JP2011017184A - Retaining wall and method of constructing the same - Google Patents

Retaining wall and method of constructing the same Download PDF

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JP2011017184A
JP2011017184A JP2009162449A JP2009162449A JP2011017184A JP 2011017184 A JP2011017184 A JP 2011017184A JP 2009162449 A JP2009162449 A JP 2009162449A JP 2009162449 A JP2009162449 A JP 2009162449A JP 2011017184 A JP2011017184 A JP 2011017184A
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retaining
pile
ground
foundation
buttress
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JP5259510B2 (en
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Katsuhiro Kanuka
鹿糠嘉津博
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KANUKA DESIGN KK
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To position buttresses and a spindle-shaped foundation at the highest (shallowest) possible position and extend intervals between piles in a retaining wall having buttress and the spindle-shaped foundation.SOLUTION: The retaining wall (1) includes columns (2) and main piles (3) arranged at intervals, wall bodies (6) arranged between adjacent columns, buttresses (7) of a reinforced concrete structure projecting from the columns into the high ground, and the beam-like spindle-shaped foundation (8) of the reinforced concrete structure integrated with front ends of the buttresses and laterally extending in a manner of connecting adjacent buttresses to each other. Auxiliary piles (10) are arranged between the front ends of the buttresses. Upper ends of the auxiliary piles are integrated with the beam-like spindle-shaped foundation.

Description

本発明は、擁壁及びその施工方法に関するものであり、より詳細には、大型フーチングを備えずに高い安定性及び剛性を発揮することができる湿式工法の擁壁及びその施工方法に関するものである。   The present invention relates to a retaining wall and a construction method thereof, and more particularly, to a retaining wall of a wet construction method and a construction method thereof capable of exhibiting high stability and rigidity without a large footing. .

高さ2mを超える切土、或いは、高さ1mを超える盛土等によって生じる崖や、急傾斜地又は水路等の如く高低差が生じる地盤においては、地盤の崩壊を阻止すべく擁壁を設置する必要が生じる。擁壁は、鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体、或いは、プレキャストコンクリート製品又はコンクリートブロック等を組積した壁体からなる。   It is necessary to install a retaining wall to prevent the ground from collapsing on cliffs caused by cuts exceeding 2m in height, embankments exceeding 1m in height, or in grounds where height differences occur, such as steep slopes or waterways. Occurs. The retaining wall is made of a reinforced concrete structure or a wall made of precast concrete products or concrete blocks.

このような擁壁は、通常は、全体的にL型断面又はT型断面に設計され、比較的大型の基礎フーチングが擁壁底部に形成される。基礎フーチングは、擁壁に作用する荷重(土圧)及び擁壁の自重を支持地盤に伝達する広範な接地面積を確保するとともに、擁壁の転倒を防止するように機能する。   Such a retaining wall is usually designed with an L-shaped section or a T-shaped section as a whole, and a relatively large foundation footing is formed at the bottom of the retaining wall. The foundation footing functions to ensure a wide contact area for transmitting the load acting on the retaining wall (earth pressure) and the weight of the retaining wall to the supporting ground and to prevent the retaining wall from falling.

基礎フーチングは、高地盤側に比較的大きく延びるので、擁壁施工時に高地盤を広範囲に掘削し、擁壁施工後に掘削部分を埋戻す必要が生じる。しかし、広範な高地盤の掘削及び埋戻しは、多大な掘削工事の労力、移動土量の増加、埋戻し土の非安定性等の問題を生じさせる。また、施工現場の環境、条件又は地形によっては、大型の基礎フーチングを施工し難い状態が生じる。   Since the foundation footing extends relatively large toward the high ground side, it is necessary to excavate the high ground extensively during the retaining wall construction and backfill the excavated portion after the retaining wall construction. However, extensive excavation and backfilling of high ground causes problems such as a great amount of excavation work, an increase in the amount of moving soil, and instability of backfill soil. In addition, depending on the environment, conditions, or topography of the construction site, it may be difficult to construct a large foundation footing.

このような基礎フーチング施工の問題を解消すべく、支柱を構成する鋼製親杭に予め非転倒側の曲げモーメントを付与するように構成された乾式工法の擁壁構造が、特許第2824217号掲載公報に開示されている。   In order to solve such problems of foundation footing construction, the retaining wall structure of the dry construction method configured to give the bending moment on the non-falling side to the steel main pile that constitutes the support in advance is published in Patent No. 2824217 It is disclosed in the publication.

本発明者は、このような擁壁構造において、杭の直上に配置された鉄筋コンクリート構造の立柱と、壁体の鉛直荷重を支持する鉄筋コンクリート構造の地中梁形基礎とを一体化するとともに、鉄筋コンクリート構造のバットレスを擁壁の背後に突設し、梁状の錘形基礎をバットレス先端部に連結した構成を有する湿式工法の擁壁を特願2005-113760号(特開2006-291575号公報)において提案している。   The present inventor integrates the reinforced concrete structure upright arranged directly above the pile and the underground beam-shaped foundation of the reinforced concrete structure that supports the vertical load of the wall body in such a retaining wall structure. Japanese Patent Application No. 2005-113760 (Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2006-291575) discloses a retaining wall of a wet construction method in which a buttress having a structure protrudes behind the retaining wall and a beam-shaped spindle foundation is connected to the buttress tip. Proposed in

このように鉄筋コンクリート構造のバットレス及び錘形基礎を備えた擁壁においては、バットレス及び錘形基礎の自重によって擁壁の重心を高地盤側に変位させるとともに、バットレス壁面及び地盤の間の摩擦力や、錘形基礎及び地盤の間の摩擦力によって擁壁の転倒を効果的に阻止することができる。   In this way, in the retaining wall equipped with a reinforced concrete buttress and a weight foundation, the center of gravity of the retaining wall is displaced to the high ground side by the weight of the buttress and the weight foundation, and the frictional force between the buttress wall surface and the ground is The falling of the retaining wall can be effectively prevented by the frictional force between the spindle foundation and the ground.

特許第2824217号掲載公報Publication No. 2824217 特開2006-291575号公報JP 2006-291575 A

このような構造の擁壁において掘削工程及びその労力を短縮又は軽減するとともに、掘削土量、廃土量及び埋戻し土量を効果的に削減するには、バットレス及び錘形基礎をなるべく高い位置、即ち、高地盤側の地盤面になるべく近い位置に配置することが望ましい。しかし、実際には、擁壁の転倒又は滑動、或いは、バットレス及び錘形基礎の浮き上がり等を考慮し、バットレス及び錘形基礎を比較的低い位置、即ち、高地盤側の地盤面から深く掘削した位置に配置しなければならない事例が多い。   In order to shorten or reduce the excavation process and its labor in the retaining wall with such a structure, and to effectively reduce the amount of excavated soil, waste soil, and backfill soil, the buttress and the weight foundation are positioned as high as possible. In other words, it is desirable to arrange it as close as possible to the ground surface on the high ground side. However, in actuality, considering the falling or sliding of the retaining wall or the lift of the buttress and the weight-shaped foundation, the buttress and the weight-shaped foundation are deeply excavated from a relatively low position, that is, the ground surface on the high ground side. There are many cases that must be placed in position.

また、各杭に十分な杭耐力を発揮せしめるには、隣接する杭の間隔を十分に確保する必要があり、杭間隔を拡大することが望ましい。杭間隔の拡大は、杭及び柱の本数の減少をも意味するので、経済的にも有利である。しかし、杭間隔を拡大すると、各杭が支持すべき水平力が増大する。加えて、杭間の地盤の安定性をも考慮すると、杭間隔を所望の如く拡大し難い事情がある。   Moreover, in order to make each pile exhibit sufficient pile strength, it is necessary to ensure the space | interval of an adjacent pile enough, and it is desirable to expand a pile space | interval. Expansion of the pile interval also means a decrease in the number of piles and columns, which is economically advantageous. However, if the pile interval is enlarged, the horizontal force that each pile should support increases. In addition, considering the stability of the ground between the piles, there is a situation where it is difficult to increase the pile interval as desired.

本発明は、このような事情に鑑みてなされたものであり、その目的とするところは、バットレス及び錘形基礎を有する擁壁に関し、バットレス及び錘形基礎をなるべく高い位置(高地盤側の地盤面からの掘削深さが浅い位置)に位置決めするとともに、杭間隔を拡大することができる擁壁及びその施工方法を提供することにある。   The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and an object of the present invention relates to a retaining wall having a buttress and a weight-shaped foundation, and the position of the buttress and the weight-shaped foundation as high as possible (the ground on the high ground side). It is to provide a retaining wall that can be positioned at a position where the excavation depth from the surface is shallow) and can increase the interval between piles, and a construction method therefor.

本発明は、上記目的を達成すべく、間隔を隔てて配置された柱及び主杭と、隣合う前記柱の間に配置された壁体と、前記柱から高地盤内に突出する鉄筋コンクリート構造のバットレスと、該バットレスの先端部に一体化し、隣合うバットレス同士を相互連結するように横方向に延びる鉄筋コンクリート構造の梁状錘形基礎とを有する擁壁において、
前記バットレスの先端部の間に配置され、上端部が前記梁状錘形基礎に一体化した補助杭を有することを特徴とする擁壁を提供する。
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a column and a main pile that are spaced apart from each other, a wall disposed between the adjacent columns, and a reinforced concrete structure that protrudes from the column into a high ground. In a retaining wall having a buttress and a beam-shaped pyramid base of a reinforced concrete structure that is integrated with the tip of the buttress and extends laterally so as to interconnect adjacent buttresses,
The retaining wall is provided between the front ends of the buttress and has an auxiliary pile whose upper end is integrated with the beam-shaped pyramid foundation.

本発明は又、上記構成の擁壁の施工方法であって、前記バットレスの先端部の間に場所打ちコンクリート杭又は既成杭を前記補助杭として施工し、該補助杭の直上に前記梁状錘形基礎を施工し、前記補助杭の上端部と前記梁状錘形基礎とを一体化することを特徴とする擁壁の施工方法を提供する。   The present invention is also a method for constructing a retaining wall having the above-described configuration, in which a cast-in-place concrete pile or a prefabricated pile is constructed as the auxiliary pile between the end portions of the buttress, and the beam weight is directly above the auxiliary pile. A method for constructing a retaining wall is provided, wherein a shape foundation is constructed, and an upper end portion of the auxiliary pile and the beam-shaped spindle foundation are integrated.

本発明の上記構成によれば、擁壁の軸組は、柱及び主杭からなる垂直軸組部材と、柱間に配設された壁体と、柱の背後に配置されたバットレス及び梁状錘形基礎と、梁状錘形基礎から下方に延びる補助杭とから構成される。高地盤の土圧は、主として、主杭及び補助杭の水平支持力や、梁状錘形基礎、バットレス等と地盤との間の摩擦力によって支持される。梁状錘形基礎、バットレス及び補助杭は、擁壁の重心を高地盤側に変位させ、擁壁の安定モーメントを増大して擁壁の転倒を防止するように作用する。また、本発明によれば、補助杭の引抜き抵抗が擁壁の転倒を防止するように作用する。このため、安定モーメント確保のために梁状錘形基礎及びバットレスに作用すべき土の重量を軽減することができ、従って、バットレス及び梁状錘形基礎を高い位置(高地盤側の地盤面からの掘削深さが浅い位置)に位置決めすることができる。   According to the above-described configuration of the present invention, the retaining wall shaft includes a vertical shaft member composed of columns and main piles, a wall disposed between the columns, a buttress and a beam disposed behind the columns. It is comprised from a weight-shaped foundation and the auxiliary pile extended below from a beam-shaped weight-shaped foundation. The earth pressure of the high ground is mainly supported by the horizontal supporting force of the main pile and the auxiliary pile, and the frictional force between the beam-shaped spindle foundation, buttress and the ground. The beam-shaped pyramidal foundation, buttress and auxiliary pile act to displace the center of gravity of the retaining wall toward the high ground side, increase the stability moment of the retaining wall, and prevent the retaining wall from falling. Further, according to the present invention, the pull-out resistance of the auxiliary pile acts so as to prevent the retaining wall from overturning. For this reason, it is possible to reduce the weight of the soil that should act on the beam-shaped pyramid foundation and the buttress in order to secure a stable moment. Therefore, the buttress and the beam-shaped pyramid foundation can be placed at a high position (from the ground surface on the high ground side). Can be positioned at a position where the excavation depth is shallow.

また、補助杭は、主杭が負担すべき水平支持力を部分的に負担し、主杭の負荷を軽減する。補助杭は又、主杭の間のスパン間領域に配置され、高地盤Gを安定させる。このため、主杭の間隔(柱の間隔)を拡大することができる。   Moreover, an auxiliary pile partially bears the horizontal support force which a main pile should bear, and reduces the load of a main pile. Auxiliary piles are also placed in the span area between the main piles to stabilize the high ground G. For this reason, the space | interval (space | interval of a pillar) of a main pile can be expanded.

本発明によれば、バットレス及び錘形基礎を有する擁壁おいて、バットレス及び錘形基礎をなるべく高い位置(高地盤側の地盤面からの掘削深さが浅い位置)に位置決めするとともに、主杭の間隔(柱の間隔)を拡大することができる。   According to the present invention, in the retaining wall having a buttress and a weight-shaped foundation, the buttress and the weight-shaped foundation are positioned as high as possible (position where the excavation depth from the ground surface on the high ground side is shallow), and the main pile The interval (column interval) can be increased.

図1は、本発明に係る擁壁の実施例を示す部分破断斜視図である。FIG. 1 is a partially broken perspective view showing an embodiment of a retaining wall according to the present invention. 図2は、図1に示す擁壁の縦断面図である。FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of the retaining wall shown in FIG. 図3は、図2のA−A線における断面図である。3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA in FIG. 図4は、図2のB−B線における断面図である。4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line BB in FIG. 図5は、柱、主杭、補助杭、バットレス及び梁状錘形基礎の配筋を概略的に示す横断面図である。FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing the reinforcement of columns, main piles, auxiliary piles, buttresses and beam-shaped pyramid foundations. 擁壁に作用する荷重の分布を概略的に示す荷重分布図である。It is a load distribution diagram which shows roughly distribution of load which acts on a retaining wall.

本発明の好適に実施形態によれば、水平地盤面に対するバットレスの下端面の傾斜角(θ)は、45°以上の角度に設定される。好ましくは、高地盤の地盤面とバットレスの上端面との間の距離(J)は、擁壁の高さ(H)の1/4〜1/6の範囲内に設定される。   According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the inclination angle (θ) of the lower end surface of the buttress with respect to the horizontal ground surface is set to an angle of 45 ° or more. Preferably, the distance (J) between the ground surface of the high ground and the upper end surface of the buttress is set within a range of 1/4 to 1/6 of the height (H) of the retaining wall.

本発明の更に好適に実施形態によれば、主杭及び補助杭は、擁壁の壁芯方向に千鳥配列に配置される。好ましくは、補助杭の下端部は、低地盤の地盤面よりも下方に位置する。更に好ましくは、補助杭の下端部と、低地盤の地盤面との間の距離(M)は、1m以上の寸法に設定される。   According to a further preferred embodiment of the present invention, the main pile and the auxiliary pile are arranged in a staggered arrangement in the direction of the wall core of the retaining wall. Preferably, the lower end portion of the auxiliary pile is located below the ground surface of the low ground. More preferably, the distance (M) between the lower end of the auxiliary pile and the ground surface of the low ground is set to a dimension of 1 m or more.

好適には、主杭及び補助杭の間の杭芯間の距離(E)と、擁壁の高さ(H)との比率(E/H)は、1.0以下に設定される。なお、杭芯間の距離(E)は、擁壁の壁体と直交する方向において測定した寸法である。   Preferably, the ratio (E / H) between the distance (E) between the pile cores between the main pile and the auxiliary pile and the height (H) of the retaining wall is set to 1.0 or less. In addition, the distance (E) between pile cores is the dimension measured in the direction orthogonal to the wall body of a retaining wall.

以下、添付図面を参照して本発明の好適な実施例について詳細に説明する。   Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

図1は、本発明に係る擁壁の実施例を示す部分破断斜視図であり、図2は、図1に示す擁壁の縦断面図である。   FIG. 1 is a partially broken perspective view showing an embodiment of a retaining wall according to the present invention, and FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of the retaining wall shown in FIG.

擁壁1は、壁芯方向に間隔を隔てて配置された方形断面の柱2を備える。主杭3が、各柱2の直下に配置される。柱2及び主杭3の軸芯は一致し、柱2及び主杭3は上下に整列する。柱2は、鉄筋コンクリート構造の垂直立柱からなり、主杭3は、円形断面の場所打ちコンクリート杭からなる。本例において、主杭3の先端部(下端部)の深さNは、地盤面Laから約3〜7mの範囲内に設定されている。柱2及び主杭3は、擁壁1の垂直軸組部材を構成する。   The retaining wall 1 includes pillars 2 having a square cross section arranged at intervals in the wall core direction. A main pile 3 is arranged directly below each pillar 2. The axial centers of the pillar 2 and the main pile 3 coincide, and the pillar 2 and the main pile 3 are aligned vertically. The column 2 is composed of a vertical standing column having a reinforced concrete structure, and the main pile 3 is composed of a cast-in-place concrete pile having a circular cross section. In this example, the depth N of the front-end | tip part (lower end part) of the main pile 3 is set in the range of about 3-7m from the ground surface La. The pillar 2 and the main pile 3 constitute a vertical shaft member of the retaining wall 1.

柱2の柱脚部を相互連結する鉄筋コンクリート構造の地中梁形基礎4が、擁壁1の壁芯方向に延び、壁体6が基礎4上に構築される。壁体6は、25〜30cm程度の壁厚を有する鉄筋コンクリート壁からなる。本例において、柱2及び壁体6は、主杭3の深さNと概ね同等の高さHを有し、高さHは、地盤面Laから約3〜5mの範囲内に設定されている。基礎4は、垂直方向に延びる強軸(水平方向の弱軸)を有する方形の梁形断面を有し、基礎4に作用する鉛直荷重及び水平荷重に耐える曲げ剛性及び剪断剛性を備える。基礎4は、隣接する垂直軸組部材(柱2及び主杭3)を相互連結する擁壁1の水平軸組部材を構成する。なお、擁壁用PCブロック(プレキャストコンクリートブロック)によって壁体5を構築することも可能である。例えば、PCブロックは、縦横の鉄筋を目地部及び中空部等に配筋した後にセメントモルタルを目地部及び中空部に充填する公知の湿式組積工法に従って施工される。   An underground beam-shaped foundation 4 having a reinforced concrete structure interconnecting the column bases of the columns 2 extends in the direction of the wall core of the retaining wall 1, and the wall body 6 is constructed on the foundation 4. The wall body 6 consists of a reinforced concrete wall having a wall thickness of about 25 to 30 cm. In this example, the column 2 and the wall body 6 have a height H substantially equal to the depth N of the main pile 3, and the height H is set within a range of about 3 to 5 m from the ground surface La. Yes. The foundation 4 has a rectangular beam-shaped cross section having a strong axis (a weak axis in the horizontal direction) extending in the vertical direction, and has bending rigidity and shear rigidity that can withstand vertical load and horizontal load acting on the foundation 4. The foundation 4 constitutes a horizontal axis member of the retaining wall 1 that interconnects adjacent vertical axis members (column 2 and main pile 3). In addition, it is also possible to construct | assemble the wall 5 with the PC block (precast concrete block) for retaining walls. For example, the PC block is constructed according to a known wet masonry method in which longitudinal and horizontal reinforcing bars are arranged in joints and hollow parts and then cement mortar is filled in the joints and hollow parts.

バットレス(控え壁)7が、柱2の背後に配設される。バットレス7は、柱2の裏面に一体化した鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体からなり、柱2の裏面から高地盤G側に突出する。例えば、擁壁1が真っ直ぐに直線的に延びる場合、バットレス7の構面は、壁体6の構面と直交する方向に延びる。所望により、バットレス7の構面を壁体6に対して任意の角度をなす方向に配向しても良い。   A buttress (retaining wall) 7 is disposed behind the pillar 2. The buttress 7 is made of a reinforced concrete wall body integrated with the back surface of the column 2 and protrudes from the back surface of the column 2 to the high ground G side. For example, when the retaining wall 1 extends straight and straight, the construction surface of the buttress 7 extends in a direction orthogonal to the construction surface of the wall body 6. If desired, the surface of buttress 7 may be oriented in a direction that forms an arbitrary angle with respect to wall 6.

バットレス7の上端面7aは、高地盤G側に水平に延び、バットレス7の下端面7bは、柱2の柱脚部から高地盤Gに向かって斜め上方に延びる。   The upper end surface 7a of the buttress 7 extends horizontally toward the high ground G side, and the lower end surface 7b of the buttress 7 extends obliquely upward from the column base portion of the column 2 toward the high ground G.

鉄筋コンクリート構造の高剛性梁形基礎8が高地盤G内に形成される。基礎8は方形断面を有する。基礎8は概ね壁芯方向に水平に延びる。隣合うバットレス7の先端部は基礎8によって相互連結される。基礎8の断面寸法W×Iは、700×700〜1200×1200程度の寸法に設定される。基礎8は、その自重によって擁壁1の重心位置を高地盤Gの側に変位させる。擁壁1の重心位置の変位により、擁壁1の転倒を防止するように作用する安定モーメントが更に得られる。   A highly rigid beam-shaped foundation 8 having a reinforced concrete structure is formed in the high ground G. The foundation 8 has a square cross section. The foundation 8 extends horizontally in the direction of the wall core. The ends of adjacent buttresses 7 are interconnected by a foundation 8. The cross-sectional dimension W × I of the foundation 8 is set to a size of about 700 × 700 to 1200 × 1200. The foundation 8 displaces the position of the center of gravity of the retaining wall 1 toward the high ground G by its own weight. Due to the displacement of the center of gravity of the retaining wall 1, a stable moment that acts to prevent the retaining wall 1 from falling is further obtained.

擁壁1は又、基礎8に沿って所定間隔を隔てて配置された補助杭10を有する。補助杭10は、円形断面の場所打ちコンクリート杭からなり、補助杭10の上端部は基礎8に一体化する。補助杭10は基礎8の下面から垂直下方に延び、補助杭10の下端部(先端部)は、低地盤Lの地盤面Laよりも所定寸法M(1.0m以上)だけ下方に位置する。補助杭10の全長Kと基礎8の高さ寸法Iとの合計値は、擁壁1の高さHと概ね同等の値である。   The retaining wall 1 also has auxiliary piles 10 arranged at predetermined intervals along the foundation 8. The auxiliary pile 10 is a cast-in-place concrete pile having a circular cross section, and the upper end portion of the auxiliary pile 10 is integrated with the foundation 8. The auxiliary pile 10 extends vertically downward from the lower surface of the foundation 8, and the lower end portion (tip portion) of the auxiliary pile 10 is positioned below the ground surface La of the low ground L by a predetermined dimension M (1.0 m or more). The total value of the total length K of the auxiliary pile 10 and the height dimension I of the foundation 8 is substantially the same value as the height H of the retaining wall 1.

図3及び図4は、図2のA−A線及びB−B線における断面図である。   3 and 4 are sectional views taken along lines AA and BB in FIG.

補助杭10は柱スパンSの中央部に配置される。隣合う補助杭10同士は、柱スパンSと同寸法のスパンTだけ互いに離間する。擁壁1は主杭3と同数の補助杭10を有する。主杭3及び補助杭10は、擁壁1に沿って千鳥配置に配列されるので、補助杭10同士の間隔を十分に確保するとともに、高地盤Gの安定性を向上させることができる。高地盤Gの安定性向上により、従来の擁壁に比べて柱スパンSを拡大することができる。例えば、柱スパンSは、補助杭10を備えていない従来の擁壁では2.0〜3.0m程度であったのに対し、本発明の擁壁1によれば、柱スパンSを4.0m以上、例えば、4.0〜5.0mの範囲に設定することができる。   The auxiliary pile 10 is disposed at the center of the column span S. Adjacent auxiliary piles 10 are separated from each other by a span T having the same dimensions as the column span S. The retaining wall 1 has the same number of auxiliary piles 10 as the main piles 3. Since the main pile 3 and the auxiliary pile 10 are arranged in a staggered arrangement along the retaining wall 1, it is possible to sufficiently secure the interval between the auxiliary piles 10 and to improve the stability of the high ground G. By improving the stability of the high ground G, the column span S can be expanded compared to the conventional retaining wall. For example, the column span S is about 2.0 to 3.0 m in the conventional retaining wall not provided with the auxiliary pile 10, whereas according to the retaining wall 1 of the present invention, the column span S is 4. It can be set in the range of 0 m or more, for example, 4.0 to 5.0 m.

図5は、柱2、主杭3、バットレス7、基礎8及び補助杭10の配筋を概略的に示す横断面図である。   FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing the reinforcement arrangement of the pillar 2, the main pile 3, the buttress 7, the foundation 8, and the auxiliary pile 10.

柱2の主筋2aは、基礎4を貫通して主杭3内に延び、基礎4及び主杭3のコンクリートに定着し、主杭3の主筋3aは、基礎4を貫通して柱2内に延び、基礎7及び柱2のコンクリートに定着する。基礎8は、基礎8の長手方向(擁壁1の壁芯方向)に延びる主筋8aを有し、基礎8に作用する荷重、剪断力等の外力に耐える耐力を発揮する。バットレス7は、上下の主筋7c、7dを有する。主筋7cの柱側端部は、柱2内に延び、柱2のコンクリートに定着し、主筋7dの柱側端部は、基礎4を貫通し、主杭3内に延び、基礎4及び主杭3のコンクリートに定着する。主筋7c、7dの外端部は、基礎8内に延び、基礎8のコンクリートに定着する。補助杭10の主筋10aは、基礎8内に延び、基礎8のコンクリートに定着する。柱2、杭3、10は、フープ筋2b、3b、10bを有する。   The main reinforcement 2a of the pillar 2 extends through the foundation 4 into the main pile 3 and is fixed to the concrete of the foundation 4 and the main pile 3. The main reinforcement 3a of the main pile 3 penetrates the foundation 4 into the pillar 2. It extends and settles on the concrete of the foundation 7 and the pillar 2. The foundation 8 has a main reinforcing bar 8a extending in the longitudinal direction of the foundation 8 (in the direction of the wall core of the retaining wall 1), and exhibits a proof strength that can withstand external forces such as a load acting on the foundation 8 and a shearing force. The buttress 7 has upper and lower main muscles 7c and 7d. The column side end of the main reinforcement 7c extends into the column 2 and is fixed to the concrete of the column 2, and the column end of the main reinforcement 7d penetrates the foundation 4 and extends into the main pile 3, and the foundation 4 and the main pile Fix to the concrete of No. 3. The outer ends of the main bars 7c and 7d extend into the foundation 8 and are fixed to the concrete of the foundation 8. The main reinforcement 10 a of the auxiliary pile 10 extends into the foundation 8 and is fixed to the concrete of the foundation 8. The pillar 2 and the piles 3 and 10 have hoops 2b, 3b and 10b.

主筋2a、3a、8a、10aとして、D19〜D29程度の汎用の異形鉄筋を使用し、フープ筋2b、3b、10b及びスタラップ筋8bとして、D13〜D19程度の汎用の異形鉄筋を使用することができる。   It is possible to use general-purpose deformed reinforcing bars of about D19 to D29 as the main bars 2a, 3a, 8a and 10a, and use general-purpose deformed reinforcing bars of about D13 to D19 as the hoops 2b, 3b and 10b and the stirrup muscle 8b. it can.

なお、基礎4は、基礎8と同様、壁芯方向に延びる主筋(図示せず)と、主筋を囲むスタラップ筋(図示せず)とを有する。基礎4の主筋として、D19〜D29程度の汎用の異形鉄筋を使用し、基礎4のスタラップ筋として、D13〜D19程度の汎用の異形鉄筋を使用することができる。   In addition, the foundation 4 has the main reinforcement (not shown) extended in a wall core direction similarly to the foundation 8, and the stirrup reinforcement (not shown) surrounding the main reinforcement. A general-purpose deformed rebar of about D19 to D29 can be used as the main rebar of the foundation 4, and a general-purpose deformed rebar of about D13 to D19 can be used as the stirrup of the foundation 4.

図2に示す如く、バットレス7の下端面7bは、水平地盤面La、Gaに対し、比較的急勾配に傾斜しており、下端面7bの傾斜角θは、30°以上、好ましくは、45°〜60°の範囲に設定される。好適には、高地盤Gの地盤面Gaと上端面7aとの間の距離Jは、柱2及び壁体6の高さ(擁壁1の高さ)Hの約1/4〜1/6の範囲に設定され、例えば、高さH=5.0mであるとき、距離Jは、1.5m以下、例えば、J=1.0mに設定される。好ましくは、主杭3及び補助杭10の杭芯間距離Eと、柱2及び壁体6の高さ(擁壁1の高さ)Hとの比率E/Hは、1.0以下に設定される。杭芯間距離Eは、壁体6の構面と直交する方向に測定した寸法である。   As shown in FIG. 2, the lower end surface 7b of the buttress 7 is inclined relatively steeply with respect to the horizontal ground surfaces La and Ga, and the inclination angle θ of the lower end surface 7b is 30 ° or more, preferably 45. It is set in the range of ° to 60 °. Preferably, the distance J between the ground surface Ga of the high ground G and the upper end surface 7a is about 1/4 to 1/6 of the height H of the pillar 2 and the wall body 6 (height of the retaining wall 1). For example, when the height H is 5.0 m, the distance J is set to 1.5 m or less, for example, J = 1.0 m. Preferably, the ratio E / H between the pile center distance E of the main pile 3 and the auxiliary pile 10 and the height of the column 2 and the wall body 6 (height of the retaining wall 1) H is set to 1.0 or less. Is done. The distance E between pile cores is a dimension measured in a direction orthogonal to the composition surface of the wall body 6.

図6は、擁壁1に作用する荷重の分布を概略的に示す荷重分布図である。   FIG. 6 is a load distribution diagram schematically showing the distribution of the load acting on the retaining wall 1.

図6に示す如く、バットレス7及び基礎8には、高地盤Gの土の重量が作用し、壁体6及び柱2には、水平土圧が作用する。杭3、10には、地盤バネ及び地盤支持力が作用する。基礎8及び補助杭10の自重と、補助杭10の引抜き抵抗とは、高地盤Gの土の重量とともに、擁壁1の転倒モーメントに抗する安定モーメントとして働く。   As shown in FIG. 6, the soil weight of the high ground G acts on the buttress 7 and the foundation 8, and horizontal earth pressure acts on the wall body 6 and the column 2. A ground spring and a ground supporting force act on the piles 3 and 10. The dead weight of the foundation 8 and the auxiliary pile 10 and the pulling resistance of the auxiliary pile 10 work as a stable moment against the overturning moment of the retaining wall 1 together with the soil weight of the high ground G.

図2に示すように、基礎8は、高地盤Gの地盤面Gaに比較的近い位置に配置されるので、バットレス7及び基礎8の上側の土の重量は比較的小さい。また、下端面7bの傾斜角θが比較的大きい角度に設定されることから、擁壁1の壁芯と基礎8の軸芯との間の水平距離(杭芯間距離E)は比較的小さい寸法に設定される。従って、掘削工程及びその労力を短縮又は軽減するとともに、掘削土量、廃土量及び埋戻し土量を削減することができる。   As shown in FIG. 2, since the foundation 8 is disposed at a position relatively close to the ground surface Ga of the high ground G, the weight of the soil above the buttress 7 and the foundation 8 is relatively small. Further, since the inclination angle θ of the lower end surface 7b is set to a relatively large angle, the horizontal distance (pile core distance E) between the wall core of the retaining wall 1 and the shaft core of the foundation 8 is relatively small. Set to dimension. Therefore, the excavation process and its labor can be shortened or reduced, and the amount of excavated soil, the amount of waste soil, and the amount of backfilled soil can be reduced.

また、このように基礎8を高地盤Gの地盤面Gaに近い位置(浅い位置)に配置したり、角度θを増大すると、擁壁1の転倒又は滑動や、バットレス7及び基礎8の浮き上がり等の現象が懸念されるが、本発明の擁壁1においては、転倒モーメントに抗する安定モーメントが、バットレス7及び基礎8と地盤との摩擦、補助杭10の重量(自重)、補助杭10の引抜き抵抗、補助杭10と高地盤Gとの間の摩擦等によって増大するので、擁壁1の転倒又は滑動や、バットレス7及び基礎8の浮き上がり等の問題は生じない。   Further, when the foundation 8 is arranged at a position close to the ground surface Ga of the high ground G (shallow position) or when the angle θ is increased, the retaining wall 1 falls or slides, the buttress 7 and the foundation 8 are lifted, etc. However, in the retaining wall 1 of the present invention, the stability moment against the overturning moment is the friction between the buttress 7 and the foundation 8 and the ground, the weight (self-weight) of the auxiliary pile 10, Since it increases due to the pulling resistance, friction between the auxiliary pile 10 and the high ground G, etc., problems such as the falling or sliding of the retaining wall 1 and the lifting of the buttress 7 and the foundation 8 do not occur.

更に、補助杭10は、主杭3が負担すべき水平抵抗を部分的に負担し、主杭3の負荷を軽減するとともに、主杭3の間のスパン間領域に配置され、高地盤Gを安定させる。これは、主杭3の間隔(スパンS)を増大し、擁壁1全体の主杭3(及び柱2)の本数を削減することを可能にする。   Further, the auxiliary pile 10 partially bears the horizontal resistance to be borne by the main pile 3, reduces the load on the main pile 3, and is disposed in an inter-span region between the main piles 3, Stabilize. This increases the interval (span S) of the main piles 3 and makes it possible to reduce the number of main piles 3 (and columns 2) of the entire retaining wall 1.

次に、擁壁1の施工方法について説明する。   Next, the construction method of the retaining wall 1 will be described.

擁壁1の施工において、高地盤Gの掘削範囲は、杭3、10、基礎4、8及びバットレス7を施工可能な程度に限定される。即ち、擁壁1の施工においては、従来の擁壁施工方法と異なり、フーチング施工のために高地盤Gを大きく掘削することを要しない。   In the construction of the retaining wall 1, the excavation range of the high ground G is limited to the extent that the piles 3, 10, the foundations 4, 8 and the buttress 7 can be constructed. That is, in the construction of the retaining wall 1, unlike the conventional retaining wall construction method, it is not necessary to excavate the high ground G for the footing construction.

先ず、杭3、10、基礎4、8及びバットレス7を施工するために必要とされる最小限の範囲だけ高地盤Gを掘削し、杭3、10の杭孔に鉄筋を配筋し、杭孔にコンクリートを打設して、場所打ちコンクリート杭(杭3、10)を施工する。柱2及びバットレス7の主筋2a、7dは、杭3、10の配筋と同時に少なくとも部分的に施工され、主筋2a、7dは、主杭3のコンクリートに定着する。   First, the high ground G is excavated to the minimum extent required to construct the piles 3, 10, foundations 4, 8 and buttress 7, and reinforcing bars are placed in the pile holes of the piles 3, 10; Concrete is placed in the hole, and cast-in-place concrete piles (pile 3, 10) are constructed. The main bars 2 a and 7 d of the pillar 2 and the buttress 7 are at least partially constructed simultaneously with the bar arrangement of the piles 3 and 10, and the main bars 2 a and 7 d are fixed to the concrete of the main pile 3.

次いで、基礎4の配筋及びコンクリート打設を行い、基礎4を施工する。
しかる後、柱2、壁体6、バットレス7及び基礎8の配筋およびコンクリート打設を行い、柱2、壁体6、バットレス7及び基礎8を施工する。各部のコンクリート及びモルタルの硬化後、掘削土の埋戻しを行い、擁壁1の工事を完了する。
Next, reinforcement of the foundation 4 and concrete placement are performed, and the foundation 4 is constructed.
After that, the reinforcement of the pillar 2, wall body 6, buttress 7 and foundation 8 and concrete placement are performed, and the pillar 2, wall body 6, buttress 7 and foundation 8 are constructed. After the concrete and mortar of each part is hardened, the excavated soil is backfilled to complete the construction of the retaining wall 1.

このような構成の擁壁1及びその施工方法によれば、擁壁1の荷重は、主として、上下に整列した柱2及び主杭3によって地盤に伝達する。従って、従来のような大型フーチングの施工を省略し得るので、掘削範囲を制限し、掘削土、廃土及び埋戻し土の量を削減することができる。   According to the retaining wall 1 having such a configuration and the construction method thereof, the load of the retaining wall 1 is transmitted to the ground mainly by the columns 2 and the main pile 3 aligned vertically. Therefore, since the construction of large footings as in the prior art can be omitted, the excavation range can be limited, and the amount of excavated soil, waste soil and backfill soil can be reduced.

ここに、基礎4は、垂直軸組部材(柱2及び主杭3)同士を相互連結する水平軸組部材を構成し、擁壁1の剛性を全体的に向上させるとともに、壁体6の自重及び荷重を垂直軸組部材(柱2及び主杭3)に伝達する。また、バットレス7は、柱2の剛性を向上するばかりでなく、バットレス7の側面と地盤との間に生じる摩擦力によって擁壁1の転倒を阻止するように働く。更に、基礎8は、各バットレス7を相互連結し、バットレス自身の剛性を向上させる。基礎8は又、バットレス7の先端部に鉛直荷重を付与し、バットレス7及び基礎8の重量は、擁壁1の重心を非転倒側に変位させる。かくして、土圧による擁壁1の転倒を確実に防止することができる。   Here, the foundation 4 constitutes a horizontal shaft assembly member that interconnects the vertical shaft assembly members (the pillars 2 and the main piles 3) to improve the rigidity of the retaining wall 1 as a whole, and the weight of the wall body 6 itself. And the load are transmitted to the vertical shaft members (column 2 and main pile 3). The buttress 7 not only improves the rigidity of the column 2 but also works to prevent the retaining wall 1 from falling due to the frictional force generated between the side surface of the buttress 7 and the ground. Further, the foundation 8 interconnects the buttresses 7 and improves the rigidity of the buttress itself. The foundation 8 also applies a vertical load to the tip of the buttress 7, and the weight of the buttress 7 and the foundation 8 displaces the center of gravity of the retaining wall 1 to the non-falling side. Thus, the falling of the retaining wall 1 due to earth pressure can be reliably prevented.

また、本発明の擁壁1においては、補助杭10は、主杭3が負担すべき水平抵抗を部分的に負担し、主杭3の負荷を軽減する。補助杭10は又、主杭3の間のスパン間領域に配置され、高地盤Gを安定させる。このため、主杭3(及び柱2)の間隔(スパンS)を拡大し、主杭3(及び柱2)の本数を削減することが可能となる。しかも、転倒モーメントに抗する安定モーメントは、補助杭10の重量(自重)、補助杭10の引抜き抵抗、補助杭10と高地盤Gとの間の摩擦等によって増大するので、擁壁1の転倒又は滑動や、バットレス7及び基礎8の浮き上がり等を効果的に防止することができる。   Moreover, in the retaining wall 1 of this invention, the auxiliary pile 10 partially bears the horizontal resistance which the main pile 3 should bear, and reduces the load of the main pile 3. The auxiliary pile 10 is also disposed in the inter-span region between the main piles 3 to stabilize the high ground G. For this reason, it becomes possible to enlarge the space | interval (span S) of the main pile 3 (and pillar 2), and to reduce the number of the main pile 3 (and pillar 2). In addition, the stability moment against the overturning moment increases due to the weight (self-weight) of the auxiliary pile 10, the pulling resistance of the auxiliary pile 10, the friction between the auxiliary pile 10 and the high ground G, etc. Alternatively, sliding and lifting of the buttress 7 and the foundation 8 can be effectively prevented.

以上、本発明の好適な実施例について詳細に説明したが、本発明は上記実施例に限定されるものではなく、特許請求の範囲に記載された本発明の範囲内で種々の変形又は変更が可能である。   The preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail above, but the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, and various modifications or changes can be made within the scope of the present invention described in the claims. Is possible.

例えば、上記実施例は、直線的な壁体を有する擁壁に関するのものであるが、本発明は、湾曲した平面形態の擁壁、或いは、角度をなして屈曲する擁壁等の各種平面形態の擁壁に適用しても良い。   For example, the above embodiment relates to a retaining wall having a straight wall body, but the present invention can be applied to various planar forms such as a retaining wall having a curved planar shape or a retaining wall bent at an angle. It may be applied to the retaining wall.

また、上記実施例では、擁壁1は、方形断面の柱2及び基礎4、8を備えるが、柱及び基礎の断面は、方形、多角形又は楕円形等の任意の形態に設計しても良い。   Moreover, in the said Example, although the retaining wall 1 is provided with the pillar 2 and the foundations 4 and 8 of a square cross section, even if the cross section of a pillar and a foundation is designed in arbitrary forms, such as a square, a polygon, or an ellipse. good.

更に、バットレス7の形態は、必ずしも直角三角形に限定されるものではなく、例えば、下端面7bを湾曲させ、或いは、上端面7aを傾斜させても良い。   Further, the form of the buttress 7 is not necessarily limited to a right triangle. For example, the lower end surface 7b may be curved, or the upper end surface 7a may be inclined.

また、上記実施形態では、杭3、10として場所打ちコンクリート杭を採用したが、既成RC杭、PC杭、鋼製杭等の他の形式の杭を杭3、10として採用しても良い。   Moreover, in the said embodiment, although the cast-in-place concrete pile was employ | adopted as the piles 3 and 10, you may employ | adopt other types of piles, such as an existing RC pile, PC pile, and steel piles, as the piles 3 and 10.

更には、上記実施形態の擁壁は、唯一の補助杭10を柱スパンSの中央部に配置した構成のものであるが、複数の補助杭10を柱スパンSの範囲内に配置することも可能である。   Furthermore, although the retaining wall of the said embodiment is a thing of the structure which has arrange | positioned the single auxiliary pile 10 in the center part of the column span S, it is also possible to arrange a plurality of auxiliary piles 10 within the range of the column span S. Is possible.

本発明は、崖、急傾斜地又は水路等に施工される擁壁に適用される。本発明の擁壁は、大型フーチングの施工を要しないので、擁壁の施工性は、大きく改善する。また、本発明によれば、高地盤の掘削量を削減し得るので、従来の擁壁構造では擁壁の施工が困難であった地盤においても擁壁を施工することができる。更に、本発明によれば、バットレス及び錘形基礎を有する擁壁おいて、バットレス及び錘形基礎をなるべく高い位置(高地盤側の地盤面からの掘削深さが浅い位置)に位置決めするとともに、杭及び柱の間隔を拡大することができるので、その実用的効果は、顕著である。   The present invention is applied to a retaining wall constructed on a cliff, a steep slope, a water channel or the like. Since the retaining wall of the present invention does not require the construction of a large footing, the workability of the retaining wall is greatly improved. Further, according to the present invention, since the amount of excavation of the high ground can be reduced, it is possible to construct the retaining wall even in the ground where it has been difficult to construct the retaining wall with the conventional retaining wall structure. Furthermore, according to the present invention, in the retaining wall having the buttress and the weight-shaped foundation, the buttress and the weight-shaped foundation are positioned as high as possible (position where the excavation depth from the ground surface on the high ground side is shallow), Since the distance between piles and columns can be increased, the practical effect is remarkable.

1 擁壁
2 柱
3 主杭
4 地中梁形基礎
6 壁体
7 バットレス
8 高剛性梁形基礎
10 補助杭
G 高地盤
L 低地盤
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Retaining wall 2 Column 3 Main pile 4 Underground beam type foundation 6 Wall body 7 Buttress 8 High rigidity beam type foundation 10 Auxiliary pile G High ground L Low ground

Claims (7)

間隔を隔てて配置された柱及び主杭と、隣合う前記柱の間に配置された壁体と、前記柱から高地盤内に突出する鉄筋コンクリート構造のバットレスと、該バットレスの先端部に一体化し、隣合うバットレス同士を相互連結するように横方向に延びる鉄筋コンクリート構造の梁状錘形基礎とを有する擁壁において、
前記バットレスの先端部の間に配置され、上端部が前記梁状錘形基礎に一体化した補助杭を有することを特徴とする擁壁。
Columns and main piles arranged at intervals, wall bodies arranged between adjacent columns, buttresses of reinforced concrete structure projecting from the columns into the high ground, and integrated with the tip of the buttress In a retaining wall having a beam-shaped pyramid base of a reinforced concrete structure extending in a lateral direction so as to interconnect adjacent buttresses,
A retaining wall, characterized in that the retaining wall has an auxiliary pile which is disposed between the tip portions of the buttress and whose upper end portion is integrated with the beam-shaped spindle foundation.
水平地盤面に対する前記バットレスの下端面の傾斜角(θ)は、45°以上の角度に設定されることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の擁壁。   The retaining wall according to claim 1, wherein an inclination angle (θ) of a lower end surface of the buttress with respect to a horizontal ground surface is set to an angle of 45 ° or more. 高地盤の地盤面と前記バットレスの上端面との間の距離(J)は、擁壁の高さ(H)の1/4〜1/6の範囲内に設定されることを特徴とする請求項1又は2に記載の擁壁。   The distance (J) between the ground surface of the high ground and the upper end surface of the buttress is set within a range of 1/4 to 1/6 of the height (H) of the retaining wall. Item 3. The retaining wall according to item 1 or 2. 前記主杭及び前記補助杭は、擁壁の壁芯方向に千鳥配列に配置されることを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれか1項に記載の擁壁。   The retaining wall according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the main pile and the auxiliary pile are arranged in a staggered arrangement in the direction of the wall core of the retaining wall. 前記補助杭の下端部は、低地盤の地盤面よりも下方に位置することを特徴とする請求項1乃至4のいずれか1項に記載の擁壁。   The retaining wall according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein a lower end portion of the auxiliary pile is located below a ground surface of a low ground. 前記壁体と直交する方向における前記主杭及び前記補助杭の間の杭芯間の距離(E)と、前記擁壁の高さ(H)との比率(E/H)は、1.0以下に設定されることを特徴とする請求項1乃至5のいずれか1項に記載の擁壁。   The ratio (E / H) of the distance (E) between the pile cores between the main pile and the auxiliary pile in the direction orthogonal to the wall body and the height (H) of the retaining wall is 1.0. The retaining wall according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the retaining wall is set as follows. 請求項1乃至6のいずれか1項に記載された擁壁の施工方法であって、前記バットレスの先端部の間に場所打ちコンクリート杭又は既成杭を前記補助杭として施工し、該補助杭の直上に前記梁状錘形基礎を施工し、前記補助杭の上端部と前記梁状錘形基礎とを一体化することを特徴とする擁壁の施工方法。   It is the construction method of the retaining wall described in any one of Claims 1 thru | or 6, Comprising: A cast-in-place concrete pile or an existing pile is constructed as the said auxiliary pile between the front-end | tip parts of the said buttress, A method for constructing a retaining wall, wherein the beam-shaped pyramid foundation is constructed immediately above, and the upper end portion of the auxiliary pile and the beam-shaped pyramid foundation are integrated.
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JP2014125797A (en) * 2012-12-27 2014-07-07 Kanukadesign Ltd Composite retaining wall and construction method thereof
US10724199B2 (en) * 2015-10-06 2020-07-28 Soletanche Freyssinet Wharf constituted by arched walls and plane ties
JP2020159006A (en) * 2019-03-26 2020-10-01 株式会社カヌカデザイン Retaining wall and its construction method

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CN109653219A (en) * 2019-01-23 2019-04-19 贵州大学 A kind of New Retaining Structure for Road landslide

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JPH09170240A (en) * 1995-12-21 1997-06-30 Paritei Jipangu:Kk Concrete block for retaining wall and retaining wall
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2014125797A (en) * 2012-12-27 2014-07-07 Kanukadesign Ltd Composite retaining wall and construction method thereof
US10724199B2 (en) * 2015-10-06 2020-07-28 Soletanche Freyssinet Wharf constituted by arched walls and plane ties
JP2020159006A (en) * 2019-03-26 2020-10-01 株式会社カヌカデザイン Retaining wall and its construction method

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