CN1552641A - System and method for treating runway pollution by aquatic floating plant - Google Patents

System and method for treating runway pollution by aquatic floating plant Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1552641A
CN1552641A CNA031316964A CN03131696A CN1552641A CN 1552641 A CN1552641 A CN 1552641A CN A031316964 A CNA031316964 A CN A031316964A CN 03131696 A CN03131696 A CN 03131696A CN 1552641 A CN1552641 A CN 1552641A
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China
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river
floating plant
aquatic floating
pollution
aquatic
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CNA031316964A
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黄卫东
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University of Science and Technology of China USTC
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University of Science and Technology of China USTC
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

A system and method for culturing the water plant to decrease the organic pollutants and nutritive salts in river features that a barrage dam or net is built in a polluted river, the floating water plants are cultured in the upstream river of said barrage, and the treated water flows into the downstream river of said barrage.

Description

A kind of system and method that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river
Technical field:
The invention belongs to environmental protection technical field, be specifically related to utilize and culture the system and method that waterplant reduces organic pollutant and nutritive salt in the river.
Background technology:
Development along with modern science and technology, chemical fertilizer such as the widely used nitrogen of agriculture production, phosphorus, potassium, only about 30-50% by plant absorbing, natural water bodies such as most of inflow rivers and lakes, make the natural water body eutrophication, and then cause algal bloom, water body organism content is increased sharply, pollute human life water source, become reluctant problem.
And huge pipe network and large-scale wastewater treatment plant must the consumption huge fund be built in order to handle sanitary sewage in the city.
As far back as eighties of last century the seventies, U.S. NASA NASA has just carried out and has manually set up the method that the waterplant pool or wetland are disposed of sewage, and existing thousands of the engineerings in the whole world adopt the method on the waterplant pools at present.Adopt sewage purifying plant, set up the waterplant pool, though construction cost and running cost are that other biological method such as main is much lower than adopting microorganism,, because the speed of plant absorbing pollutent is more much lower than microorganism, need occupy bigger land area usually; And adopt the engineering means to set up the waterplant pool, expensive big, be difficult to large-scale application.
Chinese patent CN1406880A has proposed a kind of Herba Eichhorniae (having another name called Herba Eichhorniae, formal name used at school Eichhornia crassipes) of directly culturing in serious pollution eutrophic lake, occupy water surface 30%-70%, with the method for control blue algae growth; Chinese patent CN1269332A propose to adopt biological method, comprises with Herba Eichhorniae etc., administers the bioremediation of factory's organic waste water and rivers and lakes organic contamination.
United States Patent (USP) 5820759 and 5811007 propose with watertight enclose to block surround the pond, vascular bundle waterplant such as integrated culture fish and Herba Eichhorniae are improved polluted water body water quality, neither directly utilize natural water bodies such as river course, can not large-scale application, and build complicated.
The disclosed a kind of intensified ecological sewage decontaminating method for rivers, channels and ditches of Chinese patent CN1241538A, being included in and setting up submerged plant and emergent on the river levee is main measures such as the waterplant ecosystem, increases the self-purification capacity in river; Its shortcoming is that submerged plant and emergent growth fraction aquatic floating plant are slow, can only utilize the shallow riverbank of water, and the water surface that can utilize is less; Its growing state and dirty removal capacities are subjected to the influence of the depth of water bigger, and the ability of removing pollutent is lower; And submerged plant and emergent can not all gather, and stays the plant root of river bed, is a kind of source of pollution, continuous sedimentary roots of plants also makes river channel sedimentation, influence the functions such as flood discharge shipping in river, method itself also needs river levee is done large-scale redevelopment, also is its shortcoming.
Summary of the invention:
The present invention proposes a kind of system and method that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river, can utilize all river course waters surface to culture aquatic floating plants such as Herba Eichhorniae, remove organic pollutant and nutritive salt in the polluted river, solved and utilized the river course to culture the problem that aquatic floating plant improvement pollution is faced.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
A kind of system that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river is characterized in that: be included in the aquatic floating plant of culturing in the river course of needs improvement; The gather instrument of aquatic floating plant; Build barrage or a fishnet across a river in the downstream, river course that needs are administered.
Described barrage is the dam that sluice gate is housed, and maybe can charge and discharge the rubber dam of gas, or other dams that can stretch.
Described system also comprises the aquatic floating plant breed pool of building in the greenhouse.
Aerating system is set in the river course, and described aerating system can be floating type mechanical aeration machine.
The aquatic floating plant instrument of gathering is meant ship and aboard ship the mechanical means of gathering is installed.
A kind of method of utilizing aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river, it is characterized in that: in by the river course of sewage pollution, culture aquatic floating plant, culture downstream, aquatic floating plant district in the river course and build a fishnet across a river or barrage, prevent the aquatic floating plant drift, make the aquatic floating plant of continuous growth occupy the river water surface that needs to administer by the aquatic floating plant of regularly or irregularly gathering and remain on 30%-70%, water after the improvement leaves the improvement zone from a fishnet across a river or barrage, enters the downstream water body.
Current faster the river course section build retaining dam, improve the depth of water, reduce flow velocity, control river flow velocity is to make aquatic plants growth good below 0.3 meter per second.
Adopt aerator to give the serious regional aeration of the pollution of river.
Described breed aquatic floating plant can only be cultured Herba Eichhorniae; Or to culture Herba Eichhorniae, culture duckweed simultaneously, duckweed, red duckweed, in other aquatic floating plants such as water peanut a kind of or several.
The present invention also utilizes the aquatic floating plant of building in the greenhouse to culture the pool, is used for protecting cold season to plant growing seedlings, preserve aquatic floating plant.
The described aquatic floating plant of gathering in the river course can adopt ship and aboard ship the mechanical means of the gathering aquatic floating plant of gathering is installed.
Compare with existing ecological technology of waste water control based on submerged plant and emergent etc., prior art can not make full use of most of river water waters surface such as the river course water surface, and self-purification capacity own is lower, and the fairly large engineering of needs be repaired the river course.Adopt the present invention, setting up aquatic floating plant in the river course is the main ecosystem, can be applied to the water surface in most of river course, wider than existing system range of application; Gathering of plant is more thorough, and detergent power is bigger; Construction cost is littler.Utilize the Herba Eichhorniae technology of purifying waste water to compare with existing, the present invention takes to culture aquatic floating plants such as Herba Eichhorniae in contaminated river course, overcome prior art and can not utilize the river course to reduce the nutritive salt of river water body and the shortcoming of organic pollutant.Because the nutritive salt major part that causes lake eutrophication in the basin is from widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area, most of widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area enters water body in the basin by the river, and domestic most of river is subjected to agricultural pollution serious.On various rivers, basin and tributary, use the present invention; can improve the self-purification capacity in various rivers in the basin and tributary thereof; reduce the interior various sources of basin water body and comprise organic pollutant and the nutritive salt that rural area pollution of area source and municipal effluent etc. enter, repair and the main water quality in protection basin.At present domestic also not have the method that can bear economically, can large-scale application, solve the water pollution of domestic extensive existence, and construction of the present invention and working cost are low, and construction speed is fast, can large-scale application, be the good method of solution domestic water body pollution.
Usually the majority of organic pollutants and the nutritive salt of lake and lower reaches of river water body derive from coupled tributary and upstream water body, as the tributary of great rivers, flow into the river in lake etc.Behind the hydrophyta natantia ecosystem of setting up on the ingoing river in the tributary of rivers and lake based on Herba Eichhorniae, because hydrophyta natantias such as Herba Eichhorniae can grow fast in warm season, in process of growth, a large amount of nutritive salt and organic pollutant have been absorbed, by pleustons such as harvesting Herba Eichhorniae, make nutritive salt leave river water, thereby reduced the nutritive salt and the organic pollutant that enter target water body that need to administer such as lake etc., alleviated and controlled the eutrophication degree of target water body.But, also reduced the ability of water body nature oxygenation because aquatic floating plants such as Herba Eichhorniae cover the water surface.The dissolved oxygen of natural water body is the prerequisite that keeps water ecology.Reserve the water surface, make the natural oxygenation of river water energy, be very important keeping water ecological setting.Therefore, in order to guarantee ecosystem treatment effect, pleustons such as minimizing Herba Eichhorniae are to the harm of the ecosystem of tributary water body, need every day and salvage a large amount of aquatic floating plants and all dead plants of in water body, constantly growing and breeding generation, keep aquatic floating plant in the coverage of the water surface between 30-70%, thereby guarantee the water body oxygenation capacity, make the ecosystem that the ability that reduces organic pollutant and nutritive salt is preferably arranged again.At navigable river, by the management aquatic floating plant, there is a passage in the water surface that makes the river course keep not occupied by aquatic floating plant, thereby little to the influence of navigation channel shipping, simultaneously, reserves the navigation channel also for the aquatic floating plant of gathering.Aquatic floating plant is influenced by several factors also to the river course fraction of coverage.Because ecosystem biomass has determined ecosystem detergent power, therefore, it is favourable to decontamination effect improving suitably to improve fraction of coverage within the specific limits.Consider that the aquatic floating plant of gathering needs processing and utilizing, the size of processing and utilizing system ability, also influential to fraction of coverage, in summer, the aquatic floating plant growth is fast, needs to reduce fraction of coverage, reduce the waterplant amount, the waterplant that need gather can in time be handled; In season in spring and autumn, when temperature is low, need suitably to improve fraction of coverage, to keeping system's detergent power, make full use of the processing power of aquatic floating plant processing and utilizing system.The river that flow velocity is bigger, oxygenation capacity is strong, and reserving the water surface can be less; The river that flow velocity is slow, a little less than the oxygenation capacity, it is bigger to reserve the water surface.By the aerator aeration, also can increase the water body dissolved oxygen, thereby can improve water surface fraction of coverage.Because a large amount of aerobic microbiologicals of aquatic floating plant root growth such as Herba Eichhorniaes, competent oxygen can strengthen the detergent power of microorganism in the aquatic floating plant ecosystem, and therefore competent oxygen makes the system purification ability better.Aerating system is set in the river course, is the river course oxygenic aeration, also can further improve the detergent power of system; Simultaneously, at the river course oxygenic aeration, can reduce the foul smell that processing is distributed in seriously polluted waters; The blowdown incident of burst can make the water pollution substrate concentration increase substantially in a short time, thereby threatens the aquatic floating plant growth, and aeration can reduce Pollutant levels faster, helps the growth of aquatic floating plant, guarantees stability of ecosystem.Therefore designing and be provided with aerating system according to the contaminated situation in river is necessary sometimes.Floating type mechanical oxygen replenishing equipment, conveniently moving can be adjusted the oxygenation position as required, the detergent power that this river water that blowdown incident that improves burst is caused pollutes and safeguard that the aquatic floating plant ecosystem has bigger help.The interception net is set on the river water surface, is in order to prevent aquatic floating plant under the drive of current, to flow out the specific river course that is provided with.In the mild river of physical features, consider the change of water (flow) direction, also the interception net can be set in the upstream.Because aquatic floating plant is when flow velocity is big, therefore poor growth even stagnation culture aquatic floating plant in the river course faster at long-term flow velocity, need build dam, improve river water level, reduce the river flow velocity, control its influence to aquatic plants growth.Consider that dam is big to the influence of river flood carrying capacity, under possible situation, should build rubber dam and other similar dams that can stretch, when flood arrives, dam can be put down, pass through, at this moment in order to flood, need build the interception net at up-stream face, prevent that aquatic floating plant from flowing out the ecosystem near dam.Aquatic floating plant swims in the water surface, and is less to the influence of river flood carrying capacity usually.Flood season can also be provided with the interception net in the lower upstream, section of flood handling capacity, reduces and controls this section river course water surface aquatic floating plant increment, and reducing aquatic floating plant influences the river course flood carrying capacity.Because the growth of aquatic floating plant has seasonality, and its main modes of reproduction is vegetative propagation, and in the area, temperate zone, winter temperature is lower, and aquatic floating plant can rot in water, they all must be picked up, to put rotten polluted river water.The built-in waterplant pool in the greenhouse, can preserve aquatic floating plant, in order to the coming year as vegetative plant, keep the aquatic floating plant ecosystem, before arriving in the winter time, when temperature is reduced to about 10 ℃, aquatic floating plants such as Herba Eichhorniae stop growing, before putrescing, need select and preserve to the greenhouse strong sprout, before 1 year temperature gos up, the greenhouse will be prepared enough aquatic floating plants in advance, after temperature gos up, put the korneforos in a suitable place to breed, set up the new aquatic floating plant ecosystem.Can not cut down the shortcoming of pollution in order to overcome the winter aquatic floating plant, build the barrage dam, can also store the sewage that is discharged into the river winter, temperate zone and refrigerant latitudes in China, winter, rainwater was few, barrage can increase the river storage capacity, can store most of waste water, prevents that sewage is diffused into wider waters.Winter, sewage was more stable, had fewer environmental impacts.Though because the river is through control, flow velocity is still bigger, cultures aquatic floating plant in river water, mainly based on Herba Eichhorniae, on the one hand other aquatic floating plants are difficult to good separately growth; On the other hand, though the Herba Eichhorniae growth is fast, to the purification speed height of pollutent.Culture Herba Eichhorniae separately, but its decontamination effect improving to the part pollutent in the water body is relatively poor, therefore, needs to culture multiple aquatic floating plant.Salvage the waterplant such as a large amount of Herba Eichhorniae that obtain, can be used as animal-feed, or be used to do fertilizer.
The invention solves following technological difficulties: 1, realized in the mobile river course, culturing aquatic floating plant, polluted to remove; 2, build dam in the section of current urgency, aerating apparatus is set, for aquatic floating plant provides good growing environment in section, seriously polluted ground; 3, utilize the greenhouse to protect in winter and kind grow seedlings, solved the aquatic floating plant problem of passing the winter.
Embodiment:
Embodiment:
Present embodiment is chosen in the stream, a tributary of the southern Fei river in Anhui Province and implements the present invention.The nutritive salt that in most of undressed Hefei City sewage and the basin run off in the farmland has been admitted in the flow through southern Fei river in Anhui Province in urban district, Hefei, be to enter one of the organic pollutant in Chaohu and main stream entering lake of nutritive salt, be about more than four hundred ton by the total phosphorus that the southern Fei river in Anhui Province enters Chaohu every year, surpassed the self-purification capacity in Chaohu.Implement long 180 meters of tributary of the present invention, wide 14 meters, dark 3.2m enters 600 tons of sanitary sewages every day.By a fishnet across a river (also can build barrage) is set in the korneforos, control river flow velocity is below 0.3 meter per second, culture aquatic floating plants such as Herba Eichhorniae and duckweed, adopt aerator to give river aeration, and every day and salvaged Herba Eichhorniae every several days and pleuston such as duckweed occupies the water surface between 30-70% with the control aquatic floating plant.
Winter, utilize the aquatic floating plant of building in the greenhouse to culture the pool, be used for protecting planting and grow seedlings, preserve aquatic floating plant.
Experimental result shows that this ecosystem is respectively BOD80-95% to the contaminant removal rate whole year, NH3-N80-90%, and TP60-96% reduces the pollutent that enters the southern Fei river in Anhui Province.
If in the southern Fei river in Anhui Province and the tributary middle and lower reaches culture Herba Eichhorniae, the pollutent that makes the southern Fei river in Anhui Province enter Chaohu is reduced more than the 70-90%, alleviate the contaminated degree in Chaohu greatly.Equally,, minimizing is entered the total amount of pollutant in Chaohu, the water body eutrophication degree in Chaohu is reduced greatly if in all stream entering lakes of Chaohu, culture Herba Eichhorniae.

Claims (10)

1. a system that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river is characterized in that: be included in the aquatic floating plant of culturing in the river course of needs improvement; The gather instrument of aquatic floating plant; Build barrage or a fishnet across a river in the downstream, river course that needs are administered.
2. the system that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 1 is characterized in that described barrage is the dam that sluice gate is housed, and maybe can charge and discharge the rubber dam of gas, or other dams that can stretch.
3. the system that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 1 is characterized in that also comprising the aquatic floating plant breed pool of building in the greenhouse.
4. the system that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 1 is characterized in that being provided with in the river course aerating system, and described aerating system can be floating type mechanical aeration machine.
5. the system that utilizes aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 1, the aquatic floating plant instrument that it is characterized in that gathering is meant ship and the installation mechanical means of gathering aboard ship.
6. method of utilizing aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river, it is characterized in that: in by the river course of sewage pollution, culture aquatic floating plant, culture downstream, aquatic floating plant district in the river course and build a fishnet across a river or barrage, prevent the aquatic floating plant drift, make the aquatic floating plant of continuous growth occupy the river water surface that needs to administer by the aquatic floating plant of regularly or irregularly gathering and remain on 30%-70%, water after the improvement leaves the improvement zone from a fishnet across a river or barrage, enters the downstream water body.
7. the method for utilizing aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 6, it is characterized in that current faster the river course section build retaining dam, improve the depth of water, control river flow velocity is below 0.3 meter per second, makes aquatic plants growth good.
8. the method for utilizing aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 6 is characterized in that adopting aerator to give the pollution of river serious regional aeration.
9. the method for utilizing aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 6 is characterized in that described breed aquatic floating plant, can only culture Herba Eichhorniae; Or to culture Herba Eichhorniae, culture duckweed simultaneously, duckweed, red duckweed, in other aquatic floating plants such as water peanut a kind of or several.
10. the method for utilizing aquatic floating plant to administer the pollution of river according to claim 6 is characterized in that utilizing the aquatic floating plant of building in the greenhouse to culture the pool, is used for protecting cold season to plant growing seedlings, preserve aquatic floating plant.
CNA031316964A 2003-06-06 2003-06-06 System and method for treating runway pollution by aquatic floating plant Pending CN1552641A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101767879A (en) * 2010-03-12 2010-07-07 四川农业大学 Application of aucuba japonica in treating livestock and poultry raising wastewater
CN101767880A (en) * 2010-03-12 2010-07-07 四川农业大学 Application of bird nest fern in treatment of livestock and poultry breeding waste water
CN101164916B (en) * 2007-09-17 2010-07-14 南京工业大学 Method for treating eutrophication water body by hydrophyte
CN101555071B (en) * 2009-05-14 2010-12-01 上海市环境科学研究院 Method for utilizing buffer strip to control agricultural non-point source pollution of tidal river network area of plain
CN102627377A (en) * 2012-04-18 2012-08-08 波鹰(厦门)科技有限公司 Method and device for purifying seriously eutrophic river water
CN102633395A (en) * 2012-04-18 2012-08-15 波鹰(厦门)科技有限公司 Eutrophicated river water quality purifying method and purifying device thereof
CN102633391A (en) * 2012-04-18 2012-08-15 波鹰(厦门)科技有限公司 Purification method and purification device of eutrophic river
CN103112952A (en) * 2011-11-16 2013-05-22 江苏省农业科学院 Comprehensive utilization method of floating plants for water eutrophication control
CN103693741A (en) * 2013-12-18 2014-04-02 华中农业大学 Method for constructing ecological ditch for purifying culture wastewater of aquiculture farm
CN103936222A (en) * 2013-11-05 2014-07-23 辽宁振兴生态集团发展有限公司 Breeding method with five-level purification and four-step utilization
CN104045160A (en) * 2014-05-20 2014-09-17 湖北宝迪农业科技有限公司 Method for biological reasonable treatment of pig farm waste water
CN105293710A (en) * 2015-11-19 2016-02-03 上海欧保环境科技有限公司 Water purification method based on floating plants
CN105621599A (en) * 2016-03-12 2016-06-01 常州大学 Ecological dam for aeration and slag blocking
CN105621620A (en) * 2016-03-12 2016-06-01 常州大学 Heat preservation and aeration sewage treatment dam
CN107758975A (en) * 2016-08-16 2018-03-06 深圳天澄科工水系统工程有限公司 The administering method and system of river water body
CN108824372A (en) * 2018-06-29 2018-11-16 上海理工大学 A kind of semi-fixed type ecology dam

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101164916B (en) * 2007-09-17 2010-07-14 南京工业大学 Method for treating eutrophication water body by hydrophyte
CN101555071B (en) * 2009-05-14 2010-12-01 上海市环境科学研究院 Method for utilizing buffer strip to control agricultural non-point source pollution of tidal river network area of plain
CN101767880A (en) * 2010-03-12 2010-07-07 四川农业大学 Application of bird nest fern in treatment of livestock and poultry breeding waste water
CN101767879A (en) * 2010-03-12 2010-07-07 四川农业大学 Application of aucuba japonica in treating livestock and poultry raising wastewater
CN103112952B (en) * 2011-11-16 2016-02-03 江苏省农业科学院 The method of comprehensive utilization of a kind of pleuston based on body eutrophication improvement
CN103112952A (en) * 2011-11-16 2013-05-22 江苏省农业科学院 Comprehensive utilization method of floating plants for water eutrophication control
CN102633395A (en) * 2012-04-18 2012-08-15 波鹰(厦门)科技有限公司 Eutrophicated river water quality purifying method and purifying device thereof
CN102633391A (en) * 2012-04-18 2012-08-15 波鹰(厦门)科技有限公司 Purification method and purification device of eutrophic river
CN102627377A (en) * 2012-04-18 2012-08-08 波鹰(厦门)科技有限公司 Method and device for purifying seriously eutrophic river water
CN103936222A (en) * 2013-11-05 2014-07-23 辽宁振兴生态集团发展有限公司 Breeding method with five-level purification and four-step utilization
CN103693741A (en) * 2013-12-18 2014-04-02 华中农业大学 Method for constructing ecological ditch for purifying culture wastewater of aquiculture farm
CN103693741B (en) * 2013-12-18 2015-09-09 华中农业大学 A kind of aquafarm cultivation wastewater purification ecological canal construction process
CN104045160A (en) * 2014-05-20 2014-09-17 湖北宝迪农业科技有限公司 Method for biological reasonable treatment of pig farm waste water
CN105293710A (en) * 2015-11-19 2016-02-03 上海欧保环境科技有限公司 Water purification method based on floating plants
CN105621599A (en) * 2016-03-12 2016-06-01 常州大学 Ecological dam for aeration and slag blocking
CN105621620A (en) * 2016-03-12 2016-06-01 常州大学 Heat preservation and aeration sewage treatment dam
CN105621599B (en) * 2016-03-12 2018-03-02 常州大学 One kind aeration debris retaining ecological dam
CN105621620B (en) * 2016-03-12 2018-06-29 常州大学 A kind of heat preservation aerating waste water processing dam
CN107758975A (en) * 2016-08-16 2018-03-06 深圳天澄科工水系统工程有限公司 The administering method and system of river water body
CN108824372A (en) * 2018-06-29 2018-11-16 上海理工大学 A kind of semi-fixed type ecology dam
CN108824372B (en) * 2018-06-29 2020-04-03 上海理工大学 Semi-fixed ecological dam

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