JP2010209605A - Piled-raft foundation - Google Patents

Piled-raft foundation Download PDF

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JP2010209605A
JP2010209605A JP2009057950A JP2009057950A JP2010209605A JP 2010209605 A JP2010209605 A JP 2010209605A JP 2009057950 A JP2009057950 A JP 2009057950A JP 2009057950 A JP2009057950 A JP 2009057950A JP 2010209605 A JP2010209605 A JP 2010209605A
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pile
ground
piles
foundation
soft ground
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Junji Hamada
純次 濱田
Kiyoshi Yamashita
清 山下
Takeshi Yamada
毅 山田
Tomio Tsuchiya
富男 土屋
Tomohiro Tanigawa
友浩 谷川
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Takenaka Komuten Co Ltd
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Takenaka Komuten Co Ltd
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a piled-raft foundation with superior earthquake resistance without improving a ground. <P>SOLUTION: In this piled-raft foundation 10, a structure 12 is constructed on a soft ground 16. The soft ground 16 is a soft viscous soil ground in a normal consolidation state or in a state near that state in which consolidation settlement is produced by the weight W of the structure. The soft ground 16 is not improved. The base of the structure 12 is a direct base 14, and first piles 22 are embedded just beneath the columns 28 of the structure 12. The first piles 22 are cast-in-place concrete piles, PHC piles, or steel tube piles, and have a length reaching a hard support ground 20, and the bottom ends of the piles are embedded into the support ground 20. Second piles 24 are embedded into the lower surfaces of the slabs and beams of the direct base 14. The second piles 24 are PHC piles or steel tube piles, and have a length reaching an excessively consolidated ground 18 with less consolidation settlement, and the bottom ends of the piles are embedded into the excessively consolidated ground 18. The length of the second piles 24 is shorter than that of the first piles 22. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2010,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、軟弱地盤上に構築された構造物を支持するパイルド・ラフト基礎に関する。   The present invention relates to a piled raft foundation that supports a structure constructed on soft ground.

構築された構造物の全荷重が加えられると過大な圧密沈下が生じる軟弱地盤は、直接基礎では構造物を支持できない。このため、軟弱地盤の下層にある支持地盤まで到達する支持杭で構造物を支持する杭基礎が採用されている。しかし、支持地盤が深い位置にある場合には長い支持杭が必要となり、建設コストが増加するという問題がある。   Soft ground where excessive consolidation settlement occurs when the full load of the constructed structure is applied cannot support the structure directly on the foundation. For this reason, the pile foundation which supports a structure with the support pile which reaches to the support ground in the lower layer of soft ground is adopted. However, when the supporting ground is in a deep position, a long supporting pile is required, and there is a problem that the construction cost increases.

そこで、軟弱地盤における、杭基礎に替わる合理的な基礎形式としてパイルド・ラフト基礎の採用が増加している。パイルド・ラフト基礎は、直接基礎に摩擦杭を付加した構成であり、直接基礎で構造物を支持し、摩擦杭で構造物の沈下を抑制するものである(特許文献1)。   Therefore, the adoption of piled raft foundations as a rational foundation form to replace pile foundations in soft ground is increasing. The piled raft foundation has a structure in which a friction pile is directly added to the foundation, and the structure is supported directly by the foundation, and the settlement of the structure is suppressed by the friction pile (Patent Document 1).

図4に示すように、特許文献1のパイルド・ラフト基礎80は、構造物12の直下の性状が悪い軟弱地盤16を、支持力の大きい地盤改良基礎82に改良し、地盤改良基礎82(支持力P2)で構造物12の直接基礎14を支持している。また、摩擦杭84は支持地盤20には到達せず、軟弱地盤16の下層の過圧密地盤18に根入れされている。これにより、摩擦杭84(支持力P1)で直接基礎14を支持し、構造物12の沈下を抑制している。   As shown in FIG. 4, the piled raft foundation 80 of Patent Document 1 is obtained by improving the soft ground 16 having poor properties immediately below the structure 12 to a ground improvement foundation 82 having a large supporting force. The direct foundation 14 of the structure 12 is supported with a force P2). Further, the friction pile 84 does not reach the support ground 20, and is embedded in the overconsolidated ground 18 below the soft ground 16. Thereby, the foundation 14 is directly supported by the friction pile 84 (supporting force P1), and the settlement of the structure 12 is suppressed.

なお、地盤改良基礎82は、構造物12の直下の軟弱地盤16を、例えば深層混合処理工法などにより改良して固結状態としたものであり、設計上、構造物12の全荷重を支持できるようになっている。   The ground improvement foundation 82 is obtained by improving the soft ground 16 immediately below the structure 12 to a solidified state by, for example, a deep mixing treatment method, and can support the entire load of the structure 12 by design. It is like that.

しかし、特許文献1の工法は、一般的には安価な工法といえるが、構造物の規模が大きい場合には、広い面積に渡り大量の地盤を改良する必要が生じるため、安価とはいえなくなる。また、地盤改良基礎82は、地震時に作用する水平荷重に対しては、せん断抵抗力が不足している。   However, although the construction method of Patent Document 1 is generally an inexpensive construction method, when the scale of the structure is large, it is necessary to improve a large amount of ground over a large area, so it cannot be said that the construction method is inexpensive. . The ground improvement foundation 82 is insufficient in shear resistance against a horizontal load that acts during an earthquake.

特許第3765000号公報Japanese Patent No. 3765000

本発明は、上記事実に鑑み、地盤改良せずに耐震性に優れたパイルド・ラフト基礎を提供することを目的とする。   In view of the above facts, an object of the present invention is to provide a piled raft foundation excellent in earthquake resistance without improving the ground.

請求項1に記載の発明に係るパイルド・ラフト基礎は、構造物を支持するパイルド・ラフト基礎であって、前記構造物の柱の直下に埋設された第1杭と、軟弱地盤上に設けられ、前記第1杭と前記軟弱地盤に支持される直接基礎と、前記直接基礎を支持し、先端部が前記軟弱地盤の下にある過圧密地盤に根入れされた第2杭と、を有することを特徴としている。   The piled raft foundation according to the first aspect of the present invention is a piled raft foundation that supports a structure, and is provided on a soft ground and a first pile buried directly under a pillar of the structure. The first pile and the direct foundation supported by the soft ground, and the second pile that supports the direct foundation and is rooted in the overconsolidated ground under the soft ground. It is characterized by.

請求項1に記載の発明によれば、第1杭が構造物の柱の直下に埋設され、直接基礎が第1杭と軟弱地盤に支持されている。また、第2杭が、先端部を過圧密地盤に根入れして直接基礎を支持している。   According to invention of Claim 1, the 1st pile is embed | buried directly under the pillar of a structure, and the foundation is directly supported by the 1st pile and the soft ground. In addition, the second pile supports the foundation directly by rooting the tip into the overconsolidated ground.

このように、第2杭が、圧密沈下が小さい過圧密地盤に先端部を根入れして直接基礎を支持しているので、軟弱地盤を地盤改良する必要がない。この結果、建設コストが低減され、使用する第2杭の本数を適切に選択することで、更に施工費用を低減できる。   Thus, since the 2nd pile is supporting the foundation directly by rooting the tip part in the overconsolidated ground where the consolidation settlement is small, it is not necessary to improve the soft ground. As a result, the construction cost is reduced, and the construction cost can be further reduced by appropriately selecting the number of second piles to be used.

また、地震時に発生する水平荷重に対しては、第1杭と第2杭が両方で抵抗するので、水平荷重に対する抵抗力が高くなる。   Moreover, since the 1st pile and the 2nd pile resist both with respect to the horizontal load which generate | occur | produces at the time of an earthquake, the resistance force with respect to a horizontal load becomes high.

請求項2の発明は、請求項1に記載のパイルド・ラフト基礎において、前記第2杭が、前記軟弱地盤のすべり面である支持力破壊面と交差していることを特徴としている。   According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the piled raft foundation according to the first aspect, the second pile intersects a bearing force fracture surface which is a slip surface of the soft ground.

請求項2に記載の発明によれば、地震時に発生する軟弱地盤のすべり面である支持力破壊面と交差して、第2杭が埋設されている。
これにより、地震時の支持力破壊面を縫い付けるように第2杭が作用し、軟弱地盤のすべりの発生を、第2杭が障害物となることで抑制できる。
According to invention of Claim 2, the 2nd pile is embed | buried so as to cross | intersect the bearing capacity destruction surface which is a slip surface of the soft ground which generate | occur | produces at the time of an earthquake.
Thereby, a 2nd pile acts so that the bearing capacity destruction surface at the time of an earthquake may be sewn, and generation | occurrence | production of the slip of a soft ground can be suppressed because a 2nd pile becomes an obstruction.

請求項3の発明は、請求項1又は2に記載のパイルド・ラフト基礎において、前記第1杭の杭長が前記第2杭の杭長より長い、若しくは前記第1杭の杭径が前記第2杭の杭径より大きいことを特徴としている。
請求項3に記載の発明によれば、第1杭の杭長を第2杭の杭長より長く、若しくは第1杭の杭径を第2杭の杭径より大きくしている。
The invention according to claim 3 is the piled raft foundation according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the pile length of the first pile is longer than the pile length of the second pile, or the pile diameter of the first pile is the first pile. It is characterized by being larger than the pile diameter of 2 piles.
According to invention of Claim 3, the pile length of a 1st pile is made longer than the pile length of a 2nd pile, or the pile diameter of a 1st pile is made larger than the pile diameter of a 2nd pile.

このように、第1杭の杭長を第2杭より長くすることで、過圧密地盤より深い位置にある、より強固な地盤に第1杭を根入れでき、構造物の圧密沈下を抑制できる。また、第1杭の杭径を第2杭より大きくすることで、第1杭の杭周面積が増え、周囲の地盤から大きな支持力を得ることができ、構造物の圧密沈下を抑制できる。   Thus, by making the pile length of the first pile longer than the second pile, the first pile can be embedded in a stronger ground located deeper than the overconsolidated ground, and consolidation settlement of the structure can be suppressed. . Moreover, the pile peripheral area of a 1st pile increases by making the pile diameter of a 1st pile larger than a 2nd pile, a big supporting force can be obtained from the surrounding ground, and the consolidation settlement of a structure can be suppressed.

本発明は、上記構成としてあるので、地盤改良せずに耐震性に優れたパイルド・ラフト基礎が提供できる。   Since this invention is set as the said structure, it can provide the piled raft foundation excellent in earthquake resistance, without improving the ground.

本発明のパイルド・ラフト基礎の基本構成を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the basic composition of the piled raft foundation of this invention. 本発明のパイルド・ラフト基礎に地震による水平荷重が作用した場合の支持力を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the supporting force when the horizontal load by an earthquake acts on the piled raft foundation of this invention. 本発明のパイルド・ラフト基礎に地震による偏心荷重が作用した場合の支持力を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the supporting force when the eccentric load by an earthquake acts on the piled raft foundation of this invention. 従来例のパイルド・ラフト基礎の基本構成を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the basic composition of the piled raft foundation of a prior art example.

図1に示すように、第1の実施の形態に係るパイルド・ラフト基礎10は、構造物12が軟弱地盤16の上に建てられている。
軟弱地盤16は、構造物の重量Wにより過大な圧密沈下が発生する正規圧密状態ないしそれに近い状態にある軟弱な粘性土の地盤である。性状が悪いにも関わらず直接基礎14の下の軟弱地盤16は地盤改良がされていない。
As shown in FIG. 1, in the piled raft foundation 10 according to the first embodiment, a structure 12 is built on a soft ground 16.
The soft ground 16 is a ground of soft viscous soil in a normal consolidated state in which excessive consolidation settlement occurs due to the weight W of the structure or a state close thereto. Despite the poor properties, the soft ground 16 directly under the foundation 14 has not been improved.

構造物12の基礎は中空部を備えた直接基礎14とされ、直接基礎14の底面は、軟弱地盤16の上に設けられている。構造物12の柱28の直下には第1杭22が埋め込まれ、構造物12の重量Wは柱28を経由して第1杭22に伝達される。   The foundation of the structure 12 is a direct foundation 14 having a hollow portion, and the bottom surface of the direct foundation 14 is provided on the soft ground 16. The first pile 22 is embedded immediately below the pillar 28 of the structure 12, and the weight W of the structure 12 is transmitted to the first pile 22 via the pillar 28.

第1杭22は場所打ちコンクリート杭、PHC杭(高強度プレストレストコンクリート杭)、若しくは鋼管杭とされ、過圧密地盤18の下層にある硬い支持地盤20に到達する長さを有し、下端部が支持地盤20に根入れされている。   The first pile 22 is a cast-in-place concrete pile, a PHC pile (high-strength prestressed concrete pile), or a steel pipe pile, and has a length that reaches the hard support ground 20 in the lower layer of the overconsolidated ground 18. It is embedded in the support ground 20.

また、基礎スラブや基礎梁が設けられた直接基礎14の底面には、第2杭24が埋め込まれている。第2杭24はPHC杭や鋼管杭とされ、軟弱地盤16の下層にある圧密沈下が少ない過圧密地盤18に到達する長さを有し、下端部は過圧密地盤18に根入れされている。なお、第2杭24の長さは第1杭22より短い。   Moreover, the 2nd pile 24 is embedded in the bottom face of the direct foundation 14 in which the foundation slab and the foundation beam were provided. The second pile 24 is a PHC pile or a steel pipe pile, has a length that reaches the overconsolidated ground 18 with less consolidation settlement in the lower layer of the soft ground 16, and the lower end is embedded in the overconsolidated ground 18. . The length of the second pile 24 is shorter than that of the first pile 22.

このように、第1杭22の下端部を支持地盤20に根入れさせ、直接基礎14を支持(支持力P3)しているので、構造物12の圧密沈下が抑制される。また、第2杭24が、下端部を過圧密地盤18に根入れさせ、直接基礎14を支持(支持力P4)する。   Thus, since the lower end part of the 1st pile 22 is rooted in the support ground 20, and the foundation 14 is supported directly (supporting force P3), the consolidation settlement of the structure 12 is suppressed. Moreover, the 2nd pile 24 roots a lower end part in the overconsolidated ground 18, and supports the foundation 14 directly (supporting force P4).

この結果、直接基礎14の直下の軟弱地盤16を地盤改良する必要がなく、建設コストを低減できる。また、全部を第1杭22(支持杭)で支持する場合と比較し、第2杭24が短いことから設計の自由度が増し、第2杭24の支持位置を荷重の大きさと地盤の耐力から決定される最適位置に配置でき、経済的な第2杭24の設計ができる。更に、直接基礎14の基礎スラブの負担を軽減し、経済的なスラブ設計によるコスト低減も期待できるため、総合的な建設コストが低減できる。   As a result, it is not necessary to improve the soft ground 16 directly below the foundation 14, and the construction cost can be reduced. Moreover, compared with the case where all are supported by the 1st pile 22 (support pile), since the 2nd pile 24 is short, the freedom degree of design increases, and the support position of the 2nd pile 24 is set with the magnitude | size of load and the strength of a ground. Thus, the second pile 24 can be designed economically. Furthermore, since the burden on the foundation slab of the direct foundation 14 can be reduced and cost reduction by economical slab design can be expected, the overall construction cost can be reduced.

なお、第1杭22の杭長を第2杭24の杭長より長くしている。このように、第1杭22の杭長を第2杭24より長くすることで、過圧密地盤18より深い位置にあるより強固な支持地盤20に第1杭22を根入れでき、構造物12の圧密沈下を抑制できる。   Note that the pile length of the first pile 22 is longer than the pile length of the second pile 24. Thus, by making the pile length of the 1st pile 22 longer than the 2nd pile 24, the 1st pile 22 can be rooted in the firmer support ground 20 in the deeper position than the overconsolidated ground 18, and the structure 12 The consolidation settlement can be suppressed.

次に、地震時の水平荷重について説明する。
図2に示すように、地震時に構造物12が受ける水平荷重Hに対しては、第1杭22の水平方向の抵抗力P5と、第2杭24の水平方向の抵抗力P6が作用して、両方の抵抗力で水平荷重Hに抵抗する。
Next, the horizontal load at the time of an earthquake is demonstrated.
As shown in FIG. 2, the horizontal resistance H5 of the first pile 22 and the horizontal resistance P6 of the second pile 24 act on the horizontal load H received by the structure 12 during the earthquake. Resist the horizontal load H with both resistances.

第1杭22は場所打ちコンクリート杭、PHC杭、若しくは鋼管杭とされ、第2杭24はPHC杭や鋼管杭とされている。このため、例えば深層混合処理工法などにより固結状態とされた地盤改良と比較して、せん断力に対する抵抗が大きい。この結果、地震時の水平荷重Hに対する抵抗力を高くできる。   The first pile 22 is a cast-in-place concrete pile, a PHC pile, or a steel pipe pile, and the second pile 24 is a PHC pile or a steel pipe pile. For this reason, compared with the ground improvement made into the solidified state by the deep mixing process method etc., for example, the resistance with respect to a shear force is large. As a result, the resistance to the horizontal load H during an earthquake can be increased.

次に、地震時の偏心荷重について説明する。
図3に示すように、地震時の偏心荷重(斜め荷重)Mに対しては、第1杭22の鉛直方向の支持力P7と、第2杭24の鉛直方向の支持力P8がそれぞれ直接基礎14に作用して、両方の抵抗力で構造物12の偏心荷重Mに抵抗する。
Next, the eccentric load at the time of an earthquake is demonstrated.
As shown in FIG. 3, for the eccentric load (diagonal load) M at the time of the earthquake, the vertical support force P7 of the first pile 22 and the vertical support force P8 of the second pile 24 are directly foundations, respectively. 14 to resist the eccentric load M of the structure 12 with both resistance forces.

このとき、偏心荷重Mは、偏りの中心点からの距離により異なる大きさとなるため、第1杭22の鉛直方向の支持力P7、及び第2杭24の鉛直方向の支持力P8の値は、場所によりそれぞれ異なる値となる。第1杭22と第2杭24は、両方の抵抗力で想定される最大の偏心荷重Mに抵抗できる寸法とされている。   At this time, since the eccentric load M has different sizes depending on the distance from the center point of the deviation, the values of the vertical support force P7 of the first pile 22 and the vertical support force P8 of the second pile 24 are Different values depending on the location. The 1st pile 22 and the 2nd pile 24 are set as the dimension which can resist the largest eccentric load M assumed by both resistance force.

また、図3に示すように、偏心荷重Mを受けたとき軟弱地盤16の表層において、直接基礎14の下面の地盤が、構造物12の側方に向けて押し出される、いわゆるすべりが発生する。このとき、発生したすべりで押し出される地盤部分と、周囲の移動しない地盤との境界面を支持力破壊面といい、破線26で示している。   Further, as shown in FIG. 3, when the eccentric load M is received, a so-called slip is generated in which the ground on the lower surface of the foundation 14 is pushed directly toward the side of the structure 12 in the surface layer of the soft ground 16. At this time, a boundary surface between the ground portion pushed out by the generated slip and the surrounding non-moving ground is referred to as a supporting force breaking surface and is indicated by a broken line 26.

支持力破壊面26と交差して、支持力破壊面26の内部に複数の第2杭24が埋め込まれている。これより、第2杭24が支持力破壊面を縫い付けるように作用し、軟弱地盤16にすべりが発生する際の障害物となり、すべりに抵抗する。これにより、直接基礎14の下面のすべりの発生が抑制できる。   A plurality of second piles 24 are embedded inside the supporting force breaking surface 26 so as to intersect the supporting force breaking surface 26. Thus, the second pile 24 acts so as to sew the supporting force breaking surface, becomes an obstacle when the soft ground 16 slips, and resists the slip. Thereby, generation | occurrence | production of the slip of the lower surface of the foundation 14 directly can be suppressed.

更に、地震時のロッキングによる鉛直荷重(図示せず)に対しては、第1杭22の鉛直方向の支持力P7と、第2杭24の鉛直方向の支持力P8が作用して、両方の抵抗力でロッキングに抵抗する。これにより、構造物12のロッキングが抑制される。   Furthermore, the vertical support force P7 of the first pile 22 and the vertical support force P8 of the second pile 24 act on the vertical load (not shown) due to rocking during the earthquake, and both Resist rocking with resistance. Thereby, locking of the structure 12 is suppressed.

なお、第2杭24は、直接基礎14を支持すればよく、第2杭24の杭頭は直接基礎14に固定しなくてもよい。これにより、第2杭24に引張力が作用しづらく、直接基礎14と第2杭24の杭頭の接合部の損傷が防止できる。   In addition, the 2nd pile 24 should just support the foundation 14 directly, and the pile head of the 2nd pile 24 does not need to be fixed to the foundation 14 directly. Thereby, it is hard to act on the 2nd pile 24, and damage to the junction part of the pile head of the foundation 14 and the 2nd pile 24 directly can be prevented.

以上の説明において、第1杭22は、支持地盤20に根入れさせる長さとしたが、第1杭22を大径とし、第1杭の杭周面積を増やし、周囲の地盤から大きな支持力を得る構成でもよい。このとき、大径とされた第1杭22が構造物12の沈下を抑制する支持力を有するなら、第1杭22の長さを短くし、支持地盤20に下端部を根入れさせなくてもよい。   In the above description, the first pile 22 has a length to be embedded in the support ground 20, but the first pile 22 has a large diameter, the pile peripheral area of the first pile is increased, and a large supporting force is obtained from the surrounding ground. The structure to obtain may be sufficient. At this time, if the first pile 22 having a large diameter has a supporting force for suppressing the settlement of the structure 12, the length of the first pile 22 is shortened, and the lower end portion is not allowed to be embedded in the supporting ground 20 Also good.

10 パイルド・ラフト基礎
12 構造物
14 直接基礎
16 軟弱地盤
18 過圧密地盤
20 支持地盤
22 第1杭
24 第2杭
26 支持力破壊面(すべり面)
28 柱
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Piled raft foundation 12 Structure 14 Direct foundation 16 Soft ground 18 Overconsolidated ground 20 Support ground 22 1st pile 24 2nd pile 26 Bearing surface failure surface (slip surface)
28 pillars

Claims (3)

構造物を支持するパイルド・ラフト基礎であって、
前記構造物の柱の直下に埋設された第1杭と、
軟弱地盤上に設けられ、前記第1杭と前記軟弱地盤に支持される直接基礎と、
前記直接基礎を支持し、先端部が前記軟弱地盤の下にある過圧密地盤に根入れされた第2杭と、
を有するパイルド・ラフト基礎。
It is a piled raft foundation that supports structures,
A first pile buried directly under the pillar of the structure;
A direct foundation provided on soft ground, supported by the first pile and the soft ground;
A second pile supporting the direct foundation and rooted in an overconsolidated ground under the soft ground;
Piled raft foundation with.
前記第2杭が、前記軟弱地盤のすべり面である支持力破壊面と交差している請求項1に記載のパイルド・ラフト基礎。   2. The piled raft foundation according to claim 1, wherein the second pile intersects a supporting force fracture surface that is a sliding surface of the soft ground. 前記第1杭の杭長が前記第2杭の杭長より長い、若しくは前記第1杭の杭径が前記第2杭の杭径より大きい請求項1又は2に記載のパイルド・ラフト基礎。   The pile raft foundation according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a pile length of the first pile is longer than a pile length of the second pile, or a pile diameter of the first pile is larger than a pile diameter of the second pile.
JP2009057950A 2009-03-11 2009-03-11 Piled-raft foundation Pending JP2010209605A (en)

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JP2015010435A (en) * 2013-07-01 2015-01-19 株式会社竹中工務店 Foundation structure and design method for the same
CN108265735A (en) * 2018-02-05 2018-07-10 龙建路桥股份有限公司 High latitude High Temperature Permafrost area highway raft plate-pile composite foundation and process for constructing

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2015010435A (en) * 2013-07-01 2015-01-19 株式会社竹中工務店 Foundation structure and design method for the same
CN108265735A (en) * 2018-02-05 2018-07-10 龙建路桥股份有限公司 High latitude High Temperature Permafrost area highway raft plate-pile composite foundation and process for constructing

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