JP4849190B2 - Vehicle power supply system and electric vehicle - Google Patents

Vehicle power supply system and electric vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4849190B2
JP4849190B2 JP2010536620A JP2010536620A JP4849190B2 JP 4849190 B2 JP4849190 B2 JP 4849190B2 JP 2010536620 A JP2010536620 A JP 2010536620A JP 2010536620 A JP2010536620 A JP 2010536620A JP 4849190 B2 JP4849190 B2 JP 4849190B2
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power
unit
vehicle
power transmission
transmission unit
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JPWO2010052785A1 (en
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真士 市川
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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Priority to PCT/JP2008/070276 priority Critical patent/WO2010052785A1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L5/00Current collectors for power supply lines of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L5/005Current collectors for power supply lines of electrically-propelled vehicles without mechanical contact between the collector and the power supply line
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/51Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells characterised by AC-motors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/10Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles characterised by the energy transfer between the charging station and the vehicle
    • B60L53/12Inductive energy transfer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/10Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles characterised by the energy transfer between the charging station and the vehicle
    • B60L53/12Inductive energy transfer
    • B60L53/126Methods for pairing a vehicle and a charging station, e.g. establishing a one-to-one relation between a wireless power transmitter and a wireless power receiver
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • B60L53/35Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles
    • B60L53/36Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles by positioning the vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • B60L53/35Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles
    • B60L53/37Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles using optical position determination, e.g. using cameras
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • B60L53/35Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles
    • B60L53/38Means for automatic or assisted adjustment of the relative position of charging devices and vehicles specially adapted for charging by inductive energy transfer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/10Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling
    • H02J50/12Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling of the resonant type
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/90Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving detection or optimisation of position, e.g. alignment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/02Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters
    • H02J7/022Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter
    • H02J7/025Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter using non-contact coupling, e.g. inductive, capacitive
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/021Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles
    • G05D1/0212Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles with means for defining a desired trajectory
    • G05D1/0225Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles with means for defining a desired trajectory involving docking at a fixed facility, e.g. base station or loading bay
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J5/00Circuit arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks and dc networks
    • H02J5/005Circuit arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks and dc networks with inductive power transfer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/80Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving the exchange of data, concerning supply or distribution of electric power, between transmitting devices and receiving devices
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7005Batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/121Electric charging stations by conductive energy transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/122Electric charging stations by inductive energy transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/125Alignment between the vehicle and the charging station
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles

Description

  The present invention relates to a vehicle power supply system, an electric vehicle, and a vehicle power supply facility, and more particularly to a parking control technique for a power supply facility of an electric vehicle that can receive power in a contactless manner from a power supply facility provided outside the vehicle.

  Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 9-215221 (Patent Document 1) discloses that a primary coil connected to a power supply outside a vehicle and a secondary coil connected to a power storage device of an electric vehicle are electromagnetically coupled to each other from the power supply outside the vehicle. Disclosed is an electric vehicle charging system capable of charging a power storage device in a contactless manner. In this charging system, a secondary coil is provided at the bottom of the vehicle body. On the other hand, a recess is formed in the floor surface of the parking lot, and a coil moving device for supporting the primary coil so as to be movable is provided therein. The body of the coil moving device is provided with three magnetic sensors.

  To charge the power storage device of the vehicle, the vehicle is parked across the recess and the secondary coil is excited. Then, the position of the secondary coil is detected by the magnetic sensor. Then, the coil moving device is driven based on the detection result, and the primary coil is guided to a position where both coils are electromagnetically coupled (see Patent Document 1).

  As non-contact power transmission technology for non-contact power transmission without using a power cord or a power transmission cable, there are three leading technologies: power transmission using electromagnetic induction, power transmission using microwaves, and power transmission using a resonance method. Technology is known.

Among them, the resonance method is a non-contact power transmission technique in which a pair of resonators (for example, a pair of self-resonant coils) are resonated in an electromagnetic field (near field) and transmitted through the electromagnetic field. It is also possible to transmit power over a long distance (for example, several meters) (see Non-Patent Document 1).
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 9-215211 JP-A-11-1177 Andre Kurs et al., "Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances", [online], July 6, 2007, Science, Vol. 317, p. 83-86, [Search September 12, 2007], Internet <URL: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/317/5834/83.pdf>

  In the charging system disclosed in the above Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 9-215111, since it is necessary to provide a coil moving device that supports the primary coil so as to be movable in the parking lot, the device becomes large. In the future, a simpler system configuration is desired in order to popularize vehicles that can receive power from power supply facilities outside the vehicle.

  Accordingly, the present invention has been made to solve such a problem, and an object of the present invention is to provide a vehicle power supply system having a simple configuration while ensuring parking accuracy to the power supply facility, and an electric vehicle and a vehicle used therefor. Is to provide power supply equipment.

  According to the present invention, a vehicle power supply system is a vehicle power supply system that supplies power in a non-contact manner from a power transmission unit of a power supply facility provided outside the vehicle to a power reception unit mounted on the vehicle. A detection means and first and second guidance control means are provided. The first detection means detects a positional relationship between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit. The first guidance control unit controls the vehicle so as to guide the vehicle to the power transmission unit based on the detection result of the first detection unit. The second detection unit detects a distance between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on a power supply state from the power transmission unit to the power reception unit. When the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit to the predetermined distance by the first guidance control means, the second guidance control means performs alignment between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on the detection result of the second detection means. To control the vehicle.

  Preferably, the power transmission unit is disposed on the ground. The power receiving unit is disposed on the bottom surface of the vehicle body. The opposing area of the power transmission unit and the power reception unit is smaller than the area of the bottom surface of the vehicle body. The first detection means includes a photographing device and an image recognition unit. The imaging device is mounted on a vehicle and images the outside of the vehicle. The image recognition unit recognizes the position of the power transmission unit based on the image captured by the imaging device. The predetermined distance is a distance at which the power transmission unit cannot be photographed by the photographing device when the power transmission unit enters the lower part of the vehicle body as the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit.

  Preferably, the predetermined distance is a preset distance at which the power reception unit can receive power from the power transmission unit.

  Preferably, the vehicle power supply system further includes a communication unit. The communication means performs communication between the vehicle and the power supply facility. The first detection means further includes a light emitting unit indicating the position of the power transmission unit. The light emitting unit emits light after communication between the vehicle and the power supply facility is established by the communication means.

More preferably, the light emitting unit emits light according to a command received from the vehicle by the communication means.
Preferably, the vehicle power supply system further includes a communication unit. The communication means performs communication between the vehicle and the power supply facility. The power supply facility is activated in response to a command received from the vehicle by the communication means.

  Preferably, the power transmission unit includes a power transmission coil that receives power from a power source. The power receiving unit includes a power receiving coil for receiving power from the power transmitting coil in a contactless manner. The second detection means includes a distance estimation unit. The distance estimation unit estimates the distance between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on information on the power transmitted from the power transmission coil to the charging coil.

  Preferably, the magnitude of the power supplied from the power transmission unit to the power receiving unit during execution of alignment between the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit by the second guidance control unit is supplied from the power transmission unit to the power receiving unit after the alignment is completed. Is less than the power being

  Preferably, the first guidance control means includes a first control unit. The first control unit controls the steering of the vehicle based on the detection result of the first detection unit. The second guidance control means includes a second control unit. The second control unit controls driving and braking of the vehicle based on the detection result of the second detection unit.

  In addition, according to the present invention, the electric vehicle is an electric vehicle that can be driven by an electric motor using electric power supplied from a power transmission unit of a power supply facility provided outside the vehicle, the power receiving unit, and the first and second power receiving units. And a first guidance control unit and a second guidance control unit. The power receiving unit is configured to receive the power transmitted from the power transmitting unit in a contactless manner. The first detection unit detects the position of the power transmission unit. The first guidance control unit controls the vehicle to guide the vehicle to the power transmission unit based on the detection result of the first detection unit. The second detection unit detects a distance between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on a power supply state from the power transmission unit to the power reception unit. The second guidance control unit aligns the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on the detection result of the second detection unit when the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit to the predetermined distance by the first guidance control unit. The vehicle is controlled as follows.

  Preferably, the power transmission unit is disposed on the ground. The power receiving unit is disposed on the bottom surface of the vehicle body. The opposing area of the power transmission unit and the power reception unit is smaller than the area of the bottom surface of the vehicle body. The first detection unit includes a photographing device and an image recognition unit. The photographing device photographs the outside of the vehicle. The image recognition unit recognizes the position of the power transmission unit based on the image captured by the imaging device. The predetermined distance is a distance at which the power transmission unit cannot be photographed by the photographing device when the power transmission unit enters the lower part of the vehicle body as the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit.

  Preferably, the predetermined distance is a preset distance at which the power reception unit can receive power from the power transmission unit.

  Preferably, the electric vehicle further includes a communication unit. The communication unit communicates with the power supply facility. The power supply facility includes a light emitting unit that indicates a position of the power transmission unit. A communication part transmits the command which instruct | indicates lighting of a light emission part to power supply equipment, after communication with power supply equipment is established.

  Preferably, the electric vehicle further includes a communication unit. The communication unit communicates with the power supply facility. The communication unit transmits a command for instructing activation of the power supply facility to the power supply facility.

  Preferably, the power transmission unit includes a power transmission coil that receives power from a power source. The power receiving unit includes a power receiving coil for receiving power from the power transmitting coil in a contactless manner. The second detection unit includes a distance estimation unit. The distance estimation unit estimates the distance between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on information on the power transmitted from the power transmission coil to the charging coil.

  Preferably, the magnitude of the power supplied from the power transmission unit to the power receiving unit when the second guidance control unit aligns the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit is determined so that the power received from the power transmission unit after the alignment between the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit is completed. Less than the power supplied to the unit.

  Preferably, the first guidance control unit includes a first control unit. The first control unit controls the steering of the vehicle based on the detection result of the first detection unit. The second guidance control unit includes a second control unit. The second control unit controls driving and braking of the vehicle based on the detection result of the second detection unit.

  Moreover, according to this invention, the vehicle power supply facility is a vehicle power supply facility that supplies power to a power receiving unit mounted on the vehicle in a non-contact manner, and includes a power transmission unit, a communication unit, and a power control unit. The power transmission unit is configured to send the power received from the power source to the power reception unit in a contactless manner. The communication unit communicates with the vehicle. The power control unit controls the power sent from the power transmission unit to the power receiving unit. The vehicle is configured to align the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on a power supply state from the power transmission unit to the power reception unit. When the signal indicating that the alignment is being performed in the vehicle is received from the vehicle by the communication unit, the power control unit is configured to be smaller than the power sent from the power transmission unit to the power receiving unit after the alignment is completed. To control the power.

  Preferably, the vehicle power supply facility further includes a light emitting unit indicating a position of the power transmission unit. The light emitting unit emits light after communication with the vehicle is established by the communication unit.

More preferably, the light emitting unit emits light according to a command received from the vehicle by the communication unit.
Preferably, the power control unit is activated in response to a command received from the vehicle by the communication unit.

  In the present invention, vehicle parking control is performed in two stages. In the first stage, the positional relationship between the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit is detected by the first detection means, and the vehicle is controlled by the first guidance control means so as to guide the vehicle to the power transmission unit based on the detection result. The In the second stage, the distance between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit is detected by the second detection means based on the power supply status from the power transmission unit to the power reception unit. Then, when the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit to a predetermined distance by the first guidance control means, the second guidance control is performed so that the power transmission unit and the power reception unit are aligned based on the detection result of the second detection means. The vehicle is controlled by the means. Thereby, position alignment with the power transmission unit of electric power feeding equipment and the power receiving unit mounted in the vehicle can be performed, without providing a large-scale installation.

  Therefore, according to this invention, the vehicle power supply system can be realized with a simple configuration while ensuring the parking accuracy to the power supply facility.

1 is an overall configuration diagram of a vehicle power supply system according to an embodiment of the present invention. It is a figure for demonstrating the principle of the power transmission by the resonance method. It is the figure which showed the relationship between the distance from an electric current source (magnetic current source), and the intensity | strength of an electromagnetic field. It is a detailed block diagram of the electric vehicle shown in FIG. It is a functional block diagram of the control apparatus shown in FIG. It is the figure which showed the relationship between the distance between a power transmission unit and a power receiving unit, and a primary side voltage. It is the figure which showed the relationship between the distance between a power transmission unit and a power receiving unit, and a secondary side voltage. It is the figure which showed the relationship between the distance between a power transmission unit and a power receiving unit, and a primary side electric current. It is the figure which showed the change between the distance between a power transmission unit and a power receiving unit, and its differential value. It is a functional block diagram of the electric power feeding installation shown in FIG. It is a flowchart for demonstrating the guidance control of the vehicle performed by the control apparatus of an electric vehicle, and ECU of electric power feeding equipment.

Explanation of symbols

  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Power supply system for vehicles, 100 Electric vehicle, 110 Power receiving unit, 112,340 Secondary self-resonant coil, 114,350 Secondary coil, 120 Camera, 130,240 Communication unit, 140 Rectifier, 142 DC / DC converter, 150 Power storage Device, 162 step-up converter, 164, 166 inverter, 172, 174 motor generator, 176 engine, 177 power split device, 178 drive wheel, 180 control device, 190, 272 voltage sensor, 200 power supply equipment, 210 power supply device, 220 power transmission unit , 222, 320 Primary coil, 224, 330 Primary self-resonant coil, 230 Light emitting unit, 250 AC power supply, 260 High frequency power driver, 270 ECU, 274 Current sensor, 310 High frequency power supply, 360 Load, 410 PA-ECU, 420 EPS, 430 MG-ECU, 440 ECB, 450 EPB, 460 resonance ECU, 470 HV-ECU, SMR1, SMR2 system main relay, PL1, PL2 positive line, NL negative electrode line.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. In the drawings, the same or corresponding parts are denoted by the same reference numerals and description thereof will not be repeated.

  FIG. 1 is an overall configuration diagram of a vehicle power supply system according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 1, a vehicle power supply system 10 includes an electric vehicle 100 and a power supply facility 200. Electric vehicle 100 includes a power receiving unit 110, a camera 120, and a communication unit 130.

  The power receiving unit 110 is fixed to the bottom surface of the vehicle body, and is configured to receive power transmitted from a power transmitting unit 220 (described later) of the power supply facility 200 in a contactless manner. Specifically, the power receiving unit 110 includes a self-resonant coil (described later), and receives power from the power transmitting unit 220 in a non-contact manner by resonating with a self-resonant coil included in the power transmitting unit 220 via an electromagnetic field. The camera 120 is provided to detect the positional relationship between the power reception unit 110 and the power transmission unit 220, and is attached to the vehicle body so that, for example, the rear of the vehicle can be photographed. Communication unit 130 is a communication interface for performing communication between electric vehicle 100 and power supply facility 200.

  The power supply facility 200 includes a power supply device 210, a power transmission unit 220, a light emitting unit 230, and a communication unit 240. The power supply device 210 converts, for example, commercial AC power supplied from a system power supply into high-frequency power and outputs it to the power transmission unit 220. In addition, the frequency of the high frequency electric power which the power supply device 210 produces | generates is 1M-several dozen MHz, for example.

  The power transmission unit 220 is fixed to the floor surface of the parking lot, and is configured to transmit the high-frequency power supplied from the power supply device 210 to the power receiving unit 110 of the electric vehicle 100 in a non-contact manner. Specifically, the power transmission unit 220 includes a self-resonant coil (described later), and transmits power to the power receiving unit 110 in a contactless manner by resonating with a self-resonant coil included in the power receiving unit 110 via an electromagnetic field. A plurality of light emitting units 230 are provided on the power transmission unit 220 and are provided to indicate the position of the power transmission unit 220. The light emitting unit 230 is made of, for example, an LED. Communication unit 240 is a communication interface for performing communication between power supply facility 200 and electric vehicle 100.

  In the vehicle power supply system 10, high-frequency power is transmitted from the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200, and the self-resonant coil included in the power receiving unit 110 of the electric vehicle 100 and the self-resonant coil included in the power transmission unit 220 are electromagnetic fields. The electric power is supplied from the power supply facility 200 to the electric vehicle 100 by resonating with the electric vehicle 100. Here, when power is supplied from the power supply facility 200 to the electric vehicle 100, it is necessary to guide the electric vehicle 100 to the power supply facility 200 to align the power receiving unit 110 of the electric vehicle 100 and the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200. . And in this embodiment, the parking control to the electric power feeding equipment 200 of the electric vehicle 100 is performed in two steps.

  That is, in the first stage, the positional relationship between the power receiving unit 110 of the electric vehicle 100 and the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200 is detected based on an image photographed by the camera 120, and the power transmission unit 220 is based on the detection result. The vehicle is controlled to guide the vehicle to More specifically, the plurality of light emitting units 230 provided on the power transmission unit 220 are photographed by the camera 120, and the positions and orientations of the plurality of light emitting units 230 are image-recognized. Then, the position and orientation of the power transmission unit 220 and the vehicle are recognized based on the result of the image recognition, and the vehicle is guided to the power transmission unit 220 based on the recognition result.

  Here, the facing area of the power receiving unit 110 and the power transmission unit 220 is smaller than the area of the bottom surface of the vehicle body. When the power transmission unit 220 enters the lower part of the vehicle body and the camera 120 cannot photograph the power transmission unit 220, the first stage starts. Switch to the second stage. In the second stage, power is supplied from the power transmission unit 220 to the power reception unit 110, and the distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is detected based on the power supply status. Based on the distance information, the vehicle is controlled so that the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 are aligned.

  Note that the magnitude of the power transmitted from the power transmission unit 220 in the second stage is smaller than the power supplied from the power transmission unit 220 to the power reception unit 110 after the alignment between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is completed. Is set. The reason why the power is transmitted from the power transmission unit 220 in the second stage is to detect the distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110, and because a large amount of power is not required when performing full-scale power supply. .

  Next, a non-contact power feeding method used in the vehicle power feeding system 10 according to this embodiment will be described. In the vehicle power supply system 10 according to this embodiment, power is supplied from the power supply facility 200 to the electric vehicle 100 using the resonance method.

  FIG. 2 is a diagram for explaining the principle of power transmission by the resonance method. Referring to FIG. 2, in this resonance method, in the same way as two tuning forks resonate, two LC resonance coils having the same natural frequency resonate in an electromagnetic field (near field), and thereby, from one coil. Electric power is transmitted to the other coil via an electromagnetic field.

  Specifically, the primary coil 320 is connected to the high frequency power supply 310, and 1 M to 10 and several MHz high frequency power is supplied to the primary self-resonant coil 330 that is magnetically coupled to the primary coil 320 by electromagnetic induction. The primary self-resonant coil 330 is an LC resonator having an inductance and stray capacitance of the coil itself, and resonates with a secondary self-resonant coil 340 having the same resonance frequency as the primary self-resonant coil 330 via an electromagnetic field (near field). . Then, energy (electric power) moves from the primary self-resonant coil 330 to the secondary self-resonant coil 340 via the electromagnetic field. The energy (electric power) transferred to the secondary self-resonant coil 340 is taken out by the secondary coil 350 magnetically coupled to the secondary self-resonant coil 340 by electromagnetic induction and supplied to the load 360. Note that power transmission by the resonance method is realized when the Q value indicating the resonance intensity between the primary self-resonant coil 330 and the secondary self-resonant coil 340 is greater than 100, for example.

  1, the secondary self-resonant coil 340 and the secondary coil 350 correspond to the power receiving unit 110 in FIG. 1, and the primary coil 320 and the primary self-resonant coil 330 correspond to the power transmission unit 220 in FIG. 1. Correspond.

  FIG. 3 is a diagram showing the relationship between the distance from the current source (magnetic current source) and the intensity of the electromagnetic field. Referring to FIG. 3, the electromagnetic field includes three components. The curve k1 is a component that is inversely proportional to the distance from the wave source, and is referred to as a “radiated electromagnetic field”. A curve k2 is a component inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the wave source, and is referred to as an “induction electromagnetic field”. The curve k3 is a component inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the wave source, and is referred to as an “electrostatic magnetic field”.

  Among these, there is a region where the intensity of the electromagnetic wave rapidly decreases with the distance from the wave source. In the resonance method, energy (electric power) is transmitted using this near field (evanescent field). That is, by using a near field to resonate a pair of resonators (for example, a pair of LC resonance coils) having the same natural frequency, one resonator (primary self-resonant coil) and the other resonator (two Energy (electric power) is transmitted to the next self-resonant coil. Since this near field does not propagate energy (electric power) far away, the resonance method transmits power with less energy loss than electromagnetic waves that transmit energy (electric power) by "radiation electromagnetic field" that propagates energy far away. be able to.

  FIG. 4 is a detailed configuration diagram of electric vehicle 100 shown in FIG. Referring to FIG. 4, electrically powered vehicle 100 includes power storage device 150, system main relay SMR 1, boost converter 162, inverters 164 and 166, motor generators 172 and 174, engine 176, and power split device 177. Drive wheel 178. Electric vehicle 100 further includes a secondary self-resonant coil 112, a secondary coil 114, a rectifier 140, a DC / DC converter 142, a system main relay SMR2, and a voltage sensor 190. Electric vehicle 100 further includes a control device 180, a camera 120, and a communication unit 130.

  This electric vehicle 100 is equipped with an engine 176 and a motor generator 174 as power sources. Engine 176 and motor generators 172 and 174 are connected to power split device 177. Electric vehicle 100 travels by a driving force generated by at least one of engine 176 and motor generator 174. The power generated by the engine 176 is divided into two paths by the power split device 177. That is, one is a path transmitted to the drive wheel 178 and the other is a path transmitted to the motor generator 172.

  Motor generator 172 is an AC rotating electric machine, and includes, for example, a three-phase AC synchronous motor in which a permanent magnet is embedded in a rotor. Motor generator 172 generates power using the kinetic energy of engine 176 divided by power split device 177. For example, when the state of charge of power storage device 150 (also referred to as “SOC (State Of Charge)”) becomes lower than a predetermined value, engine 176 is started and motor generator 172 generates power to store power. Device 150 is charged.

  The motor generator 174 is also an AC rotating electric machine, and is composed of, for example, a three-phase AC synchronous motor in which a permanent magnet is embedded in a rotor, like the motor generator 172. Motor generator 174 generates a driving force using at least one of the electric power stored in power storage device 150 and the electric power generated by motor generator 172. Then, the driving force of motor generator 174 is transmitted to driving wheel 178.

  Further, when braking the vehicle or reducing acceleration on the down slope, the mechanical energy stored in the vehicle as kinetic energy or positional energy is used for rotational driving of the motor generator 174 via the drive wheels 178, and the motor generator 174 is Operates as a generator. Thus, motor generator 174 operates as a regenerative brake that converts running energy into electric power and generates braking force. The electric power generated by motor generator 174 is stored in power storage device 150.

  Power split device 177 includes a planetary gear including a sun gear, a pinion gear, a carrier, and a ring gear. The pinion gear engages with the sun gear and the ring gear. The carrier supports the pinion gear so as to be able to rotate and is coupled to the crankshaft of the engine 176. The sun gear is coupled to the rotation shaft of motor generator 172. The ring gear is connected to the rotation shaft of motor generator 174 and drive wheel 178.

  The power storage device 150 is a rechargeable DC power source, and is composed of, for example, a secondary battery such as lithium ion or nickel metal hydride. Power storage device 150 stores electric power supplied from DC / DC converter 142 and also stores regenerative power generated by motor generators 172 and 174. Power storage device 150 supplies the stored power to boost converter 162. Note that a large-capacity capacitor can also be used as the power storage device 150, and temporarily stores the power supplied from the power supply facility 200 (FIG. 1) and the regenerative power from the motor generators 172 and 174, and boosts the stored power. Any power buffer that can be supplied to the converter 162 may be used.

  System main relay SMR1 is arranged between power storage device 150 and boost converter 162. System main relay SMR1 electrically connects power storage device 150 to boost converter 162 when signal SE1 from control device 180 is activated, and power storage device 150 and boost converter when signal SE1 is deactivated. The electric path to 162 is cut off. Boost converter 162 boosts the voltage on positive line PL <b> 2 to a voltage equal to or higher than the voltage output from power storage device 150 based on signal PWC from control device 180. Boost converter 162 is formed of a DC chopper circuit, for example. Inverters 164 and 166 are provided corresponding to motor generators 172 and 174, respectively. Inverter 164 drives motor generator 172 based on signal PWI 1 from control device 180, and inverter 166 drives motor generator 174 based on signal PWI 2 from control device 180. Inverters 164 and 166 are formed of, for example, a three-phase bridge circuit.

  The secondary self-resonant coil 112 is an LC resonant coil whose both ends are open (not connected), and receives power from the power supply facility 200 by resonating with a primary self-resonant coil (described later) of the power supply facility 200 via an electromagnetic field. The capacitance component of the secondary self-resonant coil 112 is the stray capacitance of the coil, but capacitors connected to both ends of the coil may be provided. Regarding the secondary self-resonant coil 112, the primary self-resonant coil and the secondary self-resonant coil 112 are based on the distance from the primary self-resonant coil of the power supply facility 200, the resonance frequency of the primary self-resonant coil and the secondary self-resonant coil 112, and the like. The number of turns is appropriately set so that the Q value (for example, Q> 100) indicating the resonance intensity with the resonance coil 112 and κ indicating the coupling degree thereof are increased.

  The secondary coil 114 is disposed coaxially with the secondary self-resonant coil 112 and can be magnetically coupled to the secondary self-resonant coil 112 by electromagnetic induction. The secondary coil 114 takes out the electric power received by the secondary self-resonant coil 112 by electromagnetic induction and outputs it to the rectifier 140. The secondary self-resonant coil 112 and the secondary coil 114 form the power receiving unit 110 shown in FIG.

  The rectifier 140 rectifies the AC power extracted by the secondary coil 114. Based on signal PWD from control device 180, DC / DC converter 142 converts the power rectified by rectifier 140 into a voltage level of power storage device 150 and outputs the voltage level to power storage device 150. System main relay SMR <b> 2 is arranged between DC / DC converter 142 and power storage device 150. System main relay SMR2 electrically connects power storage device 150 to DC / DC converter 142 when signal SE2 from control device 180 is activated, and power storage device 150 when signal SE2 is deactivated. The electric circuit between the DC / DC converter 142 is cut off. Voltage sensor 190 detects voltage VH between rectifier 140 and DC / DC converter 142 and outputs the detected value to control device 180.

  Control device 180 generates signals PWC, PWI1, and PWI2 for driving boost converter 162 and motor generators 172 and 174, respectively, based on the accelerator opening, vehicle speed, and other signals from various sensors. The signals PWC, PWI1, and PWI2 are output to boost converter 162 and inverters 164 and 166, respectively. When the vehicle travels, control device 180 activates signal SE1 to turn on system main relay SMR1, and deactivates signal SE2 to turn off system main relay SMR2.

  When power is supplied from the power supply facility 200 (FIG. 1) to the electric vehicle 100, the control device 180 receives an image captured by the camera 120 from the camera 120. In addition, the control device 180 receives information (voltage and current) of power transmitted from the power supply facility 200 via the communication unit 130 from the power supply facility 200, and detects the detected value of the voltage VH detected by the voltage sensor 190 as a voltage sensor. Receive from 190. And the control apparatus 180 performs parking control of a vehicle by the method mentioned later so that the said vehicle may be guide | induced to the power transmission unit 220 (FIG. 1) of the electric power feeding equipment 200 based on these data.

  When the parking control to power transmission unit 220 is completed, control device 180 transmits a power supply command to power supply facility 200 via communication unit 130 and activates signal SE2 to turn on system main relay SMR2. Then, control device 180 generates a signal PWD for driving DC / DC converter 142 and outputs the generated signal PWD to DC / DC converter 142.

  FIG. 5 is a functional block diagram of control device 180 shown in FIG. Referring to FIG. 5, control device 180 includes an IPA (Intelligent Parking Assist) -ECU (Electronic Control Unit) 410, an EPS (Electric Power Steering) 420, an MG (Motor-Generator) -ECU 430, and an ECB (Electronically). Controlled Brake) 440, EPB (Electric Parking Brake) 450, resonance ECU 460, and HV (Hybrid Vehicle) -ECU 470 are included.

  When the operation mode of the vehicle is the charging mode, IPA-ECU 410 performs guidance control for guiding the vehicle to power transmission unit 220 (FIG. 1) of power supply facility 200 based on image information received from camera 120 (first control). Guidance control). Specifically, IPA-ECU 410 recognizes power transmission unit 220 based on image information received from camera 120. Here, the power transmission unit 220 is provided with a plurality of light emitting units 230 indicating the position and orientation of the power transmission unit 220, and the IPA-ECU 410 is based on images of the plurality of light emitting units 230 displayed on the camera 120. The positional relationship (approximate distance and direction) with the power transmission unit 220 is recognized. Then, IPA-ECU 410 outputs a command to EPS 420 so that the vehicle is guided to power transmission unit 220 in an appropriate direction based on the recognition result.

  Further, when the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit 220 and the power transmission unit 220 enters the lower part of the vehicle body and the camera 120 cannot photograph the power transmission unit 220, the IPA-ECU 410 performs guidance control based on image information from the camera 120 (first control). Is notified to the HV-ECU 470. The EPS 420 performs automatic steering control based on a command from the IPA-ECU 410 during the first guidance control.

  MG-ECU 430 controls motor generators 172 and 174 and boost converter 162 based on a command from HV-ECU 470. Specifically, MG-ECU 430 generates signals for driving motor generators 172 and 174 and boost converter 162 and outputs the signals to inverters 164 and 166 and boost converter 162, respectively.

  The ECB 440 controls braking of the vehicle based on a command from the HV-ECU 470. Specifically, ECB 440 controls the hydraulic brake based on a command from HV-ECU 470 and performs cooperative control between the hydraulic brake and the regenerative brake by motor generator 174. EPB 450 controls the electric parking brake based on a command from HV-ECU 470.

  The resonance ECU 460 receives information on the power transmitted from the power supply facility 200 (FIG. 1) from the power supply facility 200 via the communication unit 130. In addition, resonance ECU 460 receives a detected value of voltage VH indicating the received voltage in the vehicle from voltage sensor 190 (FIG. 4). Then, the resonance ECU 460 detects the distance between the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200 and the power reception unit 110 of the vehicle, for example, by comparing the power transmission voltage from the power supply facility 200 and the voltage VH.

  Specifically, for a certain primary side voltage (output voltage from the power supply facility 200) as shown in FIG. 6, the secondary side voltage (the received voltage of the electric vehicle 100) is as shown in FIG. It changes in accordance with the distance L between the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200 and the power receiving unit 110 of the electric vehicle 100. Therefore, a map or the like is created by measuring the relationship between the primary side voltage and the secondary side voltage shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 in advance, and power is transmitted based on the detected value of the voltage VH indicating the secondary side voltage. The distance between the unit 220 and the power receiving unit 110 can be detected.

  As shown in FIG. 8, the primary current (the output current from the power supply facility 200) changes according to the distance L between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110. The distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 may be detected based on the detected value of the output current from 200.

  Referring to FIG. 5 again, upon detecting the distance between power transmission unit 220 and power reception unit 110, resonance ECU 460 outputs the distance information to HV-ECU 470. When the resonance ECU 460 receives a charge start command from the HV-ECU 470, the resonance ECU 460 activates the signal SE2 output to the system main relay SMR2, thereby turning on the system main relay SMR2. Resonance ECU 460 generates a signal for driving DC / DC converter 142 and outputs the signal to DC / DC converter 142.

  HV-ECU 470 outputs a control command to MG-ECU 430 and ECB 440 according to the operation state of the accelerator pedal / brake pedal, the traveling state of the vehicle, and the like when the operation mode of the vehicle is the traveling mode. Further, when the driver gives an instruction to operate the parking brake, for example, by operating the parking brake switch, the HV-ECU 470 outputs an operation command to the EPB 450.

  On the other hand, when the operation mode of the vehicle is the charging mode, HV-ECU 470 establishes communication with power supply facility 200 (FIG. 1) by communication unit 130, and issues a start command for starting power supply facility 200 to communication unit 130. To the power supply facility 200. When the power supply facility 200 is activated, the HV-ECU 470 outputs a lighting command for the light emitting unit 230 provided on the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200 to the power supply facility 200 via the communication unit 130. When the light emitting unit 230 is turned on, the HV-ECU 470 outputs a guidance control in-progress signal indicating that the guidance control for guiding the electric vehicle 100 to the power transmission unit 220 is being performed to the power supply facility 200 via the communication unit 130. In addition, a command for instructing execution of guidance control (first guidance control) based on image information from the camera 120 is output to the IPA-ECU 410.

  Further, when receiving an end notification of the first guidance control from the IPA-ECU 410, the HV-ECU 470 performs guidance control based on distance information between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 (second guidance control). Specifically, the HV-ECU 470 receives distance information between the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200 and the power reception unit 110 of the vehicle from the resonance ECU 460, and based on the distance information, the distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110. Command is output to MG-ECU 430 and ECB 440 that control the driving and braking of the vehicle, respectively.

  The determination that the distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is minimum is, for example, as shown in FIG. 9, where the differential value of the distance L between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 received from the resonance ECU 460 is zero. It is made based on when.

  Referring to FIG. 5 again, when the alignment between power transmission unit 220 and power reception unit 110 is completed, HV-ECU 470 outputs an operation command to EPB 450 and then issues a power supply command for instructing power supply from power supply facility 200. It outputs to the power feeding facility 200 via the communication unit 130 and outputs a charge start command to the resonance ECU 460.

  In this control device 180, when the operation mode of the vehicle becomes the charging mode, HV-ECU 470 establishes communication with power supply facility 200 through communication unit 130, and transmits an activation command to power supply facility 200 through communication unit 130. To do. When the power supply facility 200 is activated in response to the activation command, the HV-ECU 470 transmits a lighting command for the light emitting unit 230 to the power supply facility 200 via the communication unit 130. When the light emitting unit 230 on the power transmission unit 220 is turned on, the HV-ECU 470 transmits a guidance control in-progress signal to the power supply facility 200 via the communication unit 130 and guide control based on image information from the camera 120 (first control). A command for instructing execution of (guidance control) is output to IPA-ECU 410.

  When receiving a command from the HV-ECU 470, the IPA-ECU 410 executes guidance control (first guidance control) based on image information from the camera 120, and outputs a command for automatically controlling the steering to the EPS 420. When the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit 220 and the power transmission unit 220 enters the lower part of the vehicle body and the power transmission unit 220 cannot be recognized by the camera 120, the IPA-ECU 410 notifies the HV-ECU 470 of the end of the first guidance control. To do.

  On the other hand, the resonance ECU 460 feeds information on the electric power sent from the power feeding facility 200 in response to the above-described guidance control signal (as described above, this power is smaller than the power supplied after the completion of the parking control). The voltage sensor 190 receives a detected value of the voltage VH that is received from the facility 200 via the communication unit 130 and indicates the received voltage of the electric vehicle 100. Resonance ECU 460 estimates the distance between power transmission unit 220 and power reception unit 110 based on the power supply status from power supply facility 200 to electric vehicle 100, and outputs the distance information to HV-ECU 470. When the HV-ECU 470 receives from the IPA-ECU 410 the first guidance control end notification based on the image information from the camera 120, the guidance control (first control based on the distance information between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 received from the resonance ECU 460). 2), and commands for automatically controlling driving and braking of the vehicle are output to MG-ECU 430 and ECB 440, respectively.

  When the positioning between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is completed by the second guidance control, the HV-ECU 470 outputs an operation command to the EPB 450, and then supplies power to the power supply facility 200 via the communication unit 130. A command is output and a charging start command is output to the resonance ECU 460. Thereby, substantial power supply from the power supply facility 200 to the electric vehicle 100 is started.

  FIG. 10 is a functional block diagram of the power supply facility 200 shown in FIG. Referring to FIG. 10, power supply facility 200 includes AC power supply 250, high-frequency power driver 260, primary coil 222, primary self-resonant coil 224, voltage sensor 272, current sensor 274, light emitting unit 230, Communication unit 240 and ECU 270 are included.

  AC power supply 250 is a power supply external to the vehicle, for example, a system power supply. The high frequency power driver 260 converts the power received from the AC power source 250 into high frequency power, and supplies the converted high frequency power to the primary coil 222. The frequency of the high-frequency power generated by the high-frequency power driver 260 is, for example, 1M to 10 and several MHz.

  Primary coil 222 is arranged coaxially with primary self-resonant coil 224 and can be magnetically coupled to primary self-resonant coil 224 by electromagnetic induction. The primary coil 222 feeds high-frequency power supplied from the high-frequency power driver 260 to the primary self-resonant coil 224 by electromagnetic induction.

  The primary self-resonant coil 224 is an LC resonance coil having both ends open (not connected), like the secondary self-resonant coil 112 of the electric vehicle 100, and resonates with the secondary self-resonant coil 112 of the electric vehicle 100 via an electromagnetic field. By doing so, electric power is transmitted to the electric vehicle 100. The capacitance component of the primary self-resonant coil 224 is also the stray capacitance of the coil, but capacitors connected to both ends of the coil may be provided. The primary self-resonant coil 224 also has a Q value (for example, Q>) based on the distance from the secondary self-resonant coil 112 of the electric vehicle 100, the resonance frequency of the primary self-resonant coil 224 and the secondary self-resonant coil 112, and the like. 100), and the number of turns is appropriately set so that the degree of coupling κ and the like are increased.

  The primary self-resonant coil 224 and the primary coil 222 form the power transmission unit 220 shown in FIG. The light emitting unit 230 and the communication unit 240 are as described in FIG. Voltage sensor 272 detects voltage VS output from high-frequency power driver 260 and outputs the detected value to ECU 270. Current sensor 274 detects current IS output from high-frequency power driver 260 and outputs the detected value to ECU 270.

  When ECU 270 receives an activation command from electric vehicle 100 via communication unit 240, ECU 270 activates power supply facility 200. When ECU 270 receives a lighting command for light emitting unit 230 from electric vehicle 100 via communication unit 240, ECU 270 turns on light emitting unit 230. When ECU 270 receives a power supply command from electric vehicle 100 via communication unit 240, ECU 270 controls the output of high-frequency power driver 260 so that the electric power supplied from power supply facility 200 to electric vehicle 100 matches the target value. .

  In addition, when receiving an in-guidance control signal from the electric vehicle 100 via the communication unit 240, the ECU 270 includes the detected values of the voltage VS from the voltage sensor 272 and the current IS from the current sensor 274. The power information is transmitted to electric vehicle 100 via communication unit 240. The ECU 270 controls the output of the high-frequency power driver 260 so as to output a predetermined power smaller than the power at the time of power supply execution based on the power supply command during reception of the guidance control signal.

  FIG. 11 is a flowchart for illustrating vehicle guidance control executed by control device 180 of electrically powered vehicle 100 and ECU 260 of power supply facility 200. Note that the processing of this flowchart is executed at regular time intervals or whenever a predetermined condition is satisfied.

  Referring to FIG. 11, in electrically powered vehicle 100, control device 180 determines whether or not the operation mode of the vehicle is a charging mode (step S10). In the non-charging mode, that is, in the traveling mode (NO in step S10), control device 180 shifts the process to step S120 without executing a series of subsequent processes.

  When it is determined in step S10 that the charging mode is set (YES in step S10), control device 180 establishes communication between communication unit 130 of the vehicle and communication unit 240 of power supply facility 200, and activates power supply facility 200. The instructing start command is transmitted to the power supply facility 200 by the communication unit 130 (step S20). Next, when there is a request to turn on the light emitting unit 230 provided on the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200 (YES in step S25), the control device 180 feeds a lighting command instructing lighting of the light emitting unit 230 by the communication unit 130. It transmits to the equipment 200 (step S30). Next, the control device 180 transmits a guidance control in-progress signal indicating that vehicle guidance control to the power transmission unit 220 is being performed to the power supply facility 200 by the communication unit 130, and aligns the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110. The transmission is continued until is completed (step S40).

  And the control apparatus 180 performs the guidance control (1st guidance control) based on the image information from the camera 120 by the above-mentioned method (step S50). This first guidance control is executed until the power transmission unit 220 cannot recognize the power transmission unit 220 based on the image information from the camera 120 when the electric vehicle 100 approaches the power supply facility 200 and the power transmission unit 220 enters the lower part of the vehicle body (step). S60).

  If power transmission unit 220 cannot be recognized based on the image information from camera 120 (YES in step S60), control device 180 uses the power information transmitted from power supply facility 200 (the output voltage and current from power supply facility 200). Based on the above method, the distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is estimated. And the control apparatus 180 performs the guidance control (2nd guidance control) based on said distance information estimated based on the electric power feeding condition from the power transmission unit 220 to the power receiving unit 110 (step S70).

  During the second guidance control, the control device 180 determines whether or not the distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is minimized by the above-described method based on the differential value of the distance between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110. Is determined (step S80). If it is determined that the distance between power transmission unit 220 and power reception unit 110 has become minimal (YES in step S80), control device 180 stops the vehicle and activates the electric parking brake (step S90).

  Thereafter, control device 180 transmits a power supply command instructing substantial power supply from electric power supply facility 200 to electric powered vehicle 100 to power supply facility 200 through communication unit 130 (step S100). Further, control device 180 turns on system main relay SMR2 and drives DC / DC converter 142 to execute charging control of power storage device 150 (step S110).

  On the other hand, in power supply facility 200, when communication unit 240 receives the activation command transmitted from electrically powered vehicle 100 (YES in step S200), ECU 270 activates power supply facility 200 (step S210). Next, when communication unit 240 receives a lighting command transmitted from electrically powered vehicle 100 (YES in step S220), ECU 270 lights light emitting unit 230 (step S230). Next, when communication unit 240 receives a guidance control signal transmitted from electrically powered vehicle 100 (YES in step S240), ECU 270 outputs high-frequency power driver 260 so as to output preset power smaller than that during charging. Is controlled (step S250).

  During reception of the in-guidance control signal, the ECU 270 detects the detected value of the voltage VS from the voltage sensor 272 indicating the magnitude of the voltage output from the power supply facility 200 and the current indicating the magnitude of the current output from the power supply facility 200. The detected value of current IS from sensor 274 is transmitted to electric vehicle 100 by communication unit 240 as power information of power supply facility 200 (step S260).

  When communication unit 240 receives a power feed command transmitted from electrically powered vehicle 100 (YES in step S270), ECU 270 controls the output of high-frequency power driver 260 so as to output charging power for charging the vehicle. (Step S280).

  As described above, in this embodiment, parking control of electrically powered vehicle 100 is performed in two stages. In the first stage, the positional relationship between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is detected based on image information from the camera 120 mounted on the vehicle, and the vehicle is guided to the power transmission unit 220 based on the detection result. The vehicle is controlled (first guidance control). In the second stage, the distance L between the power transmission unit 220 and the power reception unit 110 is detected based on the power supply status from the power transmission unit 220 to the power reception unit 110. When the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit 220 to a distance where the power transmission unit 220 cannot be photographed by the camera 120 due to the power transmission unit 220 entering the lower part of the vehicle body, the power transmission unit detected based on the power supply status from the power transmission unit 220 to the power reception unit 110 Based on the distance information between 220 and power reception unit 110, the vehicle is controlled so as to align the power transmission unit 220 and power reception unit 110 (second guidance control). Thereby, alignment with the power receiving unit 110 mounted in the vehicle and the power transmission unit 220 of the power supply facility 200 can be performed without providing a large-scale facility. Therefore, according to this embodiment, the vehicle power supply system 10 can be realized with a simple configuration while ensuring the parking accuracy to the power supply facility 200.

  In the above embodiment, when the distance between the power supply facility 200 and the electric vehicle 100 is large, the guidance control based on the image information (first guidance control) is performed, and the distance between the power supply facility 200 and the electric vehicle 100 is determined. Is reduced, guidance control (second guidance control) based on distance information that requires power transmission from the power transmission unit 220 is executed. Furthermore, the power output from the power transmission unit 220 during the second induction control is smaller than the power output after the start of charging control. Therefore, according to this embodiment, power consumption can be suppressed.

  In the above embodiment, power supply facility 200 is activated based on a command from electric vehicle 100 that receives power from power supply facility 200, and light emitting unit 230 is turned on based on a command from electric vehicle 100. The Therefore, according to this embodiment, wasteful power consumption during non-charging can be suppressed.

  In the above embodiment, when the power transmission unit 220 enters the blind spot of the camera 120, the first guidance control based on the image information from the camera 120 is switched to the second guidance control based on the distance information. However, when the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit 220 to a predetermined distance set in advance, the first guidance control may be switched to the second guidance control. Note that, as the predetermined distance, for example, a distance that the power receiving unit 110 can receive power from the power transmission unit 220 can be set.

  In the above description, the power information of the power supply facility 200 is transmitted to the electric vehicle 100, and the distance information is generated on the vehicle side based on the power information. However, based on the output current in the power supply facility 200, or By transmitting the received voltage in the vehicle from the electric vehicle 100 to the power supply facility 200, distance information may be generated on the power supply facility 200 side and transmitted to the electric vehicle 100. Moreover, when the power supply facility 200 has the distance information, the power supply facility 200 may determine whether the second guidance control is completed based on the distance information.

  In the above description, the driver operates the accelerator / brake during the first guidance control, and the accelerator / brake operation is automatically performed during the second guidance control. The accelerator / brake operation may be performed automatically at any time, or the driver may operate the accelerator / brake during the second guidance control.

  In the above description, the camera 120 is disposed at the rear of the vehicle. However, the location of the camera 120 is not limited to the rear of the vehicle.

  In the above description, the resonance method is used to transmit power from the power supply facility 200 to the electric vehicle 100 in a contactless manner, but the power transmission method from the power supply facility 200 to the electric vehicle 100 is not necessarily limited to the resonance method. Instead, other non-contact power transmission methods such as power transmission using electromagnetic induction or power transmission using microwaves may be used. In these power transmission methods, it is possible to estimate the distance between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on the power supply status from the power supply facility to the vehicle.

  In the above description, the position and direction of the power transmission unit 220 are image-recognized based on the light emitting unit 230. However, the shape and the like of the power transmission unit 220 may be image-recognized without providing the light emitting unit 230. In addition, by providing the light emitting unit 230 as in the above embodiment, the position and direction of the power transmission unit 220 can be recognized even at night.

  In the above description, power is transmitted by resonating a pair of self-resonant coils. However, a high-dielectric disk made of a high-dielectric constant material can be used as the resonator instead of the self-resonant coil.

  In the above description, a series / parallel type hybrid vehicle in which the power of the engine 176 is divided by the power split device 177 and can be transmitted to the drive wheels 178 and the motor generator 172 has been described as an electric vehicle. It can also be applied to other types of hybrid vehicles. That is, for example, a so-called series-type hybrid vehicle that uses the engine 176 only to drive the motor generator 172 and generates the driving force of the vehicle only by the motor generator 174, or regenerative energy among the kinetic energy generated by the engine 176 The present invention can also be applied to a hybrid vehicle in which only the electric energy is recovered, a motor assist type hybrid vehicle in which the motor assists the engine as the main power if necessary.

  In addition, the present invention can also be applied to an electric vehicle that does not include engine 176 and travels only by electric power, and a fuel cell vehicle that further includes a fuel cell in addition to power storage device 150 as a DC power source. The present invention is also applicable to an electric vehicle that does not include boost converter 162 and an electric vehicle that does not include DC / DC converter 142.

  In the above, the camera 120 and the IPA-ECU 410 form the “first detection means” (first detection unit) in the present invention, and the IPA-ECU 410 and the EPS 420 correspond to the “first guidance control” in the present invention. Means "(first guidance control unit). Resonance ECU 460 corresponds to “second detection means” (second detection unit) in the present invention, and HV-ECU 470, MG-ECU 430, and ECB 440 correspond to “second guidance control means” ( 2nd guidance control part) is formed.

  Further, camera 120 corresponds to “imaging device” in the present invention, and IPA-ECU 410 corresponds to “image recognition unit” in the present invention. Furthermore, communication units 130 and 240 form “communication means” in the present invention, and primary self-resonant coil 224 corresponds to “power transmission coil” in the present invention. Further, secondary self-resonant coil 112 corresponds to “power receiving coil” in the present invention, and resonance ECU 460 corresponds to “distance estimating unit” in the present invention. Furthermore, EPS 420 corresponds to “first control unit” in the present invention, and MG-ECU 430 and ECB 440 form “second control unit” in the present invention. Furthermore, high frequency power driver 260 and ECU 270 form a “power control unit” in the present invention.

  The embodiment disclosed this time should be considered as illustrative in all points and not restrictive. The scope of the present invention is shown not by the above description of the embodiments but by the scope of claims, and is intended to include all modifications within the meaning and scope equivalent to the scope of claims.

Claims (15)

  1. A vehicle power supply system for feeding power contactlessly from the power transmission unit of the sheet generation facilities provided in a vehicle outside the onboard power receiving unit to the vehicles,
    A first detection means to detect the positional relationship between the power receiving unit and the transmitting unit,
    A first guidance control means to control said vehicle so as to guide the vehicle to the power transmitting unit based on a detection result of the first detecting means,
    And second detection means to detect the distance between the power receiving unit and the transmitting unit on the basis of the power transmitting unit to the power supply status to the power receiving unit,
    When the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit to a predetermined distance by the first guidance control means, the power transmission unit and the power reception unit are aligned based on the detection result of the second detection means. and a second guidance control means to control the vehicle,
    The power transmission unit is disposed on the ground;
    The power receiving unit is disposed on the bottom surface of the vehicle body,
    The facing area of the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit is smaller than the area of the bottom surface of the vehicle body,
    The first detection means includes
    A photographing device mounted on the vehicle and photographing the outside of the vehicle;
    An image recognition unit for recognizing the position of the power transmission unit based on an image photographed by the photographing device;
    The power supply system for vehicles, wherein the predetermined distance is a distance at which the power transmission unit cannot be photographed by the photographing device when the power transmission unit enters a lower part of the vehicle body as the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit .
  2. 2. The vehicle power supply system according to claim 1 , wherein the predetermined distance is a preset distance at which the power reception unit can receive power from the power transmission unit.
  3. Further comprising a a communication vehicle which performs communication with the power supply facility and the vehicle,
    The first detection means further includes a light emitting unit indicating a position of the power transmission unit,
    2. The vehicle power supply system according to claim 1 , wherein the light emitting unit emits light after communication between the vehicle and the power supply facility is established by the communication unit.
  4. The power supply system for a vehicle according to claim 3 , wherein the light emitting unit emits light according to a command received from the vehicle by the communication unit.
  5. Further comprising a a communication vehicle which performs communication with the power supply facility and the vehicle,
    The vehicle power supply system according to claim 1 , wherein the power supply facility is activated in response to a command received from the vehicle by the communication unit.
  6. The power transmission unit includes a power transmission coil for receiving power from a power source,
    The power receiving unit includes a power receiving coil for receiving contactlessly from the power transmission coil,
    It said second sensing means includes a distance estimation unit that estimates a distance between the power receiving unit and the transmitting unit based on the power information that is transmission from the power transmission coil to the power receiving coil, claim vehicle power supply system according to 1.
  7. The magnitude of power supplied from the power transmission unit to the power receiving unit during execution of alignment between the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit by the second guidance control unit is determined from the power transmission unit after completion of the alignment. The vehicle power supply system according to claim 1 , wherein the power supply system is smaller than electric power supplied to the power receiving unit.
  8. The first guidance control means includes a first control unit that controls steering of the vehicle based on a detection result of the first detection means,
    2. The vehicle power supply system according to claim 1 , wherein the second guidance control unit includes a second control unit that controls driving and braking of the vehicle based on a detection result of the second detection unit.
  9. A more travelable electric vehicle to the electric motor using the electric power fed power transmission unit or these feed generation facilities provided in a vehicle outside,
    A power receiving unit configured to receive power transmitted from the power transmitting unit in a non-contact,
    A first detection unit for detecting the position of the power transmission unit;
    A first guidance control unit for controlling the vehicle to guide the vehicle to the power transmission unit based on a detection result of the first detection unit;
    A second detection unit that detects a distance between the power transmission unit and the power reception unit based on a power supply state from the power transmission unit to the power reception unit;
    When the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit to a predetermined distance by the first guidance control unit, the power transmission unit and the power reception unit are aligned based on the detection result of the second detection unit. A second guidance control unit for controlling the vehicle ,
    The power transmission unit is disposed on the ground;
    The power receiving unit is disposed on the bottom surface of the vehicle body,
    The facing area of the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit is smaller than the area of the bottom surface of the vehicle body,
    The first detector is
    A photographing device for photographing the outside of the vehicle;
    An image recognition unit for recognizing the position of the power transmission unit based on an image photographed by the photographing device;
    The predetermined distance is an electric vehicle that is a distance at which the power transmission unit cannot be photographed by the photographing device when the power transmission unit enters a lower part of the vehicle body as the vehicle approaches the power transmission unit .
  10. The electric vehicle according to claim 9 , wherein the predetermined distance is a preset distance at which the power receiving unit can receive power from the power transmission unit.
  11. A communication unit for communicating with the power supply facility;
    The power supply facility includes a light emitting unit indicating a position of the power transmission unit,
    The electric vehicle according to claim 9 , wherein the communication unit transmits a command to instruct lighting of the light emitting unit to the power supply facility after communication with the power supply facility is established.
  12. A communication unit for communicating with the power supply facility;
    The electric vehicle according to claim 9 , wherein the communication unit transmits a command instructing activation of the power supply facility to the power supply facility.
  13. The power transmission unit includes a power transmission coil for receiving power from a power source,
    The power receiving unit includes a power receiving coil for receiving contactlessly from the power transmission coil,
    It said second sensing unit includes a distance estimation unit that estimates a distance between the power receiving unit and the transmitting unit based on the power information that is transmission from the power transmission coil to the power receiving coil, claim 9. The electric vehicle according to 9 .
  14. The amount of power supplied from the power transmission unit to the power receiving unit when the second induction control unit aligns the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit is determined after the alignment between the power transmission unit and the power receiving unit is completed. The electric vehicle according to claim 9 , wherein the electric vehicle is smaller than electric power supplied from the power transmission unit to the power reception unit.
  15. The first guidance control unit includes a first control unit that controls steering of the vehicle based on a detection result of the first detection unit,
    The electric vehicle according to claim 9 , wherein the second guidance control unit includes a second control unit that controls driving and braking of the vehicle based on a detection result of the second detection unit.
JP2010536620A 2008-11-07 2008-11-07 Vehicle power supply system and electric vehicle Active JP4849190B2 (en)

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