CN111593748A - Ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope and construction method thereof - Google Patents

Ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope and construction method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111593748A
CN111593748A CN202010491229.5A CN202010491229A CN111593748A CN 111593748 A CN111593748 A CN 111593748A CN 202010491229 A CN202010491229 A CN 202010491229A CN 111593748 A CN111593748 A CN 111593748A
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China
Prior art keywords
lattice
slope
parts
soil
construction
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CN202010491229.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
吴大志
陈柯宇
胡俊涛
余璐
张振营
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Zhejiang University of Technology ZJUT
Zhejiang Sci Tech University ZSTU
Zhejiang University of Science and Technology ZUST
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Zhejiang University of Technology ZJUT
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Priority to CN202010491229.5A priority Critical patent/CN111593748A/en
Publication of CN111593748A publication Critical patent/CN111593748A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/20Securing of slopes or inclines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C23/00Distributing devices specially adapted for liquid manure or other fertilising liquid, including ammonia, e.g. transport tanks, sprinkling wagons
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/25Dry fruit hulls or husks, e.g. chaff or coir
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/30Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing synthetic organic compounds
    • A01G24/35Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing synthetic organic compounds containing water-absorbing polymers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/02Watering arrangements located above the soil which make use of perforated pipe-lines or pipe-lines with dispensing fittings, e.g. for drip irrigation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/04Portland cements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/02Retaining or protecting walls
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/74Means for anchoring structural elements or bulkheads
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03FSEWERS; CESSPOOLS
    • E03F5/00Sewerage structures
    • E03F5/04Gullies inlets, road sinks, floor drains with or without odour seals or sediment traps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/23Dune restoration or creation; Cliff stabilisation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/60Planning or developing urban green infrastructure

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of side slope protection structures, in particular to an ecological protection structure of a broken rock abrupt slope and a construction method thereof. An ecological protection structure of a broken rock abrupt slope comprises a seed soil layer, an iron wire mesh layer, a nutrient soil base layer and a concrete lattice beam which are sequentially arranged on a slope surface from top to bottom, wherein a plant growing bag positioned below the nutrient soil base layer is piled and built in a grid of the concrete lattice beam; the lower part of the lattice beam is embedded in the slope, and the lower part of the lattice beam is provided with an ear wall. The invention can not only effectively prevent landslide, but also ensure the normal growth of vegetation, thereby playing an excellent protection effect on the side slope.

Description

Ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope and construction method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of side slope protection structures, in particular to an ecological protection structure of a broken rock abrupt slope and a construction method thereof.
Background
In order to relieve the damage to the natural environment caused by the rapid development of economy in recent years and meet the requirements of people on good environment, the research and popularization of restoration and greening technologies become the current focus. The mountain slope is a mountain exposed surface formed by artificial excavation or natural external force and the like of a mountain, and is widely used in cities and high-speed roadways. Covers such as vegetation on the surface of a side slope are often damaged due to excavation, so that the influence is more serious: on one hand, the steel cannot enter the surrounding environment, and on the other hand, disasters such as rock mass collapse, landslide and the like are easily caused. The traditional mountain slope engineering protection and ecological greening technology has more types, and concrete lattice beams, retaining walls, organisms and other reinforcement means are introduced according to the condition difference of slope height, slope and the like.
At the present stage, the high and steep slope is reinforced by adopting the traditional anchor rod construction and concrete frame structure. The method has certain limitations, on one hand, rock mass is directly exposed in the air and is directly washed by rainwater to influence the stability of the side slope; on the other hand, plants are difficult to grow on the upper part of the concrete lattice beam, and the landscape effect is poor. When a high steep slope or a rock-soil base layer is unstable, a small amount of rock stripping phenomenon can also occur at the lattice beam sash.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the present invention aims to provide an ecological protection structure for a broken rock steep slope.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
an ecological protection structure of a broken rock abrupt slope comprises a seed soil layer, an iron wire mesh layer, a nutrient soil base layer and a concrete lattice beam which are sequentially arranged on a slope surface from top to bottom, wherein a plant growing bag positioned below the nutrient soil base layer is piled and built in a grid of the concrete lattice beam; the lower part of the lattice beam is embedded in the slope, and the lower part of the lattice beam is provided with an ear wall.
Preferably, the lattice beam is fixed on the revetment through the anchor rod, and the lattice beam is a porous structure.
Preferably, a retaining wall is arranged at the toe of the revetment, wherein a groove is formed between the retaining wall and the toe of the revetment; planting soil is filled in the groove.
Preferably, the slope bottom of the slope protection is provided with a drainage ditch, and the top of the slope protection is provided with a catch basin.
Preferably, a spraying system is further arranged on the lattice beam, wherein the spraying system comprises a spraying pipe arranged on the lattice beam, and a spray head of the spraying pipe is higher than the seed soil layer.
The invention also provides a construction method of the ecological protection structure of the broken rock steep slope, which comprises the following steps:
s01, cleaning and leveling the slope;
s02, lofting planning: and (4) according to the field layout of the construction drawing, determining the construction areas of the anchor rods and the lattice beams.
S03, anchor rod installation: positioning the anchor rod according to the determined anchor rod in the step S02, drilling, installing the anchor rod and grouting for fixing;
s04, excavating a lattice beam foundation groove: excavating a lattice beam foundation trench on the slope according to the lattice beam construction area determined in the step S02; wherein, ear grooves are dug at intervals at the bottom of the lattice beam foundation groove;
s05, pouring the lattice beam: and binding lattice reinforcing steel bars and earwall reinforcing steel bars, installing a template, and pouring concrete. After the concrete is condensed, forming a lattice beam in the foundation trench and forming an ear wall in the ear trench; wherein the lattice beam is a multi-pore lattice beam structure;
s06, stacking plant biological bags: stacking the plant growing bags in the grids of the lattice beam;
s07, installing an iron wire net: after the ground screws are implanted into the lattice beams according to the designed interval, laying iron wire nets on the whole slope surface, connecting the ground screws with the iron wire nets in a binding mode, reserving a space between the iron wire nets and the lattice beam surface, determining the spacing distance according to the thickness of a nutrient soil base layer to be laid, and when the distance between the iron wire nets and the surface of the plant growth bag does not meet the requirement, driving small anchor rods according to the requirement to be adjusted in a binding and rolling mode with the iron wire nets;
s08, laying a nutrient soil base layer: preparing nutrient soil, constructing a nutrient soil base on the slope surface in a spraying mode, and enabling the sprayed nutrient soil to enter the space between the wire netting and the lattice beam from the wire netting meshes to form a nutrient soil base layer;
s09, laying a seed soil layer: spraying a seed soil base on the surface of the wire netting so as to form a seed soil layer on the outer surface of the wire netting
S10, building a retaining wall: and constructing a retaining wall at the toe of the slope, forming a groove area between the retaining wall and the slope, filling planting soil in the groove area, and planting trees in the groove.
Preferably, the following steps are further included between step S06 and step S07:
s061, installing a spraying system: and the spray pipe is fixedly arranged on the outer surface of the lattice beam to ensure that the spray head is higher than the slope surface after the construction is finished.
Preferably, after step S10, the method further includes the following steps:
and S11, digging a drainage ditch at the front side of the slope of the revetment, and digging a water intercepting ditch at the front side of the top of the revetment.
Preferably, in step S05, the concrete preparation method includes the following steps:
s051: preparing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 10-13 parts of water, 34-37 parts of cement, 145 parts of 135-sand broken stone aggregate, 0.6-1.1 parts of polycarboxylic acid high-efficiency water reducing agent, 1.4-2 parts of reinforcing agent and 2-2.5 parts of mineral admixture;
s052, stirring: pouring aggregate and 25% of water into a concrete mixer, mixing for 2-5 minutes to wet the surface of the aggregate, then adding cement and mineral admixture, stirring for 5-6 minutes, finally adding the remaining 75% of water and polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent, and stopping stirring for 5-6 minutes.
Preferably, the seed soil layer, the nutrient soil base layer and the planting base materials in the plant growing bag are approximately similar, wherein the method for manufacturing the planting base of the plant growing bag comprises the following steps:
t1, preparing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 40-48 parts of nutrient soil; 2-3 parts of low-concentration nutrient solution; 3-5 parts of super absorbent resin crystal and 4-6 parts of vermiculite powder; 2-3 parts of diatomite; 2-10 parts of palm fiber and 3-7 parts of river sand; 1-4 parts of water. Wherein, when the planting base of the nutrient soil base layer is prepared, the amount of the super absorbent resin can be properly reduced to 1-2 parts; when the planting base of the seed soil layer is prepared, the water can be properly increased to 3-5 parts.
T2, stirring: mixing and stirring the super absorbent resin crystal, the vermiculite powder, the diatomite, the palm fiber and the river sand uniformly, and adding a solution prepared from the water and the low concentrated emulsion nutrient solution to obtain a mixture; and finally, stirring and mixing the mixture and the nutrient soil to form the plant base.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
1. the ecological protection method of the broken rock steep slope is based on the multidisciplinary backgrounds of geotechnical mechanics, engineering materials science, landscape ecology and the like, the mode that the anchor rod lattice beam plant biological bags are filled and leveled and then the net is hung and the thick base layer is sprayed for greening is firstly provided for carrying out ecological restoration on the broken rock steep slope, the concept of the ecological restoration hierarchical structure of the steep slope is innovatively provided, and an ecologically reliable whole is formed through the interaction of layers of levels. The plants on the top layer are beautiful and tidy, the microclimate around the plant growing area can be effectively improved, and the erosion effect of wind and rain on the surface of a slope is reduced. The root system of the plant biological bag extends downwards to the porous concrete frame beam and the plant biological bag in the sash to play a role in strengthening and reinforcing. The second layer of the iron wire net hanging layer can well fix the thick base layer for plant growth. The third layer of nutrient soil base layer can provide necessary nutrient elements for plants and realize the effects of water retention, fertilizer retention and the like. The fourth layer of plant growth bag is the main place for shrub root system development, and can absorb the nutrient components and water moved down from the above-mentioned levels, and can provide carrier and required nutrients for plant root system growth and later development; meanwhile, the porous concrete lattice beam on the fourth layer can prevent the instability of the slope to the maximum extent, and the porous structure of the porous concrete lattice beam meets the requirement of plant root system extension. The design of the ear wall can enhance the capability of the lattice beam for resisting downward sliding and reduce the transverse shearing of the anchor rod.
2. The invention creatively introduces a linkage water and fertilizer retention system of super absorbent polymer (SPA), vermiculite powder, diatomite and palm fiber. The root connection and the integral strength optimization of the nutrient soil layer are realized through the pore structures of the vermiculite powder and the diatomite. Meanwhile, in order to reduce excessive loss of water and nutrient components in the nutrient soil layer, super absorbent resin (SPA) with water absorption and retention effects is introduced, palm fibers with fertilizer retention and soil acidification prevention effects are introduced, and a good environment which gives consideration to porosity, water retention and fertilizer retention is provided for plant growth.
3. The stone retaining wall with better integrity is arranged in front of the slope bottom foundation beam and planted in the groove between the back of the wall and the slope surface, so that the foundation beam is protected and the slope is beautified. And a water intercepting ditch is arranged at the top of the slope to intercept the water flow flowing to the roadbed on the hillside.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of a protective structure according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the structure at the ear wall;
FIG. 3 is a top view at the lattice beam;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the structure at the toe of the protective structure;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of the structure at the top of a slope;
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the internal structure of a lattice beam (porous);
FIG. 7 is a table of the formulation of the plant growth bag planting base;
fig. 8 is a table of the mix ratio of lattice beam concrete.
Reference numerals: 1. a seed soil layer; 2. a wire mesh; 3. a nutrient soil base layer; 4. a lattice beam; 41. a pore; 5. planting a biological bag; 6. an ear wall; 7. an anchor rod; 8. retaining walls; 9. backfilling; 10. a drainage ditch; 11. and (5) intercepting the water ditch.
Detailed Description
The following detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention is provided in order to make the technical solution of the present invention easier to understand and understand.
Example 1:
referring to fig. 1, the present embodiment provides an ecological protection structure of a broken rock steep slope, hereinafter referred to as a slope protection, which includes a seed soil layer 1, a wire mesh layer 2, a nutrient soil base layer 3, and a concrete lattice beam 4, which are sequentially disposed on a slope surface from top to bottom, as shown in fig. 3, wherein a plant growth bag 5 located below the nutrient soil base layer 3 is stacked in a grid of the concrete lattice beam 4.
The uppermost seed soil layer 1 may provide early nutrients for plant growth, wherein the thickness of the seed soil layer 1 may be 20-30 mm.
The root system of the plant extends to the nutrient soil base 3, the strength and the integrity of the nutrient soil base 3 are further enhanced, wherein the thickness of the nutrient soil base 3 can be 80-90 mm. The plant root system guides the downward seepage of rainwater, increases the rivers space and ensures the required moisture of plant.
Seed soil layer 1 covers on 2 hanging layers of wire netting, and wire netting 2 provides the attachment point for it, and simultaneously, 2 layers of wire netting also protect nutrition soil basic unit 3 from the erosion and loss of rainwater.
Lattice beam 4 passes through stock 7 to be fixed on the bank protection, plays a fixed action to lattice beam 4 through stock 7, wherein stock 7 can settle in 4 longerons of lattice beam and with the crossbeam juncture, and 7 lengths of stock set up according to the side slope condition.
As shown in fig. 2, the lower portion of the lattice beam 4 is embedded in the slope, and the lower portion of the lattice beam 4 is provided with the ear wall 6, specifically, the ear wall 6 is fixedly arranged at the lower portion of the vertical beam of the lattice beam 4 at intervals and integrally cast with the lattice beam 4.
Because when the slope single-stage slope height is great with the slope, the weight etc. of lattice roof beam 4 dead weight and the filled geotechnical bag can play great shearing action to stock 7, consequently sets up at vertical roof beam bottom otic placode 6 according to the determining deviation, can play and improve lattice roof beam stability, reduce the effect of transversely shearing the stock.
As shown in fig. 6, in the present embodiment, the lattice beam 4 has a porous structure. Namely a concrete structure formed by mixing cement, water, a water reducing agent, mineral components and the like under specific aggregate gradation. The pores of the structure are divided into open pores, semi-open pores and closed pores. In other words, the first two pores of the lattice beam 4 constitute effective pores, so that certain water flow and nutrients can be stored, and the plant root system can extend and grow into the pores, thereby being beneficial to the growth of plants.
The lattice beam 4 is also provided with a spraying system (not shown in the figure), wherein the spraying system can adopt an existing irrigation spraying system, wherein the spraying system comprises a spraying pipe arranged on the lattice beam 4, the spraying head of the spraying pipe is higher than the seed soil layer 1, in other words, the spraying pipe is arranged on the lattice beam 4 and then buried in the soil for conveying water or nutrient solution, the spraying head branch pipe of the spraying pipe extends out of the seed layer, and the nutrient solution or water is sprayed out by the spraying head to irrigate plants.
As shown in fig. 4, the slope toe is provided with a retaining wall 8 (tung cottage stone can be adopted) which can well protect the foundation of the lattice beam, and a groove can be formed between the retaining wall 8 and the slope toe of the slope protection; planting soil 9 is filled in the groove, plants are planted in the soil filled in the groove, and the attractiveness of the slope toe can be improved.
In this embodiment, as shown in fig. 4, a drainage ditch 10 may be provided at a position 0.5-1m in front of the toe according to the needs of the building and the surrounding environment, so as to avoid the water flow from scouring and damaging the toe. As shown in fig. 5, if there is a catchment source at the top of the slope, a catch basin 11 can be provided to intercept the water flow at the top of the slope and reduce the scouring on the slope.
Example 2:
the embodiment provides a construction method of the ecological protection structure of the broken rock steep slope described in embodiment 1, which specifically includes the following steps:
s01, cleaning and leveling the slope surface, and mainly cleaning and leveling the slope surface for subsequent construction.
S02, lofting planning: and (4) according to the field layout of the construction drawing, determining the construction positions of the anchor rod 7 and the lattice beam 4.
S03, mounting of the anchor rod 7: positioning according to the anchor rod 7 determined in the step S02, drilling, installing the anchor rod and grouting for fixing;
the construction method of the anchor rod 7 specifically comprises the following steps:
s031, drilling holes on the slope surface by a dry drilling method, and cleaning with high-pressure air (0.4MPa) to ensure good consolidation of mortar and hole walls;
and S032, cement mortar is poured, the grouting pipe and the anchor rod 7 main rib are simultaneously sent to the bottom of the hole, grouting is carried out from the bottom of the hole to the orifice, the grouting pipe is slowly lifted during grouting, a honeycomb-shaped cavity is prevented from being formed due to insufficient grouting, and the grouting pressure is not lower than 0.25 MPa. And (5) grouting the large cracks of the slope surface and filling the cracks with cement mortar. The cement paste should be mixed uniformly and used with stirring, and the cement paste mixed at one time should be used up before initial setting.
The 7 heads of the anchor rods and the cross of the adopted anchor rods 7 are subjected to anti-corrosion treatment by brushing the primer of the asphalt ship and winding the asphalt glass fiber cloth into two layers after rust removal, so that the service life is prolonged.
S04, excavating a lattice beam 4 base groove: according to the construction position of the lattice beam 4 determined in the step S02, excavating a foundation trench of the lattice beam 4 on the slope surface for pouring the lattice beam 4; wherein, the bottom of the base groove of the lattice beam 4 is dug with ear grooves at intervals for pouring the ear wall 6.
S05, pouring the lattice beam 4: and binding lattice reinforcing steel bars and earwall reinforcing steel bars, installing a template, and pouring concrete. After the concrete has set, lattice girders 4 are formed in the foundation trench and earwalls 6 are formed in the eargrooves. In this step, the solidified lattice girder 4 is cast into a porous lattice girder 4 structure.
S06, stacking the plant biological bags 5: stacking the plant biological bags 5 in the grids of the lattice beam 4 (as shown in fig. 3), specifically, when the strength of the lattice beam 4 reaches 80% of the design strength, smoothly stacking the plant biological bags 5 in the grids, and performing staggered joint stacking and compaction to ensure that the surface is flat; the plant growing bag 5 contains planting medium. As the preferred scheme, the plant growing bag 5 with the aperture of 0.10mm-0.15mm is selected, and only the plant root system and water are allowed to enter and exit the bag hole.
S07, installing the wire netting 2: installing a wire netting 2 on the steep slope surface, wherein a section of space is reserved between the wire netting 2 and the lattice beam 4 for laying the nutrient soil base layer 3; the spacing distance is determined according to the thickness of the nutrient soil base layer 3 to be laid. When installing the wire netting 2, firstly, drill holes on the lattice beam 4, then implant the reinforcing bar with the diameter of 12mm and the bent end, and control the extending length of the reinforcing bar to meet the requirement, during the construction, the wire netting 2 is hung on the reinforcing bar and is bound.
In step S07, the 2 mesh size of the wire mesh is not more than 50 x 50mm, and the wire diameter is not more than 4 mm. The setting of the range can well fix the seed soil layer 1 and the nutrient soil layer, and prevent the thick base layers from being washed by rainwater; the wire netting 2 adopts a plastic-coated carbon steel wire netting 2, which has the advantages of ageing resistance, corrosion resistance, cracking resistance and the like, and has longer service life.
S08, laying a nutrient soil base layer 3: preparing nutrient soil, and spraying the nutrient soil on the slope surface, wherein the sprayed nutrient soil enters the space between the wire netting 2 and the lattice beam 4 through the meshes of the wire netting 2 to form a nutrient soil base layer 3;
s09, laying a seed soil layer 1: and spraying a seed soil base on the surface of the wire netting 2 to form a seed soil layer 1 on the outer surface of the wire netting 2, wherein the seeds are mainly sprayed along with the seed soil layer 1, and the using amount of the seeds is about 30g/m 2. The spraying should be carried out from the front as much as possible, and the concave-convex part and the dead angle should be supplemented. And the adopted seeds should be subjected to germination percentage tests before use, the germination percentage can be more than 90 percent, and the seeds of vegetation which are difficult to germinate should be subjected to germination accelerating treatment before use.
S10, building the retaining wall 8: and (3) building a retaining wall 8 at the slope toe of the slope, forming a groove area between the retaining wall 8 and the slope, filling planting soil 9 into the groove area, and planting forest trees in the groove.
In addition to the above steps: the following steps are also included between step S06 and step S07:
s061, installing a spraying system: and a spray pipe is fixedly arranged on the outer surface of the lattice beam 4, wherein after the whole slope protection construction is finished, a spray head of the spray pipe is higher than the surface soil.
The following steps are also included after step S10:
s11, a drainage ditch 10 is dug at the slope toe of the revetment, and a water intercepting ditch 11 is dug at the top of the revetment.
Example 3
In step S05 of examples 1 and 2, the lattice beam 4 that needs to be formed and solidified is a porous structure, so this example provides a concrete manufacturing method for forming the porous lattice beam 4, which specifically includes the following steps:
s051: preparing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 10-13 parts of water, 34-37 parts of cement, 145 parts of 135-sand gravel aggregate, 0.6-1.1 parts of polycarboxylic acid high-efficiency water reducing agent, 1.4-2 parts of reinforcing agent and 2-2.5 parts of mineral admixture.
In step S051:
the mineral admixture can adopt silica fume;
the cement is ordinary Portland cement with the strength grade of 42.5; the technical performance index of the cement is qualified, and the stability is qualified;
the aggregate particle size of the crushed stone is 5-10mm, the grading is uniform, the apparent density is 2800kg/m3, the close packing density is 1400-;
the reinforcing agent is a pervious concrete binder with the density of 2500kg/m 3;
the polycarboxylic acid high-efficiency water reducing agent has the performance requirements that: the water reducing rate is more than or equal to 24 percent, the bleeding rate is less than or equal to 90 percent, the gas content is less than or equal to 3.0, and the shrinkage ratio is less than or equal to 105 percent.
The requirements of the micro silicon powder are as follows: the screen residue is 2500 meshes to 12500 meshes, the refractoriness is more than 1600 ℃, and the density is 1500-.
S052, stirring: pouring aggregate and 25% of water into a concrete mixer, mixing for 2-5 minutes to wet the surface of the aggregate, then adding cement and mineral admixture, stirring for 5-6 minutes, finally adding the remaining 75% of water and polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent, and stopping stirring for 5-6 minutes.
By adopting the concrete manufactured by the steps described in the embodiment, the lattice beam 4 after pouring and forming can be ensured to be of a porous structure.
As shown in fig. 8, several specific proportioning tables are provided.
Example 4
The seed soil layer 1, the nutrient soil base layer 3 and the planting base material in the planting bag 5 in the embodiment 1 and the embodiment 2 are approximately similar, and the manufacturing method of the planting base comprises the following steps:
t1, preparing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 40-48 parts of nutrient soil; 2-3 parts of low-concentration nutrient solution; 3-5 parts of super absorbent resin crystal and 4-6 parts of vermiculite powder; 2-3 parts of diatomite; 2-10 parts of palm fiber and 3-7 parts of river sand; 1-4 parts of water. Wherein, when the planting base of the nutrient soil base layer is prepared, the amount of the super absorbent resin can be properly reduced to 1-2 parts; when the planting base of the seed soil layer is prepared, the water can be properly increased to 3-5 parts.
T2, stirring: mixing and stirring the super absorbent resin crystal, the vermiculite powder, the diatomite, the palm fiber and the river sand uniformly, and adding a solution prepared from the water and the low concentrated emulsion nutrient solution to obtain a mixture; and finally, stirring and mixing the mixture and the nutrient soil to form the plant base.
In the steps, the vermiculite powder with the particle size of 4-12mm is used as a culture medium, has strong fertility and can provide a small amount of trace elements such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and the like for plants; palm fibers (palm leaf sheath fibers) have natural pollution-free fertilizer and water retention functions and can prevent the problems of acidification and corrosion caused by water accumulation and microorganisms; the diatomite is a particle with a porous structure, can be used as a growth channel of a plant root system, improves the stability of the plant root system, prevents the nutrient soil base layer 3 from being washed away in rainy days, and has a specific surface area of 25-30m 2/g; river sand is light and small particles, and is filled in pores of the nutrient soil, so that the overall strength and the anti-sliding capacity are improved.
The super absorbent polymer (SPA) has a better hydrophilic molecular structure, and can effectively reduce water evaporation and deep leakage of the matrix, thereby improving the water holding capacity in the matrix.
As shown in fig. 7, several specific proportioning tables are provided.
The above are only typical examples of the present invention, and besides, the present invention may have other embodiments, and all technical solutions formed by equivalent substitutions or equivalent transformations fall within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides an ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope which characterized in that: the ecological soil comprises a seed soil layer, an iron wire net layer, a nutrient soil base layer and a concrete lattice beam which are arranged on a slope surface from top to bottom in sequence, wherein a plant growing bag positioned below the nutrient soil base layer is piled and built in grids of the concrete lattice beam; the lower part of the lattice beam is embedded in the slope, and the lower part of the lattice beam is provided with an ear wall.
2. The ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope of claim 1, characterized in that: the lattice girder passes through the stock to be fixed on the bank protection, just the lattice girder is porous structure.
3. The ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope of claim 1, characterized in that: a retaining wall is arranged at the toe of the revetment, wherein a groove is formed between the retaining wall and the toe of the revetment; planting soil is filled in the groove.
4. The ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope of claim 1, characterized in that: the slope bottom position of bank protection digs establishes the escape canal, digs at the top of the slope position of bank protection and establishes the catch basin.
5. The ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope of any one of claims 1-4, characterized in that: still be equipped with spraying system on the lattice roof beam, wherein spraying system is including installing the shower on the lattice roof beam, and wherein the shower nozzle of shower is higher than seed soil layer.
6. The construction method of the ecological protection structure of the broken rock abrupt slope is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s01, cleaning and leveling the slope;
s02, lofting planning: and (4) according to the field layout of the construction drawing, determining the construction areas of the anchor rods and the lattice beams.
S03, anchor rod installation: positioning the anchor rod according to the determined anchor rod in the step S02, drilling, installing the anchor rod and grouting for fixing;
s04, excavating a lattice beam foundation groove: excavating a lattice beam foundation trench on the slope according to the lattice beam construction area determined in the step S02; wherein, ear grooves are dug at intervals at the bottom of the lattice beam foundation groove;
s05, pouring the lattice beam: binding lattice reinforcing steel bars and earwall reinforcing steel bars, installing a template, and pouring concrete; after the concrete is condensed, forming a lattice beam in the foundation trench and forming an ear wall in the ear trench; wherein the lattice beam is a multi-pore lattice beam structure;
s06, stacking plant biological bags: stacking the plant biological bags in the grids of the lattice beam to enable the surface of the plant biological bags to be flush with the surface of the lattice beam;
s07, installing an iron wire net: after the ground screws are implanted into the lattice beams according to the designed interval, laying iron wire nets on the whole slope surface, connecting the ground screws with the iron wire nets in a binding mode, reserving a space between the iron wire nets and the lattice beam surface, determining the spacing distance according to the thickness of a nutrient soil base layer to be laid, and when the distance between the iron wire nets and the surface of the plant growth bag does not meet the requirement, driving small anchor rods according to the requirement to be adjusted in a binding and rolling mode with the iron wire nets;
s08, laying a nutrient soil base layer: preparing nutrient soil, constructing a nutrient soil base on the slope surface in a spraying mode, and enabling the sprayed nutrient soil to enter the space between the wire netting and the lattice beam from the wire netting meshes to form a nutrient soil base layer;
s09, laying a seed soil layer: spraying a seed soil base on the surface of the wire netting so as to form a seed soil layer on the outer surface of the wire netting;
s10, building a retaining wall: and constructing a retaining wall at the toe of the slope, forming a groove area between the retaining wall and the slope, filling planting soil in the groove area, and planting trees in the groove.
7. The construction method of the ecological protection structure of the broken rock steep slope according to claim 6, characterized in that: the following steps are also included between step S06 and step S07:
s061, installing a spraying system: and the spray pipe is fixedly arranged on the outer surface of the lattice beam to ensure that the spray head is higher than the slope surface after the construction is finished.
8. The construction method of an ecological protection structure of a broken rock steep slope according to claim 6, further comprising the following steps after step S10:
and S11, digging a drainage ditch at the slope toe of the revetment, and digging a water intercepting ditch at the top of the revetment.
9. The construction method of an ecological protection structure of a broken rock steep slope according to claim 6, wherein in the step S05, the concrete preparation adopted comprises the following steps:
s051: preparing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 10-13 parts of water, 34-37 parts of cement, 145 parts of 135-sand broken stone aggregate, 0.6-1.1 parts of polycarboxylic acid high-efficiency water reducing agent, 1.4-2 parts of reinforcing agent and 2-2.5 parts of mineral admixture;
s052, stirring: pouring aggregate and 25% of water into a concrete mixer, mixing for 2-5 minutes to wet the surface of the aggregate, then adding cement and mineral admixture, stirring for 5-6 minutes, finally adding the remaining 75% of water and polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent, and stopping stirring for 5-6 minutes.
10. The construction method of the ecological protection structure of the broken rock steep slope as claimed in claim 6, wherein the seed soil layer, the nutrient soil base layer and the planting base materials in the plant growing bags are the same, and the method for manufacturing the planting base of the plant growing bag comprises the following steps:
t1, preparing the following raw materials in parts by weight: 40-48 parts of nutrient soil; 2-3 parts of low-concentration nutrient solution; 3-5 parts of super absorbent resin crystal and 4-6 parts of vermiculite powder; 2-3 parts of diatomite; 2-10 parts of palm fiber and 3-7 parts of river sand; 1-4 parts of water; wherein, when the planting base of the nutrient soil base layer is prepared, the super absorbent resin is reduced to 1-2 parts; when the planting base of the seed soil layer is prepared, the water is increased by 3-5 parts;
t2, stirring: mixing and stirring the super absorbent resin crystal, the vermiculite powder, the diatomite, the palm fiber and the river sand uniformly, and adding a solution prepared from the water and the low concentrated emulsion nutrient solution to obtain a mixture; and finally, stirring and mixing the mixture and the nutrient soil to form the plant base.
CN202010491229.5A 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 Ecological protection structure of broken rock abrupt slope and construction method thereof Pending CN111593748A (en)

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