CN110612793A - Spray-seeding greening method for waste rock hill - Google Patents

Spray-seeding greening method for waste rock hill Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110612793A
CN110612793A CN201910925975.8A CN201910925975A CN110612793A CN 110612793 A CN110612793 A CN 110612793A CN 201910925975 A CN201910925975 A CN 201910925975A CN 110612793 A CN110612793 A CN 110612793A
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slope
parts
spray
seeding
thick
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孙二建
王红伟
赵阔
秦亚楠
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孙二建
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/23Wood, e.g. wood chips or sawdust
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/20Securing of slopes or inclines
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/20Securing of slopes or inclines
    • E02D17/202Securing of slopes or inclines with flexible securing means

Abstract

The invention provides a hillock spray-seeding greening method, which comprises the following steps: s1, treating the side slope of the waste rock hill; s2, fixing the hillock side slope; s3, preparing a thick-layer base material; s4, spray-seeding a thick-layer base material; s5, covering non-woven fabrics; s6, early-stage maintenance; and S7, performing later maintenance. According to the invention, the waste rock mountain slope body is treated, the slope stability is improved, the restoration growth of slope vegetation is accelerated, a thick-layer base material is sprayed on the slope, the thick-layer base material is tightly combined with the slope to form a matrix layer for plant growth and development, and the waste rock mountain can achieve a better greening effect in a shorter time; the method of the invention stabilizes the mountain of the gangue dump, prevents landslide, ensures that the vegetation has certain capacity of adsorbing pollutants after stable growth, reduces dust pollution, achieves good succession of the vegetation, reduces the ground temperature, and plays a role in regulating and controlling ecological balance to a certain extent in a mining area.

Description

Spray-seeding greening method for waste rock hill
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of slope ecological vegetation restoration, and particularly relates to a hillock spray-seeding greening method.
Background
The spray seeding technology originates from a manual broadcast seeding technology, mechanical facilities are added in the manual simulated aerial seeding process to form a manual backpack special spray seeding tool, and then the manual simulated aerial seeding is changed into mechanical simulated aerial seeding through transformation. Mechanical simulated air seeding is a new technical breakthrough on the basis of the traditional technology, has the advantages of labor saving, uniform seeding, time saving and seed saving, and brings higher requirements for the quality of ecological environment construction, so that the ecological protection technology of bare slopes, namely the vegetation spray seeding technology, is generated. The vegetation spray-seeding technology in China is introduced in 1995, at present, the domestic research on the spray-seeding technology mainly focuses on the fields of highway slope greening, urban landscape slope greening, mine slope greening and the like, but the research on the hillock slope greening is almost in a blank state.
The gangue dump is a place for intensively stacking waste materials in a coal mine, the gangue can be separated and stacked on one side when coal is mined, the gangue is accumulated into a dump in a long time, the gangue is a necessary product in the coal mining process, the gangue accumulated into the dump is one of main pollution sources of a mining area, great damage is caused to the ecological environment of the mining area and the periphery, the gangue dump spray-seeding greening is an effective way for reducing gangue pollution and improving the ecological environment of the mining area, the gangue dump pollution becomes a bottleneck problem restricting the development of the mine at present, and an organic unified method for the environmental benefit and the economic benefit suitable for the development of the mine is found. Therefore, the method for spray-seeding the waste hills for greening is a difficult problem to overcome in the coal mine industry.
According to the invention, a method suitable for spray-seeding greening of the waste rock hills is found out through analysis, research and judgment on the aspects of the components, the stacking condition, the stacking time and the like of the waste rock hills, and the waste rock hills are finally stabilized by spray-seeding greening to prevent landslide; in addition, the vegetation has certain pollutant adsorbing capacity after stable growth, dust pollution is reduced, vegetation reaches benign succession, ground temperature is reduced, and the vegetation plays a certain role in regulating and controlling ecological balance in a mining area.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a hillock spray-seeding greening method, which at least solves the problems of restoration of hillock vegetation, establishment of a stable plant ecosystem and effective solving of hillock pollution.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
a hillock spray-seeding greening method comprises the following steps:
s1, treating the side slope of the waste rock hill, removing large pumice and dangerous rocks on the slope surface of the waste rock hill, and finishing and flattening the slope surface of the waste rock hill; then building a berm on the slope body, and building a retaining wall at the position of the slope body close to the toe; then installing a spraying system and constructing a spray-seeding greening drainage water interception system on the hillside surface of the waste rock hill;
s2, fixing the hillock side slope: laying a wire netting on the hillside surface of the waste rock mountain, reinforcing the unstable side slope by using a plurality of anchor rods and a plurality of anchors, and fixing the wire netting on the slope surface;
s3, preparation of thick-layer base material: mixing a greening base material, planting soil, fibers and vegetation seeds to form a thick-layer base material mixture, adding water into the thick-layer base material mixture, and uniformly stirring to form a thick-layer base material;
s4, spray-seeding thick-layer base material: spraying the thick-layer base material to the hillock slope surface by adopting spray-seeding equipment;
s5, covering non-woven fabric: after the thick-layer base material is sprayed, covering non-woven fabrics on the upper part for preserving soil moisture, and creating an environment for rapid germination of seeds;
s6, early maintenance: spraying water above the thick-layer base material by adopting the spraying system before the ground is covered by the plants, keeping the thick-layer base material in a wet state, and carrying out early-stage maintenance on the thick-layer base material on the hillside surface of the gangue dump;
s7, later-stage maintenance: watering, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests after the plant germinates.
In the method for spray-seeding and greening the waste rock hill, the retaining wall in the step S1 is preferably a gravity retaining wall built by using rubbles and M10 cement mortar, wherein the thickness of the lower part of the retaining wall is 1.2-1.8M, the thickness of the upper part of the retaining wall is 0.65-0.85M, and the inner side of the retaining wall is upright.
Preferably, the spraying system in step S1 includes a water spraying pipe, a spraying bracket and a nozzle, the spraying bracket is communicated with the water spraying pipe, the nozzle is arranged on the upper portion of the spraying bracket, the water spraying pipe is installed and fixed on the trimmed and leveled slope of the waste rock hill, then the spraying bracket is installed, and finally the nozzle is installed.
In the method for spray-seeding and greening the waste rock hill, preferably, the spray-seeding and greening drainage intercepting system in step S1 includes an intercepting ditch and a drainage ditch, wherein the intercepting ditch is opened on the sidewalk and is close to the upper slope;
the drainage ditch comprises a transverse drainage ditch and a vertical drainage ditch, the transverse drainage ditch is arranged at the lower part of the side slope, a drainage system of the whole gangue dump is introduced into the outlet of the transverse drainage ditch, and the transverse drainage ditch is built by mortar-laid rubbles;
the vertical drainage ditch is arranged in the middle of the side slope and is connected with the intercepting ditch and the transverse drainage ditch, the vertical drainage ditch is step-shaped, a plurality of steps are made of grouted rubble, anti-sliding tables are arranged at the intervals of the steps, and the vertical drainage ditch is used for providing a channel for construction and maintenance;
preferably, the intercepting drain is assembled by precast blocks or cast in place by concrete, and cement mortar is used as a surface to ensure the longitudinal gradient of the bottom of the intercepting drain so as to smoothly drain water;
still preferably, the anti-slip table is arranged at a position spaced by 2m from the step.
According to the gangue dump spray-seeding greening method, preferably, the length of each anchor rod is 150-180 cm, and the longitudinal and transverse intervals among the plurality of anchor rods are 2 m;
more preferably, the anchor rod isThe deformed steel anchor rod.
In the method for spraying and planting the hillock for greening, preferably, the thick-layer substrate mixture in step S3 includes the following components in parts by weight: 40-60 parts of greening base material, 10-20 parts of planting soil, 2-8 parts of fiber and 0.5-2 parts of vegetation seeds.
In the method for spraying and planting the hillock for greening, preferably, the greening base material in the step S3 comprises organic matters, fertilizers, water-retaining agents, stabilizers, granulating agents, PH regulators and disinfectants;
more preferably, the greening base material comprises the following components in parts by weight: 30-45 parts of organic matter, 5-8 parts of fertilizer, 3-10 parts of water-retaining agent, 10-15 parts of stabilizer, 0.5-2 parts of granulating agent, 1-3 parts of pH value regulator and 0.2-1 part of disinfectant.
In the method for spraying and planting the hillock greening as described above, preferably, the organic matter in step S3 includes, but is not limited to, one or more of peat, sawdust, straw and chaff, and the organic matter is used for providing organic fertilizer and moisture retention for the greening substrate.
In the method for spraying and planting the hillock for greening as described above, preferably, the fertilizer in step S3 further includes bacterial fertilizer, quick-acting fertilizer and long-acting slow-release fertilizer, and the fertilizer is used for supplying various nutrients for plant growth.
Preferably, in the step S4, the spray-seeding thick-layer base material is sprayed twice on the base layer and the surface layer, the thickness of the base layer is 4-8 cm, and the thickness of the surface layer is 6-10 cm;
more preferably, the distance between the spray head of the spray-seeding equipment and the hillside surface of the gangue dump is 0.6-1.4 cm, and the spray angle between the spray head of the spray-seeding equipment and the hillside surface of the gangue dump is 45-60 degrees.
Compared with the closest prior art, the technical scheme provided by the invention has the following excellent effects:
the method for spray-seeding and greening the waste rock hills treats the hills of the waste rock hills, improves the stability of the side slopes and accelerates the restoration growth of vegetation on the slopes, and sprays thick-layer base materials on the slopes, the thick-layer base materials are tightly combined with the slopes under the action of pressure to form a matrix layer for the growth and development of plants, so that the waste rock hills can achieve a better greening effect in a shorter time; the method of the invention stabilizes the mountain of the gangue dump, prevents landslide, ensures that the vegetation has certain capacity of adsorbing pollutants after stable growth, reduces dust pollution, achieves good succession of the vegetation, reduces the ground temperature, and plays a role in regulating and controlling ecological balance to a certain extent in a mining area.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be described clearly and completely below, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments that can be derived by one of ordinary skill in the art from the embodiments given herein are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.
It should be noted that the embodiments and features of the embodiments may be combined with each other without conflict.
The invention provides a hillock spray-seeding greening method, which comprises the following steps:
s1, treating the side slope of the waste rock hill, removing large pumice and dangerous rocks on the slope surface of the waste rock hill, and finishing and flattening the slope surface of the waste rock hill; then building a berm on the slope body, and building a retaining wall at the position of the slope body close to the toe; and then installing a spraying system on the slope surface of the waste rock hill and building a spray-seeding greening drainage water interception system.
In the concrete embodiment of the invention, the retaining wall is a gravity retaining wall made of rubbles and M10 cement mortar, the thickness of the lower part of the retaining wall is 1.2-1.8M (such as 1.2M, 1.25M, 1.3M, 1.4M, 1.45M, 1.5M, 1.55M, 1.6M, 1.65M, 1.7M, 1.75M and 1.8M), the thickness of the upper part of the retaining wall is 0.65-0.85M (such as 0.65M, 0.68M, 0.7M, 0.72M, 0.75M, 0.77M, 0.78M, 0.8M, 0.82M and 0.85M), and the inner side of the retaining wall is upright. In the specific embodiment of the invention, the spraying system comprises a water spraying pipeline, a spraying bracket and a spray head, wherein the spraying bracket is communicated with the water spraying pipeline, the spray head is arranged at the upper part of the spraying bracket, the water spraying pipeline is arranged and fixed on the trimmed and leveled hillock slope surface, then the spraying bracket is arranged, and finally the spray head is arranged.
In the embodiment of the invention, the spray-seeding greening drainage intercepting system comprises an intercepting ditch and a drainage ditch, wherein the intercepting ditch is arranged on the pavement and is close to the upper side slope.
The drainage ditch comprises a transverse drainage ditch and a vertical drainage ditch, the transverse drainage ditch is arranged on the lower portion of the side slope, a drainage system of the whole gangue dump is introduced into the outlet of the transverse drainage ditch, and the transverse drainage ditch is built by mortar-laid rubble.
Vertical escape canal sets up in the middle of the side slope, and catch ditch and transverse drainage ditch are connected to vertical escape canal, and vertical escape canal is the step form, with a plurality of steps of stone sheet preparation of thick liquid, is equipped with at step interval position and prevents the slip table, and vertical escape canal is used for providing the passageway for construction and maintenance.
Preferably, the intercepting drain is assembled by precast blocks or cast in place by concrete, and cement mortar is used as a surface to ensure the longitudinal gradient of the bottom of the intercepting drain and ensure smooth drainage.
More preferably, the anti-slip table is provided at a position spaced by 2m from the step.
S2, fixing the hillock side slope: and laying a wire mesh on the slope surface of the waste rock hill, reinforcing the unstable slope by using a plurality of anchor rods and a plurality of anchors, and fixing the wire mesh on the slope surface.
In the specific embodiment of the invention, the length of each anchor rod is 150-180 cm (such as 150cm, 155cm, 160cm, 165cm, 170cm, 175cm and 180cm), and the longitudinal and transverse spacing between a plurality of anchor rods is 2 m.
Preferably, the anchor rod is(e.g. in the case of) The deformed steel anchor rod.
S3, preparation of thick-layer base material: mixing the greening base material, planting soil, fibers and vegetation seeds to form a thick-layer base material mixture, adding water into the thick-layer base material mixture, and uniformly stirring to form the thick-layer base material.
In the specific embodiment of the invention, the thick-layer base material comprises the following components in parts by weight: 40-60 parts (such as 40 parts, 42 parts, 44 parts, 46 parts, 48 parts, 50 parts, 52 parts, 54 parts, 56 parts, 58 parts and 60 parts) of greening base materials, 10-20 parts (such as 10 parts, 11 parts, 12 parts, 13 parts, 14 parts, 15 parts, 16 parts, 17 parts, 18 parts, 19 parts and 20 parts) of planting soil, 2-8 parts (such as 2 parts, 3 parts, 4 parts, 5 parts, 6 parts, 7 parts and 8 parts) of fibers and 0.5-2 parts (such as 0.5 part, 0.7 part, 0.9 part, 1.0 part, 1.2 parts, 1.4 parts, 1.6 parts, 1.8 parts and 2.0 parts) of vegetation seeds.
In the specific embodiment of the invention, the greening base material comprises organic matters, fertilizers, water-retaining agents, stabilizers, granulating agents, pH value regulators and disinfectants; the greening base material comprises the following components in parts by weight: 30 to 45 parts of organic matter (such as 30 parts, 32 parts, 34 parts, 36 parts, 38 parts, 40 parts, 42 parts, 44 parts, 45 parts), 5 to 8 parts of fertilizer (such as 5 parts, 5.2 parts, 5.5 parts, 5.8 parts, 6.0 parts, 6.2 parts, 6.5 parts, 6.8 parts, 7.0 parts, 7.2 parts, 7.5 parts, 7.8 parts, 8.0 parts), 3 to 10 parts (such as 3 parts, 3.5 parts, 4.0 parts, 4.5 parts, 5.0 parts, 5.5 parts, 6.0 parts, 6.5 parts, 7.0 parts, 7.5 parts, 8.0 parts, 8.5 parts, 9.0 parts, 9.5 parts, 10 parts), 10 to 15 parts of stabilizer (such as 10 parts, 10.5 parts, 11 parts, 11.5 parts, 12.5 parts, 13 parts, 13.0 parts, 9.5 parts, 10.5 parts, 10 parts, 1.0 part, 1.2 parts of pH value regulator (such as 1.2 parts), 1.2.2 parts, 1.0 part, 1.2 parts, 1.0 part, 1.5 parts, 1.0 part, 1.5 part, 1.0 part, 1, 2.4 parts, 2.6 parts, 2.8 parts and 3.0 parts), 0.2-1 part of disinfectant (such as 0.2 part, 0.3 part, 0.4 part, 0.5 part, 0.6 part, 0.7 part, 0.8 part, 0.9 part and 1.0 part).
In particular embodiments of the present invention, organic matter includes, but is not limited to, one or more of peat, sawdust, straw, and chaff, which is used to provide organic fertilizer and water retention and moisture retention to the greening substrate.
In a specific embodiment of the invention, the fertilizer also comprises bacterial fertilizer, quick-acting fertilizer and long-acting slow-release fertilizer, and the fertilizer is used for supplying various nutrients for plant growth.
In the specific embodiment of the invention, the planting soil is the ground surface planting soil of an engineering land, and the planting soil is crushed, dried in the air and then processed by a sieve; the inner diameter of the mesh of the screen is 120-200 meshes (such as 120 meshes, 130 meshes, 140 meshes, 150 meshes, 160 meshes, 170 meshes, 180 meshes, 190 meshes and 200 meshes).
In the embodiment of the invention, the fiber includes, but is not limited to, one or more of chaff, sawdust, straw, and tree branches, and the fiber is pulverized into 10-15 cm (such as 10cm, 11cm, 12cm, 13cm, 14cm, and 15cm) in length.
In a specific embodiment of the invention, the vegetation seeds are a mixture of seeds of trees, shrubs, vines, and grasses.
S4, spray-seeding thick-layer base material: and spraying the thick-layer base material to the hillock slope surface by adopting spray-seeding equipment.
In the embodiment of the invention, the spray-seeding thick-layer substrate is sprayed with the base layer and the surface layer twice, the thickness of the base layer is 4-8 cm (such as 4cm, 4.5cm, 5cm, 5.5cm, 6cm, 6.5cm, 7cm, 7.5cm and 8cm), and the thickness of the surface layer is 6-10 cm (such as 6cm, 6.5cm, 7cm, 7.5cm, 8cm, 8.5cm, 9cm, 9.5cm and 10 cm).
Preferably, the distance between the spray head of the spray seeding device and the slope surface is 0.6-1.4 cm (such as 0.6cm, 0.7cm, 0.8cm, 0.9cm, 1.0cm, 1.1cm, 1.2cm, 1.3cm and 1.4cm), and the spray angle between the spray head of the spray seeding device and the slope surface is 45-60 degrees (such as 45 degrees, 48 degrees, 50 degrees, 52 degrees, 55 degrees, 57 degrees and 60 degrees).
S5, covering non-woven fabric: after the thick-layer base material is sprayed, the upper part of the base material is covered with non-woven fabrics for preserving soil moisture, and an environment for rapid germination of seeds is created.
S6, early maintenance: and spraying water above the thick-layer base material by adopting a spraying system before the ground is covered by the plants, keeping the thick-layer base material in a wet state, and carrying out early-stage maintenance on the thick-layer base material on the slope surface of the waste rock hill.
S7, later-stage maintenance: watering, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests after the plant germinates.
Example 1
Test ranges are as follows: the test area of the northern slope of the mine waste hills of Dasha is about 30000 square meters.
Construction time: and (3) treating the side slope of the mine waste hills of the great society in 7 months, spraying and planting for greening after the climate is cooled in 8 months, and maintaining into a terrace in 11 months.
The specific embodiment aims at a plurality of plant growth limiting factors (such as large slope of gangue stacking, extreme lack of necessary nutrient elements for plants, dry air and little rain, and easy washing of loess vegetation by rainwater) existing in the gangue dump, and timely and effectively adjusts the engineering technology for vegetation restoration of the gangue dump, so that the vegetation restoration of the gangue dump can create a stable plant ecosystem according to the target of planning and design, the mine gangue dump of the university society finally achieves the effect of treatment, and the problem of environmental bottleneck, namely gangue dump pollution, in the development of the university society mine is effectively solved.
The spraying seeding greening method for the mine waste hills of the great society comprises the following steps:
s1, treating the side slope of the waste rock hills, wherein the slope of the waste rock hills is inappropriate, large pumice and dangerous rock on the slope surface of the waste rock hills need to be removed, then the steep and convex slope surface is trimmed to be basically flat, the slope gradient is controlled below a natural repose angle as much as possible, and the deep concave surface part is filled with mud bags and tamped.
And then constructing a packway on the slope, wherein the horizontal distance is already set due to the great limitation of the upper and lower spaces of the slope, if the horizontal distance of the slope is not enough, only a simple construction sidewalk can be constructed to avoid the influence on the stability and the greening effect of the slope, a retaining wall is constructed at the position of the gangue hill slope close to the slope toe, the retaining wall is a gravity retaining wall constructed by using rubbles and M10 cement mortar, the thickness of the lower part of the wall body of the retaining wall is 1.5 meters, the thickness of the upper part of the wall body of the retaining wall is 0.75 meter, and the inner side of the wall body is vertical.
The first leather stone block and the top leather stone block of the retaining wall are constructed by using larger flat rubbles, the first leather face is downward, the last leather face is upward, other leather blocks are staggered with canine teeth and are tightly overlapped, the upper and lower pieces of stones are staggered and overlapped, and no shovel opening and all the stones are arranged in the wall; the masonry height of the retaining wall is not more than 1.2m every day; when the rubble is built, the height of each rubble is controlled to be 300-400mm, and the mortar joint is controlled to be about 20-30 mm; every 0.7m2At least one piece of gallstone is arranged on the wall surface, the gallstones are uniformly distributed and staggered, the center distance in the same skin is not more than 2m, two pieces of gallstones are used for inside and outside lap joint in the retaining wall, the lap joint length is not less than 15cm, and one piece of gallstone is not less than 2/3 of the wall thickness; each retaining wall is built with 3-4 layers of height, and each layer height is leveled once; the thickness of the mortar joint of the exposed surface is not more than 40mm, and the gap between the two layered heights is not less than 80 mm.
Then installing a spraying system and constructing a spray-seeding greening drainage water interception system. In the specific embodiment of the invention, the spraying system comprises a water spraying pipeline, a spraying bracket and a spray head, wherein the spraying bracket is communicated with the water spraying pipeline, the spray head is arranged at the upper part of the spraying bracket, the water spraying pipeline is arranged and fixed on the trimmed and leveled hillock slope surface, then the spraying bracket is arranged, and finally the spray head is arranged. In the concrete embodiment of the invention, slope erosion and collapse are mostly induced by precipitation, slope runoff, seepage water and ice and snow freeze thawing, a side slope drainage design is made, which plays an important role in stabilizing a side slope and accelerating the recovery of slope vegetation, the spray-seeding greening drainage intercepting system comprises an intercepting ditch and a drainage ditch, the intercepting ditch is arranged on a berm and is close to an upper side slope, the intercepting ditch is assembled by precast blocks or cast in place by concrete, and cement mortar is used as a surface to ensure the longitudinal gradient at the bottom of the intercepting ditch, so that drainage is smooth.
The drainage ditch comprises a transverse drainage ditch and a vertical drainage ditch, the transverse drainage ditch is arranged on the lower portion of the side slope, a drainage system of the whole gangue dump is introduced into the outlet of the transverse drainage ditch, and the transverse drainage ditch is built by mortar-laid rubble.
Vertical escape canal is seted up in the middle of the side slope, and catch ditch and transverse drainage ditch are connected to vertical escape canal, and vertical escape canal is the form of marking time, with a plurality of steps of stone sheet preparation of thick liquid, is equipped with at step interval position and prevents the slip table, and vertical escape canal is used for providing the passageway for construction and maintenance.
Preferably, the step interval 2m is provided with a slip prevention step.
S2, fixing the hillock side slope: fixing the wire netting on a retaining wall on the top of a slope, after determining that the wire netting is firmly hung and transversely laid, drilling the wire netting on the retaining wall by using a pneumatic drill, longitudinally laying a second row, longitudinally tensioning, wherein the lap joint width is 10cm, paving the wire netting on the whole slope from top to bottom, placing the wire netting at the position of a thick-layer base material 2/3, reinforcing an unstable slope by using an anchor rod and an anchor nail, and fixing the wire netting on the slope.
In the embodiment of the invention, the wire mesh is galvanized wire mesh with mesh diameter of 50mm multiplied by 50mm, the diameter of the wire is 2mm, and the anchor rod isThe length of the anchor rod is 180cm, the end part of the anchor rod is bent into 90 degrees, the bending length is 10cm, the length of the exposed slope is 10cm, the longitudinal and transverse spacing between the anchor rods is 2m, and the anchor rods are arranged in a plum blossom shape.
S3, preparation of thick-layer base material: mixing the greening base material, planting soil, fibers and vegetation seeds to form a thick-layer base material mixture, adding water into the thick-layer base material mixture, and uniformly stirring to form the thick-layer base material.
In the specific embodiment of the invention, the thick-layer base material comprises the following components in parts by weight: 50 parts of greening base material, 15 parts of planting soil, 4 parts of fiber and 1 part of vegetation seed.
The greening base material comprises organic matters, fertilizers, water retention agents, stabilizers, granulating agents, pH value regulators and disinfectors; the greening base material comprises the following components in parts by weight: 40 parts of organic matter, 6 parts of fertilizer, 5 parts of water-retaining agent, 12 parts of stabilizing agent, 0.8 part of granulating agent, 1.8 parts of pH value regulator and 0.5 part of disinfectant.
The organic matters comprise one or more of peat, sawdust, straws and chaff, are used for improving the structure of a spraying greening base material mixture, provide organic fertilizers for plant growth and have the functions of water retention and moisture retention; the fertilizer also comprises bacterial fertilizer, quick-acting fertilizer and long-acting slow-release fertilizer which supply various nutrients for plant growth; the water retention agent is used for storing and slowly releasing a large amount of water required by plant growth; the stabilizer has the function of enabling the base material mixture sprayed to the slope surface to have certain strength and erosion resistance; the use of a granulating agent to facilitate further formation of the granular structure of the substrate mixture; the pH value regulator is used for regulating the pH value of the base material to make the base material neutral and slightly acidic; the disinfectant is used to kill harmful bacteria contained in the substrate.
The planting soil is the surface planting soil of an engineering land, and the planting soil is crushed, dried in the air and then processed by a sieve; the inside diameter of the mesh of the sieve is 150 meshes.
The fiber comprises one or more of chaff, sawdust, straw and tree branches, and is crushed into thin segments with the length of 12 cm.
The vegetation seeds are formed by mixing arbor, shrub, vine and grass seeds, and the plant seeds must contain grass seeds such as bermudagrass, tall fescue, amorpha fruticosa and the like, so that an ideal greening effect can be achieved in a short time.
S4, spray-seeding thick-layer base material: the improved concrete sprayer is used for spraying the uniformly stirred thick-layer base material mixture to the rock slope according to the designed thickness, and the purposes of slope protection and ecological environment improvement are achieved through mechanical reinforcement of vegetation root systems and hydrological effect of aboveground biomass. Spraying the base layer and the surface layer for two times by adopting spray-seeding equipment, wherein the thickness of the base layer is 5cm, and the thickness of the surface layer is 8 cm; in the specific embodiment of the invention, the distance between the spray head of the spray seeding equipment and the slope surface is 1.0cm, and the spray angle between the spray head of the spray seeding equipment and the slope surface is 50 degrees.
S5, covering non-woven fabric: after the surface layer is sprayed, the coating is 28g/m2The non-woven fabrics preserve soil moisture, create the environment that the seed sprouts fast, through a period of watering maintenance, green grass and bush will cover domaticly, take off the non-woven fabrics after a month, make luxuriant green grass and bush natural growth, the plant roots deepens the waste rock massif, the packing is wrong knot, can form the huge root system that has good protective properties, it reaches the domatic stable purpose of protection with wire netting, stock together effect.
S6, early maintenance: and spraying water above the thick-layer base material by adopting a spraying system before the ground is covered by the plants, keeping the thick-layer base material in a wet state, and carrying out early-stage maintenance on the thick-layer base material on the slope surface of the waste rock hill, wherein the early-stage maintenance is generally about 50 days.
S7, later-stage maintenance: watering, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests after the plant germinates.
Watering: watering every day in a germination period to keep the slope surface moist, watering a small amount of seedlings for multiple times before lignification, frequently keeping the surface of the base material moist, watering the seedlings thoroughly and sufficiently after lignification and root systems are formed in large quantity, watering the seedlings once before germination, watering the seedlings once again and watering the seedlings once in 12 months for sealing water to ensure normal growth and safe overwintering of the seedlings, and paying attention to the fact that the water is repeatedly sprayed for multiple times when watering one slope surface, and the water is firstly sprayed on one side of the slope surface to the other side in a moving mode, so that the seedlings are uniformly and thoroughly watered.
And (3) prevention and control of diseases and insect pests: the method comprises the following steps of (1) carrying out quarantine on introduced seeds to know the types and harm symptoms of diseases susceptible to tree species in a production area from the beginning of controlling the diseases from the seeds; when the seeds thrown on the slope surface are blended, the seeds are disinfected by using a pesticide and seed dressing, and before the trees germinate in spring, the slope surface nursery stocks are sprayed with green turning water for prevention for one time; the prevention and control of the plant diseases and insect pests should be carried out according to the principle of 'three early', namely early prevention, early discovery and early application, workers need to frequently check seedlings on the slope surface, measures are taken for prevention before the plant diseases and insect pests occur according to the climate change condition, and measures are taken for prevention when the plant diseases and insect pests occur too much.
In the experiment, the slope surface is emerald green in the current year, a small amount of flowers, plants and shrubs are arranged in the slope surface, and the slope surface is similar to an urban lawn; in the first year after the test, a small amount of herbaceous plants are naturally eliminated, plants around the slope surface begin to invade, a small amount of wild grass seeds fall into the slope surface, the slope surface is basically dark green, shrubs or trees are properly planted in late March to early April, and the shrubs and trees begin to grow; in the second year after the test, the slope surface begins to approach the natural state, the local plants gradually invade and compete with the foreign plants, and the slope surface forms a diverse plant community of grass, shrub and arbor without maintenance.
In conclusion, in the method for spray-seeding and greening the waste rock hills, the slope body of the waste rock hills is treated, the stability of the side slope is improved, the restoration growth of vegetation on the slope surface is accelerated, the thick-layer base material is sprayed on the slope surface, the thick-layer base material is tightly combined with the slope surface under the action of pressure to form a substrate layer for the growth and development of plants, and the waste rock hills can achieve a better greening effect in a shorter time; the spray-seeding greening method of the invention stabilizes the mountain of the gangue dump, prevents landslide, has certain pollutant adsorption capacity after vegetation grows stably, reduces dust pollution, achieves benign succession of vegetation, reduces ground temperature, and plays a role in regulating and controlling ecological balance to a certain extent in a mining area.
The above description is only exemplary of the invention and should not be taken as limiting the invention, as any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the invention is intended to be covered by the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. The spray-seeding greening method for the waste hills is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
s1, treating the side slope of the waste rock hill, removing large pumice and dangerous rocks on the slope surface of the waste rock hill, and finishing and flattening the slope surface of the waste rock hill; then building a berm on the slope body, and building a retaining wall at the position of the slope body close to the toe; then installing a spraying system and constructing a spray-seeding greening drainage water interception system on the hillside surface of the waste rock hill;
s2, fixing the hillock side slope: laying a wire netting on the hillside surface of the waste rock mountain, reinforcing the unstable side slope by using a plurality of anchor rods and a plurality of anchors, and fixing the wire netting on the slope surface;
s3, preparation of thick-layer base material: mixing a greening base material, planting soil, fibers and vegetation seeds to form a thick-layer base material mixture, adding water into the thick-layer base material mixture, and uniformly stirring to form a thick-layer base material;
s4, spray-seeding thick-layer base material: spraying the thick-layer base material to the hillock slope surface by adopting spray-seeding equipment;
s5, covering non-woven fabric: after the thick-layer base material is sprayed, covering non-woven fabrics on the upper part for preserving soil moisture, and creating an environment for rapid germination of seeds;
s6, early maintenance: spraying water above the thick-layer base material by adopting the spraying system before the ground is covered by the plants, keeping the thick-layer base material in a wet state, and carrying out early-stage maintenance on the thick-layer base material on the hillside surface of the gangue dump;
s7, later-stage maintenance: watering, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests after the plant germinates.
2. The method for spray-seeding and greening the waste rock hill of claim 1, wherein the retaining wall in step S1 is a gravity retaining wall built of rubble and M10 cement mortar, the retaining wall has a wall body with a lower thickness of 1.2 to 1.8M and an upper thickness of 0.65 to 0.85M, and the inner side is upright.
3. The method for spraying and greening the hillock of claim 1, wherein the spraying system in step S1 comprises a water spraying pipe, a spraying bracket and a nozzle, the spraying bracket is communicated with the water spraying pipe, the nozzle is arranged at the upper part of the spraying bracket, the water spraying pipe is installed and fixed on the leveled hillock slope, then the spraying bracket is installed, and finally the nozzle is installed.
4. The method for spray-seeding afforestation on hillock according to claim 1, wherein the spray-seeding afforestation drainage cut-off system in step S1 includes a cut-off trench and a drainage trench, the cut-off trench being opened on the berm, near the upper slope;
the drainage ditch comprises a transverse drainage ditch and a vertical drainage ditch, the transverse drainage ditch is arranged at the lower part of the side slope, an outlet of the transverse drainage ditch is led into a drainage system of the whole gangue dump, and the transverse drainage ditch is built by mortar-laid rubbles;
the vertical drainage ditch is arranged in the middle of the side slope and is connected with the intercepting ditch and the transverse drainage ditch, the vertical drainage ditch is step-shaped, a plurality of steps are made of grouted rubble, anti-sliding tables are arranged at the intervals of the steps, and the vertical drainage ditch is used for providing a channel for construction and maintenance;
preferably, the intercepting drain is assembled by precast blocks or cast in place by concrete, and cement mortar is used as a surface to ensure the longitudinal gradient of the bottom of the intercepting drain so as to smoothly drain water;
still preferably, the anti-slip table is arranged at a position spaced by 2m from the step.
5. The hillock spraying-seeding greening method of claim 1, wherein the length of the anchor rods is 150-180 cm, and the longitudinal and transverse spacing between a plurality of the anchor rods is 2 m;
preferably, the anchor rod isThe deformed steel anchor rod.
6. The hillock spraying-seeding greening method of claim 1, wherein the thick-layer substrate mixture in step S3 comprises the following components in parts by weight: 40-60 parts of greening base material, 10-20 parts of planting soil, 2-8 parts of fiber and 0.5-2 parts of vegetation seeds.
7. The method for spray-seeding afforestation on the hillock of claim 6, wherein the afforestation substrate in the step S3 comprises organic matters, fertilizers, water retention agents, stabilizers, granulating agents, PH regulators and disinfectants;
preferably, the greening base material comprises the following components in parts by weight: 30-45 parts of organic matter, 5-8 parts of fertilizer, 3-10 parts of water-retaining agent, 10-15 parts of stabilizer, 0.5-2 parts of granulating agent, 1-3 parts of pH value regulator and 0.2-1 part of disinfectant.
8. The method for spraying and greening the hillock of claim 7, wherein the organic matter in step S3 includes but is not limited to one or more of peat, sawdust, straw and chaff, and the organic matter is used for providing organic fertilizer and water retention and moisture retention to the greening substrate.
9. The method for spraying and greening the hillock of claim 7, wherein the fertilizer in step S3 further comprises bacterial fertilizer, quick-acting fertilizer and long-acting slow-release fertilizer, and the fertilizer is used for supplying various nutrients for plant growth.
10. The method for spray-seeding and greening the waste rock hills as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step S4, the spray-seeding thick-layer substrate is sprayed twice with a base layer and a surface layer, the thickness of the base layer is 4-8 cm, and the thickness of the surface layer is 6-10 cm;
preferably, the distance between the spray head of the spray-seeding equipment and the slope surface of the waste rock hill is 0.6-1.4 cm, and the spray angle between the spray head of the spray-seeding equipment and the slope surface of the waste rock hill is 45-60 degrees.
CN201910925975.8A 2019-09-27 2019-09-27 Spray-seeding greening method for waste rock hill Pending CN110612793A (en)

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