CN111642358A - Succulent plant growth substrate and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Succulent plant growth substrate and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111642358A
CN111642358A CN202010498548.9A CN202010498548A CN111642358A CN 111642358 A CN111642358 A CN 111642358A CN 202010498548 A CN202010498548 A CN 202010498548A CN 111642358 A CN111642358 A CN 111642358A
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plant growth
activated sludge
growth substrate
succulent plant
succulent
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谭艳霞
高红武
李柏村
杨照坤
黄力
李冬丽
郭茵
姚波
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Kunming Metallurgy College
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Kunming Metallurgy College
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D9/00Other inorganic fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners

Abstract

The invention discloses a succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof, wherein the succulent plant growth substrate which has a loose structure, good air permeability and strong water retention capacity and can prevent succulent plants from being rotten due to root infectious microbes is prepared from isatis root dregs, activated sludge, a leavening agent and particles. The addition of the activated sludge solves the problem that the lignin content of the isatis root dregs accumulated in large quantity is high and difficult to ferment, the C/N ratio is adjusted, and the prepared matrix has balanced nutrition, wherein the nitrogen content is more than 2.8 percent, the total phosphorus content is more than 1.4 percent, and the organic matter content is more than 49 percent; the method has the advantages that the two solid wastes of the activated sludge and the isatis root dregs are recycled, so that the pressure of urban environmental protection is relieved, and the cost is saved; the preparation process is simple and easy to operate, and the prepared succulent plant growth matrix can be widely applied to the field of succulent plant planting.

Description

Succulent plant growth substrate and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of waste recycling, and particularly relates to a succulent plant growth substrate prepared by utilizing radix isatidis dregs and composite activated sludge.
Background
Succulent plants grow with high requirements on soil permeability, water retention and fertilizer matrix, otherwise roots are prone to root rot. The root rot of succulent plants is divided into physiological rot and pathological rot, and the physiological rot is mostly root rot caused by poor air permeability and unsmooth ventilation of a culture medium or root burning caused by using over-concentrated fertilizer or inappropriate organic matters; so-called pathological decay is caused by infection with pathogenic bacteria. Soil and surrounding environment, water and fertilizers, and tools used in breeding are all in the presence of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, and the bacteria are easily bred in the substrate and harm plants without paying attention to disinfection and sterilization, and cause root rot.
At present, the plant growth is promoted to resist the physiological decay by applying nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, but the excessive application of the fertilizer can easily cause the root burning. For pathological decay, the bactericide is used for treating the pathological decay, the fertilizer and the bactericide have complicated process and high cost in the actual use process, if the amount of the bactericide is not proper, soil hardening and root decay are easily caused, and the growth of succulent plants is influenced. It is therefore desirable to provide a substrate suitable for the growth of succulent plants that is effective against fungal and bacterial infections.
At present, solid wastes produced in industry, such as traditional Chinese medicine residues in traditional Chinese medicine factories and activated sludge produced by treating domestic sewage, are generally treated by means of long-term occupied land stacking for natural decomposition or degradation, open-air stacking of residues, pit digging, landfill, incineration and the like, so that secondary pollution is caused to the environment, a large amount of land resources are occupied, and simultaneously, a large amount of resources are wasted. For example, the annual dregs of a decoction generated by Chinese traditional medicine factories in China exceed 3000 million tons, and contain a large amount of radix isatidis dregs of a decoction, and the radix isatidis dregs of a decoction contain a large amount of amino acid and some trace elements, which are very beneficial to the growth of succulent plants, but the radix isatidis dregs of a decoction are difficult to ferment due to high lignin content, so that the radix isatidis dregs of a decoction are difficult to ferment and cannot be applied industrially in a large amount; similarly, activated sludge produced by industrial solid waste such as domestic sewage treatment contains abundant nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matters which are important elements for growth of succulent plants, but the activated sludge is easy to harden in the composting process, so that the activated sludge has poor air permeability when being used as a plant substrate and is not beneficial to growth of the succulent plants.
The present invention has been made in view of this situation.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provides a succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof, and the succulent plant growth substrate which can effectively prevent roots of succulent plants from rotting and has the advantages of sterilization effect, balanced nutrition, good air permeability and strong water retention capacity is provided.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the technical scheme that:
on the one hand, the succulent plant growth substrate is prepared by uniformly mixing radix isatidis dregs and activated sludge, and then adding 1-10 per mill of a leaven for fermentation, wherein the mass ratio of the activated sludge to the radix isatidis dregs is 9: 1-5: 5.
In another aspect, a method for preparing a succulent plant growth substrate is provided, comprising the steps of:
(1) drying the isatis root dregs in the sun, crushing the dried isatis root dregs into particles with the particle size of 2-10mm, and adding water until the water content is 35% -45%;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing a leaven from azotobacter, lactobacillus, microzyme, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus;
(3) mixing the radix isatidis dregs obtained in the step (1) with activated sludge uniformly;
(4) adding the leavening agent obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) according to the mass ratio of 1-10 per mill, and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile, and piling for 25-35 days;
(6) sterilizing the fermentation pile subjected to the step (5) by ultraviolet rays for 8-10 hours;
(7) and (4) adding the particles with the mass ratio of 3: 7-7: 3 into the fermentation pile obtained in the step (6), and uniformly mixing to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate.
Further, in the step (3), the activated sludge is activated sludge for treating domestic sewage.
Further, in the step (5), the fermentation pile is fermented to 60-70 ℃ for 5 days, the fermentation pile is naturally heated to 60-70 ℃ in the fermentation process and is kept for 5 days to kill pathogenic bacteria, ova and the like without damaging the performance of a leavening agent, and when the temperature exceeds 70 ℃, the fermentation pile is turned over to reduce the temperature.
Further, in the step (7), the particles are sand or crushed stone or a mixture of the sand and the crushed stone, the diameter of which is 1-4 mm.
After the technical scheme is adopted, compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects.
The preparation method comprises the steps of uniformly mixing crushed isatis root dregs and activated sludge, adding a leavening agent with the mass ratio of 1-10 per mill, and fermenting to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate, wherein the isatis root dregs are naturally heated to 60-70 ℃ in the fermentation process and kept for 5 days to kill pathogenic bacteria and worm eggs, and the substrate prepared by fermentation has a good sterilization effect and can prevent roots of the succulent plants from being infected with infectious microbes and rotten; the addition of the activated sludge solves the problem that a large amount of accumulated isatis root dregs are difficult to ferment due to high lignin content, and the cost is reduced while the waste of the activated sludge is utilized; the fermentation agent is prepared by combining suitable microorganisms according to a proportion of azotobacter, lactobacillus, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus, the defect of limited fermentation effect of a single strain is overcome, isatis roots are fermented into loose mature humus, the C/N ratio in the matrix is adjusted through aerobic fermentation, the nitrogen content in the prepared matrix is more than 2.8%, the total phosphorus content is more than 1.4%, the organic matter content is more than 49%, the matrix structure is looser, the air permeability is better, the water retention capacity is strong due to the addition of a particle mixture, and the matrix can be kept not dry for one month after watering; the fully-decomposed loose odorless radix isatidis matrix prepared by recycling the two solid wastes, namely the activated sludge and the radix isatidis dregs, is rich in nutrition, relieves the pressure of environmental protection in cities, saves cost, and is simple in preparation process and easy to operate, and the prepared succulent plant growth matrix is widely applied to the field of succulent plant planting. The following describes embodiments of the present invention in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, illustrate embodiment(s) of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the invention without limiting the invention to its proper form. It is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments, and that for a person skilled in the art, other drawings can be derived from them without inventive effort. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a process flow diagram of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a graph comparing the planting effect of example 5 of the present invention with that of comparative example 3.
It should be noted that the drawings and the description are not intended to limit the scope of the inventive concept in any way, but to illustrate it by a person skilled in the art with reference to specific embodiments.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and the following embodiments are used for illustrating the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention. Unless otherwise specified, all percentages described in the examples refer to mass percentages. The process flow of the invention is illustrated in the examples with reference to FIG. 1.
Example 1
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 2mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus into a leavening agent according to the quantity ratio of 1:1:1:2:2:3:1: 1;
(3) mixing and stirring the isatis root dregs obtained in the step (1) and activated sludge for treating domestic sewage uniformly according to the mass ratio of 3: 7;
(4) adding 2 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile for 25 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 60-70 deg.C, maintaining for 5 days, and cooling to below 60 deg.C by turning the pile when the temperature exceeds 70 deg.C in the rest time;
(6) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (5) by using ultraviolet rays for 8 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate. Through determination: the mass fraction of organic matter (calculated by oven-dried basis) is 61.6%, the mass fraction of nitrogen is 3.63%, the mass fraction of phosphorus pentoxide is 2.42%, the mass fraction of potassium oxide is 1.74%, and the pH is 5.8
(7) And (3) uniformly stirring and mixing 50 parts of the mixture obtained in the step (6), 20 parts of soil, 20 parts of sand and 10 parts of broken stones, preparing a loose and humus succulent plant growth matrix, planting succulent plants at the same time, watering once every three weeks, and ensuring that the succulent plants grow well, the leaves are full, glossy, bright in color, free of wrinkles and green in central leaves.
Example 2
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 4mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing a leavening agent by using azotobacter, lactobacillus, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus in a quantity ratio of 1:1:2:1:2:2:1: 1;
(3) mixing the isatis root dregs obtained in the step (1) with activated sludge for treating domestic sewage in a mass ratio of 5:5, mixing and stirring uniformly;
(4) adding 1 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile for 30 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 60-65 ℃ for 5 days, and turning the fermentation pile to lower the temperature to below 60 ℃ when the temperature exceeds 65 ℃ in the rest time;
(6) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (5) by using ultraviolet rays for 8 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate. Through determination: the mass fraction of organic matter (on a drying basis) was 63.80%, the mass fraction of nitrogen was 2.86%, the mass fraction of phosphorus pentoxide was 1.4%, the mass fraction of potassium oxide was 1.51%, and the pH was 6.2.
(7) And (3) uniformly stirring and mixing 60 parts of the mixture obtained in the step (6), 20 parts of soil, 10 parts of sand and 10 parts of broken stones to prepare a loose and humorous succulent growth matrix, planting succulent plants at the same time, watering once every three weeks to ensure that succulent plants grow well, and the leaves are full, glossy, bright in color, free of wrinkles and green in central leaves.
Example 3
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 2-10mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus into a leavening agent according to the quantity ratio of 2:1:1:1:1:2:1: 1;
(3) mixing and stirring the isatis root dregs obtained in the step (1) and activated sludge for treating domestic sewage uniformly according to the mass ratio of 2: 8;
(4) adding 4 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile for 30 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 66-70 deg.C, maintaining for 5 days, and cooling to below 66 deg.C by turning the pile when the temperature exceeds 70 deg.C in the rest time;
(6) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (5) by using ultraviolet rays for 9 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate.
Under the same conditions, when the crushing grain sizes of the isatis root dregs are different, the obtained matrix components are determined according to the following table:
Figure BDA0002523814390000051
as can be seen from the above table: under the condition of the same other process conditions, the grain sizes of the isatis root dregs are different, and the contents and pH values of organic matters, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the prepared matrix are different: when the grain size is 4mm, the content of organic matters is the highest, and when the grain size is 10mm, the content of nitrogen and phosphorus is the highest; the potassium content is highest when the particle size is 6 mm. According to different requirements of different succulent plants on organic matters, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, proper radix isatidis dregs can be selected during fermentation and crushed into grain sizes. Meanwhile, according to different requirements of different succulent plants on the pH value of the substrate, an acidic or alkaline soil (or substrate) regulator is added to adjust the pH value of the substrate.
(7) And (3) uniformly stirring and mixing 40 parts of the matrix sampled in the step (6), 20 parts of soil, 20 parts of sand and 20 parts of gravels according to the weight average to prepare a loose and humorous succulent growth matrix, planting succulent plants at the same time, watering once every three weeks, and ensuring that succulent plants grow well, full leaves, luster, bright color, no folds and green central leaves.
Example 4
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 8mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus into a leavening agent according to the quantity ratio of 2:2:2:1:1:1: 1;
(3) mixing and stirring the isatis root dregs obtained in the step (1) and activated sludge for treating domestic sewage uniformly according to the mass ratio of 4: 6;
(4) adding 8 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile for 35 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 62-68 ℃ and keeping for 5 days, and when the temperature exceeds 68 ℃ in the rest time, cooling to below 62 ℃ by turning the pile;
(6) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (5) by using ultraviolet rays for 10 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate. Through determination: the mass fraction of organic matter (on a drying basis) was 53.53%, the mass fraction of nitrogen was 3.05%, the mass fraction of phosphorus pentoxide was 1.88%, the mass fraction of potassium oxide was 1.35%, and the pH was 5.9.
(7) Uniformly stirring and mixing 30 parts of the mixture obtained in the step (6), 30 parts of soil, 30 parts of sand and 10 parts of broken stones to prepare a loose and humus-loose succulent growth matrix; meanwhile, succulent plants are planted, water is poured once every three weeks, succulent plants grow well, leaves are full, glossy, bright in color and free of wrinkles, and central leaves are green.
Example 5
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 10mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus into a leavening agent according to the quantity ratio of 2:2:2:1:1:2:1: 1;
(3) mixing and stirring the isatis root dregs obtained in the step (1) and activated sludge for treating domestic sewage uniformly according to the mass ratio of 3: 7;
(4) adding 10 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile for 35 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 65-69 ℃ for 5 days, and turning the fermentation pile to lower the temperature to below 69 ℃ when the temperature exceeds 69 ℃ in the rest time;
(6) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (5) by using ultraviolet rays for 8 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate. Through determination: the mass fraction of organic matter (calculated on a drying basis) was 54.21%, the mass fraction of nitrogen was 3.48%, the mass fraction of phosphorus pentoxide was 1.98%, the mass fraction of potassium oxide was 0.94%, and the pH was 6.1.
(7) And (3) uniformly stirring and mixing 40 parts of the mixture obtained in the step (6), 20 parts of soil, 10 parts of sand and 20 parts of broken stones to prepare a loose and rotten and loose succulent growth substrate, planting succulent plants at the same time, watering once every three weeks to ensure that the succulent plants grow well, and the leaves are full, glossy, bright in color, free of wrinkles and green in central leaves.
Comparative example 1(fermentation temperature is lower than 60 degree)
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 10mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus into a leavening agent according to the quantity ratio of 2:2:2:1:1:2:1: 1;
(3) mixing and stirring the isatis root dregs obtained in the step (1) and activated sludge for treating domestic sewage uniformly according to the mass ratio of 3: 7;
(4) adding 10 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile for 35 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 55-58 ℃ for 5 days, and cooling to below 58 ℃ by turning the fermentation pile when the temperature exceeds 58 ℃ in the rest time;
(6) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (5) by using ultraviolet rays for 8 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate. Through determination: the mass fraction of the organic matter (calculated on a drying basis) is 53.62%, the mass fraction of nitrogen is 4.03%, and the mass fraction of phosphorus pentoxide is 2.04%. The mass fraction of potassium oxide was 0.45%, and the pH was 5.4. The obtained matrix was kneaded by hand and had fibrous texture.
(7) 40 parts of the mixture obtained in the step (6), 20 parts of soil, 10 parts of sand and 20 parts of broken stone are stirred and mixed uniformly to prepare a loose and rotten and loosely planted succulent growth matrix, and the loose and rotten succulent growth matrix is kneaded by hands, compared with the matrix of the example 5, the matrix of the comparative example 1 still has fibrosis, simultaneously the matrix of the comparative example 1 and the matrix of the example 5 are planted in the same seedling raising shed, a transplanted rubus idaeus with the diameter of about 5cm is planted, a special glass flowerpot with the diameter of about 20cm is used for planting for observation, water is poured once every three weeks in the planting process, 200mL is poured every time, no sterilization measure is carried out in the experimental process, the time for the water in the comparative example 1 to completely penetrate into the matrix is 1-2min when the water is poured, the time for the water to completely penetrate into the matrix is less than 1min when the matrix obtained in the example 5 is watered, and the penetration, the decomposition rate of lignin and cellulose in the isatis root dregs is relatively low when the fermentation temperature is lower than 60 ℃; three months later, the diameter of the Hongbaolian planted in the comparative example 1 is about 15cm, and the root system can not be seen through the bottom of the flowerpot, while the diameter of the Hongbaolian planted in the matrix of the example 5 is 18cm, and the root system can be seen to be deep into the bottom of the flowerpot. The planting is continued for 2 months, the diameter of the Hongbaolian planted by the matrix in the comparative example 1 is about 21cm, the leaf blade at the bottom has the dehydration phenomenon, the whole plant is pulled out, the root is found to have black spots, while the diameter of the Hongbaolian planted in the example 5 is about 27cm, and the leaf blade is full, glossy, bright in color and free of wrinkles; this indicates that the substrate prepared at a fermentation temperature of 60 ℃ or lower has an insignificant bactericidal effect, because the fermentation temperature is lower than 60 ℃, the temperature fails to kill all pathogenic bacteria during composting of the organic fertilizer, and the bacteriostatic action of the isatis root is not stimulated, resulting in the occurrence of local disease in the roots of the present example as compared with comparative example 5.
Comparative example 2(fermentation temperature higher than 70 degree)
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 10mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus into a leavening agent according to the quantity ratio of 2:2:2:1:1:2:1: 1;
(3) mixing and stirring the isatis root dregs obtained in the step (1) and activated sludge for treating domestic sewage uniformly according to the mass ratio of 3: 7;
(4) adding 10 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) and uniformly stirring;
(5) piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile for 35 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 72-75 ℃ for 5 days, and turning the fermentation pile to reduce the temperature to below 75 ℃ when the temperature exceeds 75 ℃ in the rest time;
(6) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (5) by using ultraviolet rays for 8 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate. Through determination: the mass fraction of organic matter (on a dried basis) was 58.72%, the mass fraction of nitrogen was 2.26%, the mass fraction of phosphorus pentoxide was 3.32%, the mass fraction of potassium oxide was 1.11%, and the pH was 6.3.
(7) 40 parts of the mixture obtained in the step (6), 20 parts of soil, 10 parts of sand and 20 parts of broken stone are stirred and mixed uniformly to prepare a loose succulent growth substrate which is humorous and loose for planting, a comparative example substrate and the substrate in the embodiment 5 are used for planting Hongbaolian with the plant diameter of about 5cm in the same seedling raising shed at the same time, a special glass flowerpot with the diameter of 20cm is used for planting for facilitating observation, 200mL of water is watered every three weeks in the planting process, the time for completely penetrating the water into the substrate in the comparative example 2 is less than 1min when the water is watered, the time for completely penetrating the water into the substrate in the embodiment 5 is less than 1min when the water is watered, the penetration depth of the Hongbaolian is equivalent to that in the embodiment 2 when the water is watered, the diameter of the Hongbaolian planted in the comparative example 2 is observed to be about 12.3cm when the water is observed at 3 months, the Hongbaolian cannot be, the root system is already deep into the bottom of the flowerpot. The planting is continued for 2 months, the diameter of the Hongbaolian planted by the matrix in the comparative example 2 is about 17.2cm, the pulled root system is intact, the diameter of the Hongbaolian planted in the example 5 is about 27cm, and the leaves are full, glossy, bright in color and free of folds; therefore, when the fermentation temperature is above 70 ℃, part of beneficial bacteria are passivated, and the effective components in the isatis root dregs and the sludge are not effectively activated, so that the succulence growth is slow.
Comparative example 3(without activated sludge)
A succulent plant growth substrate and a preparation method thereof comprise the following specific steps:
(1) drying radix Isatidis residue in sunlight, and pulverizing into 10mm particle size;
(2) preparing a leavening agent: preparing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycetes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus into a leavening agent in a quantity ratio of 2:2:2:1:1:2:1: 1;
(3) adding 10 per mill of the leaven obtained in the step (2) into the isatis root dregs, uniformly stirring, piling into a fermentation pile, and piling for 35 days; naturally heating the fermentation pile to 69 ℃ for 5 days, and cooling to below 69 ℃ by turning the fermentation pile when the temperature exceeds 69 ℃ in the rest time;
(4) and (4) disinfecting the substrate obtained in the step (3) by using ultraviolet rays for 8 hours to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate. The obtained matrix is kneaded by hand, and the fibrosis is heavy, because the fermentation activity of radix Isatidis residue is poor and lignin is not fully decomposed due to no sludge in the fermentation process. Through determination: the mass fraction of organic matter (calculated on a drying basis) of the matrix is 55.27%, the mass fraction of nitrogen is 1.32%, the mass fraction of phosphorus pentoxide is 0.93%, the mass fraction of potassium oxide is 0.12%, and the pH value is 5.8.
(5) 40 parts of the substrate obtained in the step (4), 20 parts of soil, 10 parts of sand and 20 parts of broken stones are stirred and mixed uniformly to prepare a succulent growth substrate, the substrates obtained in the comparative example 3 and the example 5 are respectively planted with Hongbaolian in a unified seedling raising area, flowerpots of the same model are used for planting, 200mL of water is watered every three weeks, water stays on the surface of the substrate for 2-3 minutes and then permeates into the substrate, the permeation time of the example 5 is less than 1 minute, the substrate obtained in the comparative example is not fermented sufficiently, and the water absorption and water retention are poor. Meanwhile, the same Hongbaolian as the comparative example 1 is planted, water is poured once every three weeks, after three months of planting, the diameter of a Hongbaolian plant is about 12cm, the leaves are small, the luster is poor, the central leaves are green, and the substrate obtained after only fermenting the radix isatidis dregs is not suitable for the growth of succulent plants.
Comparative test of bactericidal effect
Referring to fig. 2, one Hongbaolian of the same growth period was transplanted, the succulent plant growth substrate of example 5 was used for cultivation, the other one was transplanted with the original substrate, the two plants were planted in the same environment, and a seedling with rotten root due to fungus infection was transplanted into the pot to observe the resistance of the two plants to fungus. Watering once every three weeks in the observation process, applying no fertilizer and using no bactericide in the middle, and pulling out rotten seedlings at the roots after planting for 2 weeks. Observing that the bottom leaves of the Hongbaolian cultivated by the original substrate begin to dehydrate in the 5 th week, and the leaves of the Hongbaolian cultivated by the substrate in the embodiment 5 are plump, bright in color and free of folds; observing that at the 8 th week, the leaves at the bottom of the house are yellow and the polymerization degree of the leaves is poor due to dehydration of the Hongbaolian cultivated by the original substrate, and the leaves of the Hongbaolian cultivated by the substrate in the embodiment 5 are full, bright in color and free of wrinkles and are gathered; observing the 3 rd month, the Hongbaolian cultivated by the original substrate turns yellow, the bottom leaves begin to be necrotic, the tail ends of the whole leaves turn black, the leaves are loose, the Hongbaolian leaves cultivated by the substrate in the embodiment 5 are full, bright in color and free of folds, and the leaves are gathered. Therefore, the matrix obtained by the invention has better bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions and alterations can be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (8)

1. A succulent plant growth substrate is characterized by mainly comprising the following components: isatis root dregs, activated sludge, a leavening agent and particles; wherein the mass ratio of the activated sludge to the isatis root decoction dregs is 9: 1-5: 5, the addition amount of the leavening agent is 1-10 per mill of the total mass of the activated sludge and the isatis root decoction dregs, and the mass ratio of the particles to the total mass of the activated sludge, the isatis root decoction dregs and the leavening agent is 3: 7-7: 3.
2. The succulent plant growth substrate of claim 1, wherein the fermentation agent mainly comprises azotobacter, lactobacillus, yeast, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus, and the number ratio of the azotobacter to the lactobacillus is (1-2): 1-3):1: 1.
3. The succulent plant growth substrate of claim 1, wherein the activated sludge is activated sludge for domestic sewage treatment.
4. The succulent plant growth substrate of claim 1, wherein the particulate matter is one or any combination of soil, sand, and crushed stone.
5. A method of preparing a succulent plant growth substrate according to any of claims 1 to 4, comprising the steps of: granules, granules
Step (1), drying the isatis root dregs in the sun, crushing into particles with the particle size of 2-10mm, and adding water until the water content is 35% -45%;
step (2), preparation of a leavening agent: preparing a leaven from azotobacter, lactobacillus, microzyme, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, actinomycetes, photosynthetic bacteria and streptococcus thermophilus;
step (3), mixing the radix isatidis dregs obtained in the step (1) with activated sludge uniformly;
step (4), adding the leavening agent obtained in the step (2) into the mixture obtained in the step (3) according to the mass ratio of 1-10 per mill, and uniformly stirring;
step (5), piling the mixture obtained in the step (4) into a fermentation pile, and piling for 25-35 days;
step (6), the fermentation pile processed in the step (5) is sterilized by ultraviolet rays for 8 to 10 hours;
and (7) adding the particles with the mass ratio of 3: 7-7: 3 into the fermentation pile obtained in the step (6) and uniformly mixing to prepare the succulent plant growth substrate.
6. The method for preparing a succulent plant growth substrate according to claim 5, wherein in the step (3), the activated sludge is activated sludge for treating domestic sewage.
7. The method for preparing a succulent plant growth substrate according to claim 5, wherein in step (5), the fermentation heap is fermented to a temperature of 60-70 ℃ for 5 days.
8. The method for preparing succulent plant growth substrate according to claim 5, wherein in step (7), the particulate matter is one or any combination of soil, sand and crushed stone, and the diameter of the sand or crushed stone is 1 mm-4 mm.
CN202010498548.9A 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 Succulent plant growth substrate and preparation method thereof Pending CN111642358A (en)

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3351787B1 (en) * 2002-03-12 2002-12-03 潔 有賀 How to grow succulent plants
CN101715712A (en) * 2009-12-07 2010-06-02 杭州师范大学 Production method of culture substrate especially for landscape plants
CN104311177A (en) * 2014-10-13 2015-01-28 山东益源环保科技有限公司 Method of preparing bio-organic fertilizer by utilizing papermaking sludge and tradtional Chinese medicine residues
CN104557176A (en) * 2015-01-29 2015-04-29 中冶赛迪工程技术股份有限公司 Process for performing aerobic fermentation on bio-drying traditional Chinese medicine residues and sludge
CN106336279A (en) * 2016-08-15 2017-01-18 李桂强 Fertilizer for promoting flowering of succulent plants
CN106699345A (en) * 2016-11-29 2017-05-24 青岛海之星生物科技有限公司 Nutrient soil for promoting succulent plant growth and preparation method thereof

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3351787B1 (en) * 2002-03-12 2002-12-03 潔 有賀 How to grow succulent plants
CN101715712A (en) * 2009-12-07 2010-06-02 杭州师范大学 Production method of culture substrate especially for landscape plants
CN104311177A (en) * 2014-10-13 2015-01-28 山东益源环保科技有限公司 Method of preparing bio-organic fertilizer by utilizing papermaking sludge and tradtional Chinese medicine residues
CN104557176A (en) * 2015-01-29 2015-04-29 中冶赛迪工程技术股份有限公司 Process for performing aerobic fermentation on bio-drying traditional Chinese medicine residues and sludge
CN106336279A (en) * 2016-08-15 2017-01-18 李桂强 Fertilizer for promoting flowering of succulent plants
CN106699345A (en) * 2016-11-29 2017-05-24 青岛海之星生物科技有限公司 Nutrient soil for promoting succulent plant growth and preparation method thereof

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