DE19801884A1 - CCTV monitoring system for blind spots around motor vehicle - Google Patents

CCTV monitoring system for blind spots around motor vehicle

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Publication number
DE19801884A1
DE19801884A1 DE1998101884 DE19801884A DE19801884A1 DE 19801884 A1 DE19801884 A1 DE 19801884A1 DE 1998101884 DE1998101884 DE 1998101884 DE 19801884 A DE19801884 A DE 19801884A DE 19801884 A1 DE19801884 A1 DE 19801884A1
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Prior art keywords
characterized
image
system according
vehicle
monitoring
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DE1998101884
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German (de)
Inventor
Volker Wehrmeyer
Joachim Acht
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Siemens AG
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Mannesmann VDO AG
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60QARRANGEMENT OF SIGNALLING OR LIGHTING DEVICES, THE MOUNTING OR SUPPORTING THEREOF OR CIRCUITS THEREFOR, FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60Q9/00Arrangements or adaptations of signal devices not provided for in one of the preceding main groups, e.g. haptic signalling
    • B60Q9/002Arrangements or adaptations of signal devices not provided for in one of the preceding main groups, e.g. haptic signalling for parking purposes, e.g. for warning the driver that his vehicle has contacted or is about to contact an obstacle
    • B60Q9/004Arrangements or adaptations of signal devices not provided for in one of the preceding main groups, e.g. haptic signalling for parking purposes, e.g. for warning the driver that his vehicle has contacted or is about to contact an obstacle using wave sensors
    • B60Q9/005Arrangements or adaptations of signal devices not provided for in one of the preceding main groups, e.g. haptic signalling for parking purposes, e.g. for warning the driver that his vehicle has contacted or is about to contact an obstacle using wave sensors using a video camera
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60QARRANGEMENT OF SIGNALLING OR LIGHTING DEVICES, THE MOUNTING OR SUPPORTING THEREOF OR CIRCUITS THEREFOR, FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60Q1/00Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices
    • B60Q1/0017Devices integrating an element dedicated to another function
    • B60Q1/0023Devices integrating an element dedicated to another function the element being a sensor, e.g. distance sensor, camera
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60QARRANGEMENT OF SIGNALLING OR LIGHTING DEVICES, THE MOUNTING OR SUPPORTING THEREOF OR CIRCUITS THEREFOR, FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60Q1/00Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices
    • B60Q1/26Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to indicate the vehicle, or parts thereof, or to give signals, to other traffic
    • B60Q1/50Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to indicate the vehicle, or parts thereof, or to give signals, to other traffic for indicating other intentions or conditions, e.g. request for waiting or overtaking
    • B60Q1/52Arrangements or adaptations of optical signalling or lighting devices the devices being primarily intended to indicate the vehicle, or parts thereof, or to give signals, to other traffic for indicating other intentions or conditions, e.g. request for waiting or overtaking for indicating emergencies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R1/00Optical viewing arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N7/00Television systems
    • H04N7/18Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast
    • H04N7/181Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast for receiving images from a plurality of remote sources
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/10Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the type of camera system used
    • B60R2300/105Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the type of camera system used using multiple cameras
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/10Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the type of camera system used
    • B60R2300/106Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the type of camera system used using night vision cameras
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/20Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the type of display used
    • B60R2300/207Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the type of display used using multi-purpose displays, e.g. camera image and navigation or video on same display
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/30Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the type of image processing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/40Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the details of the power supply or the coupling to vehicle components
    • B60R2300/404Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the details of the power supply or the coupling to vehicle components triggering from stand-by mode to operation mode
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/70Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by an event-triggered choice to display a specific image among a selection of captured images
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/80Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement
    • B60R2300/802Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement for monitoring and displaying vehicle exterior blind spot views
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/80Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement
    • B60R2300/804Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement for lane monitoring
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/80Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement
    • B60R2300/8053Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement for bad weather conditions or night vision
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/80Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement
    • B60R2300/806Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement for aiding parking
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R2300/00Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle
    • B60R2300/80Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement
    • B60R2300/8066Details of viewing arrangements using cameras and displays, specially adapted for use in a vehicle characterised by the intended use of the viewing arrangement for monitoring rearward traffic

Abstract

The system includes imaging devices (1), e.g. video cameras with CCD elements, for producing an image of spaces around a vehicle, which are not directly visible or are viewed by device of a mirror. The system contains furthermore transmission devices (2) for transmitting the image, and at least one display device (3), arranged in an area visible for the driver, for the display of the image. An Independent claim is provided for a corresponding supervision method.

Description

Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein System und ein Verfahren zur Überwachung von Räumen um ein Fahrzeug herum, die vom Fahrer nicht direkt oder über einen Spiegel einsehbar sind. The present invention relates around a system and method for monitoring of areas around a vehicle which are the driver not visible directly or via a mirror.

Für die Steuerung von Fahrzeugen wie z. For the control of vehicles such. B. Autos muß der Fahrzeugführer den Raum beobachten können, in den sich das Fahrzeug hineinbewegt bzw. aus dem heraus sich andere Fahrzeuge nähern können. As cars, the driver must be able to observe the space into which the vehicle is moved into or out of which can approach other vehicles. In der Hauptfahrtrichtung kann diese Beobachtung direkt geschehen, indem die Blickrichtung und das Sehfeld des Fahrers in seiner Lenkposition hierauf ausgerichtet werden. In the main direction of this observation may be done directly by the viewing direction and the driver's field of view to be aligned in its steering position thereto.

Für besondere Fahrmanöver wie ein seitliches Ausscheren oder eine Rückwärtsfahrt ist es darüber hinaus jedoch erforderlich, daß auch der hinter und neben dem Fahrer bzw. Fahrzeug gelegene Raum eingesehen werden kann. For special driving maneuvers such as a lateral deviation or a reverse drive in addition, it is necessary that even the location, behind and beside the driver's or passenger compartment can be viewed. Um dem Fahrer eine umständliche und während der Fahrt auch gefährliche Wendung des Kopfes zu ersparen, werden bekanntermaßen Rückspiegel verwendet, die den abgewandten Raum zumindest teilweise sichtbar machen. In order to save the driver an awkward and even dangerous during driving turn of the head, rearview mirrors are known to be used, making the space facing away from at least partially visible. Derartige Spiegel müssen allerdings im direkten Blickfeld des Fahrers angeordnet sein und können daher schon aus optischen Gründen (Reflexionsgesetze) nicht jeden beliebigen Raumbereich erfassen. However, such mirrors must be arranged in the direct field of view of the driver and can (reflection laws) therefore already optical reasons not detect any space area. Zudem kann das Blickfeld des Spiegels durch das Fahrzeug selbst (z. B. Aufbauten eines Lastkraftwagen) oder durch seine Ladung verstellt sein. In addition, the field of view of the mirror can be (a truck superstructures z. B.) or restricted by its charge by the vehicle itself.

Bei Autos ist insbesondere das Problem des vom Rückspiegel nicht mehr ausreichend erfaßten Raumes seitlich des Fahrzeugs unter dem Stichwort "toter Winkel" bekannt. In automobiles in particular, the problem of space no longer sufficiently covered by the rear view mirror is known side of the vehicle under the heading of "dead angle". Zur Behebung dieser bei Ausschermanövern oft sehr gefährlichen Lücke im Beobachtungsfeld des Fahrers wird in der DE 42 28 794 A1 vorgeschlagen, den "toten Winkel" und ggf. auch den Rückraum hinter dem Fahrzeug mit Video-Kameras automatisch zu überwachen. To remedy these often very dangerous at Ausschermanövern gap in the field of observation of the driver is proposed in DE 42 28 794 A1, to automatically monitor the "dead angle", and possibly also the rear space behind the vehicle with video cameras. Dabei sollen mit geeigneten Auswerteeinrichtungen wichtige Informationen wie z. Here are with suitable evaluation devices important information such. B. Abstand und Geschwindigkeit von erfaßten Objekten aus den Bilddaten extrahiert und dem Fahrer über eine Signal- und Warneinrichtung mitgeteilt werden. B. spacing and speed of objects detected from the image data extracted, and the driver will be notified via a signaling and warning device. Bevorzugt kommen bei diesem System Kameras mit geringer Auflösung zum Einsatz, deren Datenmenge einerseits schnell zu verarbeiten ist und andererseits die gewünschten Informationen gerade noch enthält. Preferably, cameras are used in this system with low resolution are used, the amount of data is on the one hand to process quickly and on the other hand the information just contains.

Nachteilig bei dem System der DE 42 28 794 A1 ist jedoch, daß die notwendige Extraktion der Informationen aus den Bilddaten eine äußerst komplexe rechnerische Aufgabe ist, die nur für wenige Größen möglich ist. However, a disadvantage with the system of DE 42 28 794 A1 is that the necessary extraction of information from the image data is an extremely complex mathematical task, which is only possible for a few sizes. Die angestrebte Detektion eines Objektes sowie die Bestimmung seines Abstandes und seiner Geschwindigkeit gelingt gerade bei Bildern geringer Auflösung und bei begrenzter Rechenleistung mit ausreichender Sicherheit nur in einfachen Modellsituationen. The targeted detection of an object and determining its distance and its speed is possible especially in low-resolution images and limited computing power with sufficient certainty only in simple model situations. In der Praxis mit ihren komplexen Verhältnissen (Gegenverkehr, Schlechtwefter, unregelmäßige Oberflächen etc.) wird ein derartiges System dagegen häufig unzuverlässige und fehlerhafte Resultate liefern. In practice, with their complex ratios (oncoming traffic, Schlechtwefter, irregular surfaces, etc.), such a system, however, is often unreliable and provide erroneous results.

Die vorliegende Erfindung hat sich demgegenüber die Aufgabe gestellt, die Nachteile des Standes der Technik zu vermeiden und ein verbessertes System zur Überwachung von vom Fahrer nicht direkt oder über einen Spiegel einsehbaren Räumen zur Verfügung zu stellen, welches dem Fahrer in allen Situationen eine fehlerfreie Überwachung der beobachteten Räume ohne Informationsverlust erlaubt. The present invention has set itself contrast, the object to avoid the disadvantages of the prior art and to provide an improved system for monitoring seen by the driver is not directly or via a mirror spaces available, which the driver in all situations, an error-free monitoring of observed spaces without loss of information allowed.

Diese Aufgabe wird durch ein System nach Anspruch 1 und ein Verfahren nach Anspruch 14 gelöst. This object is achieved by a system according to claim 1 and a method according to claim fourteenth Weitere vorteilhafte Ausgestaltungen sind in den Unteransprüchen enthalten. Further advantageous embodiments are contained in the dependent claims.

Das erfindungsgemäße System enthält zunächst in bekannter Weise Abbildungsmittel zur Erzeugung eines Bildes des zu überwachenden Raumes. The system of the invention comprises in a known manner first imaging means for forming an image of the monitored space. Dieses Bild wird im allgemeinen primär als optisches (reelles oder virtuelles) Bild vorliegen und kann über entsprechende Wandler in andere Repräsentationsarten umgewandelt werden (z. B. elektronisch, digital). This image is generally called optical (real or virtual) are present the primary image and can be converted via corresponding transducer in other types of representation (e.g., as electronic, digital). Das Bild wird sodann mit geeigneten Übertragungsmitteln an mindestens eine Anzeigevorrichtung (Display) weitergeleitet, welche im vom Fahrer einsehbaren Bereich angeordnet ist und das Bild für diesen erkennbar darstellt. The image is then forwarded with suitable transmission means to at least one display device (display), which is arranged in the area seen by the driver and displays the image for this apparent.

Im Gegensatz zum Stand der Technik wird somit aus dem Bild nicht eine - stets begrenzte und fehlerbehaftete - Information extrahiert und an den Fahrer weitergeleitet, sondern dem Fahrer wird ein komplettes Abbild des zu überwachenden Raumes in seinem normalen Blickfeld angeboten. In contrast with the prior art is thus not out of the picture a - extracts information and transmitted to the driver, but the driver is a complete image of the monitored space available in its normal field of view - always limited and defective. Aus diesem Bild kann der Fahrer dann selbst alle für ihn relevanten Informationen entnehmen, wobei die von automatischen Verfahren nicht annähernd erreichte Leistungs fähigkeit der menschlichen Bildverarbeitung ausgenutzt wird. From this image, the driver can then even take all relevant information, with the money not nearly reached of automatic process capability of human vision is exploited. Apparative Ressourcen können daher bei dem erfindungsgemäßen System auf die optischen Aufnahme- und Wiedergabesysteme konzentriert werden, was der Bildqualität zugute kommt. Instrumental resources can be concentrated in the inventive system to the optical recording and playback systems, therefore, to the benefit of image quality. Nicht zuletzt wird auch einem solchen Überwachungssystem, das eine direkte Beobachtung ermöglicht, vom Fahrer mehr Vertrauen entgegen gebracht als automatisch ermittelten Daten. Not least is also such a monitoring system that enables direct observation trusted more by the driver against the data determined automatically.

Als Abbildungsmittel können insbesondere Videokameras eingesetzt werden, da sich ihre elektronisch kodierten Bilder gut verstärken und über geeignete Kabel beliebig transportieren lassen und sehr flexibel umgeformt und dargestellt werden können. As imaging agent video cameras can be used in particular because their electronically encoded images can reinforce good and convey desired via suitable cables and can be very flexible converted and displayed.

Derartige Videokameras enthalten vorzugsweise CCD (Charge Coupled Device) Elemente mit einer Auflösung von mindestens 128 mal 128 Pixeln (Bildpunkten), vorzugsweise mindestens 480 mal 640 Pixeln. Such video cameras preferably include CCD (Charge Coupled Device) elements with a resolution of at least 128 by 128 pixels (picture elements), preferably at least 480 by 640 pixels. Insbesondere kann sich die Auflösung an Standards für (Computer-)Monitore orientieren, um zu dort verwendeten Komponenten kompatibel zu sein. In particular, the resolution on standards for (computer) can orient monitors to be compatible with components used there. Im Gegensatz zur DE 42 28 794 A1 wird somit nicht eine besonders geringe, sondern gerade eine möglichst hohe Auflösung angestrebt, um die Bildqualität zu optimieren. In contrast to DE 42 28 794 A1 is not particularly low, but just attain the maximum possible resolution in order to optimize the image quality is thus. Nach oben begrenzt ist die Auflösung nur durch die technisch verfügbaren CCD-Chips sowie Preis-Leistungs-Abwägungen. an upper limit is the resolution only by the technically available CCD chips and value considerations.

Die eingesetzten Videokameras können für sichtbares oder infrarotes Licht empfindlich sein. Video cameras used can be sensitive to visible or infrared light. Besonders bevorzugt ist es, daß beide Empfindlichkeiten gleichzeitig oder wahlweise einschaltbar vorliegen. It is particularly preferred that both speeds are present at the same time or is selectively switched. Eine Videokamera für sichtbares Licht liefert dem Fahrer ein vertrautes Abbild der Umgebung, an das er sich nicht erst gewöhnen muß. A video camera for visible light gives the driver a familiar image of the environment to which it does not have to get used. Derartige Kameras werden auch in handelsüblichen Videokameras, digitalen Fotoapparaten und Sicherheits einrichtungen verwendet, so daß sie preiswert erhältlich sind. Such cameras are used also in devices commercially available video cameras, digital cameras and security so that they are available at low cost. Demgegenüber liefert eine Infrarot-Kamera im allgemeinen eine Falschfarben- Darstellung der Umgebung, hat aber den Vorteil, daß sie Wärmequellen abbildet und daher von externen Lichtquellen wie dem Tageslicht unabhängig ist. In contrast, provides an infrared camera, in general, a false-color representation of the environment, but has the advantage that it reflects heat sources and, therefore, from external light sources such as daylight is independent. Zudem werden mit ihr bevorzugt andere Fahrzeuge erkannt, da diese aufgrund ihres Antriebs (z. B. Verbrennungsmotor) Infrarot-strahlende Abwärme produzieren. In addition, preferred detected other vehicles with it as these because of their drive (z. B. combustion engine) produce infrared radiant heat.

Beim Einsatz von Videokameras werden Monitore verwendet, um das elektronisch in Form von Videosignalen kodierte Bild für den Fahrer darzustellen. With the use of video cameras monitors are used to represent the electronically encoded in the form of video signals image for the driver. Hierbei ist von Vorteil, daß aufgrund der weiten Verbreitung der Videotechnik ein großes Spektrum an Geräten zur Auswahl steht, z. The advantage here is that because of the widespread use of video technology is a wide range of devices to choose from, eg. B. die bekannten Elektronenstrahl röhren. B. tubes known electron beam. Aufgrund ihrer flachen Bauweise werden indes bevorzugt Flüssigkristall- Anzeigen (LC-Displays) verwendet. Due to its flat design, preferably liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are used, however. Diese lassen sich leicht in vorhandene Komponenten im Fahrzeug integrieren. This can be easily integrated into existing components in the vehicle.

Weiterhin haben die elektronisch kodierten Bilder von Videokameras den Vorteil, daß sie leicht mit Hilfe bekannter Verfahren aufbereitet und vorverarbeitet werden können. Furthermore, the electronically encoded images from video cameras have the advantage that they can be easily prepared by known methods and preprocessed. So kann beispielsweise die Ausfilterung von Sichtverschlechterungen durch Schneeflocken, Regen oder Hagel erfolgen. Thus, the filtering of visual deterioration by snowflakes, rain or hail can occur for example. Dies kann mit Algorithmen geschehen, die aus der Nachbearbeitung von (digitalen) Filmen und Fotos bekannt sind. This can be done with algorithms that are known from the post of (digital) movies and photos. Ebenso ist eine Erhöhung der Konturenschärfe des Bildes oder das Abdämpfen von zu starken Lichtquellen möglich (z. B. blendende Scheinwerfer bei Dunkelheit). Likewise, an increase in the sharpness of the image or the muting of strong light sources is possible (eg. B. blinding headlights in the dark). Mit weiter fortgeschrittenen Methoden können schließlich auch Muster wie z. With more advanced methods finally patterns such can. B. andere Autos im Bild erkannt und hinsichtlich ihrer Eigenschaften (Abstand, Geschwindigkeit) analysiert werden. B. other cars detected in the image and in terms of their characteristics (distance, speed) are analyzed.

Bedingung für die genannten Verfahren zur Bildverarbeitung ist, daß sie in Echtzeit erfolgen, dh nicht zu einer Verzögerung in der Darstellung des Bildes führen. The condition for the above method for image processing that they occur in real time, that is not cause a delay in the representation of the image. Hierfür muß eine angemessene Rechenleistung zur Verfügung gestellt werden. For this, adequate computing power must be provided. Zu beachten ist weiterhin, daß im Rahmen der Erfindung die Bildverarbeitung immer nur zusätzlich zur Bilddarstellung im Monitor erfolgt, so daß der Fahrer primär das unmittelbare Abbild der Umgebung beobachten kann und darüber hinaus gewisse aufbereitete Informationen angeboten bekommt. It should be noted further that the image processing is always done in the context of the invention only in addition to the image display in the monitor so that the driver can observe primarily the direct image of the surroundings and gets offered beyond certain processed information. Er ist jedoch nicht von der Richtigkeit und Vollständigkeit dieser Informationen abhängig, sondern kann diese jederzeit anhand des Bildes "mit eigenen Augen" überprüfen. However, it is not dependent on the accuracy and completeness of this information, but can at any time check from the image "with his own eyes."

In einer weiteren Ausgestaltung der Erfindung können als Abbildungsmittel (alternativ oder zusätzlich zu den Videokameras) bildgebende Objektive und als Übertragungsmittel Lichtwellenleiter verwendet werden. In a further embodiment of the invention may be used as imaging agent (alternatively or in addition to the video cameras) imaging lenses and as transfer agent optical waveguide. Das übertragene Bild kann dann - vorzugsweise an zentraler Stelle über CCD-Elemente - in ein elektronisches Bild umgewandelt und in bekannter Weise auf Monitoren dargestellt werden. The transferred image can then - be converted into an electronic image and displayed on monitors in a known manner - preferably at a central location on the CCD elements. Bevorzugt ist es jedoch, das komplette System ohne zusätzliche Energiequellen und Hilfsmittel arbeiten zu lassen und das von den Lichtwellenleitern übermittelte Bild mit einer geeigneten Optik direkt auf einer Mattscheibe abzubilden. It is preferred, however, to make the whole system work without additional energy sources and resources and map the transmitted by the optical waveguides image with suitable optics directly on a focusing screen. Ein derartiges rein passives System hat den Vorteil, äußerst einfach und störsicher zu sein. Such a purely passive system has the advantage of being extremely simple and fail-safe. Gerade bei kurzen Übertragungswegen (z. B. hintere Stoßstange oder Heck des Autos bis zum Ende der Fahrgastzelle) und normalen Lichtverhältnissen kann seine Abbildungsleistung völlig ausreichend sein. Especially for short transmission paths (z. B. rear bumper or rear of the car to the end of the passenger compartment) and normal lighting conditions can its imaging performance be sufficient.

Im Rahmen der Erfindung sind weitere Realisierungen der Abbildungsmittel, Übertragungsmittel und Anzeigevorrichtungen möglich. In the present invention further implementations of the imaging agent, transfer agent and display devices are possible. So wäre es z. So it would be such. B. auch denkbar, den zu überwachenden Raum über zwei oder mehrere Spiegel in den Fahrerraum abzubilden, wobei ggf. Übertragungsstrecken mit Lichtwellenleitern zwischengeschaltet sein könnten. B. also conceivable to reflect the monitored area with two or more mirrors in the driver's compartment, wherein, if necessary, transmission links may be interposed with optical waveguides.

Die erfindungsgemäßen Abbildungsmittel können unabhängig von ihrer konkreten Ausgestaltung (z. B. Videokameras) an verschiedenen Stellen des Fahrzeuges angebracht sein. The imaging agents of the invention may be attached to various places of the vehicle, regardless of their specific embodiment (as video cameras for example.). Vorzugsweise sind sie an der Vorderseite und/oder der Rückseite und/oder im Rückspiegel des Fahrzeugs angeordnet. Preferably, they are arranged on the front and / or back and / or in the rearview mirror of the vehicle. Die Anordnung an der Rückseite kommt vor allem beim Rückwärtsfahren zum Tragen, während mit der Anordnung im Rückspiegel der "tote Winkel" vermieden werden kann. The arrangement at the rear is especially when reversing into play while can be avoided with the arrangement in the rearview mirror of the "blind spots".

Die Abbildungsmittel können in der Karosserie oder z. The imaging agent may be in the body or such. B. in den Stoßfängern, Stoßstangen, Front- und Heckschürzen oder Spoilern untergebracht sein. For example, be accommodated in the bumpers, bumpers, front and rear aprons or spoilers.

Besonders bevorzugt sind sie indes in den Scheinwerfern integriert. They are particularly preferred, however, integrated into the headlights. Letztere befinden sich aufgrund ihrer Ausleuchtungs-Funktion bereits an einer Stelle, von der aus der zu überwachende Raum vollständig einsehbar ist. The latter are due to their illumination type function already at a point of which is fully visible from the to be monitored space. Eine nahezu identische Position von Scheinwerfer und Kamera führt dabei auch dazu, daß das Scheinwerferlicht optimal der Abbildung zugute kommt, ohne daß die Lichtquelle selbst stört oder Schatten wirft. An almost identical position of headlight and camera leads also means that the spotlight is optimal figure benefit without the light source interferes with itself or casts shadows. Zudem sind die Abbildungsmittel im Inneren des Scheinwerfers gut vor Umwelteinflüssen geschützt. In addition, the imaging agents inside the headlamp are well protected from environmental influences. Dies gilt insbesondere für die empfindliche Optik, welche vom Scheinwerferglas abgedeckt ist. This applies especially to the sensitive optics, which is covered by the headlight glass. Eventuell vorhandene Scheinwerfer-Scheibenwischer können dabei gleichzeitig die Abbildungsoptik reinigen. Any existing headlight wipers can thereby clean the imaging optics simultaneously.

Weiterhin kann auch die Optik der Abbildungsmittel ganz oder teilweise durch das Scheinwerferglas gebildet werden. Furthermore, the optics of the imaging means may be constituted wholly or partially by the headlight glass. Hierdurch läßt sich ein besonders hoher Integrationsgrad und eine kompakte Unterbringung der Abbildungsmittel erreichen. This results in a particularly high degree of integration and a compact housing the imaging means can be achieved. Zusätzlich können die elektrischen Leitungen für Licht und die Abbildungsmittel in einem Kabelstrang verlaufen. In addition, the electrical wiring for lighting and imaging agents can run in a harness.

Die erfindungsgemäßen Anzeigevorrichtungen können unabhängig von ihrer konkreten Ausgestaltung (Monitore, Mattscheiben etc.) an verschiedenen Stellen angeordnet sein, die entweder vom Fahrer ständig und ohne Kopfdrehung einsehbar sind oder die erst bei besonderen Manövern, insbesondere beim Rückwärtsfahren eingesehen werden. The display devices of the invention may be arranged at various locations regardless of their actual design (monitors, focusing screens, etc.) that are either visible by the driver independently and without turning the head or be viewed only with special maneuvers, particularly when reversing. Zu den ständig einsehbaren Stellen gehört insbesondere das Armaturenbrett, aber auch die innen und außen vorhandenen Spiegel. To the constantly visible places include in particular the dashboard, but also the inside and outside existing mirror. Die Anordnung in den Spiegeln hat den Vorteil, daß der Fahrer es gewohnt ist, an diesen Stellen die Abbildung des entsprechenden Raumes vorzufinden. The arrangement of the mirrors has the advantage that the driver is accustomed to be found at these points the image of the corresponding area. Denkbar ist es auch, bereits vorhandene Anzeigemöglichkeiten wie z. It is also conceivable, existing display options such. B. das Radiodisplay auszunutzen. B. exploit the radio display. Zumindest kann in letzterem die zusätzlich ermittelte Information wie Abstand und Geschwindigkeit anderer Fahrzeuge angezeigt werden. At least in the latter, the information additionally determined as distance and speed of other vehicles can be displayed.

Zu den nur mit einer Kopfdrehung vom Fahrer einsehbaren Bereichen gehört insbesondere das Heck des Fahrzeugs. in particular one of the viewable only with a head rotation by the driver, the rear areas of the vehicle. An dieser Stelle werden vorzugsweise die Anzeigen des rückwärtigen Raumes hinter dem Fahrzeug angeordnet, so daß der Fahrer beim Rückwärtsfahren in gewohnter Weise durch die Rückscheibe direkt den Rückraum einsehen kann und zusätzlich eine Abbildung des von der Karosserie verdeckten Raumes erhält. the indicators of the rear space are preferably arranged behind the vehicle at this point, so that the driver can see when reversing in the usual manner by the rear wheel directly to the return chamber, and in addition a picture of the covered space from the body is obtained.

Die Anzeigevorrichtungen müssen nicht fest mit einem bestimmten Abbildungs mittel verknüpft sein. The display devices need not be firmly linked medium with a specific mapping. Vielmehr ist es denkbar, auf einer Anzeigevorrichtung nacheinander Abbildungen von verschiedenen Aufnahmeorten darzustellen wobei die Umschaltung in einem automatischen Rhythmus, manuell wählbar oder situationsabhängig (z. B. bei Einschalten des Blinkers oder des Rückwärtsganges) erfolgen kann. Rather, it is conceivable to display on a display device successively images of different recording locations, wherein the switch in an automatic rhythm, or manually selectable depending on the situation (for. Example, when turning on the indicator or of the reverse gear) can be carried out.

Ferner ist es bevorzugt, daß die Abbildungsmittel nicht starr, sondern in Orientierung, Brennweite und Scharfeinstellung veränderbar sind. Further, it is preferred that the imaging means are not rigid, but changeable in orientation, zoom and focus settings. Auf diese Weise kann von einer Kamera aus je nach Situation ein anderer Raum optimal beobachtet werden, indem die Ausrichtung der Kamera, das Sehfeld (Brennweite) und/oder die Scharfeinstellung geändert werden. In this way, another space can be optimally observed by a camera according to the situation by changing the orientation of the camera, the field of view (focal length) and / or the focus to be changed.

Die Veränderbarkeit der Brennweite (Zoom) und Schärfe kann weiterhin dazu ausgenutzt werden, den Abstand anderer - insbesondere vorausfahrender - Fahrzeuge zu bestimmen. The variability of the focal length (zoom) and sharpness can be further exploited to the distance of others - especially traveling ahead - to determine vehicles. Dies geschieht vorzugsweise über ein Autofokus- Verfahren, wie es z. This is preferably done on an autofocus method as z. B. von Fotoapparaten bekannt ist. B. of cameras is known. Auch sind Algorithmen denkbar, die aufgrund der Schärfe des aufgenommenen Bildes oder mehrerer aufgenommener Bilder die Entfernung zum anderen Fahrzeug bestimmen. Also algorithms are also conceivable, that determine the distance to the other vehicle due to the captured image or a plurality of recording image sharpness.

Die Erfindung betrifft weiterhin ein Verfahren zur Überwachung von vom Fahrer nicht direkt oder über einen Spiegel einsehbaren Räumen um ein Fahrzeug herum, bei dem zunächst in bekannter Weise ein Bild des zu überwachenden Raumes erzeugt wird. The invention further relates to a method for monitoring around by the driver or not directly a mirror blind spot areas around a vehicle, in which firstly an image of the monitored space is generated in a known manner. Dieses Bild wird dann weitergeleitet und auf mindestens einer Anzeigevorrichtung im vom Fahrer einsehbaren Bereich dargestellt. This image is then transferred and displayed on a display device at least in the region seen by the driver.

Das erfindungsgemäße Verfahren weist gegenüber dem Stand der Technik die gleichen Vorteile auf wie das oben erläuterte Überwachungssystem. The method of the invention has over the prior art, the same advantages as the above-explained monitoring system. Bei ihm wird aus dem Bild nicht eine in der Regel mangelhafte Information extrahiert, sondern dem Fahrer wird ein komplettes Abbild des zu überwachenden Raumes in seinem normalen Blickfeld angeboten. With him is not extracted from the image poor in general information, but the driver is a complete image of the monitored space available in its normal field of vision. Daher kann die menschliche Bildverarbeitung ausgenutzt werden, die bisher bekannte automatische Verfahren an Leistungsfähigkeit und Sicherheit übertrifft. Therefore, the human vision can be exploited that surpasses previously known automatic method of performance and safety. Damit ist gleichzeitig sichergestellt, daß keine relevante Information von einem automatischen System verkannt und damit unterdrückt wird. Thus, at the same time ensures that no relevant information is ignored by an automated system and suppresses it.

Eine Aufbereitung des Bildes und eine Informationextraktion kann indes zusätzlich zur Darstellung auf der Anzeigevorrichtung erfolgen, so daß die Sicherheit der vollständigen Bilddarstellung mit dem Service der angebotenen Information gekoppelt wird. A rendering of the image, and an information extraction can take place, however, in addition to the display on the display device so that the safety of the full image representation is coupled with the service information provided. Insbesondere kann eine Filterung, Konturenschärfung, Mustererkennung, Abstandsmessung von erfaßten Objekten und/oder eine Ausblendung von Störquellen erfolgen. In particular, a filtering, sharpening contours, pattern recognition, distance measurement of sensed objects and / or a suppression of sources of interference can take place. Hierfür können aus der digitalen Bildverarbeitung hinlänglich bekannte Algorithmen eingesetzt werden. For this well-known algorithms can be used in digital image processing.

Die mit den genannten Verfahren aus dem Bild ermittelten Daten können im einfachsten Fall dem Fahrer angezeigt werden. The data obtained with the aforementioned procedure of the image may be displayed to the driver in the simplest case. Dies kann auf derselben Anzeigevorrichtung zusammen mit dem Bild geschehen, oder aber auf einem getrennten Display (z. B. Radiodisplay). This can be done on the same display apparatus together with the image, or on a separate display (z. B. Radio display). Neben einer rein optischen Anzeige ist auch eine akustische Darstellung der Daten denkbar, wobei vorzugsweise ein Warnsignal zum Hinweis auf gefährliche Situationen (z. B. zu geringer Abstand für eigene/fremde Geschwindigkeit) möglich ist. Apart from a purely visual display and an audible representation of the data is possible, preferably a warning signal to indicate any dangerous situations (eg. B. insufficient distance for own / foreign speed) is possible.

Weiterhin kann aufgrund der ermittelten Daten auch direkt in die Steuerung des Fahrzeugs eingegriffen werden, z. Furthermore, it can be engaged directly in control of the vehicle based on the detected data, for. B. durch Brems- oder Lenkmanöver bzw. -korrekturen. For example, by braking or steering maneuver and amended. Mit ausreichender Rechenleistung ist es auch möglich, die Position des Fahrzeugs auf der Fahrbahn bzw. relativ zum Fahrbahnrand zu bestimmen. With sufficient computational power, it is also possible to determine the position of the vehicle on the road or relative to the edge of the roadway. Dann kann der Fahrer vor einem Abkommen von der Fahrbahn gewarnt werden, oder das System kann das Fahrzeug über eine Kopplung an die Lenkverstellung selbständig auf der Fahrbahn halten. Then the driver can be warned of a coming off the road, or the system can keep the vehicle via a coupling to the steering adjustment independently on the roadway.

Schließlich kann die Detektion bestimmter Bedingungen aus den Bilddaten auch zu einer Änderung des Verfahrens zur Überwachung führen. Finally, the detection of certain conditions from the image data may also result in a change of the method for monitoring. Hierbei ist vor allem an eine Verstellung von Schärfe, Ausrichtung oder Brennweite der bildgebenden Optik zu denken. It has to think above all of an adjustment of sharpness, focus or focal length of the imaging optics.

Das erfindungsgemäße Verfahren sollte insbesondere mindestens zwei Arbeitsmodi unterscheiden können, nämlich zum einen eine Parkraumüberwachung, in der das optische Bild - vorzugsweise durch Weitwinkeleinstellung der Optik - aus dem Nahbereich des Fahrzeuges gewonnen wird, und zum anderen eine Fahrbahnüberwachung, in der das optische Bild - vorzugsweise durch Tele-Einstellung der Optik - aus dem Fernbereich des Fahrzeuges gewonnen wird. The inventive method should be able to distinguish particular at least two working modes, one being in which the optical image of a parking enforcement, - preferably by wide-angle optics - is obtained from the vicinity of the vehicle, and on the other of roadway monitoring, in which the optical image - preferably is obtained from the remote region of the vehicle - with telephoto optics. Durch eine derartige Unterscheidung von Betriebszuständen ist es möglich, das Abbildungsverfahren an die jeweilige Situation optimal anzupassen. By such a distinction of operating conditions it is possible to optimally adapt the imaging process to the situation. Zu diesem Zweck werden im allgemeinen Situationen ausgewählt, die nicht gleichzeitig auftreten, wie es z. To this end situations are generally chosen which do not occur at the same time as such. B. für die erwähnte Parkraumüberwachung und die Fahrbahnüberwachung der Fall ist. is as mentioned for parking enforcement and road monitoring the case.

Bei der Parkraumüberwachung und gleichzeitiger Rückwärtsfahrt des Fahrzeuges wird vorzugsweise das gewonnene Bild im Heckbereich des Fahrzeuges dargestellt, da der Fahrer in der Regel sich ohnehin nach hinten wenden wird, um den Rückraum soweit wie möglich direkt einzusehen. When parking enforcement and simultaneous reversing the vehicle, the image obtained is preferably represented in the rear of the vehicle, as the driver will usually turn anyway back to view the backcourt as much as possible right away. Da eine derartige Anzeige im Heckbereich nicht immer benötigt wird, wird sie vorzugsweise erst bei Einlegen des Rückwärtsganges aktiviert und ansonsten abgeschaltet. Since such a display in the rear region is not always required, it is preferably only activated when the reverse gear and is otherwise turned off.

Bei der geschilderten Fahrbahnüberwachung erfolgt vorzugsweise gleichzeitig eine Bestimmung des Abstandes und/oder der Geschwindigkeit von im Bild befindlichen Objekten. In the described roadway monitoring preferably is a determination of the distance and / or the speed of in-image objects simultaneously. Derartige zusätzliche Informationen sind vor allem beim Fahren mit hoher Geschwindigkeit und beim Kolonnenfahren wertvoll, wenn das Abschätzen von Abständen für den Fahrer einerseits erschwert, andererseits aber besonders wichtig ist. Such additional information are when estimating distances for the driver firstly complicated, but on the other hand is very important especially when driving at high speed and when driving in convoy valuable.

Im folgenden wird die Erfindung anhand der Figuren beispielhaft erläutert. In the following the invention based on the figures will be exemplified.

Fig. 1 zeigt ein Blockschaltbild des Überwachungssystems im Auto. Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of the monitoring system in the car.

Fig. 2 zeigt ein variables Objektiv im Autoscheinwerfer. Fig. 2 shows a variable lens in car headlights.

Fig. 3 zeigt ein System mit Lichtwellenleiter und Mattscheibe. Fig. 3 shows a system with optical waveguides and ground glass.

In Fig. 1 sind gestrichelt die Umrisse einer Autokarosserie angedeutet. In Fig. 1 the outline of a car body are indicated by dashed lines. In allen vier Scheinwerfern 5 sind als Abbildungssysteme Videokameras 1 a angeordnet. In all four headlamps 5 video cameras 1 a are arranged as imaging systems. Im Rückscheinwerfer sind daneben auch Objektive 1 b vorhanden, die mit Lichtwellenleitern 2 b und einer Mattscheibe 3 e im Heck des Autos verbunden sind. In the rear headlamp addition, lenses 1 b are present, with optical waveguides 2 b, and a diffusing plate 3 e are connected in the rear of the car. Aus Kostengründen kann auch nur eines der beiden Systeme (Videokamera, Lichtwellenleiter) verwendet werden. For cost reasons, only one of the two systems (video camera, optical fibers) can be used. Das rein passive, verstärkungslose System aus Objektiv 1 b, Lichtwellenleitern 2 b und Mattscheibe 3 e eignet sich dabei insbesondere für kurze Distanzen wie von den Rückscheinwerfern oder Heck des Fahrzeugs bis zum Fahrgastinnenraum. The purely passive gain-less system of lens 1b, optical waveguides 2 and focusing screen 3 b e is suitable in particular for short distances such as from the rear lights or the rear of the vehicle to the passenger compartment.

Die Anordnung der Kameras bzw. Objektive in den Scheinwerfern ist vorteilhaft, da sie dort gut geschützt sind sowie ein optimales und bei Dunkelheit gut ausgeleuchtetes Blickfeld haben. The arrangement of the cameras and lenses in the headlights is advantageous because they are there well-protected and have an optimal and well-lit at night sight.

Von den Videokameras führen Videosignalleitungen 2 a zu einer zentralen Recheneinheit 4 (Mikroprozessor µC). By the video cameras video signal lines 2 a lead to a central processing unit 4 (the microprocessor .mu.C). Dort kann eine Bildverarbeitung und -verstärkung erfolgen, insbesondere eine Filterung, Konturenschärfung, Mustererkennung, Abstands- und Geschwindigkeitsmessung von erfaßten Objekten und/oder eine Ausblendung von Störquellen wie z. There, an image processing and amplification can take place, in particular a filtering, sharpening contours, pattern recognition, distance and speed measurement of sensed objects and / or a suppression of interfering sources such. B. Blendlicht. B. glare.

Das von den Videokameras 1 a aufgenommene Bild sowie ggf. die in der Recheneinheit 4 extrahierten Informationen werden dann an verschiedene Anzeigevorrichtungen weitergeleitet, insbesondere ein Display 3 a im Armaturenbrett und ein Display 3 d im Heck (Hutablage), an das Radiodisplay 3 b sowie an Anzeigen im Innenspiegel 3 c und in den äußeren Rückspiegeln 7 . The captured image as well as from the video cameras 1 a, if necessary, the extracted in the computing unit 4 information is then forwarded to various display devices, especially a display 3 a in the dashboard, and a display 3 d in the rear (rear shelf), on the radio display 3 b as well as See in the inner mirror 3, and c in the outer rear-view mirrors. 7 Hierbei handelt es sich um eine beispielhaft vollständige Ausstattung mit Anzeigen, wobei aus Kostengründen in der Regel eine Beschränkung auf ein oder wenige Displays erfolgen wird. This is an example of complete equipment with displays, a restriction is made on one or a few displays for cost reasons usually. In den Spiegeln 3 c, 7 können nicht nur Displays angeordnet sein, sondern hier können sich auch Kameras befinden (nicht dargestellt), die vom Spiegel nicht erfaßte Räume abdecken. In the mirrors 3 c, 7 not only displays can be arranged, but here also cameras may be located (not shown), which cover, not covered by mirror areas.

Fig. 2 zeigt eine Videokamera 1 a, die in den Autoscheinwerfer 5 integriert ist. Fig. 2 shows a video camera 1 a, which is integrated in the car headlights. 5 Vor der Kamera 1 a ist ein motorverstellbares Objektiv 8 angeordnet. Front of the camera 1 a a motor-adjustable lens 8 is arranged. Die Brennweitenverstellung kann von einem Weitwinkelbereich 9 a bis zu einem Telebereich 9 b erfolgen. The zooming can be carried out from a wide angle region 9 a to a telephoto 9 b. Mit dem Weitwinkelbereich 9 a kann vor allem der Nahbereich um das Fahrzeug beobachtet werden, was beim Einparken wichtig ist. With the wide angle 9a especially the proximity to the vehicle can be observed, which is important when parking. Die Teleeinstellung dient dagegen dazu, während der Fahrt den Fernbereich zu überwachen. In contrast, the telephoto is used to monitor the remote area while driving. Die Brennweiten- und Schärfenverstellung kann auch dazu ausgenutzt werden, mit einem Autofokus-Verfahren Abstände zu anderen Fahrzeugen zu bestimmen. The zoom and focus adjustment can also be utilized to determine distances to other vehicles with an autofocus method. Hierzu können ferner als Hilfsmittel Radar-, Ultraschall- und/oder Infrarot-Meßverfahren zum Einsatz kommen. For this purpose may also be used as an aid radar, ultrasonic and / or infrared measuring method.

Weiterhin zeigt Fig. 2 als Besonderheit, daß ein Teil des Scheinwerferglases als Linse 6 ausgebildet und in die Optik des Objektives integriert ist. Furthermore, FIG. 2 as a special feature that a part of the headlight lenses is formed as a lens 6 and integrated into the optics of the lens. Hierdurch wird eine kompaktere Bauweise möglich (unter Umständen genügt als Optik sogar die Linse 6 ), und das Objektiv ist durch das Scheinwerferglas geschützt und wird zusammen mit diesem gereinigt. In this way possible (perhaps even suffice as an optical lens 6) a more compact design, and the lens is protected by the headlight glass and cleaned therewith.

Fig. 3 zeigt schließlich im Detail ein passives System aus Objektiv 1 b, Lichtwellenleiter 2 b und Mattscheibe 3 e. Fig. 3 finally shows in detail a passive system of lens 1 b, 2 b optical waveguide and focusing screen 3 e. Der Lichtwellenleiter bzw. ein ganzes Bündel von Lichtwellenleitern 2 b münden in den Front- bzw. Heckscheinwerfer 5 und werden dort mit einer in den Scheinwerfer integrierten Optik, vorzugsweise einer Weitwinkellinse, versehen. The optical waveguide or a bundle of optical fibers 2 b open into the front and rear lights 5 and are there with a built-in lighting unit, preferably provided a wide-angle lens. Der Durchmesser des Lichtwellenleiters 2 b beträgt vorzugsweise weniger als 10 mm. The diameter of the optical waveguide 2 b is preferably less than 10 mm. Auf der Wiedergabeseite wird die übertragene Bildinformation nach Vergrößerung durch Linsen auf einer Mattscheibe 3 e dargestellt. On the reproducing side, the transmitted image information on the magnification by the lenses is shown on a ground plate 3 e. ZB bei Fahrzeugen mit kurzem Kofferraum läßt sich die Mattscheibe 3 e nach kurzer optischer Übertragungsstrecke gut im Heck des Fahrgastinnenraumes anordnen. For example, in vehicles with a short boot, the focusing screen can be well in the rear of the passenger compartment 3 e arrange a short optical transmission path.

Das Überwachungssystem arbeitet vorzugsweise mit mehreren verschiedenen Betriebszuständen. The monitoring system preferably works with several different operating conditions. Insbesondere sollte es möglich sein, eine Parkraum überwachung und eine Fahrbahnüberwachung zu unterscheiden. In particular, it should be possible to distinguish a parking space monitoring and road monitoring. Ein möglicher Funktionsablauf ergibt sich aus dem folgenden Schema: A possible functional sequence is derived from the following scheme:

Das Display im Fahrzeugheck wird vorzugsweise nur dann aktiviert, wenn der Rückwärtsgang eingelegt ist. The display in the rear of the vehicle is preferably only activated when reverse gear is engaged. Die Wahl zwischen Parkraumüberwachung und Fahrbahnüberwachung kann entweder manuell durch den Fahrer oder automatisch erfolgen, wobei im letzteren Falle die Umschaltung z. The choice between parking enforcement and roadway monitoring can be done either manually by the driver or automatically, in the latter case the switching z. B. bei einer bestimmten Grenzgeschwindigkeit v (z. B. 5 km/h) erfolgt. B. is carried out (5 km / h z. B.) at a given limit speed v.

Bezugszeichenliste LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1 1

a Videokamera a video camera

1 1

b Objektiv b lens

2 2

a Videosignalleitung a video signal line

2 2

b Lichtwellenleiter b optical waveguide

3 3

a Display Armaturenbrett a display dashboard

3 3

b Display Radio b Display Radio

3 3

c Display Innenspiegel c Display Rear View Mirror

3 3

d Display Heck d rear display

3 3

e Mattscheibe e Mattscheibe

4 4

Recheneinheit (µC) Processing unit (.mu.C)

5 5

Scheinwerfer headlights

6 6

Linse lens

7 7

Außenrückspiegel Door mirrors

8 8th

Objektiv mit Brennweitenverstellung Lens with zooming

9 9

a Weitwinkeleinstellung a wide angle

9 9

b Teleeinstellung b telephoto

Claims (19)

  1. 1. System zur Überwachung von vom Fahrer nicht direkt oder über einen Spiegel einsehbaren Räumen um ein Fahrzeug, welches 1. System for monitoring not seen by the driver directly or via a mirror areas around a vehicle, which
    • a) Abbildungsmittel ( 1 ) zur Erzeugung eines Bildes des zu überwachenden Raumes enthält, contains a) imaging means (1) for generating an image of the space to be monitored,
      dadurch gekennzeichnet , daß es ferner enthält characterized in that it further comprises
    • b) Übertragungsmittel ( 2 ) zur Weiterleitung des Bildes und b) transmitting means (2) for forwarding the image and
    • c) mindestens eine Anzeigevorrichtung ( 3 ) zur Darstellung des von den Übertragungsmitteln ( 2 ) weitergeleiteten Bildes, welche im vom Fahrer einsehbaren Bereich angeordnet ist. c) at least one display device (3) for representation of the (from the transmission means 2) relayed image, which is arranged in the area seen by the driver.
  2. 2. System nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß als Abbildungsmittel Videokameras ( 1 a) eingesetzt werden. 2. System according to claim 1, characterized in that the imaging means Video cameras (1 a) are used.
  3. 3. System nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Videokameras ( 1 a) CCD-Elemente mit einer Auflösung von mindestens 128 mal 128 Pixeln, vorzugsweise mindestens 480 mal 640 Pixeln enthalten. 3. System according to claim 2, characterized in that the video cameras (1 a) CCD elements included with a resolution of at least 128 by 128 pixels, preferably at least 480 by 640 pixels.
  4. 4. System nach einem der Ansprüche 2 oder 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Videokameras ( 1 a) für sichtbares und/oder infrarotes Licht empfindlich sind. 4. System according to any one of claims 2 or 3, characterized in that the video cameras (1 a) are sensitive to visible and / or infrared light.
  5. 5. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß als Anzeigevorrichtung ein Monitor ( 3 a, b, c, d), vorzugsweise eine Elektronenstrahlröhre oder eine Flüssigkristall-Anzeige, eingesetzt wird. 5. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the display device is a monitor (3 a, b, c, d), preferably a cathode ray tube or a liquid crystal display, is used.
  6. 6. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Übertragungsmittel ( 2 a) Vorrichtungen ( 4 ) zur elektronischen Bildverarbeitung umfassen, vorzugsweise zur Filterung und Mustererkennung. 6. System according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the transmission means (2 a) means (4) include for electronic image processing, preferably for filtering and pattern recognition.
  7. 7. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß als Abbildungsmittel ein Objektiv ( 1 b) und als Übertragungsmittel ein Lichtwellenleiter ( 2 b) eingesetzt werden. 7. System according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the imaging means is a lens (1b) and as a transmission means, an optical waveguide (2 b) are used.
  8. 8. System nach Anspruch 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß als Anzeigevorrichtung eine Mattscheibe ( 3 e) eingesetzt wird. 8. System according to claim 7, characterized in that a ground glass screen (3 e) is used as a display device.
  9. 9. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Abbildungsmittel ( 1 ) an der Vorderseite und/oder der Rückseite und/oder im Rückspiegel ( 7 ) des Fahrzeugs angeordnet sind. 9. System according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the imaging means (1) on the front and / or back and / or in the rearview mirror (7) of the vehicle are arranged.
  10. 10. System nach Anspruch 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Abbildungsmittel ( 1 ) in die Scheinwerfer ( 5 ) integriert sind. 10. System according to claim 9, characterized in that the imaging means (1) in the headlights (5) are integrated.
  11. 11. System nach Anspruch 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Optik ( 6 ) der Abbildungsmittel ( 1 ) ganz oder teilweise vom Scheinwerferglas gebildet wird. 11. System according to claim 10, characterized in that the optical system (6) of the imaging means (1) is formed completely or partially from the headlight glass.
  12. 12. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Anzeigevorrichtungen im Armaturenbrett ( 3 a), im Radiodisplay ( 3 b), im Innenspiegel ( 3 c), im Heckbereich des Fahrzeugs ( 3 d, e) und/oder in den Rückspiegeln ( 7 ) angeordnet sind. 12. System according to any one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the display devices in the instrument panel (3 a) (3 b) on the radio display, in the inside mirror (3 c), in the rear area of the vehicle (3 d, e) and / or in the rear-view mirrors (7) are arranged.
  13. 13. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Abbildungsmittel ( 1 ) in Orientierung, Brennweite und Scharfeinstellung veränderbar sind. 13. System according to any one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that the imaging means (1) are changeable in orientation, zoom and focus settings.
  14. 14. Verfahren zur Überwachung von vom Fahrer nicht direkt oder über einen Spiegel einsehbaren Räumen um ein Fahrzeug, bei dem 14. A method for monitoring by the driver or not directly viewable areas a mirror to a vehicle, in which
    • a) ein Bild des zu überwachenden Raumes erzeugt wird, a) an image is formed of the space to be monitored,
      dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß characterized in that
    • b) das Bild weitergeleitet wird und b) is passed on the image and
    • c) auf mindestens einer Anzeigevorrichtung ( 3 ) im vom Fahrer einsehbaren Bereich dargestellt wird. c) is displayed on at least one display device (3) in the region seen by the driver.
  15. 15. Verfahren nach Anspruch 14, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Bild vor der Darstellung auf der Anzeigevorrichtung ( 3 ) aufbereitet wird, insbesondere durch Filterung, Konturenschärfung, Mustererkennung, Abstandsmessung von erfaßten Objekten und/oder Ausblendung von Störquellen. 15. The method according to claim 14, characterized in that the image before it is displayed on the display device (3) is processed, in particular by filtering, sharpening contours, pattern recognition, distance measurement of sensed objects and / or suppression of interference.
  16. 16. Verfahren nach Anspruch 15, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die aus dem Bild ermittelten Daten angezeigt werden und/oder zu Eingriffen in die Steuerung des Fahrzeugs führen und/oder zu einer Änderung des Verfahrens zur Überwachung führen. 16. The method according to claim 15, characterized in that the data obtained from the image to be displayed and / or cause interference in the control of the vehicle and / or lead to a change of the method for monitoring.
  17. 17. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 16, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß es mindestens folgende zwei Arbeitsmodi unterscheidet: 17. The method according to any one of claims 14 to 16, characterized in that it differs at least the following two modes:
    • a) eine Parkraumüberwachung, in der das optische Bild - vorzugsweise durch Weitwinkeleinstellung der Optik - aus dem Nahbereich des Fahrzeuges gewonnen wird, preferably wide angle optics - - is derived from the vicinity of the vehicle, in which the optical image a) a parking enforcement,
    • b) eine Fahrbahnüberwachung, in der das optische Bild - vorzugsweise durch Tele-Einstellung der Optik - aus dem Fernbereich des Fahrzeuges gewonnen wird. b) monitoring a lane in which the optical image - preferably by telephoto optics - is obtained from the distance portion of the vehicle.
  18. 18. Verfahren nach Anspruch 17, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß bei Parkraumüberwachung (a) und Rückwärtsfahrt des Fahrzeuges das gewonnene Bild im Heckbereich des Fahrzeuges dargestellt wird, wozu vorzugsweise bei Einlegen des Rückwärtsganges die Anzeigevorrichtung ( 3 d, e) im Heck aktiviert wird. 18. The method according to claim 17, characterized in that, in parking enforcement (a) and reverse travel of the vehicle is shown the image obtained in the rear area of the vehicle, to which preferably at reverse gear is engaged the display device (3 d, e) is activated in the rear.
  19. 19. Verfahren nach Anspruch 17 oder 18, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß bei der Fahrbahnüberwachung eine Bestimmung des Abstandes und/oder der Geschwindigkeit von im Bild befindlichen Objekten stattfindet. 19. The method according to claim 17 or 18, characterized in that when the road surface monitoring, a determination of the distance and / or the speed of in-image objects takes place.
DE1998101884 1998-01-20 1998-01-20 CCTV monitoring system for blind spots around motor vehicle Withdrawn DE19801884A1 (en)

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