RU2691685C1 - Method for cultivation of winter triticale on junk rice paddy field in conditions of astrakhan region - Google Patents

Method for cultivation of winter triticale on junk rice paddy field in conditions of astrakhan region Download PDF

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RU2691685C1
RU2691685C1 RU2018113679A RU2018113679A RU2691685C1 RU 2691685 C1 RU2691685 C1 RU 2691685C1 RU 2018113679 A RU2018113679 A RU 2018113679A RU 2018113679 A RU2018113679 A RU 2018113679A RU 2691685 C1 RU2691685 C1 RU 2691685C1
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irrigation
sowing
cultivation
soil
winter
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Анастасия Николаевна Бондаренко
Наталья Владимировна Тютюма
Людмила Вячеславовна Богосорьянская
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Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение "Прикаскийский аграрный Федеральный научный центр Российской академии наук" (ФГБНУ "ПАФНЦ РАН")
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals

Abstract

FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, namely to plant growing. Method includes moisture charging irrigation and vegetation watering – paddy field flooding, pre-sowing cultivation, sowing and packing. Growing of winter triticale is carried out in the system of steam-and-grain fodder crop rotation, treatment of clean vapors begins with disking to depth of 8–10 cm after harvesting of the predecessor. Before fertilization and early spring along the frozen soil, doses of mineral fertilizers are introduced in norms NPK; NPK; NPK; NPK. Winter triticale is sown with rate of sowing of virgin seeds: 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 million pcs/ha with seeds closing depth of 4–5 cm. In spring, the field is started at physical ripeness of the soil from harrowing by tooth harrows, and vegetative irrigation is performed with an irrigation norm of 3,200 m/ha and 4,200 m/ha.EFFECT: method makes it possible to obtain high yields with sparing treatment of soil.1 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used as a basic element in the intensive technology of growing winter crops in rice paddies.
There is a method of cultivation of irrigated winter wheat, including the calculation of the rate of fertilizers for the planned yield and their discrete introduction during the growing season, in which, in order to increase the yield and efficiency of fertilizers, they are made with irrigation water in differentiated doses depending on the nutrient intake during a specific growth phase and the development of winter wheat: in the cultivation phase - 19-21% of nitrogen from the general rate of nitrogen fertilizers, 24-26% of phosphorus and 25-27% of potassium, in the boiling phase of 41-45% potassium, in the heading phase of the formation of grains 21-23% a 28–31% of phosphorus and 19–21% of potassium, and only 14–16% of the total fertilizer rate is added to the milk ripeness phase (SU, inventor's certificate No. 1496660. A1. M. CL. 4. А01В 79 / 02. The method of cultivation of irrigated winter wheat / AP Muravlev, EP Klyuev, AT Baikin, VS Rozhkova (USSR) - No. 4077064 / 30-15; Declared 04/16/1986; Pub. 30.07. 1989, Bull. No. 28).
The disadvantages of the described method, in relation to the problem we solve, include the fact that in arid farming conditions, the application of mineral fertilizers for the specified plant growth phenophases is ineffective both because of the lack of productivity of moisture in the soil, and with technical difficulties of their application on a solid sown field.
The closest analogue to the claimed invention is a method of cultivating cereal grains on salted paddy rice, including pre-cultivating rice and irrigating it according to the mole drainage system, applying mineral fertilizers in doses of N-40-50 kg / ha, P-60-80 kg / ha, K-45-60 kg / ha of active ingredient. The patent for the invention "Method of cultivation of cereal crops for salted rice paddy" No. 2298305 (RU) Application: 2005126783/12, August 24, 2005. A01B 79/02. 05/10/2007. Khavaev AB, Adyaev SB, Saldaev AM, Borodychev VV, Sukharev Yu.I. Sowed rice seeds are sown, then rice paddies are flooded, water is dispensed from checks at a speed of 1.5-2.0 cm per day until the checks are completely drained after the “beginning of wax ripeness” vegetation phase. Rice is mown into rolls with two to three threshing rolls, leaving rice straw on the surface of the check. In checks, prior to the onset of stable frosts, plowing is carried out with the turnover of the upper layer and the storing of crop residues to a depth of 0.30-0.35 m. In the early spring period, mineral fertilizers are applied superficially and the top layer of soil is treated with discators. In established agro timelines, grain crops are sown to a depth of 0.06-0.08 m, post-sowing rolling-in and moistening of the subseed soil layer are carried out by supplying water to the mole drainage system.
The disadvantage of this method is the long duration of a number of agrotechnological operations aimed at the cultivation of crops, which in turn will lead to soil compaction, rising groundwater levels and their mineralization as a result of rice cultivation, and only then is sowing of cereals.
The essence of the claimed invention is as follows.
The problem to which the claimed invention is directed is to obtain a guaranteed yield of winter triticale when cultivated in the conditions of a sharply continental climate in junk rice receipts by organizing high-grade mineral nutrition in irrigated conditions of the Astrakhan region.
The technical result is to obtain high yields of a winter crop of 5-6 t / ha with gentle tillage.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that in a known method of cultivating a promising winter triticale variety, in the zone of light chestnut sodic soils of the Astrakhan region, including disking; application of mineral fertilizers (before sowing and in early spring over frozen soils) (MTZ-1021 + RUN -0.8); water-recharge irrigation and vegetative irrigation - gulf checks; pre-sowing cultivation; sowing crops, rolling. According to the invention, the treatment of pure vapors was started from discharging with the tractor MTZ-1021 + BDT-3 to a depth of 8-10 cm after harvesting the predecessor, before sowing, mineral fertilizers were fractionally applied depending on the options, the sowing of the winter crop was carried out in optimal agroclimatic terms with the seeding rate of germinators seeds: 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 mln pcs / ha (MTZ-1021 + С3.6), seed embedment depth 4-5 cm, rolling MTZ-80 + annular-spur skating rinks - ЗККШ-6. In the spring, the field was started when the physical maturity of the soil began to be harrowed with the C-11 + BZT-1 tine harrows. Subsequently, vegetative irrigations were carried out depending on the options.
Information confirming the possibility of the realized invention is as follows.
The method of cultivation of winter triticale in waste rice checks provides for determining the influence of agrotechnological methods of cultivation of winter crops in the climatic conditions of the Astrakhan region, to obtain stable and high yields under irrigation (bay checks) with different seeding rates (from 3.0 to 6, 0 million units / ha), doses of mineral fertilizers (N 16 P 16 K 16 ; N 32 P 32 K 32 ; N 64 P 64 K 64 ; N 96 P 96 K 96 ) and irrigation options (irrigation rate 3200 m 3 / ha and 4200 m 3 / ha). The studies were carried out in the steam-grain feed crop rotation system with short rotation, consisting of three fields: pure steam-spring wheat - winter wheat.
The experimental part of the research was carried out in 2015-2017 on the lands of the rice irrigation system of the Chernoyarsky district of the Astrakhan region. In accordance with the research program, the field experiment included the study of a variety of winter triticale, the influence of the conditions of mineral nutrition (factor A) and the density of sowing of winter crops (factor B). The area occupied by the experiment was 4 hectares.
The object of the study was the bard triticale variety. Research options: factor A 1 - Control; And 2 - N 16 P 16 K 16 ; A 3 - N 32 P 32 K 32 ; A 4 - N 64 P 64 K 64 ; A 5 - N 96 P 96 K 96 . Before a number of agrotechnological operations, vegetative irrigations were carried out. The treatment of pure vapors was started from discharging by the tractor MTZ-1021 + BDT-3 to a depth of 8-10 cm after harvesting the predecessor.
Before sowing, depending on the options, mineral fertilizers were fractionally applied. Sowing of winter crops was carried out in optimal agroclimatic terms with the seeding rate of germinated seeds: 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 million units / ha (MTZ-1021 + C3.6). Depth of seeding is 4-5 cm. Rolling was done with MTZ-80 + annular-spur rollers - ZKKSH-6.
In the spring, the field was started when the physical maturity of the soil began to be harrowed with the C-11 + BZT-1 tine harrows. Subsequently, vegetative irrigations were carried out depending on the options.
Against the background of the introduction of adjustable doses of mineral fertilizers, the effectiveness of three seeding rates of 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 million units / ha (factor B). All conducted studies were studied with two irrigation options.
In the first variant, 2 vegetative irrigation was carried out at a rate of 1600 m 3 / ha. The irrigation rate at the same time was - 3200 m 3 / ha. In the second variant, 3 irrigations were carried out (by the method of irrigation checks for irrigation) with irrigation rate - 1400 m 3 / ha, i.e. one water recharge and two follow during the growing season. In total, during the growing season the irrigation rate was - 4200 m 3 / ha.
Experiments show that the recommended seeding rate for sowing at optimal time for sowing is 4.5 million viable seeds / ha (MTZ-1021 + C3.6). The seeding depth is 4-5 cm.
The results of the field experiment showed that, on average, from 40 to 50% of the moisture culture consumed by winter crops was compensated for through the use of soil moisture. In the experiments, the humidity of 0.7 (root-habitable) - a meter layer of soil at the beginning of the flowering phase decreased to 70% HB, in the phase of milky ripeness was within 71-75% HB, and by the beginning of the technical ripeness phase did not exceed 60-65% HB.
The total water consumption in the presented experience consisted of reserves of productive moisture in the spring, the amount of precipitation during the growing season, as well as vegetative irrigation.
On average, for the last three years of studying 2015-2017. the total water consumption in the first variant was 3325.3 m 3 / ha in the second variant 4325.3 m 3 / ha. From Figure 1 it can be seen that the least amount of water for the winter triticale crop formation was consumed by options with the level of mineral nutrition N 64 P 64 K 64 at all seeding rates of 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 million pcs / ha, respectively, this coefficient varied from 715.1 to 755.8 m 3 / t. The yield at such indicators ranged from 4.40 to 4.65 t / ha.
The analysis of the water consumption ratio during the second irrigation variant revealed that the consumption of the following options was the least for the formation of marketable products: N 32 P 32 K 32 (4.5 million pcs / ha) - 748.3 m 3 / t, N 64 P 64 K 64 (3.0 mln pcs / ha) - 796.6 m 3 / t and N 32 P 32 K 32 (3.0 mln pcs / ha) 804.0 m 3 / t. With such indicators, the yield varied from 5.38 to 5.78 t / ha (Fig. 2).
Analysis of the indicators of the structure of the crop in the studies on the application of various doses of applied fertilizer and seeding rates reflects a certain pattern, for example, productive tillering decreases with increasing standing density (6.0 million pcs / ha) and increases with decreasing standing density (4 , 5 and 3.0 million units / ha) of plants per unit area. It is also noted that with a lower density of productive stalk per unit area above the mass of 1000 grains.
The results of research for 2015-2017. showed that the highest indicators of the elements of the crop structure in the first irrigation variant (3200 m 3 / ha) were obtained by winter triticale on variant N 64 P 64 K 64 with a seeding rate of 4.5 million pcs / ha and on variant N 96 P 96 K 96 , with a seeding rate of 3.0 million units / ha.
The length of the stem over the years of research on the variant N 64 P 64 K 64 with a seeding rate of 4.5 million units per hectare averaged 77.85 cm, an ear length of 6.90, the number of grains per ear was 26.58, mass 1000 grains 44.90 g. On variant N 96 P 96 K 96 , with a seeding rate of 3.0 million units / ha, the length of the stem was 91.80 cm, the length of the spike was 6.80 cm, the number of grains in the ear was 31, 26 pieces, weight 1000 grains 45.28 g. (Fig. 3), (NDS (05) AB 3.0 million pieces hectares - 0.01; (NDS (05) AB 4.5 million pieces. ha - 0.02; (NDS (05) AB 6.0 mln. hectares - 0.01.
Considering the productivity of winter triticale for three years of study, it should be noted that the most productive option was the variant with a dose of N 64 P 64 K 64 and seeding rates of 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 million pcs / ha. The yield at these rates varied from 4.32 to 4.65 t / ha. Analyzing the obtained data of the crop structure elements for the winter triticale Bard variety with an irrigation rate of 4200 m 3 / ha, the following conclusions can be made: the best indicators both in the number of grains per ear and in the mass of 1000 grains in the studied cultures were obtained on variants N 32 P 32 K 32 , N 64 P 64 K 64 and N 96 P 96 K 96 with a seeding rate of 4.5 million pcs / ha.
In the second variant of irrigation, the number of grains in the ear during the study period was: N 32 P 32 K 32 (4.5 million pcs / ha) - 28.62 pcs., N 64 P 64 K 64 (4.5 million pcs. . / ha) - 26.96 pcs., N 96 P 96 K 96 (4.5 mln pcs / ha) - 32.25 pcs. By the mass of 1000 grains, a variant stood out at the same seeding rate of 4.5 million pcs / ha, but the dose of fertilizer was N 64 P 64 K 64 - 47.29 g. As for the variant with low background fertilizer N 16 P 16 K 16 , productivity indicators practically did not differ from the control. It should also be noted that with an increase in the seeding rate to 6.0 million pcs / ha, the indicators of productivity elements sharply decrease, even with the application of various doses of mineral fertilizers.
According to the results of the research, it can be concluded that higher doses of mineral fertilizers reduce the vegetative mass, which subsequently affects the yield. The variant with the introduction of mineral fertilizers N 64 P 64 K 64 at all seeding rates was distinguished along the length of the spike and the length of the stem at the winter triticale of the Bard variety.
It should be noted that with an increase in the applied mineral fertilizers, the indicators of the elements of the crop structure decrease and, accordingly, the yield of the studied culture. The best options in the study were N 32 P 32 K 32 , N 64 P 64 K 64 and N 96 P 96 K 96 with a seeding rate of 4.5 million pcs / ha. The length of the stem in these variants of research varied from 79.50 to 86.10 cm, the length of the ear from 7.20 to 7.65 cm. By weight of 1000 grains the predominant variants relative to the others were N 32 P 32 K 32 , N 64 P 64 K 64 at various seeding rates.
The option with the dose of mineral fertilizers N 16 P 16 K 16 also practically did not differ from the control, both in the length of the spike and in the length of the stem with all the seeding rates. By the number of grains per ear and by the weight of 1000 grains, this option was slightly lower than the highest doses of fertilizer application. Analyzing the yields on average for three years of study, with the second option, it was found that the maximum data were obtained on option N 32 P 32 K 32 at all seeding rates, where these figures varied from 5.14 to 5.78 t / ha, as well as on variant N 64 P 64 K 64 , where these yield indicators varied from 4.27 to 5.43 t / ha, depending on the seeding rates.
High-yielding options in the cultivation of winter triticale with an irrigation rate of 3,200 m 3 / ha (2 irrigations) with a mineral nutrition level of N 64 P 64 K 64 and seeding rates of 3.0 million hectares, 4.5 and 6.0 million. hectares showed the highest level of productivity, while profitability was from 105.3 to 129.5%, net income from 17616.2 to 18120.7 rubles / ha. The economic efficiency of the invested costs ranged from 2.1 to 2.3, with a total cost of 13,603.8 to 15,000.3 rubles / ha. (Fig. 4)
The results of the economic efficiency of tarticale cultivation of the Bard variety at an irrigation rate of 4,200 m 3 / ha (three irrigations) revealed the most profitable options - N 32 P 32 K 32 with a seeding rate of 3.0 and 4.5 million pieces ha. Net income ranged from 21,861.7 to 24,483.2 rubles / ha, profitability ranged from 138.4 to 153.2%, and economic efficiency ranged from 2.4 to 2.5. With such economic indicators, the total costs were practically equal and amounted to 15798.3 and 15976.8 rubles / ha, respectively.
In the variant with an increased level of mineral nutrition, variant N 64 P 64 K 64 stood out with a seeding rate of 3.0 million pieces ha. the cost of 1 ton was 3094.6 rubles, the net income was 21,206.2 rubles / ha, the profitability of production was 126.2%, and the economic efficiency was 2.3.
As a result of the calculations, it was found that for regulatory support of the achieved levels of winter triticale crop yield of the Bard variety per 1 ha of crops, the following agrotechnological methods are needed, including: 1) disking; 2) the application of mineral fertilizers (before sowing and in early spring on permafrost soil) (MTZ-1021 + RUN -0.8); 3) water-recharge irrigation and vegetative irrigation - bay checks; 4) pre-sowing cultivation; 5) sowing crops.
The described method will lead to an increase in the productivity of grain crops to 5-6 t / ha in the former rice checks of the Astrakhan region.
Figure 00000001
Figure 00000002

Claims (1)

  1. The method of cultivation of winter triticale in waste rice checks in the zone of light chestnut sodic soils of the Astrakhan region, including water recharge irrigation and vegetation irrigation - bay checks, pre-sowing cultivation, seeding and rolling, characterized by the fact that the cultivation of winter triticale is used in the steam-master. vapors begin with disking to a depth of 8-10 cm after harvesting the predecessor, fractionally before sowing and in early spring doses of mineral fertilizers are applied to the frozen soil on the permafrost soil. and N 16 P 16 K 16; N 32 P 32 K 32 ; N 64 P 64 K 64 ; N 96 P 96 K 96 , winter triticale sowing is carried out with the seeding rate of viable seeds: 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 million pieces / ha with a seed embedding depth of 4-5 cm, in the spring, the field is started when the physical ripeness of the soil begins to be harrowed with tine harrows, and vegetative irrigations are carried out with an irrigation rate of 3200 m 3 / ha and 4200 m 3 / ha.
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RU2097960C1 (en) * 1997-02-21 1997-12-10 Николай Павлович Селиванов Method for growing and harvesting cereal and/or leguminous crops, postharvest treatment of crops, transportation and storage
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