter element is made in the form of a shell containing at least one double curvature section, or at least one single curvature section, or combinations thereof, or from combinations of curvilinear and / or rectilinear sections, moreover, during the aspiration process, air is pumped to form a shell containing at least one cylindrical or polycylindrical section formed by at least two articulated fragments of cylinders of constant and variable curvature, interconnected directly o either by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one conical or polyconic section formed from fragments of conical and / or polyconic curvature connected directly to each other or by means of internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one a cylindrical or poly-cylindrical section formed from fragments of cylindrical and / or poly-cylindrical curvature, interconnected directly or by internal diaphragms, or with the formation of a shell shape containing at least one cylindrical and / or conical and / or spherical and / or spheroidal and / or ellipsoidal and / or parobolic and / or hypovoid and / or toroidal section , the casing is provided with an inner frame, and the filtering surface is made of high-strength woven or fibrous non-woven material, moreover, for example, overcoat cloth is used as a high-strength woven material, and, for example, felt is a fibrous non-woven cloth for the design for aspiration with a filter surface is performed by at least two filter layers with different strength and transmittance, which are arranged in order of increasing their strength and transmittance, or fastened together to form cavities, at least one of which is at least partially filled granular filler, while the differentiated throughput in at least one layer is formed providing a pressure differential between its internal and external surface in the range from 0.1 to 0.2 MPa at operating speeds Suction suspended in an air stream of dispersed particles, the minimum cross-sectional area of holes take at least 60 microns in the filtering surface 2, the filter surface is subjected to vibrational influences providing restoring its transmittance which are created by differential pressure in the tank, moreover, for carrying out the aspiration process, additional containers are installed, which are equipped with filters and connected to a common system system of aspiration by additional air ducts.
 11. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the postharvest treatment is carried out directly in the places of cultivation on indoor and / or open currents, and / or at elevators, and / or flour mills, and / or cereals, and / or feed shops and / or plants by receiving grain, forming lots, cleaning, drying, active ventilation and shipment, and all the harvested grain is processed in places of cultivation according to a three-link system: combine-current-harvesting enterprise, or all grain is processed at the harvesting enterprise with return parts of refined grain at the disposal of growing enterprises according to a two-tier system: a combine-harvesting enterprise, or part of the grain is processed at the procuring enterprise with the return of part of the refined grain to the disposal of growing enterprises, and the part remaining in the agricultural complex - at a current or at an agricultural point, at during post-harvest grain processing after the arrival of car lots, samples are taken, quality is determined and the place of grain cutting is established, weighing on on a truck scale, mechanized unloading, after which grain is preliminarily cleaned, in the presence of rice, separation of awns, in the presence of corn, threshing of ears and grain cleaning after threshing, then batches are formed by crops and quality into storage tanks, weighing and transferring grain to operational elevator tanks, where grain is dried to the state of storage of short impurities, from long impurities on stone separation machines, on air sorting tables, on air aspirators with the release of suitable grain, cooling it with artificially cooled air, then atmospheric air and sending the grain to storage with parallel waste selection, destruction of unfit, sale of suitable waste and / or sending them for processing.
12. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the acceptance of grain and / or its release is carried out, respectively, from water transport and to water transport, from railway transport and to railway transport, and operations on post-harvest preparation and / or cleaning of the initial grain raw materials on elevators, including a working building with technological and transport equipment, silos with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain, and interconnected via silos and / or bunkers and / or equipment of cars, and / or wagons, and / or ships, devices for dispensing grain for various types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems, in the working building of the elevator, they accept from automobile, railway and water transport, technological processing , quality control or preparation of grinding batches, distribution to silos or warehouses connected with an elevator, leave for automobile, railway, water transport or enterprise, grain drying is carried out in a drum dryer, wherein during the initial grain moisture to 18% temperature drying agent take 130 o C, limiting the heating of grain 45 o C, when the initial grain moisture to 20% temperature drying agent take 120 o C, limiting the heating of grain 45 o C, at an initial moisture grain temperature up to 26%, the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 110 o C, the maximum heating of grain is 43 o C, at an initial grain moisture of more than 26% the temperature of the drying agent is taken to 105 o C, the maximum heating of grain is 40 o C, when drying food grain the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 170 - 200 o C, heated grain is 5 - 10 o C of above Achen these temperatures, the grain, the heating temperature should not be above 60 o C, or grain drying is conducted in a shaft oven, wherein during the initial moisture cereal grains up to 20% have one drying, the drying agent temperature taking 70 o C, and the marginal heating grain 40 o C, at the initial moisture content of grain of grain crops up to 26% produce two passes of grain through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is 65 o C, and the maximum heating of the grain is 38 o C, at the second pass, respectively 70 and 40 o C at initial humidity grain crops over 26% produce three passes of the material through the dryer, and at the first pass, the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 60 o C, the maximum grain heating is 35 o C, at the second pass respectively 65 and 38 o C, at the third 70 and 40 o C, at the initial grain moisture content of legumes up to 20%, one drying is carried out, the temperature of the agent is taken at 60 o C, and the grain is heated at maximum 40 o C, at the initial grain moisture up to 26%, two passes of the material through the dryer are made, and at the first pass the temperature of the agent drying take 55 o C, n edelny heating grain 38 o C, the second pass 60 and 40 o C, at an initial grain moisture more than 26% produce three passes of the material through the dryer, wherein during the first pass the temperature of the drying agent taking 50 o C, breaking heating 35 o C grains, with a second pass, respectively 55 and 38 o C, with a third skip 60 and 40 o C, while drying the food grain, the temperature of the drying agent is increased to 90 - 110 o C, and heating the grain by 5 - 10 o C above the specified temperatures, at this grain heating temperature not higher than 60 o C, or performing a grain drying dryer cyclic operation, wherein the drying medium temperature, for example air, take 40 - 50 o C and feed it to the chamber for 2 hours, after which supply it was stopped and allowed grain dryer for 2 days for its passive heating or temperature the drying agent is taken at 50 ° C, the maximum heating of grain is 37–38 ° C, or the temperature of the drying agent is taken at 40–45 ° C, the maximum heating of grain is 28–32 ° C, in addition, at high grain moisture of 43–45%, it is dried in a chamber dryer at a coolant temperature of not higher than 65 o C, while the flow is warm the carrier (drying agent) is produced into the grain mass from the bottom up with its simultaneous suction after heat transfer from the upper layers, with increased grain moisture up to 45%, it is dried in a continuous active ventilation dryer with recirculation of the coolant at the temperature of the latter not higher than 65 o C, or grain drying is carried out in a dryer with a drying louver chamber, while drying the grain in a fixed bed at a temperature of the drying agent 45 - 50 o C, or drying the grain in a multi-chamber floor dryer, and with the initial grain moisture up to 19%, the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.7 - 0.8 m, drying is carried out with heated air at its temperature of 61 - 65 o C and maximum heating of the grain 40 - 42 o C, with the initial moisture content of the grain 19 - 22% the height of the embankment the material is set in the range of 0.6 - 0.7 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, then until the drying agent has finished drying with a heated agent to 55 - 60 o C at maximum grain heating of 36 - 39 o C, with an initial grain moisture of 23 - 26% of the height of the embankment of the material is set within 0.5 - 0.6 m, drying for 30 minutes is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate : After 1 hour drying - heated to 51 - 55 o C and 18 minutes agent - agent with unheated limiting heating grain 33 - 35 o C, when the initial grain moisture above 28% of the fill height set to a range of 0.4 - 0.5 m, drying for 1 h is carried out with an unheated agent, then alternate: after 1 h of drying an agent preheated to 45 - 50 o C and 30 min - an unheated agent with a maximum grain heating of 30 - 32 o C, and drying of grain seeds is carried out at a temperature agent 40 - 45 o C, and legumes 30 - 35 o C.
13. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the separation is carried out by cleaning the grain from impairing conditions for its processing or reducing the quality of the finished product impurities and sorting the grain mixture into fractions of different quality for separate processing, while the separation is made by thickness, and / or width, and / or length, and / or sectional shape, and / or speed of rotation, and / or density, and / or density and coefficient of friction, and / or elasticity and coefficient of impact friction, and / or coefficient of friction, and / or sliding, and / or rolling, and / and whether by magnetic susceptibility, and / or by permittivity, and / or by reflection coefficient of the light flux, and separation is carried out by exposing the grain mixture to aerodynamic forces and / or volume forces of inertia, varying in magnitude and direction, and / or gravitational gravity - centrifugal forces of inertia and gravity, and / or sequential and / or time-combined exposure of the grain mixture to a combination of forces, in addition, after separation and isolation from the grain mixture egg impurities clean the grain surface from mineral dust, and / or microorganisms, and / or contaminants, and / or particles of fruit shells, moreover, the grain surface is cleaned in flour mills by treating grain in paper washing machines with an abrasive surface or with a steel cylinder, then in brush machines - dry and / or wet using washing machines, enterprises with mechanical and pneumatic transport of grain products use radial scouring scouring machines with emery or steel a cylinder and brushing machines, moreover, the peripheral speed of the scouring drum is chosen depending on the hardness of the treated crop, increasing for softer grain and decreasing for harder grain, while the peripheral speed of the scouring drum for rye is taken to be 15 - 18 m / s wheat 13 - 15 m / s, for durum wheat 10 - 11 m / s, moreover, the treatment is carried out to obtain the grain surface without damage and dust ash is not less than 10%, processing in brushing machines is carried out until separation of exfoliated particles of the shells and removing dust from the surface and from the groove of the grain and receiving waste in an amount of 0.2 - 0.3% with respect to the mass of grain with an ash content of 4.0 - 4.5%, moreover, during the processing, the clearance between the working surfaces of the brushes with by keeping the value within 3–6 mm, when cleaning the surface of the grain, mainly rye, in the husking machines, the upper most contaminated shells, mineral dust, bacteria and molds are removed, while the ash content is reduced by 0.10 - 0.11%, fiber content by 0.92 - 0.96% and by increasing the relative starch content by 2.44 - 2.62% and bulk density by 56 - 58 g / l, grain is processed in the washing machines, mainly defective, smut-affected, or bitter-worm, and the grain is cleaned of dust and microorganisms with simultaneous isolation heavy and light impurities, moreover, the processing of grain in the washing machine is carried out by rising jets of water, which are created by a rotating screw, with the movement of grain and maintaining it in suspension, and the released mineral impurities - stones and sand they are displaced in the underlying level in the opposite direction, collected in appropriate periodically emptied containers, and grain is fed from the washing bath into the alloy chamber, in which light mixtures float and periodically are removed, then, under water pressure, the grain is fed into the squeezing column with rinsing at the same time and dehydrated grain and its peeling, and the washing water is subjected to purification in a liquid separator, a coagulant - aluminum sulfate in an amount of 0.1 - 0.5%, is added to the washing water before cleaning, after bacteriologically clean centrate wastewater is returned to the grain washing plant, and at the same time the grain is washed with ultrasound and / or ultraviolet irradiation, and / or hydrocyclones are used, the washing water is purified by sending it to the grain collector, and large impurities are separated, after which the water is sent to the separator where it is cleaned, then the filtered water is poured into the chlorination tank, after settling, the purified and disinfected water is pumped into the tank, mixed with clean water and returned The grain is washed, the coarse impurities are squeezed out in a press and dried in a screw dryer, and the hydrothermal treatment of the grain is carried out by cold, or hot, or high-speed conditioning, cold conditioning is carried out by wetting the grain and then otzholovanie, and moistening is done by washing or by feeding in grain weight of the calculated amount of droplet-liquid water, grain of high vitreous moisture after wetting is moistened and re-softened, hot conditioning they are cleaned by washing, treating in an air-water conditioner and smoothing, and before processing in an air-water conditioner, the grain is processed in a steamer or steam column until the desired temperature is obtained by the grain, the grain is dampened before the grain is quenched, high-speed conditioning is carried out by short-term steaming, keeping in a heated state in a thermally insulated lock and subsequent washing with cold tap water, after washing the grain is treated in a dehumidifier or after-humidification they are hydrothermally treated in cereal plants - Greek, oat and pea plants - by steaming in batch or continuous machines and subsequent drying until the core strength and brittleness of flower films increase to increase the efficiency of the peeling process, which is carried out in Waldec on cereal plants machines, and / or on machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, and / or on peeling machines with abrasive disks and a stable surface, and / or on cleaning (bi ) machines, either by creating compressive and shear forces that cause the films to cleave and break when processing grain on waltzdeck machines and / or machines with rubber rolls, and / or on peeling machines, or by friction on an abrasive and steel surface, which causes a long processing on the scrubber scraping of the shells, or by impact, causing splitting of the shells and the accompanying frictional effect of the abrasive or metal surface of the parts of scouring and scouring machines, for peeling buckwheat, they use a valdedec machine with a deck, in which the radius of curvature is equal to the radius of the roll, while in the working position, the deck is moved parallel to the roll so that the working surface of the deck is offset from the surface of the roll, and when processing buckwheat of the first and second fractions, the peripheral speed of the roll take 14 - 15 m / s, the third and fourth 12 - 14 m / s, the fifth and sixth 10 - 12 m / s, the length of the arc of the working area of the deck is 180 - 200 mm, for peeling millet use a roll-rolling machine with a roll of abrasive mass and district with at a speed of 15 m / s, decks - from technical rubber with fabric layers and an arc length of 300 mm, for peeling millet use a waltzdeck machine with two decks and the grain is subjected to double processing, for peeling rice using machines with rubber rolls rotating towards each other with different the speed, which is set with a gap relative to each other of 0.6 - 0.8 mm, and the ratio of the peripheral speed of the rapidly rotating and the peripheral speed of the slowly rotating roll is 1.45, for peeling oats and rice use a set with lower them a runner and two disks, the working surface of which is coated with abrasive mass, one of which is stationary and the other is mounted on a vertical rotating shaft, and the peripheral speed of the rotating disk is taken with primary peeling 13-15 m / s, with peeling of similar products 12 m / s , for peeling barley, wheat, oats with a moisture content of more than 13% and maize, striking scouring machines are used, moreover, peeling of grain with a moisture content of more than 14% is carried out at higher speeds than peeling of dry grain, while peeling and of similar products, the peripheral speed of pests is no more than 20 m / s, with the first peeling of wheat 15 - 18 m / s, with the second 14 m / s, with peeling of oats 20 - 22 m / s, corn 10 - 14 m / s, in this case, the seed material after threshing is thoroughly cleaned, sorted, dried, calibrated and brought to the sowing condition, after which it is deposited in storage, which is disinfected before loading grain, and the bins in the storage are performed without cracks to exclude clogging of one variety by another, the crops are bins stacked alternatingly and each bunker is not dosyp they are shelved by 15 - 20 cm, the grain is placed in the warehouse by grades, reproductions, categories and classes, with the grain and / or seeds stacked in bulk and / or packaged, bags with rye or wheat, or barley, or buckwheat stacked in stacks 8 heights high rows of bags in the warm and cold season, bags with peas and vetch in the cold season are stacked in stacks of 8 rows, in warm time - in 6 rows, when stored in bulk, the height of the embankment in the cold season is 2.5 m, warm time of 2 m, when storing seeds in bulk, heat rods or iron are placed in a heap and whether the wooden rods and constantly monitor the condition of the seeds, while undesirable changes in the state of the grain are dried or additionally cleaned or cooled, the doors and windows of the storages are closed in wet and cold weather, they are opened in dry and warm weather, and the seed grain, as well as seeds that are stored in small quantities, stored in soft containers, for transportation of grain use hard containers - containers, while storing grain in bulk use floor storage and silage, and at Apolny storage, the height of the embankment is taken not exceeding 6 m, when stored in silos, the height of the embankment is taken up to 40 m, in addition, granaries of temporary and long-term storage are used, and temporary granaries are performed as canopies and used during the period of mass receipt of grain and / or full filling granaries of long-term storage, granaries of long-term storage are carried out in the form of mechanized warehouses and elevators that do not have stationary mechanization, mechanized warehouses are made with horizontal with and / or inclined floors, warehouses with inclined floors are self-unloading, warehouses with horizontal floors are partially unloaded by gravity onto the lower conveyor, the walls of the storages are gas-tight, low-heat-conductive with good hygroscopicity of the inner surface, while the elevators are equipped with a working building with transport and other equipment, silo case with transport and other equipment, devices for receiving grain from cars, wagons and ships, devices for dispensing grain to various different types of transport and grain processing enterprises, a waste workshop, suction and waste disposal systems, and also use intermediate elevator enterprises that are located at junction railway stations and / or at the intersections of railway and waterways and equipped with devices for receiving and dispensing grain and use for transshipment grain from one type of transport to another, and when overloading grain using pneumatic transport with simultaneous aspiration of the product, at least part of the grain is sent over storage at reserve elevators, and the grain sent for long-term storage, as well as for export, is subjected to additional aspiration, cleaning and drying, the grain sent for storage is decontaminated, the humidity and temperature are controlled during the storage of grain and in preparation for shipment depending on the state of the grain, it is dried or cooled, or freshened, while the main cleaning of the prepared dry and medium-dry grain, as well as dried, is performed during storage during preparation for shipment, disinfection is carried out by gas and / or by passing through a grain dryer, in addition, the grain in the storages is subjected to active ventilation, and the temperature is kept at 25 o C ± 2 o C at a relative humidity of 65% and grain humidity of 14%.
RU97102443A 1997-02-21 1997-02-21 Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage RU2097960C1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU97102443A RU2097960C1 (en) 1997-02-21 1997-02-21 Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU97102443A RU2097960C1 (en) 1997-02-21 1997-02-21 Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
RU2097960C1 RU2097960C1 (en) 1997-12-10
RU97102443A true RU97102443A (en) 1998-05-27

Family

ID=20189993

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
RU97102443A RU2097960C1 (en) 1997-02-21 1997-02-21 Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage

Country Status (1)

Country Link
RU (1) RU2097960C1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2462855C1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-10-10 Анатолий Борисович Худяков Method of growing wheat

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2520143C1 (en) * 2013-01-09 2014-06-20 Государственное научное учреждение Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт сельскохозяйственного использования мелиорированных земель Российской академии сельскохозяйственных наук (ГНУ ВНИИМЗ Россельхозакадемии) Method of basic soil conservation treatment on catena
EP2967029B1 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-05-17 Akzo Nobel Chemicals International B.V. Cellulose ether as a drift control agent and rainfastness agent
RU2562720C1 (en) * 2014-06-05 2015-09-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Оренбургский государственный аграрный университет" Method of growing winter wheat
RU2646092C1 (en) * 2017-02-03 2018-03-01 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Кубанский государственный аграрный университет имени И.Т. Трубилина" Protein feed line
RU2691685C1 (en) * 2018-04-13 2019-06-17 Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение "Прикаскийский аграрный Федеральный научный центр Российской академии наук" (ФГБНУ "ПАФНЦ РАН") Method for cultivation of winter triticale on junk rice paddy field in conditions of astrakhan region
RU2742339C1 (en) * 2020-04-27 2021-02-04 Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение "Прикаспийский научно-исследовательский институт аридного земледелия" Method for cultivation of leguminous crops on irrigation in conditions of arid zone of northern caspian

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2462855C1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-10-10 Анатолий Борисович Худяков Method of growing wheat

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Hammond et al. Research on guayule (Parthenium argentatum), 1942-1959
Williams Hardwood nurseryman's guide
RU2421978C2 (en) Method and device to cultivate crops
RU2097960C1 (en) Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage
RU97102443A (en) Method for producing and harvesting cereals, cereals and / or cerebrates, harvesting, handling, transportation and storage of grains and how to handling harvesting, transport
Schumann et al. A review of green manuring practices in sugarcane production
Barnett et al. Artificial regeneration of shortleaf pine
McGinnies et al. Guayule rubber production: The World War II emergency rubber project: A guide to future development
RU2042301C1 (en) Method for mulching of soil
Zemenchik et al. Runoff, erosion, and forage production from established alfalfa and smooth bromegrass
Harmer et al. Muck soil management for onion production
Thompson Asparagus Production
Mimms et al. Growing dry beans in the western states
Krogman et al. Frequent low-volume sprinkler irrigation of potatoes
Beattie Lettuce growing
Dillman et al. Flaxseed production in the far western states
Williams et al. Hardwood nursery guide
Walker et al. Onion-set production
Jones Rice production in the Southern States
Lambeth Potato growing in Missouri
Price et al. The Irish Potato: Second Report
Burtt-Davy Farm and garden notes for August
Jones Grains for the Utah dry lands
Ten Eyck Wheat: A Practical Discussion of the Raising, Marketing, Handling and Use of the Wheat Crop, Relating Largely to the Great Plains Region of the United States and Canada
Hechler Wheat and Rye Production in Iowa