EP0207848B1 - Composite wall covering of visible stones - Google Patents

Composite wall covering of visible stones Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0207848B1
EP0207848B1 EP19860401360 EP86401360A EP0207848B1 EP 0207848 B1 EP0207848 B1 EP 0207848B1 EP 19860401360 EP19860401360 EP 19860401360 EP 86401360 A EP86401360 A EP 86401360A EP 0207848 B1 EP0207848 B1 EP 0207848B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
facing construction
stone
facing
holes
slabs
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP19860401360
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0207848A1 (en
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ROCAMAT
Original Assignee
ROCAMAT
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR8509573A priority Critical patent/FR2583801B1/en
Priority to FR8509573 priority
Priority to FR8510820A priority patent/FR2584755B2/en
Priority to FR8510820 priority
Application filed by ROCAMAT filed Critical ROCAMAT
Priority claimed from AT86401360T external-priority patent/AT61841T/en
Publication of EP0207848A1 publication Critical patent/EP0207848A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0207848B1 publication Critical patent/EP0207848B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/14Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements stone or stone-like materials, e.g. ceramics concrete; of glass or with an outer layer of stone or stone-like materials or glass
    • E04F13/144Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements stone or stone-like materials, e.g. ceramics concrete; of glass or with an outer layer of stone or stone-like materials or glass with an outer layer of marble or other natural stone
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0801Separate fastening elements
    • E04F13/0832Separate fastening elements without load-supporting elongated furring elements between wall and covering elements
    • E04F13/0853Separate fastening elements without load-supporting elongated furring elements between wall and covering elements adjustable perpendicular to the wall
    • E04F13/0855Separate fastening elements without load-supporting elongated furring elements between wall and covering elements adjustable perpendicular to the wall adjustable in several directions, one of which is perpendicular to the wall

Description

  • The present invention relates to a new composite wall covering with visible stones, which is produced by stacking one on top of the other self-supporting covering plates which provide the thermal insulation function of the facade.
  • In a preferred embodiment the covering plates fit horizontally and vertically and have the appearance of masonry of solid stones.
  • A three-dimensionally adjustable fastening device provides stability on the slope and impact resistance.
  • The fixing device has no load-bearing function because the vertical load of the stones passes through joints which ensure the connection, both horizontally and vertically, of the plates between them.
  • The invention also provides support brackets which take up the descents of the vertical loads and thus limit the compressive forces exerted on the stone slabs, which makes it possible to form coverings of relatively high height, for example of a ten floors divided by horizontal joints called decompression possibly every two floors.
  • However, document US-A-4 021 989 discloses an apprentice stone wall covering consisting of stone plates, each of which has at least two holes in its side edges for the installation of retaining studs connected to a wall.
  • Compared to the wall covering known from document US-A-4,021,989 above, the present invention is characterized in that the stone plates (4) are rigidly fixed to a core (5) of insulating material in the edges upper and lower of which male (9, 36) and female (8, 35) interlocking are formed, formed from the external face of the stone plates (see fig. 10 and 11), in that the lower row of stone plates (4, 4a) is carried by brackets (3) connected to said wall of the studs (19) carried by adjustable holding devices (13, 19) fixed to said wall (1) are engaged in the holes of the edges lateral of the stones (4), in that successive rows of stone plates (4′a, 4′b ... 4′n) extend above the first row of stone plates (4) in supported by their core (5) and in that a mortar joint (39) is disposed between the rows of stone slabs (4, 4 ′) so that the The compressive forces due to the weight of the stones are transmitted by said mortar joint.
  • As is clear from the above, the insulating core fixed to the stone:
    • 1) ensures the self-supporting of the plates during installation;
    • 2) provides the stone facing attached to it over its entire surface with much greater rigidity than that of stapled stone facade claddings which currently exist;
    • 3) protects the corners and edges of the stone slabs during transport and handling;
    • 4) provides the facing plate with its thermal insulation characteristics;
    • 5) and, if necessary, constitutes a barrier opposing the penetration of moisture:
      each stone plate being perforated in its edges for the installation of retaining clips, this avoids buckling of the facing even in the event of accidental detachment between a stone plate and the insulating core which is fixed to it.
  • Various other characteristics of the invention will also emerge from the detailed description which follows.
  • An embodiment of the object of the invention is shown, by way of nonlimiting example, in the accompanying drawing.
    • Fig. 1 is a perspective, partly broken away, of a wall and of the covering produced in accordance with the invention.
    • Figs. 2 and 3 are perspectives each showing a composite element of facing stone covering.
    • Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a retaining stud device used in the covering of FIG. 1.
    • Fig. 5 is an elevation, partly in section, along the line VV of FIG. 6 of a holding device.
    • Fig. 6 is an elevation rotated by 90 ° corresponding to FIG. 5.
    • Fig. 7 is a section view along line VII-VII of of FIG. 6.
    • Fig. 8 is a partially cutaway top view corresponding to FIG. 5.
    • Fig. 9 is a very enlarged section of an embodiment detail.
    • Fig. 10 is a schematic partial section showing the assembly of two consecutive plates.
    • Fig. 11 is a section similar to FIG. 10 illustrating one of the results obtained by assembling this latter figure.
    • Fig. 1 shows a wall 1, for example of concrete blocks, which is mounted on a reinforced concrete support 2, this support can be a stringer, a foundation or a chaining element.
  • The support 2 is provided with brackets 3, for example in the form of a square, which each delimit two support planes 3a, 3b.
  • In a manner known in the art, the brackets can be provided to be adjustable in order to take account of the tolerances and deviations in dimension which may exist between the support 2 and the covering described in the following.
  • The actual coating consists of stone plates 4 which are fixed, for example glued, on a core 5 of waterproof insulating material for example of cellular synthetic resin, the nature of which is preferably chosen so that the cells are closed. Expanded, flame retardant grade polystyrene is suitable. The core 5 protrudes on two of the sides of the plates 4 to delimit shoulders 6, 7 of width corresponding to the thickness of the joint which must separate the stone plates 4 when they are assembled, as described below.
  • The core is shaped so as to have a female socket 8 in the lower part and a male socket 9 in the upper part, as well as two complementary vertical rebates 10, 11 on the left and right sides of the core 5, rebates whose shapes respective are advantageously the same as those of the sockets 8, 9 above.
  • The conformation of the male and female sockets and of the rebates is provided so as to provide with the ribbon parts 6, 7 a uniform joint between the stone plates during assembly.
  • Grooves 21 can be provided, as shown in FIG. 3, to drain the water that may have run through the stone or the joints described in the following.
  • The stone plates are pierced with holes 12, for example in the vertical edges near their upper edge. The thickness of the stone slabs is normally between 10 and 20 mm, the diameter of the holes 12 can be of the order of 3 to 5 mm for example.
  • To maintain the covering as it is being mounted, devices 13 are provided with retaining studs which may be devices of the trade or produced as illustrated in FIG. 4. According to this figure, the device comprises a sole 14 having an oblong hole 15 for the passage of a fixing pin 16. With this oblong hole the lateral and vertical adjustment of the stud is very easy. The sole 14 supports a molten bolt 17 which is hollow to introduce a rod 18 with a rough surface, the head of which is provided with a double stud 19. A nut 20 screwed onto the split bolt 17 makes it possible to immobilize the rod 18 in a any position.
  • To set up the wall covering, we proceed as follows: first we fix a first console 3, we put in place a first composite facing element with holes in the stone plates to correspond to studs 22 of each console 3; a second console 3 is put in place, then on either side of the covering element supported by the two brackets, there are two devices 13, the retaining studs of which are engaged in the holes 12. The first covering plate is thus maintained in four points while resting on two brackets 3. It may be advantageous to introduce resin or another binder into the holes in which the studs 19 and 22 are engaged.
  • Then put in the same way other plates 4 a , 4 b ... 4 n until forming a first row. In the first row, the additional rebates 10, 11 are nested one inside the other and the stone plates are separated by vertical joints having the width of the shoulder 6 of the core 5.
  • A second row of covering plates is then placed in 4 ′ a , 4 ′ b ... 4 ′ n , the plates constituting this second row being embedded by their lower female socket 8 on the male socket 9 of the part upper of the core 5 of the plates 4, 4 a , 4 b ... 4 n . The second row is only maintained by devices 13 with retaining studs. Subsequent rows are then placed in the same manner.
  • As is apparent from the above during the initial assembly, the vertical forces of the various covering plates are transmitted by their respective core to the cores of the covering plates of the immediately lower rows, all of the plates being carried by the brackets 3.
  • When a sufficient number of plates have been assembled, a bonding mortar is introduced into the space separating the stone plates 4 in order to joint the stone plates 4. The jointing mortar causes the loads due to the stone plates themselves are transmitted between said stone slabs without these loads being supported by the cores 5 of insulating material.
  • The retaining stud devices themselves do not support any load, their function consisting in preventing the rock plates from tilting if they are subjected to shocks or the action of wind.
  • When the wall 1 is irregular or does not have a good flatness, as is the most frequent case, it is advantageous to introduce a flexible insulator 23 between the rear face of the core 5 of the plates and the wall, this insulator which may for example consist of rock wool, granules of expanded material or other similar products. The insulation may only be placed at certain locations, for example at the periphery, around the openings and in the vicinity of the corners to avoid the circulation of air.
  • Although the different covering plates can support each other without additional means, it is advantageous to provide consoles 3, for example every 3 or 6 m, that is to say almost all the floors or every two floors of a building. Decompression joints are thus produced.
  • For low buildings, for example pavilions, the brackets 3 can be omitted, the first row of the covering plates then simply resting on a sockliner made for example of cement.
  • According to fig 5-9, the holding device 13 a is made of synthetic material, for example polyamide reinforced with mineral fibers. This device comprises a sole 14 a from which a stem 25 projects.
  • The sole 14 a has a hole 26 of greater height and greater width than the diameter of an anchor bolt 27 which passes through a support plate 28.
  • The above shows that the sole 14 a can be adjusted in height, in width and angularly before being immobilized by tightening an anchor bolt and consequently of the support plate 28 on the sole.
  • The bracket 25 which projects from the lower part of the sole is advantageously reinforced by ribs 29 extending over a certain distance, for example over a third of said bracket.
  • At its free end, the bracket has rows of holes 30 intended to receive, with hard friction, retaining studs 31.
  • As shown in fig. 9, the holes 30 are bi-conical and have at their middle part a constricted part 30 a .
  • In addition, grooves 32 are formed in the sides of the bracket either between the rows of holes, or as shown in FIG. 5 so that a groove 32 intercepts a hole and passes between the other holes.
  • When the holes 30 are arranged obliquely as illustrated in FIG. 5, it is also possible that the grooves 32 advantageously formed on one and the other side of the bracket are arranged obliquely.
  • In addition to the above, it is advantageous for the back of the sole 14 a to have recesses 33 allowing to compensate for the irregularities that the wall may present 1.
  • To install the wall covering, we proceed as follows: we first fix a first console 1, we put in place a first composite facing element with holes in the stone plates to match the studs of each console 3; a second console 3 is put in place, then on either side of the covering element supported by the two brackets, two devices 13a are available, the retaining studs of which are forcibly engaged in the holes 30. The first plate coating is thus maintained at four points while resting on two brackets 3. It may be advantageous to introduce resin or another binder into the holes in which the studs 31 are engaged. The fact that the studs 31 are forcibly engaged fact that their sliding is relatively difficult and this prevents them from being able to escape spontaneously as long as they are not introduced into a hole 12 of a stone slab, but the bi-conical shape of the holes also makes it possible to compensate for misalignment of the jib cranes 25.
  • Then put in the same way other plates 4 a , 4 b ... 4 n until forming a first row.
  • A second row of covering plates is then placed at 4 ′ a , 4 ′ b ... 4 ′ n . The second row is only maintained by devices 13 a retaining pin 31. Subsequent rows are then implemented in the same manner.
  • Since the gallows 25 are breakable along the grooves 32 the covering plates 4 can be more or less spaced from the wall 1 as shown in solid lines and broken lines in FIG. 5.
  • In fig. 10, the female socket 8 comprises a groove 35 deeper than the projection 36 of the male socket. Furthermore, both the female socket and the male socket form inclined planes 37 respectively 38 of the same slope which lead to the joint designated by 39 and which is intended to be made in mortar.
  • The inclined plane 37 of the female socket has a break delimited by a recess 40. To properly delimit the thickness of the seal 39, the female and male socket delimit bearing surfaces 41 and 42 whose arrangement makes that a space 43 is left free between the projection 36 and the bottom of the groove 35 when the two bearing surfaces 41, 42 bear one on the other and the inclined planes 37, 38 also bear one on the other .
  • The realization of the lateral rebates is similar to allow the same type of nesting.
  • To make the above sockets and rebates, the core 5 is shaped from the external face of the stone plates 4, which makes it possible to compensate for any differences in thickness of these plates as shown in fig. 11 for plates 4 a and 4 b .
  • An advantageous embodiment consists in gluing each plate 4 onto a core 5 then in making the sockets and rebates by milling taking as reference the surface of the outer face of each plate. A molding of the core 5 directly on the stone plates can also be carried out.
  • The above embodiment makes it possible to obtain that the stone plates 4 are located in the same plane. Furthermore, the rupture formed by the recess 40 provided in the inclined plane 37 prevents any rise of water by capillarity. If necessary, a similar rupture can be provided in the bearing surfaces 41, 42.
  • The invention is not limited to the embodiment shown and described in detail, because various modifications can be made thereto without departing from its scope which is determined by the content of the claims.

Claims (19)

1. Wall facing construction with apparent stones made of stone slabs (4) each of which having at least two holes (12) in its lateral sides for the positioning of retention studs (19, 22) connected to a wall (1), characterized in that the stone slabs (4) are rigidly fixed to a core (5) of insulating material in the upper and lower edges of which are made male (9, 36) and female (8, 35) fitting formations formed from the outer face of the stone slabs (see Figs. 10 and 11), in that the lower row of stone slabs (4, 4a) is supported by brackets (3) connected to said wall (1), studs (19) supported by adjustable maintaining device (13, 19) secured to said wall (1) are engaged in the holes of the lateral edges of the stone slabs (4), in that successive rows of stones slabs (4′a, 4′b,... 4′n) are extended above the first row of stones slabs (4) by bearing via their core (5), and in that a mortar joint (39) is packed between the rows of stone slabs (4, 4′) so that compression forces due to weight of the stones are transmitted by said mortar joint.
2. Facing construction according to claim 1, characterized in that the core to which is fixed the stone slab (4) of each facing plate protrudes on two sides of the stone slab for defining the thickness of a joint which has to separate the stone slabs (4) prior to setting in position of the mortar joint.
3. Facing construction according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the core (5) made of an insulating material has lower and, respectively, upper female (8) and male (9) fitting formations, as well as complementary side rabbets (10, 11).
4. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized by fine slots provided between the stone slab and the insulating material core.
5. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the holes (12) formed in the stone slabs for the engagement of the retension studs are bored, typically in the vertical side edges adjacent the upper edge of said stone slabs.
6. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the brackets (3) on which bear some of the rows of the facing plates are positioned according to rows substantially corresponding to one floor, said brackets each comprising two bearing surfaces (3a, 3b) and comprising studs (22) introduced into holes of the stones slabs.
7. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the holes (12) of the stone slabs are filled with a resin or other bonding material prior to introduction of the studs (19, 22).
8. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized by an insulating material which is flexible or under the shape of granules interposed between the cores of the stone slabs and the wall (1).
9. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the adjustable device comprises a rough stem (18), the head of which carries the studs (19), this stem being engaged inside a slit bolt (17) provided with a tightening nut (20) and supported by a sole (14) formed with an oblong hole (15) for passage of a fixation pin (16).
10. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the retaining stud carrying devices comprise a gallow bracket (25) rigidly connected to a sole (14a) made by moulding in the same time as the gallow bracket.
11. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the sole (14a) of the gallow bracket has an opening (26) of a greater height and greater width than an anchoring bolt (27) extending through a bearing plate (28) which bears on top of said sole (14a).
12. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the rear face of the sole (14a) is formed with recesses (33).
13. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that the gallow bracket (25) is formed with series of holes (30) of a biconical shape defining a contracted portion (30a) in which a retention stud (31) is forcibly engaged.
14. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the gallow bracket (25) is provided with slots (32) formed from one at least of its sides, said slot extending between some at least of the holes (30) arranged according to a plurality of rows.
15. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the holes (30) of the plurality of rows are offset.
16. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that the sole and gallow bracket assembly is molded in a resin, typically a polyamide reinforced with mineral fibers.
17. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 16, characterized in that the female (8) and male (9) fitting formations as well as the side rabbets are formed, for the female fitting formation (8), with a slot (35) and, for the male fitting formation (9), with a protrusion (36), fitting formations and side rabbets from which are formed bearing surfaces (41, 42) and slanting planes (37, 38) one of which having a rupture portion defined by a recess (40).
18. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that a space (43) is provided between the protrusion (36) and the bottom of the slot (35) when the bearing surfaces (41, 42) and the slanting planes (37, 38) bear against each other.
19. Facing construction according to one of claims 1 to 18, characterized in that the slanting planes (37, 38) lead to the joint (39) separating two slabs (4a, 4b).
EP19860401360 1985-06-24 1986-06-20 Composite wall covering of visible stones Expired - Lifetime EP0207848B1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8509573A FR2583801B1 (en) 1985-06-24 1985-06-24 Composite wall covering with related stones
FR8509573 1985-06-24
FR8510820A FR2584755B2 (en) 1985-06-24 1985-07-15 Composite wall covering with related stones
FR8510820 1985-07-15

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT86401360T AT61841T (en) 1985-06-24 1986-06-20 Composed wall paneling with visible stones.

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0207848A1 EP0207848A1 (en) 1987-01-07
EP0207848B1 true EP0207848B1 (en) 1991-03-20

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ID=26224578

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19860401360 Expired - Lifetime EP0207848B1 (en) 1985-06-24 1986-06-20 Composite wall covering of visible stones

Country Status (5)

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US (1) US4811537A (en)
EP (1) EP0207848B1 (en)
CA (1) CA1284724C (en)
DE (2) DE3678211D1 (en)
FR (1) FR2584755B2 (en)

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FR2548711B1 (en) * 1983-07-07 1986-06-20 Saint Gobain Isover EXTERIOR FACADE INSULATION PANEL

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Publication number Publication date
CA1284724C (en) 1991-06-11
FR2584755B2 (en) 1988-07-29
FR2584755A2 (en) 1987-01-16
DE3678211D1 (en) 1991-04-25
DE207848T1 (en) 1987-06-11
US4811537A (en) 1989-03-14
EP0207848A1 (en) 1987-01-07

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