CN109627116A - Multifunctional biological fertilizer and its preparation method and application - Google Patents

Multifunctional biological fertilizer and its preparation method and application Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109627116A
CN109627116A CN201811524074.XA CN201811524074A CN109627116A CN 109627116 A CN109627116 A CN 109627116A CN 201811524074 A CN201811524074 A CN 201811524074A CN 109627116 A CN109627116 A CN 109627116A
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fertilizer
multifunctional biological
parts
biological fertilizer
multifunctional
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袁洁莉
田茂明
于晓龙
雷雄
潘波
袁登辉
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袁洁莉
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/02Cultivation of hops or vines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/35Bulbs; Alliums, e.g. onions or leeks
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/45Tobacco
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B17/00Other phosphatic fertilisers, e.g. soft rock phosphates, bone meal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • C05F17/05Treatments involving invertebrates, e.g. worms, flies or maggots
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/60Biocides or preservatives, e.g. disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides; Pest repellants or attractants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of multifunctional biological fertilizers and its preparation method and application.The present invention discloses a kind of multifunctional biological fertilizer, including following each component: straw, tailings of high silicon iron, ground phosphate rock, potash fertilizer, magnesium sulfate, grouts, fowl and animal excrement, borax, fly maggot mixture and microbial bacterial agent first.The present invention further discloses a kind of preparation methods of multifunctional biological fertilizer, comprising: be uniformly mixed after crushing straw with remaining each component, bank up carry out aerobic fermentation, squeeze granulation to get.The nutrient general equilibrium of multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention, fertilizer efficiency is high and fertilizer efficiency is lasting, and it is versatile, suitable for the Different Crop under different geographical, different soil, it can be improved the yield or quality of crop, and improve the community diversity and production performance on artificial pasture or natural regression meadow.

Description

Multifunctional biological fertilizer and its preparation method and application
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of multifunctional biological fertilizer, further relate to the multifunctional biological fertilizer preparation method and Its improve crop yield or in terms of application, belong to the preparation field of multifunctional biological fertilizer.
Background technique
Biological organic fertilizer by microorganisms with specific functions with harmless treatment, decomposed plant and animal residues (such as feces of livestock and poultry, Agricultural crop straw etc.) it is compound for the organic materials progress in source, have both microbial manure and organic fertilizer effect.Biological organic fertilizer Nutrient is complete, and a large amount of organic matter and microorganism, can influence Soil Microbiological Properties and organic carbon in biological organic fertilizer And its component, enhancing Soil Microorganism activity improve Water Soluble Organic Carbon content in soil.Application biological organic fertilizer can be reduced The use of chemical fertilizer, pesticide enhances crop anti-adversity, is improving the sides such as crop quality, activating soil nutrient, enhancing microbial activity There is irreplaceable role in face.However, existing biological organic fertilizer is poorly suitable for different geographical, different soils or difference mostly The defects of crop, that there are fertilizer efficiency is low, poor universality.
Therefore, the multifunctional biological fertilizer that a kind of fertilizer efficiency is high, fertilizer efficiency is lasting, versatile is developed, for solving agricultural Fertilising problem in plantation has important value.
Summary of the invention
First technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of multifunctional biological fertilizer, the multifunctional bio The nutrient general equilibrium of organic fertilizer, fertilizer efficiency is high, and fertilizer efficiency is lasting and versatile;
Second technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of preparation side of multifunctional biological fertilizer Method;
Third technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide the multifunctional biological fertilizer and makees produce in raising Amount and quality, and improve the application of the community diversity or production performance etc. on artificial pasture or natural regression meadow.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
The present invention discloses a kind of multifunctional biological fertilizer, including following each component: straw, high silicon iron tail first Mine, ground phosphate rock, potash fertilizer, magnesium sulfate, grouts, fowl and animal excrement, borax, fly maggot mixture and microbial bacterial agent.
The parts by weight of each component are as follows: 100 parts of straw, 3-5 parts of tailings of high silicon iron, 5-10 parts of ground phosphate rock, potash fertilizer 2-5 It is part, 5-10 parts of magnesium sulfate, 10-15 parts of grouts, 15-20 parts of fowl and animal excrement, 0.5-1 parts of borax, 30-50 parts of fly maggot mixture, micro- 0.1-0.3 parts of bacteria agent.
Wherein, the straw is dry straw, and should give money as a gift meter when with fresh plant stalk.The plant straw Stalk can be the various straws such as corn, wheat or rice, preferably Jujun grasses stalk.
Jujun grasses are the grass seeds of national popularizing planting, and primary plantation can gather in 20 years, 20~35 tons of year per mu yield.Jujun grasses Albumen and sugar content are very high, other nutrients needed for plant are also very comprehensive.
Silicon content>50% of the tailings of high silicon iron, granularity<0.2mm.Tailings of high silicon iron is iron ore by screening iron essence The remaining waste residue of ore belongs to environmental contaminants, and main component is silicon (SiO2), some silicon contents up to 75% or so (such as saddle Mountain), it is less to mix bioelement;Its silicone content and granularity all meet that the present invention claims can directly utilize.Tailings of high silicon iron cannot be direct It uses, it is necessary to by the biological decomposition process of aerobic fermentation.Element silicon is that most crops, especially gramineae plant are indispensable Element.Silicon and other elements act synergistically bad to soil also with improvement and repair.Tailings of high silicon iron of the present invention can To be substituted with silicon powder.
Phosphorus is one of a great number of elements needed for plant.Phosphorus content > 15% of ground phosphate rock of the present invention.Preferably, this hair The preparation of the bright ground phosphate rock includes: that rock phosphate powder is broken to greater than 50 mesh, that is, be can be used directly.This can both reduce P elements Cost, and saved phosphorus processing resources loss, not can also cause environmental pollution also.
Potassium is one of three big elements needed for plant.Potash fertilizer of the present invention is selected from potassium sulfate or potassium chloride, preferably sulphur Sour potassium.
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) share the meal grade, feed grade and technical grade, the preferred food-grade of the present invention.
Grouts are mainly used for supplementing vegetable protein.Grouts of the present invention are selected from rapeseed dregs, peanut meal, Soybean Meal, fiber crops of combing The dregs of rice or leached tea oil slag, preferably rapeseed dregs.
Fowl and animal excrement is other than itself being good plant nutrient source, primarily to the carbon-nitrogen rate of adjustment mixed material, Advantageous material completes fermentation.Fowl and animal excrement of the present invention is dry fowl and animal excrement, selected from pig manure, cow dung, sheep dung, goose excrement, Any one or a few mixture formed according to arbitrary proportion in duck excrement, chicken manure or rabbit excrement, preferably chicken manure.
Borax of the present invention is commercially available agricultural borax.Boron is the necessary microelement of plant, removes conduct in the present invention Nutrient addition is outer, it is often more important that, it under the synergistic effect of other elements, can activate it is other beneficial to member in soil Element accelerates the Depletion Rate of the expansion numerous proliferation and reduction microorganism of microorganism, to soil improvement, especially to the increasing of the soil organism Add and plays an important role.
Microbial bacterial agent of the present invention is made of saccharomycete, bacillus and Bacillus acidi lactici for main component compound Flora;It is mainly that the composite flora mainly formed can be suitable for the present invention by saccharomycete, bacillus and Bacillus acidi lactici;This The used composite flora of invention can also be commercially available by commercial sources can be suitably used for the present invention, for example, by ten thousand field of Hainan The product name of source Industrial Co., Ltd. production is the composite flora of " recombinant combined bacterium ".
The preparation of fly maggot mixture of the present invention includes: to cultivate fly maggot for the material containing organic matter as base-material, is rested Fish meal is added together with base-material in the fly maggot grown, be uniformly mixed to get.Wherein, by weight, the additional amount of the fish meal is 3%-5% of the fly maggot cultivated together with base-material total weight.The material containing organic matter is preferably kitchen garbage.By processing Kitchen garbage water content be 30%.As for the processing of kitchen garbage, belong to the common process of this field.
With treated kitchen garbage, (aqueous 30%) is base-material to the present invention, and every 1 ton of base-material can raise about in 7 days 200 kilograms of fresh fly maggots, and industrialization continuous production may be implemented.It is detected, in the base-material after supporting fly maggot, the content of organic matter is up to 70%, and containing other nutritional ingredients needed for many crops, but also contain harmful substance simultaneously, cannot be directly used to fertilizer or It abandons, it is necessary to it is available to again pass by biofermentation processing rear.The short of the growth cycle of fly maggot, the fast of the speed of growth are all elder brother Worm most, only needed from ovum to adult 7 days, weight can increase by more than 200 times.Fly maggot is up to 50% or more containing high protein, is insect In it is rare;It is also rich in chitin and antibacterial peptide, has medically been applied.The maximum cost of organic fertilizer is needed for plant The first a great number of elements-nitrogen, i.e. the acquirement of protein (conversion coefficient can be by 6.25).Protein is obtained with low cost raising fly maggot (i.e. nitrogen source) can produce high-grade multifunctional biological fertilizer with lower cost.Also, some substances in fly maggot (contain Unknown substance), the multi-functional of bio-organic fertilizer of the present invention is played an important role.The base-material of raising fly maggot takes model Enclose very wide, in addition to kitchen garbage, all waste materials containing more than organic matter adjust slightly all can serve as base-material, can reach phase Same effect.The present invention not only has vegetable protein in the selection of protein sources, and there are also the animal proteins of enough contents, including fits The aquatic animal albumen of amount.
The present invention further discloses a kind of preparation methods of multifunctional biological fertilizer, comprising the following steps: will Straw is uniformly mixed after crushing with remaining each component, banks up carry out aerobic fermentation, squeeze pelletize to get.Wherein, control is each The mixed total moisture content of component is 40%-50%;The time of the aerobic fermentation is 7-9 days;Period every 24 hours stirrings one It is secondary.
Multifunctional biological fertilizer prepared by the present invention, total nutrient >=6%, organic matter >=45%, living bacteria count >= 0.2 hundred million/gram, pH value 5.5-7.5, moisture content≤20%.
The invention also discloses the multifunctional biological fertilizers to improve the application in crop yield or quality.Wherein, The crop includes but is not limited to: in rice, tealeaves, tobacco, grape, Kiwi berry, ginger, cucumber, tomato, capsicum or garlic Any one or more.
Multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention is used on Rice Cropping, is only applied disposable fertilizer, is not being increased anyization In the case where fertilizer, increasing production of rice reaches 20%-30%, and produced rice quality is good.Multifunctional bio of the present invention is organic Fertilizer makees tealeaves fertilizer, and tealeaves is not only high-quality, but also increases production 25% or so on year-on-year basis.It compares, is not increasing with conventional tobacco special fertilizer In the case where adding with fertile cost, the tobacco leaf color planted using multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention is glossy, soft pile, Blade is long, volume increase about 30% or more.In addition, multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention grape, ginger, cucumber, tomato, Using in fertilizer test for the crops such as capsicum, achieves good effect.
The invention also discloses the multifunctional biological fertilizers in the group for improving artificial pasture or natural regression meadow Application in diversity or production performance.Wherein, the production performance includes: the yield and quality of herbage.
Multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention promotes species quantity in grassland plant communities, and especially edibility is herded Careless quantity increases, and improves the stability of grassland plant communities, so as to improve, slow down, prevent, or even reversed Steppe Plants group The degeneration fallen.
Multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention makes 2.5 times of Sown Pasture output increased, and herbage crude protein produces 58.33% and 71.27% (p < 0.05) has been respectively increased in amount and total phosphorus yield, significantly improves herbage quality.
Application effect of the multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention in heavy-degraded meadow (desertification) is also quite aobvious It writes, forage yield is 2.11 times of control group;In terms of herbage quality, multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention is not only shown The crude protein content and crude fat content for improving herbage are write, improves 62.24% and 22.73% than control respectively, and then improve Herbage total protein yield, and significantly reduce the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), it mentions The high palatability and digestibility of herbage.
Technical solution of the present invention compared with prior art, has the advantages that
Multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention has the advantage that (1) fertilizer efficiency height, be the three times of equal nutrients chemical fertilizer with On, the dosage of usage amount and chemical fertilizer very close to.(2) nutrient general equilibrium, completely without adding to fertilize in process of crop growth Or other fertilizer, it does not need more using hormones such as " swelling agents ", crop is the same to obtain stable and high yields.(3) fertilizer efficiency is lasting, raw It is long-term only to apply disposable fertilizer for 120 days rice;Chinese gooseberry plantation is conventional, and with fertilizer fertilising ten every year, several times, use is of the present invention Multifunctional biological fertilizer only applies fertilizer three times.(4) multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention has prevention and treatment soil pests, inhibits Soil-borne disease, the function that crop disease and insect is greatly decreased.(5) multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention have degradation agriculture it is residual, The function of improveing soil, enhance soil fertility.Multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention is used continuously after 3-5 years, soil substantially can Restore ecosystem.(6) versatility is extremely strong.Multifunctional biological fertilizer of the present invention is suitable for different geographical, different soils, no With under weather conditions, the different growing stages of Different Crop, solve the significant technology issues to apply fertilizer in agricultural planting.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the variation of forage yield;In each histogram, the histogram on the left side is application biological organic fertilizer of the present invention Histogram, the right are the histogram not applied fertilizer.
Fig. 2 is the variation of herbage quality;In each histogram, the histogram on the left side is application biological organic fertilizer of the present invention Histogram, the right are the histogram not applied fertilizer.
Specific embodiment
The invention will now be further described with reference to specific embodiments, the advantages and features of the present invention will be with description and It is apparent.It should be understood that described, examples are merely exemplary, does not constitute any restrictions to the scope of the present invention.This field Technical staff should be understood that without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention can details to technical solution of the present invention and Form is modified or is replaced, but these modifications or substitutions each fall within protection scope of the present invention.
The preparation of 1 multifunctional biological fertilizer of embodiment
1, the formula (by weight) of multifunctional biological fertilizer:
2, explanation raw materials used in formula:
(1) Jujun grasses: the albumen and sugar content of Jujun grasses are all very high, other nutrients needed for plant are also very comprehensive (table 1).
1 Jujun grasses main component table of table
(2) tailings of high silicon iron is iron ore by the screening remaining waste residue of iron ore concentrate stone, belongs to environmental contaminants, no radiation Contact scar, main component are silicon (SiO2), it is less to mix bioelement for some silicon contents up to 75% or so (such as Anshan).Its silicon Content and granularity all meet that the present invention claims can directly utilize.
(3) ground phosphate rock: rock phosphate in powder is crushed to after being greater than 50 mesh can be used directly.
(4) potash fertilizer: for potassium sulfate.
(5) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): commercially available commodity are food-grade.
(6) grouts: being mainly used for supplementing vegetable protein, is rapeseed dregs.
(7) dried poultrymanure: this material is other than itself is good plant nutrient source, primarily to adjustment mixture The advantageous material of the carbon-nitrogen rate of material completes fermentation.
(8) borax: refer to commercially available agricultural borax.
(9) fly maggot mixture: after kitchen garbage after treatment is cultivated fly maggot as base-material, the fly maggot that will cultivate Together with base-material, and the fish meal (aquatic animal albumen) by weight 3% is added after mixing as the material of raw material.
The processing of kitchen garbage has mature technique.With treated kitchen garbage, (aqueous 30%) is the present invention Base-material, every 1 ton of base-material can raise about 200 kilograms of fresh fly maggots in 7 days, and industrialization continuous production may be implemented.Through detecting, In base-material after supporting fly maggot, the content of organic matter is up to 70%, and containing other nutritional ingredients needed for many crops, but simultaneously again Also contain harmful substance, cannot be directly used to fertilizer or discarding, it is necessary to it is available to again pass by biofermentation processing rear.
(10) microbial bacterial agent: being the composite flora that main component forms by saccharomycete, bacillus and Bacillus acidi lactici, can Think commercially available " the recombinant combined bacterium " produced by Hainan Wan Tianyuan Industrial Co., Ltd..
3, preparation process:
The above material is uniformly mixed to and is made its total moisture content 40%, aerobic fermentation is banked up 7 days and (turned within period every 24 hours Material is primary) after, after squeezing granulation quantitative package to get.It detects: total nutrient >=6%, organic matter >=45%, effective viable bacteria >=0.2 hundred million/gram of number, pH value: 5.5~7.5, moisture content≤20%.
The preparation of 2 multifunctional biological fertilizer of embodiment
1, the formula (by weight) of multifunctional bio-organic fertilizer:
2, explanation raw materials used in formula:
(1) potash fertilizer is potassium chloride;
(2) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): commercially available commodity are feed grade;
(3) grouts are peanut meal;
(4) fly maggot mixture: after kitchen garbage (water content about 30%) after treatment is cultivated fly maggot as base-material, By the fly maggot cultivated together with base-material, and addition is made after mixing by weight 5% fish meal (aquatic animal albumen) For the material of raw material.
Other raw materials are the same as embodiment 1 used in formula.
3, preparation process:
The above material is uniformly mixed to and is made its total moisture content 50%, aerobic fermentation is banked up 9 days and (turned within period every 24 hours Material is primary) after, after squeezing granulation quantitative package to get.It detects: total nutrient >=6%, organic matter >=45%, effective viable bacteria >=0.2 hundred million/gram of number, pH value: 5.5~7.5, moisture content≤20%.
The preparation of 3 multifunctional biological fertilizer of embodiment
1, the formula (by weight) of multifunctional bio-organic fertilizer:
2, explanation raw materials used in formula:
(1) potash fertilizer is potassium sulfate;
(2) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): commercially available commodity are technical grade;
(3) grouts are Soybean Meal;
(4) fly maggot mixture: after being used as base-material to cultivate fly maggot kitchen garbage (water content about 30%) after treatment, By the fly maggot cultivated together with base-material, and addition is made after mixing by weight 4% fish meal (aquatic animal albumen) For the material of raw material.
Other raw materials are the same as embodiment 1 used in formula.
3, preparation process:
The above material is uniformly mixed to and is made its total moisture content 45%, aerobic fermentation is banked up 8 days and (turned within period every 24 hours Material is primary) after, after squeezing granulation quantitative package to get.It detects: total nutrient >=6%, organic matter >=45%, effective viable bacteria >=0.2 hundred million/gram of number, pH value: 5.5~7.5, moisture content≤20%.
1 multifunctional biological fertilizer of test example is to artificial pasture and natural regression Grassland Communities diversity and production performance It influences
1, background is investigated
1.1 research area's overviews
Experimental field 1 (W) is located at the Sichuan Province Aba Prefecture Hongyuan County town Wa Qie Tang cooperative society, and 42 kilometers away from county town.The region Mean sea level 3500m belongs to continental Plateau Cold monsoon climate of medium latitudes, and year-round average temperature is 1.1 DEG C, and >=10 DEG C of annual accumutions are only 865 DEG C, extreme temperature range is -33.8~23.5 DEG C, without absolute frost-free period.Average of the whole year rainfall 738mm, relative humidity 71%, soil pH 6.6 is alpine meadow soil.Because for a long time herd or mechanized operation caused by the meadow slightly degenerate, specific table It is existing are as follows: vegetation is short (average height < 50cm), and edible herbage is reduced, and malicious weeds are increased.
Experimental field 2 (R) are located at the Ruoergai country village Ah Xixiang A Xi (natural meadow-heavy-degraded).It is located in Ruoergai country north Portion, 37 kilometers away from county town, 3515 meters of mean sea level, -3 DEG C of average temperature of the whole year, without absolute frost-free period.The region belongs to plateau cool temperature zone Wet monsoon climate, throughout the year without the summer.Because of natural causes such as local climates and the human factors such as overgraze, causes this area meadow It degenerates serious, specific manifestation are as follows: plant cover degree reduces, colony number is reduced, soil desertification is serious, belongs to heavy-degraded meadow.
1.2 materials to be tested and test process
Multifunctional biological fertilizer prepared by material to be tested-embodiment of the present invention 1, (needing nutrition composition).In May, 2018 In Grassland Herbage tiller-jointing stage, with 4500kg/hm2The dose of (300kg/ mus) is uniformly spread fertilizer over the fields in W and R respectively.Fertilising Afterwards, it implements outside fencing, does not do any processing.
1.3 meadow investigation methods
Grassland Communities and productivity evaluation are carried out using quadrat method, the sampling time is in August, 2018.W and R experimental field In, 30m × 30m natural meadow group is randomly choosed at 2 respectively for research sample, and is respectively designated as W1(fertilising) and W0It (does not apply Fertilizer) and R1(fertilising) and R0(not applying fertilizer), and randomly choose 3 0.5m × 0.5m in 4 sample ground respectively and investigate sample prescription, Basic condition is shown in Table 2.
2 sample of table ground basic condition
Plant height: in sample prescription, 5 plants of sociales herbage plant is chosen respectively, its absolute plant height (except awns) is measured, is with cm Unit retains a decimal.
Cover degree, density: ocular estimate is used, is placed in meadow with the grid that filament is separated into 10cm × 10cm in sample prescription On, the number of squares that hat projection occupies, which is planted, by different plants counts cover degree.
Frequency: it is thrown at random 20 times in investigation sample ground using the sample circle of diameter 35.6cm, counts every kind of plant in each sample Then the number occurred in ground calculates each and plants the percentage in group.
Green forage yield: a little higher than ground cradles aerial part in sample prescription, claims its fresh weight with the scale of sensibility reciprocal 0.1kg, then It takes back laboratory and claims its dry weight as 0.5h is finished in 105 DEG C of baking ovens with 70 DEG C of constant temperature dryings to constant weight, retain 2 decimals.
Nutritional ingredient (CP, ADF, NDF) measurement: cradling and survey postpartum, takes 3~5 careless sample mixing equal at random from each cell It is even, it takes about 200g to be cut into 3cm~4cm and is placed in baking oven, 105 DEG C of water-removing 30min, then be adjusted to 65 DEG C and dry to constant weight as nutrient survey Random sample product.Crude protein (CP) is measured according to GB6432;Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) are fine using Fan Shi Tie up measuring method measurement.
1.4 data process&analysis
Arrangement and mean value computation are carried out to data using Microsoft Office Excel software, using SPSS 17.0 To various kinds the indexs such as the height, density, cover degree, biodiversity index of group, Productivity carry out variance analysis to software (ANOVA), (T inspection) is statisticallyd analyze, is mapped using 10.0 software of Sigmaplot.
Grassland Communities bio-diversity analysis using Margalef diversity index, Simpson diversity indices, 4 kinds of indexes such as Pielou evenness index and Cody index carry out analytical calculation, and species number, importance value and 4 species diversities refer to Number calculation formula is as follows:
(1) species number: S
(2) species validation: P i=(RH+RC+RD)/3
In formula, RH is relative altitude, and RC is relative coverage, and RD is relative frequency, and P i is species validation.
Animal number uses sheep unit (the sheep unit/hm of unit area meadow carrying in artificial pasture2) indicate.
2, investigation result
2.1 Grassland Communities species compositions and importance value variation
Studies have shown that group's composition is abundanter, then the group is more stable, and the size of the important value of group then shows this Whether species have the advantage status in group forms.As shown in Table 3, between different disposal and between different grassland types There are larger differences for phytobiocoenose species composition and importance value.In artificial pasture: the W of meadow1(fertilizer treatment) species number (S) At most, up to 12 kinds, and mainly using grass family as sociales, importance value has 2 kinds greater than 15, and vertical fringe respectively gramineous drapes over one's shoulders alkali Careless (Elymus nutans) importance value (Pi) is 24.56 and siberian wildrye (Elymus sibiricus) Pi value is 23.57, heavy The sum of it is worth the half of nearly group's importance value, is co-dominant variety.And meadow W0(not applying fertilizer) species number is relatively fewer, is 7 kinds, and with the poor hairgrass of nutritional quality (Deschampsia caespitosa (Linn.) Beauv.) Pi value for 25.41 Hes Grass (Koeleria asiatica Domin) Pi value 17.72 be in harmony for co-dominant variety.
In natural meadow: the R of meadow1(fertilising) species number is 12 kinds, adheres to grass family, composite family, pulse family etc., importance value separately Plant greater than 15 has 2 kinds, and Elymus nutans (Elymus nutans) Pi respectively gramineous is 16.42 and Zhong Bincao (Grenus Kengyilia) Pi is 27.75, wherein using the latter as absolute predominance kind.And meadow R0(not applying fertilizer) species number phase It is 6 kinds to less, and bad careless (Leymus secalinus (Georgi) Tzvel) Pi value poor with nutritional quality, low output It is co-dominant variety for 15.38 and Carex praeclara (Carex praeclara Nelmes) Pi value 16.37.
3 meadow species composition of table and its importance value (Pi)
2.2 grassland plant communities changing features
In phytobiocoenose investigation, the indexs such as plant height, frequency, cover degree of species are to show the important indicator of COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS. As shown in table 4, in artificial pasture: the W of meadow1Plant height, frequency and the cover degree of lyme grass are respectively 113.33cm, 100% and 71.33% significant (p < 0.05) is higher than other species.The average height and rush of group can be significantly improved by spreading fertilizer over the fields biological organic fertilizer Into the growth of edibility herbage;And the W for not applying fertilizer0Its edibility herbage is not only remote in species plant height, frequency and cover degree Far below W1, the herbage that the nutritive values such as hairgrass, Da grass, milkywhite pearleverlasting herb, throatroot are low, cattle and sheep are not fond of is promoted instead Growth.
In natural meadow, fertilising with not only promoting sample W1Edibility herbage such as lyme grass, annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.), the herbages such as Zhong Bincao type significant (p < 0.05) increases, and also adds the planting of other species.Its all species is flat The sum of equal cover degree up to 127%, the sum of average frequency 705% are poor respectively according to group (not applying fertilizer) increase by 118.97% and 41% Different significant (p < 0.05);And it is slightly improved in terms of group's plant height but difference is not significant (p > 0.05).
4 grassland plant communities feature of table
2.3 forage yields and animal number change
Forage yield is one of the important indicator for evaluating Grassland Quality.As shown in Figure 1, biological organic is spread fertilizer over the fields in artificial pasture Fertilizer is capable of green forage yield and the hay yield on the increase meadow of extremely significant (p < 0.01).Watt testing site (artificial pasture) is being cut, spread Applying biological organic fertilizer can make meadow green forage yield and hay yield be up to 3326.2kg/ mus and 950.34kg/ mus respectively, be control 2.5 times of group;In Ah's Xixiang desertification (natural meadow-heavy-degraded) of Ruoergai, spread fertilizer over the fields biological organic fertilizer also achieve it is aobvious The effect of work, the green forage yield of processing group and hay yield relatively increase by 111.17% according to group.
The variation of 2.4 Forage Nutrition Qualities
As shown in Figure 2, biological organic fertilizer can be improved Forage Nutrition Quality.It watt is cutting testing site (artificial pasture), is handling The crude protein content (14.57g/100g) and total phosphorus content (2.1g/kg) of group improve 58.33% and 71.27% than control group, Significant difference (p < 0.05);Crude fat content improves 5.82% than control group, but difference is not significant (p > 0.05).
In Ah's Xixiang desertification testing site of Ruoergai, compared with the control, biological organic fertilizer significantly improves the thick of herbage Protein content (15.9g/100g) and crude fat content (27g/100g) are higher by 62.24% and 22.73% than compareing respectively;Significantly The content of neutral detergent fiber (48.7%) and acid detergent fiber (35.2%) is reduced, is reduced respectively than control 23.64% and 19.96%, improve herbage quality.
2 multifunctional biological fertilizer of test example is used for Rice Cropping
In Xichang City, Sichuan Province in fertilizer test, 700 mu of rice are had using multifunctional bio prepared by the embodiment of the present invention 1 Machine fertilizer, only applies disposable fertilizer, about 100 kilograms per acre, in the case where not increasing any chemical fertilizer, generally increases production 20% -30%, no By 1500 jin of per mu yield or so volume increase to more than 2000 jin per acre, produced rice quality is good for few peasant household, and price is high, realizes profit and turns over Kind.
3 multifunctional biological fertilizer of test example is used for Tea planting
In Sichuan Province, the rice Cangshan, Wangcang County, Tea Group makees the fertile comparative test of tealeaves, is prepared using the embodiment of the present invention 2 Multifunctional biological fertilizer 200 mu of tealeaves, it is not only high-quality, and on year-on-year basis increase production 25% or so.
4 multifunctional biological fertilizer of test example is used for tobacco planting
Yunnan tobacco research institute and Luzhou City company, tobacco company, Sichuan Province, the more function prepared using the embodiment of the present invention 3 Energy biological organic fertilizer is compared with conventional tobacco special fertilizer, multi-functional using the present invention in the case where not increasing with fertile cost The year-on-year color of tobacco leaf of biological organic fertilizer plantation is glossy, and soft pile, blade is long, volume increase about 30% or more.
5 multifunctional biological fertilizer of test example is used for planting garlic
There is disease in winter in 2015,1.5 ten thousand mu of Sichuan Province, the town Jian Di, Shifang City garlic: garlic bolt atrophy, more long smaller, have The withered root-rot of leaf, various pesticide treatments are invalid.The multifunctional biological fertilizer prepared using the embodiment of the present invention 1, per acre dosage 40 Kilogram, be watered dissolved dilution pour apply after 10 days or so, long new root young leaves, garlic have obtained good treatment to garlic again.
6 multifunctional biological fertilizer of test example is applied to orchard
The embodiment of the present invention is used continuously in 200 mu of orchards in Wenchang City East Road town in Hainan Wan Tianyuan Industrial Co., Ltd. More than 3 years, the earthworm mass propagation loseed for a long time in soil, frog, cricket are seen everywhere the multifunctional biological fertilizer of 2 preparations, Soil property is soft, and soil items physics and chemistry, which refers to, reaches kilter.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of multifunctional biological fertilizer, which is characterized in that including following each component: straw, tailings of high silicon iron, phosphorus ore Powder, potash fertilizer, magnesium sulfate, grouts, fowl and animal excrement, borax, fly maggot mixture and microbial bacterial agent.
2. multifunctional biological fertilizer described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that the parts by weight of each component are as follows: plant straw 100 parts of stalk, 3-5 parts of tailings of high silicon iron, 5-10 parts of ground phosphate rock, 2-5 parts of potash fertilizer, 5-10 parts of magnesium sulfate, 10-15 parts of grouts, poultry 15-20 parts of excrement, 0.5-1 parts of borax, 30-50 parts of fly maggot mixture, 0.1-0.3 parts of microbial bacterial agent.
3. multifunctional biological fertilizer described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: the straw is Jujun grasses straw Stalk;
Silicon content>50% of the tailings of high silicon iron, granularity<0.2mm;
Phosphorus content > 15% of the ground phosphate rock;Preferably, the preparation of the ground phosphate rock includes: that rock phosphate powder is broken to greater than 50 Mesh to get.
4. multifunctional biological fertilizer described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: the potash fertilizer is selected from potassium sulfate or chlorination Potassium, preferably potassium sulfate;
The grouts are selected from rapeseed dregs, peanut meal, Soybean Meal, castor cake or leached tea oil slag, preferably rapeseed dregs;
The fowl and animal excrement be pig manure, cow dung, sheep dung, goose excrement, duck excrement, chicken manure or rabbit excrement in any one or a few according to appoint The mixture of meaning ratio composition, preferably chicken manure;
The main component of the microbial bacterial agent is: saccharomycete, bacillus and Bacillus acidi lactici.
5. multifunctional biological fertilizer described in accordance with the claim 1, which is characterized in that the preparation packet of the fly maggot mixture It includes: cultivating fly maggot for the material containing organic matter as base-material, by the fly maggot cultivated together with base-material, fish meal is added, is uniformly mixed, To obtain the final product;
Wherein, the material containing organic matter is preferably kitchen garbage;
By weight, the additional amount of the fish meal is 3%-5%.
6. a kind of preparation method of claim 1 to 5 any one multifunctional biological fertilizer, which is characterized in that including Following steps: being uniformly mixed after straw is crushed with remaining each component, banks up carry out aerobic fermentation, squeeze granulation to get.
7. preparation method according to claim 6, it is characterised in that: controlling the mixed total moisture content of each component is 40%-50%;
The time of the aerobic fermentation is 7-9 days;Period, every 24 hours stirrings were primary.
8. application of claim 1 to the 5 any one multifunctional biological fertilizer in the yield or quality for improving crop.
9. applying according to claim 8, which is characterized in that the crop includes: rice, tealeaves, tobacco, grape, more Any one or more in monkey peach, ginger, cucumber, tomato, capsicum or garlic.
10. claim 1 to the 5 any one multifunctional biological fertilizer is improving artificial pasture or natural regression meadow Application in community diversity or production performance;
Wherein, the production performance includes: the yield and quality of herbage.
CN201811524074.XA 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 Multifunctional biological fertilizer and its preparation method and application Pending CN109627116A (en)

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