CN111248079B - Staged hydroponic pasture cultivation device and cultivation method - Google Patents

Staged hydroponic pasture cultivation device and cultivation method Download PDF

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CN111248079B
CN111248079B CN202010232964.4A CN202010232964A CN111248079B CN 111248079 B CN111248079 B CN 111248079B CN 202010232964 A CN202010232964 A CN 202010232964A CN 111248079 B CN111248079 B CN 111248079B
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box
culture
period
cultivation
grass
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CN111248079A (en
Inventor
孙九胜
苗洪利
杨金钰
王晶
蒲谦
王斌
乔小燕
崔磊
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Xinjiang Academy Of Agricultural Sciences Soil And Fertilizer And Agricultural Water Saving Research Institute (xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region New Fertilizer Research Center)
Ocean University of China
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Xinjiang Academy Of Agricultural Sciences Soil And Fertilizer And Agricultural Water Saving Research Institute (xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region New Fertilizer Research Center)
Ocean University of China
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • A01G31/02Special apparatus therefor
    • A01G31/06Hydroponic culture on racks or in stacked containers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • A01C1/02Germinating apparatus; Determining germination capacity of seeds or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/04Electric or magnetic or acoustic treatment of plants for promoting growth
    • A01G7/045Electric or magnetic or acoustic treatment of plants for promoting growth with electric lighting
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/14Measures for saving energy, e.g. in green houses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Physiology (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Ecology (AREA)
  • Forests & Forestry (AREA)
  • Hydroponics (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention provides a new water culture pasture cultivation method, which is characterized in that the environmental temperature is 25-26 ℃ during the cultivation period of the seed germination period, and no illumination is carried out; after germination, transferring to seedling growth and cultivation; the environmental temperature in the seedling growth period is 23-24 deg.C, the red and blue LED lamps with peak wavelength of 660nm and 440nm are used for illumination, the intensity ratio of red light and blue light is 7:3, and the total light intensity is 300 μmol · m ‑2 ·s ‑1 ~400μmol·m ‑2 ·s ‑1 The illumination period is 6 to 12 hours per day, and the culture period is 3 to 4 days; setting the environmental temperature at 21-22 deg.C during the growing period of grass, and illuminating with high-power red and blue LED lamps with wavelength of 660nm and 440nm at a ratio of 7:3 and total light intensity of 500 μmol/m ‑2 ·s ‑1 ~700μmol·m ‑2 ·s ‑1 The illumination period is 12-16 hours per day, and the culture period is 3-4 days. The invention establishes three growing environments with different temperatures, humidity, watering amount and illumination in one system, and is more beneficial to the efficient and rapid growth of pasture.

Description

Staged hydroponic pasture cultivation device and cultivation method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural engineering, and particularly relates to a staged hydroponic pasture cultivation device and a staged hydroponic pasture cultivation method.
Background
The pasture shortage has seriously influenced the development of animal husbandry, especially in high and cold pasturing areas, the season is very short in summer and autumn, and the pasture is seriously insufficient in long winter and spring. Generally, the livestock can eat the natural forage in summer and autumn or the field residual hay in winter and spring by depending on limited resources, and if the livestock meet drought or winter snow, large-scale livestock disasters can occur. For cattle and sheep, during the winter lambing period, fresh feed, particularly fresh forage, needs to be supplemented for big and small cattle and sheep. At present, pasture is planted in a greenhouse in winter, but the period is long, the yield is low, and the cost is high. And the production site is fixed, which brings limitation to application and popularization.
The Chinese invention patent (publication No. CN105660351A, the name of the invention is: a hydroponic pasture system integration and hydroponic pasture system control device and application) discloses a hydroponic pasture system integration and hydroponic pasture system control device and application, and the technical characteristics of integrated breeding, seedling culture to finished product harvest and the like in the control device are not recorded in the specification and the claims, and the defects of long culture time and the like caused by the personalized culture of pasture in stages and in different growth environments are also avoided.
Chinese patent with publication number CN103931472A and Chinese patent with publication number CN102124938A respectively disclose a pasture continuous production method and a water culture pasture continuous production device. In the aspect of production method, the seeds, the germination and the growth are all in the same growth environment, which does not accord with the growth rule per se and is not beneficial to improving the yield. In the aspect of production devices, the structure is complex, the technical scheme which can be implemented is not provided, the operability is not provided, and the application and the popularization are not facilitated.
The Chinese utility model with publication number CN202799829U discloses a water culture pasture planting box, which has a simple structure, belongs to a single-box and single-layer culture mode, has low yield, does not utilize large-scale production, and does not have the technical characteristics of staged individual culture.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects of the existing water culture pasture grass method and device, the invention provides a novel water culture pasture grass cultivation method and a cultivation device for realizing the method, thereby making up the defects of the prior art.
The invention firstly provides a water culture pasture cultivation method, which comprises the following steps:
1) Cultivation in seed germination stage
Spraying water to the seeds spread in the culture tray at the ambient temperature of 25-26 ℃ to keep the seeds wet all the time without illumination; after germination, transferring to seedling growth and cultivation;
the water spraying is preferably carried out 6 to 8 times a day for 10 to 30 seconds each time;
2) Growth period of seedling
The ambient temperature is 23-24 ℃, red and blue LED lamps with peak wavelengths of 660nm and 440nm are used for illumination, the intensity ratio of red light to blue light is 7:3, the total light intensity is 300-400, the illumination period is 6-12 hours per day, and the grass is grown after the culture period is 3-4 days;
the water spraying amount of the seedlings in the growth period is 3 to 5 times per day, and each time is 30 to 60 seconds;
3) Growing period of grown grass
Setting the ambient temperature to be 21-22 ℃, and also utilizing high-power red and blue LED lamps with the wavelengths of 660nm and 440nm to illuminate, wherein the intensity ratio of red light to blue light is 7:3, the total light intensity is 500-700, the illumination period is 12-16 hours every day, and the culture period is 3-4 days.
The amount of water sprayed in the growing period of the grass forming is 1 to 2 times a day, and each time is 60 to 90 seconds.
The invention also provides a culture device suitable for the culture method, which comprises a seed germination box, a seedling growth box and a grass growth box; a heater, a water spraying system and an air exchange system are respectively arranged in the seed germination box, the seedling growth box and the grass forming growth box; and red light and blue light LEDs are also arranged in the seedling growth box and the grass-forming growth box;
preferably, the light intensity ratio of the red light LED to the blue light LED is 7:3; the power of the red light LED is 50W, and the power of the blue light LED is 30W.
The heating system is preferably a ceramic heater;
the water spraying system comprises a water storage tank, a water pump, a water outlet pipe and a spray head;
the air exchange system comprises an air inlet fan and an air outlet fan;
the seed germination box, the seedling growth box and the grass forming growth box are provided with box doors for entering and exiting;
further, a seed germination box and a seedling growth box; the seedling growth box and the grass-forming growth box are isolated by a pull-out stainless steel plate.
The culture system also comprises a culture shelf and a culture tray.
The culture rack is provided with pulleys;
the culture tray is made of stainless steel, and the bottom end of the culture tray is provided with a strip-shaped water drainage groove, so that water sprayed on the culture tray can be drained in time.
The invention has the advantages that:
1. three growing environments with different temperatures, humidity, watering amount and illumination are set in one system, which is more beneficial to the efficient and rapid growth of pasture.
2. The three culture boxes in different growth environments are synchronously used in a staggered mode, so that the production period of finished pasture can be minimized, and the production efficiency is improved.
3. The ceramic heater is adopted, and the heat radiation heating is utilized instead of the convection heating of the traditional incubator fan to the heat source, so that the environmental humidity is kept more favorably, and the growth of pasture is more favorably realized.
4. The culture rack adopts a movable structure, and can be conveniently moved in the culture boxes in different environments while improving the space use efficiency.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a view showing the structure of a culture shelf in an incubator according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the structure of a culture dish in the incubator of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. a box body; 2. a seed germination box; 3. a seedling culture box; 4. a grass forming incubator; 5. isolating the sliding door; 6. a ceramic heater; 7. a sprinkler head; 8. a water storage tank; 9. a water pump; 10. a water inlet pipe; 11. a drain pipe; 12. an LED light source; 13. an air intake fan; 14. an air outlet fan; 15. a control panel; 16. a box door; 17. a culture shelf; 18. a pulley of the culture rack; 19. a culture tray; 20. culture dish water drainage tank.
Detailed Description
The following describes the technical solution of the present invention more completely and precisely with reference to the accompanying drawings.
The invention firstly provides a culture device suitable for the culture method, which comprises a seed germination box, a seedling growth box and a grass growth box; a heater, a water spraying system and an air exchange system are respectively arranged in the seed germination box, the seedling growth box and the grass forming growth box; red light and blue light LEDs are also arranged in the seedling growth box and the grass growth box;
the heating system is preferably a ceramic heater;
the water spraying system comprises a water storage tank, a water pump, a water outlet pipe and a spray head;
the air exchange system comprises an air inlet fan and an air outlet fan;
the seed germination box, the seedling growth box and the grass forming growth box are provided with box doors for entering and exiting;
further, a seed germination box and a seedling growth box; the seedling growth box and the grass growth box are isolated by a pull-type stainless steel plate.
The heater, the water spraying system, the air exchange system and the red light and blue light LEDs are operated through an automatic control system.
The culture system also comprises a culture shelf and a culture tray.
The culture shelf consists of five layers of independent and movable shelf bodies, and the culture shelf is provided with pulleys;
the culture tray is made of stainless steel, and the bottom end of the culture tray is provided with a strip-shaped water drainage groove, so that water sprayed on the culture tray can be drained timely.
The culture method using the culture system comprises the following steps:
1) Cultivation in seed germination stage
The environmental temperature is 25-26 ℃, and the seeds paved in the culture disc are sprayed with water to keep the seeds wet all the time without illumination; transferring the seedlings to grow and cultivate after germination;
the water spraying is preferably carried out 6 to 8 times per day for 10 to 30 seconds each time;
2) Growth period of seedling
The ambient temperature is 23-24 ℃, red and blue LED lamps with peak wavelengths of 660nm and 440nm are used for illumination, the intensity ratio of red light to blue light is 7:3, the total light intensity is 300-400, the illumination period is 6-12 hours per day, and the grass is grown after the culture period is 3-4 days;
the water spraying amount of the seedlings in the growth period is 3 to 5 times per day, and each time is 30 to 60 seconds;
3) Growing period of grown grass
Setting the environmental temperature at 21-22 deg.c, and lighting with 660nm and 440nm wavelength high power red and blue LED lamps in the red light to blue light strength ratio of 7:3, total light intensity of 500-700, lighting period of 12-16 hr each day, and culture period of 3-4 days.
The invention is described in detail below with reference to the figures and examples.
Example 1: culture system
With reference to fig. 1, 2, 3 and 4, the incubator body 1 is made of stainless steel plate and is divided into 3 independent incubators, namely a seed germination incubator 2, a seedling incubator 3 and a grass formation incubator 4. Between the 3 incubators is a push-pull partition 5 made of stainless steel plate, and when the partition 5 is pulled out, the culture rack 17 can be moved from one incubator to another. In each incubator a ceramic heater 6 is installed, connected to a respective control system 15 and maintaining the ambient temperature inside the incubator at a set temperature value by means of a temperature sensor in the incubator. Each incubator is provided with a set of sprinkler head 7 respectively, water is supplied through a water storage tank 8, each incubator is provided with a respective water pump 9 which is connected with the sprinkler head 7 through a PVC water pipe 10, and the water pump 9 controls the water spraying time interval and the water spraying amount through a control system 15. A drain pipe 11 is arranged at the bottom of the culture box and is used for draining the excessive sewage flowing out of the culture tray 19. LED light sources 12 are arranged in the seedling culture box 3 and the grass culture box 4, high-power red and blue LEDs with peak wavelengths of 660nm and 440nm are adopted, and the intensity ratio of red light to blue light is 7:3. The total light intensity and light period of each incubator is controlled by the control system 15. Each incubator is provided with an air inlet fan 13 and an air outlet fan 14, when the temperature in the incubator exceeds a set value, the ceramic heater 6 is stopped from heating, the two fans are automatically started by the control system 15, and the temperature is reduced while the air in the incubator is effectively circulated, so that carbon dioxide in the air is supplemented in time. And when the temperature returns to the set value, the two fans are automatically stopped. The three incubators each have a door 16 with a viewing glass window on each door.
The control system 15 adopts MCS-51 singlechip programming control to control illumination, a heater, a water spraying system and a ventilation system.
Example 2: cultivating plants
2.5kg of spring Erlenmeyer barley (Hordeum distichum) was weighed as a seed source of pasture, soaked for 12 hours, washed, and then respectively placed in 5 culture dishes 19 as shown in FIG. 4, each of the culture dishes 19 having an inclination angle of 10 degrees, a drain groove 20 having a width of 0.5cm was formed at the bottom end of the dish, and the seed was laid to a thickness of about 1cm. 5 seed-containing culture plates 19 are placed in five-layer culture racks 17 as shown in FIG. 3, respectively, and the culture racks 17 are provided with 4 pulleys 18.
The culture shelf 17 with the seeds is pushed into the seed germination box 2, the environmental temperature is set to be 26 ℃, the water spraying amount is 8 times a day, 10 seconds each time, and the culture period is 3 days.
After three days, the isolation door 5 is opened, the pasture cultivation shelves 17 which have already grown seedlings in the seed germination box 2 are moved into the seedling cultivation box 3, and simultaneously, a new batch of seeds are repeatedly placed in the seed germination box 2. The growth environment of the seedling culture box 3 is set as follows: the temperature is 24 ℃; the water spraying amount is 5 times per day and 30 seconds per time; the total light intensity is 300; the light period was 12 hours per day and the culture period was 3 days.
After three more days, the two isolation doors 5 are opened again, the cultivation frame in the seedling cultivation box 3 is transferred into the grass cultivation box 4, and simultaneously, the seedling placed in the seed germination box 2 at the later stage is transferred into the seedling cultivation box 3. A new batch of seeds is placed again in the seed germination box 2. The growing environment of the grass forming incubator 4 is set as follows: the temperature is 22 ℃; the water spraying amount is 2 times per day; 60 seconds each time; the total light intensity is 500; the illumination period was 16 hours per day and the culture period was 3 days.
After a culture period of nine days, the cultivation shelves 17 are pushed out from the grass-forming cultivation boxes 4, and the pasture is harvested. Meanwhile, new seeds are placed in the seed germination box 2 again, the process is repeated in a circulating mode, and all the culture boxes are utilized in time staggered mode, so that the harvesting period of finished pasture grass is 3 days. If the traditional culture mode is adopted, the harvest period of the finished pasture is 9 days, and the same production and cultivation environment is adopted within 9 days, the optimal stage type growth environment cannot be achieved, and the optimal quality and yield of the finished pasture cannot be achieved.

Claims (4)

1. A water culture pasture cultivation method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) Firstly, the environmental temperature during the seed germination period is 25-26 ℃, and the seeds which are flatly laid in a culture tray are sprayed with water so as to keep the seeds wet all the time without illumination; after germination, transferring to seedling growth and cultivation;
2) The temperature of the culture environment entering the seedling growth period is 23-24 ℃, red and blue LED lamps with peak wavelengths of 660nm and 440nm are used for illumination, the intensity ratio of red light to blue light is 7:3, and the total light intensity is 300 mu mol.m -2 ·s -1 ~400μmol·m -2 ·s -1 The illumination period is 6 to 12 hours per day;
3) The set environment temperature of the cultivation entering the growing period of the grown grass is 21-22 ℃, and the utilization wave is utilizedThe high-power red and blue LED lamps with the lengths of 660nm and 440nm are illuminated, the intensity ratio of red light to blue light is 7:3, and the total light intensity is 500 mu mol.m -2 ·s -1 ~700μmol·m -2 ·s -1 The illumination period is 12 to 16 hours per day;
wherein, in the cultivation of the seed germination period, the water spraying is carried out 6 to 8 times per day for 10 to 30 seconds each time; the water spraying amount of the seedlings in the growth period is 3 to 5 times per day, and each time is 30 to 60 seconds; the water spraying amount is 1 to 2 times per day and 60 to 90 seconds each time in the growing period of the grass;
the stage type water culture pasture cultivation device comprises a seed germination box, a seedling growth box and a pasture growing box; a heating system, a water spraying system and an air exchange system are respectively arranged in the seed germination box, the seedling growth box and the grass growing box; and red light and blue light LEDs are also arranged in the seedling growth box and the grass-forming growth box;
the heating system is a ceramic heater; the water spraying system comprises a water storage tank, a water pump, a water outlet pipe and a spray head; the air exchange system comprises an air inlet fan and an air outlet fan;
the seed germination box, the seedling growth box and the grass forming growth box are provided with box doors for entering and exiting;
the seed germination box and the seedling growth box are separated from each other and the seedling growth box and the grass forming growth box are separated from each other through a pull-type stainless steel plate;
pushing the culture shelf containing the seeds into a seed germination box, wherein the culture period is 3 days; transferring the pasture grass culture rack with seedlings in the seed germination box into a seedling culture box for 3 days, and repeatedly placing a batch of new seeds in the seed germination box; transferring a culture frame in a seedling culture box into a grass forming culture box, wherein the culture period is 3 days, simultaneously transferring the seedlings placed in a seed germination box at the later stage into the seedling culture box, and placing a batch of new seeds in the seed germination box again; after nine days of culture period, pushing out the culture rack from the grass forming incubator, and harvesting the forage grass; meanwhile, new seeds are placed in the seed germination box again, the steps are repeated in a circulating mode, all the culture boxes are utilized in a staggered mode, the harvest period of finished pasture grass is 3 days, and the three culture boxes in different growth environments are synchronously used in a staggered mode.
2. The hydroponic pasture grass cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein said cultivation apparatus comprises a cultivation shelf and a cultivation tray.
3. The hydroponic pasture grass cultivation method as claimed in claim 2, wherein said cultivation rack is provided with pulleys.
4. The hydroponic pasture cultivation method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the cultivation tray is made of stainless steel, and the bottom end of the cultivation tray is provided with a strip-shaped drainage groove.
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RU2745449C1 (en) * 2020-09-28 2021-03-25 Автономная некоммерческая организация «Институт социально-экономических стратегий и технологий развития» Method for activating germination of seeds of cereal meadow grass
CN112205219A (en) * 2020-10-12 2021-01-12 张掖市德源农业科技开发有限公司 Vegetable planting cultivation box and cultivation method thereof
CN114711102A (en) * 2022-04-09 2022-07-08 邓华理 Artificial intelligent pasture planting process with constant temperature box body
CN114642163A (en) * 2022-04-14 2022-06-21 北京金晟达生物电子科技有限公司 Production method of pasture rotating tower capable of adjusting illumination
CN114673966A (en) * 2022-04-14 2022-06-28 北京金晟达生物电子科技有限公司 Rotating tower convenient to change illumination module
CN115004983A (en) * 2022-05-20 2022-09-06 海南广陵高科实业有限公司 Temperature-controllable 5G intelligent agricultural breeding device and method
CN115004963A (en) * 2022-06-30 2022-09-06 北京金晟达生物电子科技有限公司 A light distribution system for spiral tower is planted to forage grass

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CN102461456A (en) * 2010-11-16 2012-05-23 余修博 Grass planting system based on soilless culture
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