CN111567348A - Flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control method, system and device and flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method - Google Patents

Flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control method, system and device and flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method Download PDF

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CN111567348A
CN111567348A CN202010524857.9A CN202010524857A CN111567348A CN 111567348 A CN111567348 A CN 111567348A CN 202010524857 A CN202010524857 A CN 202010524857A CN 111567348 A CN111567348 A CN 111567348A
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seedling
temperature
nutrient solution
humidity
box
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孙鹏
刘杨
郭仕平
杜卫民
卞建锋
秦艳青
杨民烽
凌爱芬
闫芳芳
谢强
杨洋
张启莉
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Tobacco Research Institute of CAAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/45Tobacco
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C23/00Distributing devices specially adapted for liquid manure or other fertilising liquid, including ammonia, e.g. transport tanks or sprinkling wagons
    • A01C23/04Distributing under pressure; Distributing mud; Adaptation of watering systems for fertilising-liquids
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • A01G9/16Dismountable or portable greenhouses ; Greenhouses with sliding roofs
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, illuminating, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M29/00Scaring or repelling devices, e.g. bird-scaring apparatus
    • A01M29/30Scaring or repelling devices, e.g. bird-scaring apparatus preventing or obstructing access or passage, e.g. by means of barriers, spikes, cords, obstacles or sprinkled water
    • A01M29/34Scaring or repelling devices, e.g. bird-scaring apparatus preventing or obstructing access or passage, e.g. by means of barriers, spikes, cords, obstacles or sprinkled water specially adapted for insects
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

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  • Wood Science & Technology (AREA)
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of flue-cured tobacco seedling culture, and discloses a flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control method, a system and a device and a flue-cured tobacco seedling culture method, wherein the flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control method comprises the following steps: the nutrient solution control unit is used for monitoring and regulating the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box unit; the temperature and humidity control unit is used for monitoring and controlling the air temperature and humidity in the seedling box unit; and the seedling raising box unit is used for preparing seedling raising trays to raise tobacco seedlings according to different transplanting densities. According to the tobacco seedling management system, the tobacco seedling growth environment, nutrient solution components and the like are accurately controlled, the mechanization and automation degree of operation links such as disinfection, temperature control, humidity control, fertilization, medication and seedling forging in the tobacco seedling culture period is improved, the professional technical requirements of tobacco seedling management on seedling personnel are reduced, the influence of personnel operation on the tobacco seedling management is avoided to a great extent, the manpower input in the tobacco seedling culture link is reduced, and the embarrassment that the current tobacco production personnel are insufficient and the overall quality is not high can be effectively relieved.

Description

Flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control method, system and device and flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of flue-cured tobacco seedling culture, and particularly relates to a flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control method, a flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control system, a flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control device and a flue-cured tobacco seedling culture method.
Background
At present, the cultivation area and the total yield of the flue-cured tobacco in China are at the top of the world, and the tobacco is produced with high quality and high efficiency, which has very important significance for the whole tobacco planting industry and the cigarette industry. The tobacco seedling culture is the first link in the agricultural production process and is the basis for obtaining high-quality and high-efficiency tobacco leaves. At present, the floating seedling raising technology is adopted in tobacco areas in China, the floating seedling raising is composed of a seedling raising plate, a substrate and nutrient solution, the seedling raising substrate is placed in seedling raising plate holes, coated seeds are placed in the centers of the seedling raising plate holes, the floating plate floats in nutrient solution of a seedling raising pool, and the technical means for culturing strong seedlings is achieved by adjusting the concentration of the nutrient solution and the temperature and humidity of a seedling raising shed.
In the early stage of the 20 th century and the 80 th century, the grid seedling culture is applied in the northern part of China, and tobacco seedling culture is successfully carried out by using a tray made of polyethylene plastic in Heilongjiang province.
After the tobacco floating seedling culture in the middle of 90 years is transmitted to China, research and application are developed in large tobacco areas. The flue-cured tobacco floating seedling raising technology is researched by the institute of tobacco science in Dalizhou of Yunnan province in 1996, and then demonstration application is carried out in 5 towns in the city of Er Yuan, Xiangyun and Dalizhou three counties in two years. Research work on seedling culture nutrient solution and seedling culture medium is carried out by the research institute of tobacco agricultural science in Fujian province in 1997, and then a test is carried out on floating seedling culture in the next year. The results of previous researches on sludge compost show that when the proportion of the tobacco floating seedling substrate is perlite: vermiculite: when the sludge compost is 1:1 (1-2), the growth rate of tobacco seedlings can reach the standard of tobacco floating seedling matrixes, and the sludge compost has the potential to replace peat resources, so that the fertilizer can be saved, and the production cost can be reduced.
In recent years, the floating direct seeding seedling is developed rapidly in each tobacco area of China, and the application rate of the floating seedling in most tobacco producing areas reaches 100 percent. At present, the tobacco floating technology tends to be mature and complete in China, and great research results are obtained in the aspects of floating seedling substrate formula and seedling nutrient solution. The seedling substrate basically forms a material with more organic matter content such as plant ash and the like, and is added with gravel, perlite and the like as a formula, so that the seedling emergence time of tobacco seeds is shortened, and the seedling emergence rate of tobacco seedlings is improved. The nutrient solution is prepared into a certain concentration by flushing special tobacco fertilizer with N, P, K in a ratio of 1:1:2 or 2:1: 2.
The prior art is complicated to operate, mostly adopts manual operation, and the technical implementation has high requirements on the quality of personnel. In the process of technology popularization, although the technology content of the technology is high, the specific implementation process and application value still have some adverse changes. For example, when the vinyl house is applied to tobacco planting, a more concentrated planting mode is often adopted, so that the temperature and humidity parameters in the actual greenhouse for tobacco planting are much higher than the average value, the risk that the tobacco is damaged by plant diseases and insect pests is greatly increased, and the operation of the whole management structure and mechanism is also restricted. Especially, in the areas with underdeveloped local tobacco economy and low tobacco grower quality, the problem that the whole technology cannot be implemented can be caused without the guidance of professionals in the tobacco seedling cultivation and transplanting links, and the method becomes an important restriction factor for preventing the comprehensive implementation of intensive technology.
The prior art has large cost investment and can not be completely popularized in remote areas or economically undeveloped areas, particularly in water-deficient areas.
Because the related work of the technical popularization personnel can not be managed systematically and timely, the working efficiency is lower. It should be noted that there is a certain seasonality in tobacco production itself, and the technology is also to effectively establish a dynamic control strategy according to the seasonal requirement. Based on the above, a professional is required to be hired to guide the specific work and planting process, so that the labor cost can be ensured to be matched with the actual requirement. In the process of popularizing the intensive tobacco production technology, the problems that the number of technical personnel is insufficient and the training effect of related technologies is not ideal are caused in part of areas in order to effectively reduce project cost. And related incentive mechanisms and management control measures are also very limited, so that the implementation level of tobacco planting projects is seriously influenced, and the actual application value of the management and control mechanism and the management model is greatly reduced.
The prior art can not realize accurate control on seedbeds, seedling sheds and the like, is easy to cause the problems of high-temperature seedling burning, low-temperature freezing damage, abnormal salinity and the like, and has uneven quality of cultivated tobacco seedlings.
In addition, the seedbed management quality is not high, the problems of inadequate temperature and humidity management, improper leaf cutting, insufficient seedling forging and the like exist, and the cultivation of strong seedlings is influenced to a certain extent. For example, during seedling raising, the climate is changeable, the air temperature rises suddenly and drops suddenly, certain difficulty is brought to the temperature and humidity management of a seedbed, the phenomena of cold injury and heat injury are easy to occur, and the seedling condition is irregular, even the seedlings die and lack the seedlings. The current seedling shed design and structure are not beneficial to leaf cutting and seedling forging in the middle and later periods, the leaf cutting and seedling forging are important measures for balancing growth vigor and cultivating strong seedlings, the difference between individual tobacco seedlings and the whole seedling situation can be balanced, the stress resistance and root system activity of the tobacco seedlings can be improved, and further the strong seedling rate and the survival rate of field transplanting are improved
Through the above analysis, the problems and defects of the prior art are as follows: the existing flue-cured tobacco seedling raising technology is complex to operate, large in labor investment and the like, weak in management and control of intermediate links, prone to diseases, salt damage and the like, uneven in quality of raised tobacco seedlings, low in survival rate of field transplanting, and capable of generating profound influences on mature harvesting and baking in the later stage of tobacco.
The difficulty in solving the above problems and defects is: firstly, the economic capability is insufficient, the infrastructure cannot be matched according to the requirements of the prior art, and the technical regulations, the seedling culture standards and the like cannot be effectively implemented; secondly, the quality of personnel is not high, and the prior art has higher requirements on related operations, so that the actual production is changed; thirdly, most of the flue-cured tobacco production areas are 'old, few, marginal and poor', the ecological conditions and the production conditions have great differences, for example, some places lack water, some places have low temperature, some places have few flat ground, and the like, but the prior art is difficult to overcome the difficulties.
The significance of solving the problems and the defects is as follows: the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture is an important measure for standardizing seedling culture links and establishing a unified standard. In an intensive tobacco seedling system, the tobacco cultivation process has certain complexity due to more technical links. Therefore, managers need to continuously standardize the operation of seedling raising links, optimize the seedling raising technology and fully exert technical advantages. And a unified, comprehensive and effective tobacco seedling growing and planting system is constructed, so that the technical measures are ensured to meet the actual requirements, and the production efficiency of tobacco can be improved to a certain extent. The modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising is an effective way for improving mechanization, informatization and intellectualization of the seedling raising link. In the process of developing the tobacco seedling raising link, the conventional technology mainly adopts manual operation, the input labor is large, the mechanization and informatization levels are low, partial seedling raising effects are poor due to the reasons of personnel quality difference and the like, and the restriction factors are difficult to find out. Therefore, the mechanized and informatization development of the flue-cured tobacco seedling is further promoted, a sound systematized cost control strategy can be established, the seedling raising benefit is improved on the basis of saving the labor cost, and a corresponding technical support and overall management basis are provided for tobacco production. The modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture is a basic guarantee for improving the technical level of tobacco production and improving the technological content of tobacco production. In order to improve the actual level of a tobacco production management mechanism and a management and control effect, the agricultural technology popularization project needs are practiced from scientific and technical elements and a management basis, and the requirements of large-scale planting and intensive production are combined to ensure that technical measures can be comprehensively implemented. On the basis of realizing mechanized production, informatization management and intelligent control, the method meets the actual requirements of the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising link, lays a solid foundation for subsequent scientific research and development and talent culture, and lays a solid foundation for the sustainable development of the tobacco industry.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a flue-cured tobacco seedling control method, a flue-cured tobacco seedling control system, a flue-cured tobacco seedling control device and a flue-cured tobacco seedling control method.
The invention is realized in this way, a flue-cured tobacco seedling control system, the flue-cured tobacco seedling control system includes:
the nutrient solution control unit is used for monitoring and regulating the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box unit;
the temperature and humidity control unit is used for monitoring and controlling the air temperature and humidity in the seedling box unit;
the seedling box unit is used for preparing seedling trays to grow tobacco seedlings according to different transplanting densities;
furthermore, the temperature and humidity control unit and the nutrient solution control unit adopt a series connection, parallel connection or series-parallel connection combination mode on the basis of the number of the seedling raising boxes; each independent seedling raising system is provided with a temperature and humidity control unit and a nutrient solution control unit.
Further, the temperature and humidity control unit includes:
the main controller is used for opening and closing the ventilation device and the constant temperature and humidity chamber according to the monitored temperature and humidity data and a preset temperature and humidity curve; monitoring the air environment of the seedling raising box by using a temperature and humidity probe, controlling a constant temperature and humidity chamber and a ventilation device according to a preset temperature and humidity curve, and starting an air circulation function;
the ventilation device regulates and controls the flow and the speed of air inlet and air outlet, and increases or decreases the air circulation capacity according to the instruction command of the main controller;
and the constant temperature and humidity chamber heats or humidifies the circulating air according to the instruction command of the main controller.
Further, the nutrient control unit includes:
the main controller is used for opening and closing the circulating device, the nutrient solution blending chamber and the homogenizer component according to the monitored temperature and water level data; monitoring the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling raising box by using a temperature probe and a water level probe, controlling a nutrient solution preparation chamber and a circulating device according to a preset temperature curve and a target height, and starting a nutrient solution circulating function; controlling the addition amount of the seedling raising fertilizer according to the requirements of tobacco seedlings on nutrients in different growth periods, fully and uniformly mixing by using a homogenizer, and circulating to a seedling raising box;
the circulating device regulates and controls the flow and the pressure of the nutrient solution, is a power source for nutrient solution circulation, and increases or decreases the nutrient solution circulation capacity according to the instruction command of the main controller;
the nutrient solution blending chamber is used for stabilizing the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box and heating or filtering the circulating nutrient solution according to the instruction command of the main controller; combining the feeding hole and the homogenizer to finish the automatic blending of the nutrient solution;
the seedling raising fertilizer inlet and the homogenizer are combined with the growth and development conditions of tobacco seedlings, liquid fertilizer or solid fertilizer is added in a timed and quantitative mode according to the instruction command of the main controller, and the liquid fertilizer or the solid fertilizer is uniformly mixed and then circulated to the seedling raising box.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a flue-cured tobacco seedling control method for operating the flue-cured tobacco seedling control system, wherein the flue-cured tobacco seedling control method includes:
the temperature and humidity control unit is connected with the single seedling raising box through an auxiliary line and a pipeline, the temperature and humidity of air of the seedling raising box are monitored by using a temperature and humidity probe, and the environment temperature and humidity of the single seedling raising box are regulated and controlled in real time through a constant temperature and humidity chamber, a ventilation device, a main controller and the like according to a preset temperature and humidity curve;
nutrient solution the control unit monitoring, the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the regulation and control seedling raising box, and the element of allotment nutrient solution constitutes, nutrient solution the control unit passes through auxiliary line and pipeline and is connected with monomer seedling raising box, utilize temperature probe monitoring seedling raising box's nutrient solution temperature, utilize water level probe monitoring seedling raising box's nutrient solution height, combine the development period and the growth situation of tobacco seedling, through parts such as nutrient solution allotment room, circulating device and main control unit, regulate and control monomer seedling raising box's nutrient solution temperature in real time, height and element ratio.
Temperature and humidity regulation: a temperature and humidity probe in the seedling raising box uploads temperature and humidity data in the box to a temperature and humidity control unit in real time; the temperature and humidity control unit compares and analyzes the actual temperature and humidity in the box according to a preset seedling stage temperature and humidity curve; if the actual temperature and humidity in the seedling-stage temperature and humidity curve does not conform to the actual temperature and humidity curve in the seedling-stage temperature and humidity curve, the seedling-raising box is subjected to heating, dehumidifying and other operations through equipment such as a constant-temperature constant-humidity chamber, a ventilation device and the like.
And (3) nutrient solution monitoring: the water temperature probe and the water level probe in the seedling box and the element probe and the pH probe in the nutrient solution preparation chamber upload data such as temperature, height, pH value, element composition and the like of the nutrient solution to the nutrient solution control unit in real time; the nutrient solution control unit contrasts and analyzes parameters such as actual temperature, element proportion and the like of the nutrient solution in the box according to a preset seedling-stage nutrient demand curve and the like; if the temperature, the height, the element composition and the like of the nutrient solution are not consistent with the nutrient demand curve in the seedling stage, the operations of supplementing the seedling-raising fertilizer, adjusting the pH value and the like are carried out on the nutrient solution in the seedling-raising box through equipment such as a nutrient solution preparation chamber, a homogenizer, a circulating device and the like.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a flue-cured tobacco seedling control device with the flue-cured tobacco seedling control system, wherein the flue-cured tobacco seedling control device is provided with:
a seedling raising box shell;
the bottom of the seedling box shell is provided with a seedling box inner partition plate, the top of the seedling box shell is sequentially provided with an insect-proof anti-fog net, a light conversion temperature increasing film and a heat preservation cold-proof cover from inside to outside, one side of the seedling box shell is provided with a ventilation opening, a wet temperature probe, a nutrient solution opening, a water level probe and an air outlet, the seedling box inner partition plate is provided with a plurality of seedling box inner partition plates, the seedling box inner partition plates are connected with the inner wall of the seedling box shell through seedling tray pillars, light conversion temperature increasing film grooves and insect-proof anti-fog net grooves are formed in the top of the seedling box shell, the light conversion temperature increasing film grooves are used for installing the light conversion temperature increasing film, and the insect-proof anti; the inner side of the heat-preservation and cold-proof cover is provided with an inner groove of the heat-preservation and cold-proof cover; the peripheries of the light conversion and temperature increase film and the insect-proof and anti-fog net are made of double-layer stainless steel; a plurality of seedling raising holes are arranged on the seedling raising plate.
Further, the outer shell of the seedling box and the inner partition plate of the seedling box are molded by black expanded polystyrene through one-step compression molding; the inner partition plates of the seedling raising box are respectively positioned at the left 350mm position and the right 700mm position of the box body and are used for nutrient solution circulation supply and low water level seedling forging.
Further, vent and air outlet are formed by processing the PVC tubular product of pipe diameter 100mm, utilize the adhesive to fix upper portion and right side back upper portion before seedling raising box shell left side respectively for circulation ventilation controls the temperature and the humidity of the inside air circumstance of box, is connected by corresponding auxiliary and control valve between the box, between box and the atmospheric control unit.
Furthermore, the nutrient solution port and the air outlet are formed by processing PVC pipes with the pipe diameter of 40mm, and are respectively fixed at the front lower part at the left side and the rear lower part at the right side of the shell of the seedling raising box by utilizing an adhesive for circulating nutrient solution and regulating and controlling the temperature, the component concentration and the liquid level height of the nutrient solution, and the box bodies and the temperature and humidity control unit are connected by corresponding accessories and control valves;
the heat-insulating and cold-proof cover is formed by one-time compression molding of black expanded polystyrene and is fixed on the rear side of the upper part of the box body through an auxiliary component, and is used for wind prevention and heat insulation at night or in low-temperature weather.
The light conversion and temperature increase film consists of a double-layer 304 stainless steel plate and a light conversion and temperature increase film;
the insect-proof and anti-fog net consists of a double-layer 304 stainless steel plate and a 60-mesh nylon insect-proof net;
the seedling raising tray is formed by one-time compression molding of black expanded polystyrene, and 12 seedling raising trays are matched with each seedling raising box in a standard mode and used for bearing a matrix and cultivating cured tobacco strong seedlings.
The invention also aims to provide an application of the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control system in a flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method.
By combining all the technical schemes, the invention has the advantages and positive effects that: the invention relates to modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising, which is technically integrated by novel flue-cured tobacco seedling raising equipment and a novel method, wherein the novel equipment comprises a nutrient solution unit, a temperature and humidity unit, a seedling raising box unit and the like, and the novel method comprises a nutrient solution circulation mode, a temperature and humidity control mode, other matched technologies and the like. The modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture is an important measure for standardizing seedling culture links and establishing a unified standard. In an intensive tobacco seedling system, the tobacco cultivation process has certain complexity due to more technical links. Therefore, managers need to continuously standardize the operation of seedling raising links, optimize the seedling raising technology and fully exert technical advantages. And a unified, comprehensive and effective tobacco seedling growing and planting system is constructed, so that the technical measures are ensured to meet the actual requirements, and the production efficiency of tobacco can be improved to a certain extent.
The modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method is an effective way for improving mechanization, informatization and intellectualization of the seedling raising link. In the process of developing the tobacco seedling raising link, the conventional technology mainly adopts manual operation, the input labor is large, the mechanization and informatization levels are low, partial seedling raising effects are poor due to the reasons of personnel quality difference and the like, and the restriction factors are difficult to find out. Therefore, the mechanized and informatization development of the flue-cured tobacco seedling is further promoted, a sound systematized cost control strategy can be established, the seedling raising benefit is improved on the basis of saving the labor cost, and a corresponding technical support and overall management basis are provided for tobacco production.
The modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture method is a basic guarantee for improving the technical level of tobacco production and improving the technological content of tobacco production. In order to improve the actual level of a tobacco production management mechanism and a management and control effect, the agricultural technology popularization project needs are practiced from scientific and technical elements and a management basis, and the requirements of large-scale planting and intensive production are combined to ensure that technical measures can be comprehensively implemented. On the basis of realizing mechanized production, informatization management and intelligent control, the method meets the actual requirements of the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising link, lays a solid foundation for subsequent scientific research and development and talent culture, and lays a solid foundation for the sustainable development of the tobacco industry.
The invention relates to a flue-cured tobacco seedling method based on modular management, which is a brand-new flue-cured tobacco seedling production mode and a brand-new flue-cured tobacco seedling management mode which are put forward after deep research and reference of documents. The requirements of conventional flue-cured tobacco seedling culture on fields, personnel and the like are reduced, the requirements of different tobacco planting production areas can be met, good effects are achieved in the aspects of dealing with extreme weather influences, controlling pest and disease damage occurrence and the like, the mechanization, informatization and intelligentization levels of the flue-cured tobacco seedling culture link are effectively improved, and the method is an important means for improving the flue-cured tobacco seedling strengthening rate and ensuring the field transplanting quality.
According to the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method, on the basis of introducing a modularized management concept, hardware facilities such as a single seedling raising box, a temperature and humidity control unit, a nutrient solution control unit and the like are designed, and corresponding technical systems such as temperature and humidity management, nutrient solution management and the like are matched, so that the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method is a brand-new and standardized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising mode with a wider application range. The modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising uses the seedling raising box with small volume and complete functions as a main carrier, reduces the strict requirements of the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising on a seedling raising field and the surrounding environment, improves the adaptability of the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising process to the climate and weather change of a production area, and can be popularized and applied in the tobacco planting production areas with different ecological characteristics and different production conditions.
The modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture system provided by the invention is based on the combination of infrastructure and matching technology, the growth environment of tobacco seedlings, the components of nutrient solution and the like are accurately controlled, the mechanization and automation degree of operation links such as disinfection, temperature control, humidity control, fertilization, medication, seedling forging and the like during the flue-cured tobacco seedling culture period is improved, the professional technical requirements of flue-cured tobacco seedling culture management on seedling culture personnel are reduced, the influence of personnel operation on the flue-cured tobacco seedling culture management is avoided to a great extent, the manpower input of the flue-cured tobacco seedling culture link is reduced, and the embarrassment that the current flue-cured tobacco production personnel are insufficient and the overall quality is not high can be effectively relieved.
The modular flue-cured tobacco seedling raising box disclosed by the invention takes the single seedling raising box as a main tool, is provided with control units such as temperature, humidity and nutrient solution, effectively controls the occurrence and prevalence of diseases such as viruses, fungi and bacteria by using functions such as atomized medicine and flowing medicine, and improves the comprehensive prevention and control capability of plant diseases and insect pests during the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising. Meanwhile, through the functions of air circulation, nutrient solution circulation and the like, the most suitable growth and development environment is provided for tobacco seedlings, the possibility of occurrence of special problems such as cold damage, heat damage, salt damage, algae damage and the like is reduced, the subsequent gradient seedling forging technology and the like are combined, the mass cultivation of high-quality strong seedlings is ensured, and the powerful guarantee is provided for improving the tobacco seedling qualification rate in a tobacco leaf production area and the field transplanting quality.
The temperature and humidity probe and the water temperature and water level probe of the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising system can monitor and record the environmental conditions of the seedling raising box in real time and upload the environmental conditions to the main controller, not only can provide a basis for the modularized seedling raising system to regulate and control the seedling raising environment, but also can provide references for seedling raising personnel to trace the quality change of tobacco seedlings, search the causes of the tobacco seedlings and the like. In addition, the design of the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture system can be combined with different seedling culture purposes, the technical parameters such as seedling culture scale and seedling culture conditions can be adjusted at will, individual requirements of different crowds can be met, informatization and intellectualization of the system are fully displayed, the system is a necessary tool for researching and developing flue-cured tobacco seedling culture related technologies in scientific research institutions, and updating and development of flue-cured tobacco seedling culture production application and practical technologies can be greatly promoted.
The invention relates to modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising, which is a technical integration of novel flue-cured tobacco seedling raising equipment and a novel method, wherein the novel equipment comprises a nutrient solution unit, a temperature and humidity unit, a seedling raising box unit and the like, and the novel method comprises a nutrient solution circulation mode, a temperature and humidity control mode, other matched technologies and the like. Key links such as temperature and humidity adjustment and nutrient solution preparation of the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising are automatically completed by intelligent related control modules, the required labor is little, and strict technical requirements on operators are not met; the existing supporting facilities such as seedling ponds, seedling sheds and the like need to be purchased and built every year, the required cost is high, the supporting equipment such as the seedling box for the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture can be repeatedly used, and particularly, the problem that the floating seedling culture of the flue-cured tobacco cannot be popularized in water-deficient areas is solved through nutrient solution circulation; the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method has the advantages that important parameters such as temperature, humidity, water level and nutrition proportion can be accurately controlled, the influence of adverse weather such as sunny heat, high temperature, strong wind cooling and the like can be effectively resisted, the propagation of diseases and insect pests in the seedling stage of the flue-cured tobacco can be prevented and controlled by the aid of matched technologies such as modularized design and low water level seedling exercising, the individual quality of tobacco seedlings is promoted, and the integral uniformity is improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a flue-cured tobacco seedling control method provided by the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control system provided by the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic structural view of a single seedling raising box according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic view of an internal structure of a single seedling raising box according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of an internal partition provided in an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is a schematic structural view of the cold-proof heat-preservation cover provided by the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 7 is a schematic structural diagram of a light conversion and temperature increase film provided in an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 8 is a schematic structural diagram of an anti-insect and anti-fog net provided by an embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 9 is a schematic view of a seedling tray provided by an embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 10 is a schematic diagram of a temperature and humidity control unit according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 11 is a schematic diagram of a nutrient solution control unit provided by an embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 12 is a schematic view of a series-type seedling raising system provided by the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 13 is a schematic view of a parallel seedling raising system provided by the embodiment of the invention.
In the figure: 1. a nutrient solution control unit; 2. a temperature and humidity control unit; 3. a seedling raising box unit; 4. a seedling raising box shell; 5. an inner partition plate of the seedling box; 6. a heat-insulating and cold-proof cover; 7. a light conversion and temperature increase film; 8. an insect-proof and antifogging net; 9. a vent; 10. a wet temperature probe; 11. a nutrient solution port; 12. a water level probe; 13. an air outlet; 14. a seedling raising plate; 15. a nursery tray support; 16. a groove of the light conversion and temperature increase film; 17. an insect-proof and fog-proof net groove; 18. a thermal insulation cold-proof cover shell; 19. an inner groove of the heat-insulating and cold-proof cover; 20. double-layer stainless steel; 21. seedling raising holes.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the following embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control method, a system and a device and a flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method, and the invention is described in detail with reference to the attached drawings.
As shown in fig. 1, the flue-cured tobacco seedling control method provided by the invention comprises the following steps:
s101: the temperature and humidity control unit is connected with the single seedling raising box through an auxiliary line and a pipeline, the temperature and humidity of air of the seedling raising box are monitored by using a temperature and humidity probe, and the environment temperature and humidity of the single seedling raising box are regulated and controlled in real time through a constant temperature and humidity chamber, a ventilation device, a main controller and other components according to a preset temperature and humidity curve, so that the tobacco seedlings are continuously in a proper growing environment;
s102: nutrient solution the control unit monitoring, the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the regulation and control seedling raising box, and the element of allotment nutrient solution constitutes, nutrient solution the control unit passes through auxiliary line and pipeline and is connected with monomer seedling raising box, utilize temperature probe monitoring seedling raising box's nutrient solution temperature, utilize water level probe monitoring seedling raising box's nutrient solution height, combine the development period and the growth situation of tobacco seedling, through parts such as nutrient solution allotment room, circulating device and main control unit, regulate and control monomer seedling raising box's nutrient solution temperature in real time, height and element ratio, ensure that the tobacco seedling lasts and be in suitable growth condition.
As shown in fig. 2, the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control system provided by the invention comprises:
and the nutrient solution control unit 1 is used for monitoring and controlling the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box unit 3.
A temperature and humidity control unit 2 for monitoring and controlling the temperature and humidity of the air in the seedling box unit 3,
and the seedling box unit 3 is used for preparing seedling trays to grow tobacco seedlings according to different transplanting densities.
The technical solution of the present invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
As shown in fig. 3 to 9, the flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control device provided by the present invention comprises: the seedling raising box comprises a seedling raising box shell 4, a seedling raising box inner partition plate 5, a heat-preservation cold-proof cover 6, a light-conversion temperature-increasing film 7, an insect-proof anti-fog net 8, a ventilation opening 9, a wet temperature probe 10, a nutrient solution opening 11, a water level probe 12, an air outlet 13, a seedling raising tray 14, a seedling raising tray support 15, a light-conversion temperature-increasing film groove 16, an insect-proof anti-fog net groove 17, a heat-preservation cold-proof cover shell 18, a heat-preservation cold-proof cover inner groove 19, double-layer stainless steel 20 and.
The bottom of a seedling box shell 4 is provided with a seedling box inner partition plate 5, the top of the seedling box shell 4 is sequentially provided with an insect-proof anti-fog net 8, a light-conversion temperature-increasing film 7 and a heat-preservation cold-proof cover 6 from inside to outside, one side of the seedling box shell 4 is provided with a vent 9, a wet temperature probe 10, a nutrient solution port 11, a water level probe 12 and an air outlet 13, the seedling box inner partition plate 5 is provided with a plurality of seedling box inner partition plates 5, the seedling box inner partition plates 5 are connected with the inner wall of the seedling box shell 4 through a tray pillar 15, a light-conversion temperature-increasing film groove 16 and an insect-proof anti-fog net groove 17 are formed in the top of the seedling box shell 4, the light-conversion temperature-increasing film groove 16 is used for installing the light-conversion temperature-increasing film 7; the inner side of the heat-preservation and cold-proof cover 6 is provided with a heat-preservation and cold-proof cover inner groove 19; the peripheries of the light conversion and temperature increase film 7 and the insect-proof and anti-fog net 8 are double-layer stainless steel 20; a plurality of seedling raising holes 21 are formed on the seedling raising tray 14.
The invention relates to a seedling box shell 4 and a seedling box inner partition plate 5: the black expanded polystyrene is molded by one-step compression molding, the external dimension of the box body is 1500mm multiplied by 1150mm multiplied by 450mm, the internal dimension of the box body is 1400mm multiplied by 1050mm multiplied by 400mm, and the thickness of the outer wall and the bottom is 50 mm; the size of the partition boards 5 in the two seedling raising boxes is 1200mm multiplied by 40mm multiplied by 100mm, the partition boards are respectively positioned at the left 350mm position and the right 700mm position of the box body, and the partition boards are mainly used for nutrient solution circulation supply, low water level seedling forging and the like.
In the present invention (vent 9) air inlet and outlet 13: the PVC pipe with the pipe diameter of 100mm is processed and formed, the PVC pipe is fixed on the front upper portion of the left side of the seedling box shell 4 and the rear upper portion of the right side of the left side of the seedling box shell through adhesives, the PVC pipe is mainly used for circulating ventilation and controlling the temperature and the humidity of the air environment in the box body, and the box body and the temperature and humidity control unit 2 are connected through corresponding accessories and control valves.
In the present invention, a liquid inlet (nutrient solution port 11) and a liquid outlet (air outlet 13) are: the PVC pipe material with the pipe diameter of 40mm is processed to form the PVC pipe material, the PVC pipe material is respectively fixed on the front lower portion of the left side and the rear lower portion of the right side of the seedling box shell 4 by using an adhesive and is mainly used for circulating nutrient solution, regulating and controlling the temperature, the component concentration and the liquid level height of the nutrient solution, and the PVC pipe material is connected between the box bodies and the temperature and humidity control unit 2 by corresponding accessories and control valves.
Monitoring of probe ports in the present invention: the temperature and humidity control system is mainly used for loading (temperature and humidity probes and water temperature probes) a humidity temperature probe 10 and a water level probe 12, recording the temperature and humidity of air and the temperature and the height of nutrient solution in a seedling raising box in real time, uploading the temperature and the humidity to a nutrient solution control unit 1 and a temperature and humidity control unit 2, and performing operations such as circulating ventilation and nutrient solution management and control through preset programs.
The invention discloses a heat preservation and cold protection cover 6: the foamed polystyrene board is also molded by black foamed polystyrene once, has the external dimension of 1550mm multiplied by 1200mm multiplied by 50mm and the internal groove dimension of 1500mm multiplied by 1150mm multiplied by 25mm, is fixed on the rear side of the upper part of the box body through an auxiliary part, and is mainly used for wind prevention and heat preservation at night or in low-temperature weather.
The light conversion and temperature increase film 7 in the invention: the light conversion and temperature increase device is composed of a double-layer 304 stainless steel plate and a light conversion and temperature increase film, wherein the size of the outer layer stainless steel plate is 1460mm multiplied by 1100mm multiplied by 10mm, the size of the inner layer stainless steel plate is slightly smaller than that of the outer layer, and the light conversion and temperature increase film is clamped to be used as a standard and is mainly used for daily windproof and heat preservation.
In the present invention, the insect-proof and antifogging net 8: the anti-insect seedling-forging machine consists of a double-layer 304 stainless steel plate and a 60-mesh nylon anti-insect net, wherein the size of the outer layer stainless steel plate is 1420mm multiplied by 1060mm multiplied by 10mm, the size of the inner layer stainless steel plate is slightly smaller than that of the outer layer so as to just clamp the nylon anti-insect net, and the anti-insect seedling-forging machine is mainly used for daily insect prevention and moisture removal and later-stage ventilation and seedling forging.
The seedling raising tray 14 in the present invention: each seedling raising box is formed by one-time compression molding of black expanded polystyrene, 12 seedling raising trays are matched with each seedling raising box, the external dimension of each seedling raising box is 350mm multiplied by 50mm, the number of holes of a single tray is 100 (10 multiplied by 10), the upper aperture is 24mm multiplied by 24mm, the lower aperture is 16mm multiplied by 16mm, the hole height is 45mm, and the drain holes are 8mm, and the seedling raising box is mainly used for bearing a matrix and cultivating cured tobacco strong seedlings.
The equipment of the flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control device provided by the invention is processed and manufactured according to a unified standard, can be repeatedly used for many years, and can effectively reduce the material cost investment in the flue-cured tobacco seedling culture link. Monomer seedling raising box is the main carrier that the modularization was grown seedlings, and according to the transplanting density of difference, every seedling raising box is equipped with 12 and educates seedling tray, fertile tobacco seedling 1.0 ~ 1.2 mu.
As shown in fig. 10, the temperature and humidity control unit 2 in the present invention mainly functions to monitor and regulate the air temperature and humidity in the seedling raising box, is one of the control systems for the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising, and the specification and size are determined by the number and connection mode of the connected individual seedling raising boxes. Temperature and humidity control unit 2 is connected with monomer seedling raising box through auxiliary line and pipeline, utilizes temperature and humidity probe monitoring seedling raising box's air humiture, according to predetermined humiture curve, through parts such as constant temperature and humidity room, ventilation unit and main control unit, regulates and control monomer seedling raising box's environment humiture in real time, ensures that the tobacco seedling lasts and is in suitable growing environment.
A main controller: the main function is to open and close the ventilation device and the constant temperature and humidity chamber according to the monitored temperature and humidity data and the preset temperature and humidity curve, and the ventilation device and the constant temperature and humidity chamber are core components of the temperature and humidity control unit. The temperature and humidity probe is utilized to monitor the air environment of the seedling raising box, the constant temperature and humidity chamber and the ventilation device are controlled according to a preset temperature and humidity curve, and the air circulation function is started, so that the aims of heating, cooling or humidifying and dehumidifying are fulfilled.
A ventilation device: the main function is the flow and the speed of regulation and control air inlet and air-out etc. is air cycle's power supply, according to main control unit's instruction command, increases or reduces air cycle ability.
A constant temperature and humidity chamber: the main function is to stabilize the air environment condition of the seedling box and heat or humidify the circulating air according to the instruction command of the main controller.
As shown in fig. 11, the main functions of the nutrient solution control unit 1 in the present invention are to monitor and regulate the temperature and height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box, and to allocate the element composition of the nutrient solution, and it is one of the control systems for modular flue-cured tobacco seedling, and the specification and size are determined by the number of connected individual seedling boxes and the connection manner. Nutrient solution the control unit passes through auxiliary line and pipeline and is connected with monomer seedling raising box, utilizes temperature probe monitoring seedling raising box's nutrient solution temperature, utilizes water level probe monitoring seedling raising box's nutrient solution height, combines the development period and the growth condition of tobacco seedling, through parts such as nutrient solution allotment room, circulating device and main control unit, regulates and control monomer seedling raising box's nutrient solution temperature, height and element ratio in real time, ensures that the tobacco seedling lasts and is in suitable growth condition.
A main controller: the main function is to open and close the circulating device, the nutrient solution preparing chamber, the homogenizer and other components according to the monitored data of temperature, water level and the like, and the components are the core components of the nutrient solution control unit. Monitoring the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling raising box by using a temperature probe and a water level probe, controlling a nutrient solution blending chamber and a circulating device according to a preset temperature curve and a target height, and starting a nutrient solution circulating function to achieve the purposes of heating, cooling or controlling the water level; controlling the addition amount of the seedling raising fertilizer according to the requirements of tobacco seedlings on nutrients in different growth periods, fully and uniformly mixing by using a homogenizer, and circulating to a seedling raising box.
A circulating device: the main function is to regulate the flow and pressure of the nutrient solution, and the like, and the nutrient solution circulating power source increases or decreases the nutrient solution circulating capacity according to the instruction command of the main controller.
Nutrient solution blending room: the main function is to stabilize the temperature and height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box and heat or filter the circulating nutrient solution according to the instruction command of the main controller; and (4) combining the feeding hole and the homogenizer to finish the automatic blending of the nutrient solution.
The seedling raising fertilizer inlet and the homogenizer are combined with the growth and development conditions of tobacco seedlings, liquid fertilizer or solid fertilizer is added in a timed and quantitative mode according to the instruction command of the main controller, and the liquid fertilizer or the solid fertilizer is fully and uniformly mixed and then circulated to the seedling raising box.
The technical solution of the present invention is further described with reference to the following specific examples.
1 general requirements
By a modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling raising technical system, disease-free strong seedlings with developed root systems, high activity, low cost and strong stress resistance are cultured in an important mode, the strong seedling rate reaches over 95 percent, the seedling rate of each hole of a floating tray is 100 percent, and the specialization, the intellectualization and the commercialization of flue-cured tobacco seedling raising are realized.
2 standard of seedling
The period from the emergence of seedlings after sowing to the transplantation of the grown seedlings is controlled to be about 60 days. 7-8 true leaves; the stem height is 12-15 cm, and the stem circumference is 1.8-2.5 cm; the tobacco seedlings are fresh and disease-free, and the leaf color is light green; the root system is developed and has no spiral root; the flexibility of the stem is good, and the stem can be wound around fingers; no plant diseases and insect pests, and uniform and consistent population.
3 sowing time
Reversely pushing the sowing time according to the seedling age and the transplanting period; and (4) carrying out seedling raising in steps, wherein the overall sowing time is controlled within 3-5 days.
4 seedling field selection
The seedling raising field is selected to be far away from villages and curing barn, the air is pollution-free, a large amount of dust and harmful gas are avoided, and the seedling raising field is convenient to transport and relatively flat.
Construction of 5 modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling growing system
According to the modularized flue-cured tobacco seedling culture method, the monomer seedling culture box is used as a main carrier (as shown in figures 12 and 13), a serial connection, parallel connection or serial and parallel connection combination mode is adopted, accurate management and control of nutrition, water level, temperature and humidity and the like are realized by means of the nutrient solution control unit 1 and the temperature and humidity control unit 2, influences of personnel operation, weather change and the like on the quality of tobacco seedlings are avoided to a large extent, measures such as matched nutrient solution circulation supply, flowing medicine application, atomization disinfection, low-water-level seedling forging and the like can be used for further optimizing the growth environment of the tobacco seedlings, and healthy and strong tobacco seedlings meeting actual production requirements are cultured.
Standard components such as a seedling raising box, a nutrient solution control unit 1 and a temperature and humidity control unit 2 are uniformly used for building a flue-cured tobacco seedling raising system, and the actual production requirements are combined on a specific scale. The seedling raising boxes are in consistent orientation and level, and are preferably arranged in the north-south direction, so that ventilation and light transmission are facilitated; the temperature and humidity control unit and the nutrient solution control unit are reasonably arranged in a series connection mode, a parallel connection mode or a series-parallel connection combination mode on the basis of the number of the seedling raising boxes and the like; generally, 5-10 seedling raising boxes are taken as a group, 3-5 groups are taken as independent seedling raising systems, and each independent seedling raising system is provided with a temperature and humidity control unit and a nutrient solution control unit.
6 water quality and quantity requirements
(1) The water quality is detected, the sanitation management is strengthened, the tap water and well water disinfected by chlorine dioxide can be used for floating seedling, and the use of pool water and polluted water source is forbidden.
1-2 days before sowing, the water temperature in the seedling raising box is improved by utilizing a natural water-drying heating mode or a rapid heating mode of a nutrient solution circulation function of the black seedling raising box.
The effervescent tablets are used for disinfecting seedling culture water, and 1 gram of medicament can be used for disinfecting seedling culture water of 2.5-3.0 seedling culture boxes.
And (3) performing pH correction on the seedling raising water by utilizing the circulation function of the nutrient solution, wherein the pH value of the seedling raising water is 6.5-6.8 as the best value. If the pH value is higher, a proper amount of industrial sulfuric acid (H) of 4.9g/L can be added2SO4) (ii) a If the pH value is low, a proper amount of industrial caustic soda (NaOH) of 4.0g/L can be added; and after adjustment, testing the pH value of the water by using a pH probe under the state of nutrient solution circulation until the pH value meets the requirement.
(2) Amount of water
Before sowing, a nutrient solution control unit adds water into a seedling box in the system through a filtering device, and the height of the water in the seedling box is stabilized to be 10-12 cm by using auxiliary elements such as a water level probe and the like; in the later stage, the requirements of tobacco seedlings in different growth periods and operations such as leaf cutting, seedling forging and the like are combined, and the water level height in the seedling raising box is timely adjusted by utilizing a nutrient solution control unit, a water level probe, a pressure valve and the like; when the water level is lower, the nutrient solution control unit supplements the water level, and when the water level is higher, the water flows back to the nutrient solution control unit.
7 dishing and sowing
Before loading into a tray, adding a proper amount of clean water into the matrix, and stirring to wet until the matrix is held by hand to form a mass and the matrix is loosened to be proper (the water content is about 60%). Firstly, piling the damp matrix on the hole surface of the seedling raising tray, then pushing away to fill each hole, slightly throwing for 2-3 times to fill each hole with the matrix, then filling the concave hole with the matrix, and scraping the tray surface until the hole partition is exposed, so that the tray surface is neat and smooth. The special hole pressing plate is used for pressing out the sowing holes. And (4) sowing the coated seeds in the holes by using a sowing machine, wherein 1-2 seeds are sowed in each hole. And after confirming that the seeds do not shift, spraying water by using a spray can to fully crack seed coatings, properly covering the seed coatings by using a screened fine matrix, and then putting a seedling raising tray into a seedling raising box.
8 seedling raising box nutrient solution management
According to the weather condition and the growth vigor of tobacco seedlings, the water level and the nutrition ratio are accurately controlled, indexes such as the turbidity of the nutrient solution, the pH value and the like are regularly detected, and circulating water is ensured to meet the requirements of water for seedling culture.
(1) Fertilization in seedling stage
The automatic seedling fertilizer supplementing function and the nutrient solution circulating function of the nutrient solution control unit are utilized to perform fertilization operation according to the requirements of the tobacco seedlings on nutrient elements in different growth periods, the fertilization in the seedling period is automatically completed by the nutrient solution control unit according to a preset nutrient curve, and the seedling personnel can properly adjust the growth vigor of the tobacco seedlings.
In the tobacco seedling stage (50% of seedling emergence), a special floating seedling raising fertilizer is used for first fertilization, and the nitrogen concentration is 50mg/kg nutrient solution; applying a second fertilizer in a small cross period (about 20 days) and using a nutrient solution with the nitrogen concentration of 100 mg/kg; applying a third fertilizer with a nitrogen concentration of 100mg/kg in a big cross period (about 30 days); and in the last two weeks (seedling stage), applying a fourth fertilizer according to the growth condition of the tobacco seedlings, wherein the nitrogen concentration is 50mg/kg, and the tobacco seedlings can not be applied without fertilizer removal.
(2) pH correction
After the nutrient solution is added, testing the pH value of water by using a pH probe, and correcting the pH value to keep the pH value within the range of 5.5-6.5; the nutrient solution is required to be corrected for 1 time every time 1 time of adding, the process is automatically completed by the nutrient solution control unit, and seedling personnel only need to ensure that the seedling fertilizer inlet has enough sulfuric acid and caustic soda.
(3) Seedling tray adjustment
The nutrient solution is periodically and circularly updated during the seedling raising period, the problem of uneven seedling condition generally can not occur, and if special conditions are met, the tray positions are changed according to opposite angles, so that the uniform and tidy seedling emergence is ensured.
9 temperature and humidity management of seedling raising box
According to the weather condition and the growth vigor of the tobacco seedlings, the temperature and humidity in the seedling raising and seedling raising box are accurately controlled by the temperature and humidity control unit, and the functions of cyclic heating, ventilation, moisture removal and the like are periodically started, so that the tobacco seedlings are ensured to be continuously in a proper growth environment.
(1) Temperature and humidity control
The method mainly comprises the steps of preserving heat before seedling emergence, keeping the temperature in a seedling box at 25-28 ℃ and the humidity at 60-80% RH to promote tobacco seeds to germinate, closing a light conversion and temperature increasing film and an insect prevention and fog prevention net in the seedling box, opening a cold-proof heat preservation cover in the daytime to naturally increase the temperature by utilizing illumination, and closing the cold-proof heat preservation cover at night to keep the temperature. The temperature in the seedling raising box is kept at 28-32 ℃ after seedlings emerge, tobacco seedlings can grow quickly, the humidity is kept at 40-60% RH, under the condition that the temperature and the humidity are not proper, the temperature and the humidity in the seedling raising box are automatically adjusted by utilizing the air circulation function of the humidity control unit, the light conversion temperature increasing film, the insect-proof anti-fog net and the cold-proof heat preservation cover are opened or closed in combination with the temperature and humidity keeping state, and the cold-proof heat preservation cover needs to be opened when the weather is fine or the temperature is not obviously reduced at night. The temperature in the seedling raising box is kept at 22-25 ℃ and the humidity is kept at 30-50% RH from the small cross period to the large cross period, if the humidity of the surface of the seedling tray is too high, the light conversion and temperature increase film can be properly opened for tray drying, if the surface of the seedling tray meets the long-time low-temperature cold and humid weather, the light conversion and temperature increase film is closed, the ventilation and humidity elimination functions are started, and the humidity of the surface of the seedling tray is properly reduced.
(2) Air circulation mode and the like
During seedling raising, the temperature and humidity control unit automatically and regularly starts an air circulation mode, and selects internal circulation or external circulation according to weather change; when the air circulation mode is operated, the light conversion and temperature increasing film or the cold-proof heat preservation cover is closed under the conditions of atomized medicine application, box body disinfection and the like; in the air circulation process, the temperature and humidity control unit automatically turns on or off the temperature and humidity compensation function according to a preset curve.
10 thinning, replanting and final singling
When four leaves and one heart are in the big cross stage, tobacco seedlings with poor quality in the seedling holes are removed according to the principle of removing big, removing weak and remaining strong, and the holes are supplemented simultaneously, so that one seedling in each hole is ensured, no seedling is lacked, and no more seedlings are left; when thinning, replanting, fixing and the like, the seedling tray needs to be removed from the seedling box and is carried out on a specified workbench, and the operation cannot be directly carried out in the seedling box.
11 leaf-cutting
The selection of the first leaf cutting time depends on the temperature of each place, generally, leaf cutting and seedling adjustment are carried out in a mode of 'flat beating' in tobacco seedling 'disc-sealing shading' (the tobacco seedling leaves cover the disc surface of a seedling tray, and the seedling tray can not be seen basically when the seedling tray is overlooked), and the leaf cutting degree is not more than 50% of the maximum leaf area of the maximum seedling. The main function of the first leaf cutting is to inhibit the size and promote the growth of tobacco seedlings to be consistent. And then, cutting the tobacco leaves generally once every 5-7 days according to the growth vigor of the tobacco seedlings. The leaf cutting height is preferably 1-2 cm from the heart leaves. The whole seedling raising process has no less than 3 times of leaf cutting. And (4) when the leaves are cut for the second time, old yellow leaves at the lower part of the tobacco seedlings are pinched off, so that the stems are fully illuminated, and the toughness of the stems is enhanced. When the leaves are cut, the seedling raising plate is removed from the seedling raising box and is carried out on a specified workbench, direct operation cannot be carried out in the seedling raising box, and disinfection measures are taken well.
12 forged seedling
Starting to gradually cut off water and fertilizer for forging the tobacco seedlings 10-15 days before transplanting, and gradually uncovering the covering film to make the tobacco seedlings adapt to the external environment; the seedling exercising degree is that the tobacco seedlings wither at noon and can be recovered in the morning and at night, and if the tobacco seedlings can not be recovered in the morning and at night, the leaf surfaces can be properly sprinkled with water. The stress resistance and the transplanting survival rate of tobacco seedlings can be improved by forging the seedlings, and the seedling forging time is not less than 10 days.
The seedling forging is divided into two stages, wherein 1-7 days of seedling forging mainly reduces water level and enhances ventilation, a cold-proof heat-preservation cover is opened, a light-conversion temperature-increasing film and an insect-proof anti-fog net are closed in the daytime, the water level height is gradually reduced by a nutrient solution control unit, most of root systems of the tobacco seedlings are exposed in the air, and the ventilation is enhanced by a temperature and humidity control unit, so that stem and leaf parts of the tobacco seedlings gradually adapt to the external environment; open winter protection heat preservation cover, close and change light and increase temperature membrane and protection against insects antifog net night, utilize nutrient solution control unit to resume water level height gradually, make the root system of a small part tobacco seedling expose in the air, utilize the atmospheric control unit to continuously ventilate, keep the interior humiture of seedling raising box slightly higher than external environment. The forged seedlings in 8-15 days mainly empty the nutrient solution and naturally ventilate, at this stage, a cold-proof heat-preservation cover and a light-conversion temperature-increasing film are opened, an insect-proof and anti-fog net is closed, the nutrient solution is emptied by a nutrient solution control unit, so that the root systems of the tobacco seedlings are completely exposed in the air, and the stem and leaf parts of the tobacco seedlings really adapt to the external environment by natural ventilation; open winter protection heat preservation cover, close and change light and increase temperature membrane and protection against insects antifog net night, utilize nutrient solution control unit to resume water level height gradually, make most tobacco seedling root system expose in the air, utilize the humiture control unit to continuously ventilate, keep the humiture similar with external environment in the seedling raising box.
13 Disinfection management
The strict disinfection and sanitation management process comprises a field, a box body, a substrate, a floating disc, an operation and personnel and the like.
(1) Seedling growing place
Before seedling culture, a disinfectant is used for disinfecting seedling culture systems such as a box body and the surrounding plots; weeds around the seedling raising box are eradicated at regular intervals, the drainage ditch is cleared in time and is disinfected by chemicals, isolation fences are arranged around the seedling raising field, and the pest luring yellow boards and the blue boards are placed on the isolation fences.
(2) Seedling raising box
Before seedling culture, a disinfectant is required to be used for disinfection, a sprayer is used for spraying and disinfecting the inside and outside of a box body, a cold-proof heat-preservation cover, a light conversion temperature-increasing film, an insect-proof anti-fog net, a seedling culture plate and the like until the surface is wet, the seedling culture plate is placed into the seedling culture box, the insect-proof anti-fog net, the light conversion temperature-increasing film and the cold-proof heat-preservation cover are covered, and the air circulation function is opened to perform closed disinfection for more than 30 minutes.
(3) Thinning, filling, final singling and leaf cutting
The tobacco seedlings are atomized and sprayed with virus inhibitor medicines by utilizing the air circulation function 1-2 days before operation, operators and tools must be disinfected, the operation tools must be disinfected 1 time after 1 box is completed, and sundries such as cut broken leaves must be taken out of a seedbed and placed in a sanitary pool to be intensively destroyed.
(4) Other requirements
Smoking in and around the seedling raising area is strictly forbidden, operators entering the seedling raising area must wash hands with soap, and soles must be disinfected, so that manual contact of tobacco seedlings is reduced as much as possible. All personnel, especially disinfection operators, must wear masks and rubber gloves to strictly prevent poisoning accidents from happening and strengthen the management of disinfection medicines and pesticides.
14-seedling-stage integrated pest control
(1) Disease control
The disease condition is noticed at the "big cross stage" of the tobacco seedling, and the medication protection is started. Medicines such as 800 times of liquid of 25 percent metalaxyl-propamocarb wettable powder can be used for effectively preventing various fungal diseases such as black shank, root black rot and the like, and the medicines are applied for 1 time every 10 days by utilizing the circulating medication function of the nutrient solution, and are applied for at most two times; medicaments such as 80% Bordeaux wettable powder 600 times liquid and the like are used, various bacterial diseases such as anthracnose and the like can be effectively prevented, and the medicaments are applied for 1 time every 10 days by utilizing the atomizing medicament application function and are applied for at most two times; the medicament such as 1200-fold liquid of 20% moroxydine-cupric acetate wettable powder can effectively prevent virus diseases such as common mosaic disease, and the medicament is applied for 1 time every 10 days by utilizing the atomizing medicament application function, and is applied for at most two times.
(2) Pest control
The myzus persicae is controlled by a yellow plate, the thrips is controlled by a blue plate, and the yellow plate and the blue plate are arranged on fences around a seedling raising area. The pesticide such as 5% cypermethrin emulsifiable 1200-fold liquid can effectively prevent and control insect pests such as tobacco budworms, snails, slugs and the like, and the pesticide is applied for 1 time every 10 days by utilizing the atomization pesticide application function, and is applied for at most two times.
15 other measures
(1) Cold damage
When the weather is low and little, closing the cold-proof heat-insulating cover, the light-conversion temperature-increasing film and the insect-proof anti-fog net day and night, starting the air circulation function to insulate heat and discharge humidity, and starting the nutrient solution circulation function to stabilize the water temperature and the water level; when the illumination is good, the cold-proof heat-preservation cover is opened, and the sunlight is utilized to naturally heat; if the duration of the low-temperature short-exposure weather is too long, spraying 800-1000 times of hydrolysis-resistant stable ion titanium by using the atomization drug application function, and spraying once again for seedling formation to prevent premature flowering.
(2) Heat damage
When continuous high-temperature sunny and hot weather occurs, the cold-proof heat-preservation cover, the light conversion temperature-increasing film and the insect-proof anti-fog net are opened in the daytime, natural ventilation and cooling are performed, and the nutrient solution circulation function is started to stabilize the water temperature and the water level; at night, opening the cold-proof heat-insulating cover, closing the light-conversion temperature-increasing film and the insect-proof anti-fog net, opening the air circulation function, performing constant-temperature moisture removal, and opening the nutrient solution circulation function to stabilize the water temperature and the water level; if the duration of high-temperature sunny and hot weather is too long, the water level can be properly increased, the circulation flow of nutrient solution is increased, meanwhile, the later seedling forging work is strengthened, and the seedling forging time is prolonged.
(3) Salt damage
Salt damage is caused by a high-temperature low-humidity environment, and the water temperature and the water level are stabilized by utilizing the air circulation function at ordinary times and the nutrient solution circulation function, so that the salt damage of a seedling raising box and a seedling tray is prevented; if the surface of the seedling tray is salted and harms tobacco seedlings, a sprinkling can is needed to be used for sprinkling water to the tray surface in time to dissolve salt, and the sprinkling can is carried out once every 5 to 7 days until the salt damage is eliminated.
(4) Algal pest
The algae damage is caused by a low-temperature high-humidity environment, a seedling box, a seedling tray and the like are strictly disinfected before seedling culture, and the breeding of blue algae and green algae is inhibited and the problem of the algae damage is prevented by regularly utilizing the air circulation function for constant-temperature moisture removal and the nutrient solution circulation function for disinfection and filtration; if blue algae and green algae are bred, the cold-proof heat-preservation cover and the light-conversion heat-preservation film are only needed to be opened when the blue algae and the green algae are bred, the seedling tray is naturally ventilated, dehumidified and sunned, the seedling tray is removed from a seedling box when the blue algae and the green algae are bred, 0.1-0.5% copper sulfate solution is sprayed to inhibit the breeding of the algae when the blue algae and the green algae are bred, meanwhile, the air circulation function is started to forcibly ventilate and dehumidify, and the nutrient solution circulation function is started to forcibly sterilize and.
(5) Others
If the weather such as drought, low temperature and the like is unfavorable for field transplanting in the transplanting period, the seedling box is utilized to prolong the seedling forging time, and simultaneously nutrient solution is supplemented properly until the field transplanting, so that the problems of root system aging or stem lignification and the like of tobacco seedlings are prevented. And (4) emptying the seedling raising box in time after seedling raising is finished, maintaining the seedling raising facilities such as the seedling raising box and the pipeline according to a disinfection management method, and uniformly and properly storing for continuous use in the next year.
The technical effects of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the experiments.
This experiment is through the experimental demonstration of modularization flue-cured tobacco seedling, and the tobacco seedling of growing up is clear and beautiful not have the pest and disease, and the colony is neat, even unanimous, and the leaf color is light green or just green, no obvious spot, and the stem is white, the pliability is good can be around indicating, difficult rupture, and the root system is developed mostly white root, does not have obvious main root and spiral root, and concrete index is as follows:
Figure BDA0002533366040000211
Figure BDA0002533366040000221
the above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the present invention and the appended claims are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention, which is intended to cover all modifications, equivalents and improvements that are within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a flue-cured tobacco control system that grows seedlings which characterized in that, flue-cured tobacco control system that grows seedlings includes:
the nutrient solution control unit is used for monitoring and regulating the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box unit;
the temperature and humidity control unit is used for monitoring and controlling the air temperature and humidity in the seedling box unit;
and the seedling raising box unit is used for preparing seedling raising trays to raise tobacco seedlings according to different transplanting densities.
2. The flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control system of claim 1, wherein the temperature and humidity control unit and the nutrient solution control unit are in series, parallel or combination of series and parallel based on the number of seedling culture boxes; each independent seedling raising system is provided with a temperature and humidity control unit and a nutrient solution control unit.
3. The flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control system of claim 1, wherein the temperature and humidity control unit comprises:
the main controller is used for opening and closing the ventilation device and the constant temperature and humidity chamber according to the monitored temperature and humidity data and a preset temperature and humidity curve; monitoring the air environment of the seedling raising box by using a temperature and humidity probe, controlling a constant temperature and humidity chamber and a ventilation device according to a preset temperature and humidity curve, and starting an air circulation function;
the ventilation device regulates and controls the flow and the speed of air inlet and air outlet, and increases or decreases the air circulation capacity according to the instruction command of the main controller;
and the constant temperature and humidity chamber heats or humidifies the circulating air according to the instruction command of the main controller.
4. The flue-cured tobacco seedling control system of claim 1, wherein the nutrient solution control unit comprises:
the main controller is used for opening and closing the circulating device, the nutrient solution blending chamber and the homogenizer component according to the monitored temperature and water level data; monitoring the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling raising box by using a temperature probe and a water level probe, controlling a nutrient solution preparation chamber and a circulating device according to a preset temperature curve and a target height, and starting a nutrient solution circulating function; controlling the addition amount of the seedling raising fertilizer according to the requirements of tobacco seedlings on nutrients in different growth periods, fully and uniformly mixing by using a homogenizer, and circulating to a seedling raising box;
the circulating device regulates and controls the flow and the pressure of the nutrient solution, is a power source for nutrient solution circulation, and increases or decreases the nutrient solution circulation capacity according to the instruction command of the main controller;
the nutrient solution blending chamber is used for stabilizing the temperature and the height of the nutrient solution in the seedling box and heating or filtering the circulating nutrient solution according to the instruction command of the main controller; combining the feeding hole and the homogenizer to finish the automatic blending of the nutrient solution;
the seedling raising fertilizer inlet and the homogenizer are combined with the growth and development conditions of tobacco seedlings, liquid fertilizer or solid fertilizer is added in a timed and quantitative mode according to the instruction command of the main controller, and the liquid fertilizer or the solid fertilizer is uniformly mixed and then circulated to the seedling raising box.
5. A flue-cured tobacco seedling control method for operating the flue-cured tobacco seedling control system according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the flue-cured tobacco seedling control method comprises the following steps:
the temperature and humidity control unit is connected with the single seedling raising box through an auxiliary line and a pipeline, the temperature and humidity of air of the seedling raising box are monitored by using a temperature and humidity probe, and the environment temperature and humidity of the single seedling raising box are regulated and controlled in real time through a constant temperature and humidity chamber, a ventilation device, a main controller and the like according to a preset temperature and humidity curve;
the system comprises a nutrient solution control unit, a temperature probe, a water level probe, a circulating device and a main controller component, wherein the nutrient solution control unit monitors and regulates the temperature and the height of nutrient solution in a seedling box and the element composition of the blended nutrient solution;
a temperature and humidity probe in the seedling raising box uploads temperature and humidity data in the box to a temperature and humidity control unit in real time; the temperature and humidity control unit compares and analyzes the actual temperature and humidity in the box according to a preset seedling stage temperature and humidity curve; if the actual temperature and humidity in the seedling-stage temperature and humidity curve does not conform to the actual temperature and humidity curve in the seedling-stage temperature and humidity curve, the seedling-raising box is subjected to heating and humidity removing operations through a constant-temperature constant-humidity chamber and ventilation device equipment;
the water temperature probe and the water level probe in the seedling box and the element probe and the pH probe in the nutrient solution preparation chamber upload the temperature, height, pH value and element composition data of the nutrient solution to the nutrient solution control unit in real time; the nutrient solution control unit compares and analyzes the actual temperature and element proportioning parameters of the nutrient solution in the box according to a preset seedling-stage nutrient demand curve; the temperature, the height and the element composition of the nutrient solution are not in accordance with the nutrient demand curve in the seedling stage, and the nutrient solution is supplemented with the seedling fertilizer and the pH value is adjusted by the nutrient solution preparation chamber, the homogenizer and the circulating device.
6. A flue-cured tobacco seedling control device provided with the flue-cured tobacco seedling control system according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the flue-cured tobacco seedling control device is provided with:
a seedling raising box shell;
the bottom of the seedling box shell is provided with a seedling box inner partition plate, the top of the seedling box shell is sequentially provided with an insect-proof anti-fog net, a light conversion temperature increasing film and a heat preservation cold-proof cover from inside to outside, one side of the seedling box shell is provided with a ventilation opening, a wet temperature probe, a nutrient solution opening, a water level probe and an air outlet, the seedling box inner partition plate is provided with a plurality of seedling box inner partition plates, the seedling box inner partition plates are connected with the inner wall of the seedling box shell through seedling tray pillars, light conversion temperature increasing film grooves and insect-proof anti-fog net grooves are formed in the top of the seedling box shell, the light conversion temperature increasing film grooves are used for installing the light conversion temperature increasing film, and the insect-proof anti; the inner side of the heat-preservation and cold-proof cover is provided with an inner groove of the heat-preservation and cold-proof cover; the peripheries of the light conversion and temperature increase film and the insect-proof and anti-fog net are made of double-layer stainless steel; a plurality of seedling raising holes are arranged on the seedling raising plate.
7. The flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control device of claim 6, wherein the seedling raising box outer casing and the seedling raising box inner partition plate are formed by one-time compression molding of black expanded polystyrene; the inner partition plates of the seedling raising box are respectively positioned at the left 350mm position and the right 700mm position of the box body and are used for nutrient solution circulation supply and low water level seedling forging.
8. The flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control device of claim 6, wherein the ventilation opening and the air outlet are formed by processing PVC pipes with the pipe diameter of 100mm, the PVC pipes are respectively fixed on the front upper part on the left side and the rear upper part on the right side of the casing of the seedling culture box by using adhesives for circulating ventilation and controlling the temperature and the humidity of the air environment in the box body, and the box body and the temperature and humidity control unit are connected by corresponding accessories and control valves.
9. The flue-cured tobacco seedling culture control device of claim 6, wherein the nutrient solution port and the air outlet are processed by PVC pipes with the pipe diameter of 40mm, and are respectively fixed at the front lower part at the left side and the rear lower part at the right side of the casing of the seedling culture box by using adhesives for circulating nutrient solution, regulating and controlling the temperature, the component concentration and the liquid level height of the nutrient solution, and the box bodies and the box body and the temperature and humidity control unit are connected by corresponding accessories and control valves;
the heat-insulating and cold-proof cover is formed by one-time compression molding of black expanded polystyrene, is fixed on the rear side of the upper part of the box body through an auxiliary part and is used for wind prevention and heat insulation in night or low-temperature weather;
the light conversion and temperature increase film consists of a double-layer 304 stainless steel plate and a light conversion and temperature increase film;
the insect-proof and anti-fog net consists of a double-layer 304 stainless steel plate and a 60-mesh nylon insect-proof net;
the seedling raising tray is formed by one-time compression molding of black expanded polystyrene, and 12 seedling raising trays are matched with each seedling raising box in a standard mode and used for bearing a matrix and cultivating cured tobacco strong seedlings.
10. Use of the flue-cured tobacco seedling control system according to any one of claims 1-4 in a flue-cured tobacco seedling method.
CN202010524857.9A 2020-06-10 2020-06-10 Flue-cured tobacco seedling raising control method, system and device and flue-cured tobacco seedling raising method Pending CN111567348A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN114521479A (en) * 2022-03-14 2022-05-24 河南科技大学 Two-stage tobacco seedling raising method based on microbial growth promotion and air root arrangement
CN115500229A (en) * 2022-09-27 2022-12-23 贵州省烟草公司六盘水市公司 Segmented moist tray seedling culture method for flue-cured tobacco greenhouse

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN114521479A (en) * 2022-03-14 2022-05-24 河南科技大学 Two-stage tobacco seedling raising method based on microbial growth promotion and air root arrangement
CN115500229A (en) * 2022-09-27 2022-12-23 贵州省烟草公司六盘水市公司 Segmented moist tray seedling culture method for flue-cured tobacco greenhouse

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