CN107980368B - Straw mulching land no-tillage clean area seeder suitable for wide-narrow row planting of corn - Google Patents

Straw mulching land no-tillage clean area seeder suitable for wide-narrow row planting of corn Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107980368B
CN107980368B CN201711161716.XA CN201711161716A CN107980368B CN 107980368 B CN107980368 B CN 107980368B CN 201711161716 A CN201711161716 A CN 201711161716A CN 107980368 B CN107980368 B CN 107980368B
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straw
auger
wide
corn
fertilizing
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CN107980368A (en
Inventor
陈有庆
胡志超
吴峰
顾峰玮
王公仆
徐弘博
王伯凯
刘敏基
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Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture
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Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization Ministry of Agriculture
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01FPROCESSING OF HARVESTED PRODUCE; HAY OR STRAW PRESSES; DEVICES FOR STORING AGRICULTURAL OR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE
    • A01F29/00Cutting apparatus specially adapted for cutting hay, straw or the like
    • A01F29/01Cutting apparatus specially adapted for cutting hay, straw or the like specially adapted for being mounted on or drawn by a tractor, e.g. field choppers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C7/00Sowing
    • A01C7/06Seeders combined with fertilising apparatus
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01FPROCESSING OF HARVESTED PRODUCE; HAY OR STRAW PRESSES; DEVICES FOR STORING AGRICULTURAL OR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE
    • A01F29/00Cutting apparatus specially adapted for cutting hay, straw or the like
    • A01F29/09Details
    • A01F29/12Discharge means

Abstract

The invention relates to a fertilizing and seeding machine in agricultural machinery, in particular to a straw-covered land no-tillage clean area seeding machine suitable for wide and narrow row planting of corn.A straw pick-up mechanism (6) driven by a rear power output shaft of a tractor, a parallel rear auger (7) and an auger shell (8) which is wrapped at the bottom and the back of the auger (7) and is in a circular arc shape are arranged at the front part in a rack (12), a straw discharge port (11) is formed in the middle part of the auger shell (8), and the auger (7) pushes the straw from two sides to the middle; the fertilizing and seeding device; the fertilizer box (3) and the seed box (2) are arranged at the front and the back, the fertilizer discharger (13) and the fertilizer shovel (9) are arranged at the lower part of the fertilizer box (3), the ground wheel (1) is arranged at the lower part of the seed box (2) to drive the seed sowing device (14) and the fertilizer discharger (13), and the ground wheel (1) presses the fertilizer and the seeds after fertilization and sowing. The pick-up mechanism picks up and crushes all straws above the ground surface, conveys the straws to the middle of the screw conveyer and discharges the straws to the ground surface through the straw discharge port (11), the straws fall between wide rows of corns, and the fertilizing and seeding furrow opener works on soil without straw coverage, and has higher economical efficiency and operating efficiency.

Description

Straw mulching land no-tillage clean area seeder suitable for wide-narrow row planting of corn
Technical Field
The invention relates to a fertilizing and seeding machine in agricultural machinery, in particular to a no-tillage clean area seeding machine which needs wide and narrow rows to plant corns in a farmland with residual previous stubbles of straws after crops and corns are harvested.
Background
In northeast areas such as Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang and the like, the harvesting time of common corns is more than 10 months, the corn straws are mostly dried up during harvesting, the use value of the straws after being moved out of the feed is obviously reduced compared with that of green corns, and the labor and mechanical investment cost for moving out the corn straws is high, so local farmers generally do not want to move out the corn straws, and hope to directly return the whole amount of the corn straws to the field for fertilizer application. The corn straws are not removed, and obstacles are created for seeding the next-year corn, so that the problems of grass hanging, blockage, seed erecting, seed airing and the like in the operation process of the seeding machine are easily caused, and the seeding efficiency and the seeding quality are seriously influenced.
The invention relates to a multifunctional machine set for crushing straws, clearing straws, fertilizing, sowing and covering straws, which has the following patent numbers: ZL201210397462.2 solves the technical problems of grass hanging, blockage, seed erecting and seed airing which are easily caused during no-tillage seeding operation of a full straw covered land, and improves the operation levels of straw smashing, straw clearing, fertilizer application, seeding and straw mulching.
However, due to the fact that wide-narrow row planting is beneficial to crop ventilation and lighting, crop yield is improved, in recent years, corn wide-narrow row planting is being vigorously developed in cold and cool areas such as Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang in China to replace the traditional equal-row-spacing planting mode, but no proper seeding machine is available so far to complete corn wide-narrow row seeding operation with low power consumption, smoothness and high quality under the working condition of full corn straw coverage and field returning. The invention patent of a multifunctional unit for straw crushing, straw clearing, fertilizer application, seeding and straw covering is demonstrated and applied in Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang and the like, although smooth operation can be realized, the straws need to be uniformly thrown out through a blade type throwing structure, only the item consumes about 30% of the power consumption of the whole machine, meanwhile, the impeller type throwing structure is easy to block due to soil mixed in the straws or overlarge amount of the straws, the smoothness of the whole machine operation is influenced, the problems of large power consumption and low efficiency exist, the popularization and the use of the wide-narrow row planting technology of the corns are influenced, and a mechanical appliance meeting the requirements is urgently required in the market.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the problems of economy and efficiency in the prior art, and provides a straw smashing, straw clearing, fertilizing and seeding machine which is suitable for wide-narrow row planting areas of corn, does not need to clean ridges manually, and can return the whole amount of corn straws to field for fertilizer application.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme.
The utility model provides a straw mulching land no-tillage clean area seeder suitable for maize wide narrow row is planted which characterized in that: the no-tillage clean area seeder comprises two main components, namely a straw cleaning device at the front part and a fertilizing and seeding device at the rear part;
the straw cleaning device; the front part in the frame is provided with a straw pick-up mechanism driven by a tractor rear power output shaft (PTO), a parallel rear auger and an auger shell which is wrapped at the bottom and the back of the auger and is in a circular arc shape, the middle part of the auger shell is provided with a straw discharge port with a downward direction, the unfolded shape of the straw discharge port is rectangular, the spiral directions of the left section and the right section of the auger are opposite, and crushed straws are pushed to the middle part from two sides;
the fertilizing and seeding device; the fertilizer box and the seed box are arranged in front of and behind the seed box, the fertilizer discharger and the fertilizer shovel are arranged at the lower part of the fertilizer box, the seed sowing device and the land wheel are arranged at the lower part of the seed box, the land wheel driving seed sowing device and the fertilizer discharger are arranged below the rear part of the seed box, and the function of compacting after sowing is achieved.
Furthermore, two pull plates are arranged on two side edges of the rectangular straw discharging port and fixed by bolts, so that the width of the rectangular straw discharging port can be changed.
Furthermore, pull plates capable of changing the width of the straw discharging port in a pulling mode towards two sides are arranged on two sides of the rectangular straw discharging port.
Furthermore, the width of the rectangular straw discharging port can be changed within the range of 40-60 cm.
Further, the straw pickup mechanism has the structure that: set up the horizontal rotation arbor, radially dispose many garrulous straw knives on the arbor, many garrulous straw knives arrange on the arbor with the helix mode, and the direction of rotation of garrulous straw knife is opposite with the direction of rotation of tractor wheel, is a horizontal screw feeder behind garrulous straw knife.
Furthermore, the straw cleaning device is connected with a tractor through a front three-point suspension, is connected with the fertilizing and seeding device through a rear three-point suspension, an upper pull rod of the rear three-point suspension is of a length-adjustable structure, and the fertilizing and seeding device is an integrated machine assembled on a rear rack for fertilizing and seeding.
The patent proposes a concept of 'sowing in clean areas', i.e. the components of the soil-working operations such as fertilizing, sowing, etc. work in 'clean' areas without straw coverage and influence.
According to the technical scheme, the power output shaft of the tractor provides power for the rotating cutter shaft of the straw smashing and cleaning machine in the straw cleaning device at the front part and the horizontal auger, and the fertilizing and seeding device at the rear part is pulled to realize fertilizing and seeding operations.
According to the wide rows of the corn wide-narrow row planting ridges, the width of a rectangular straw discharging port formed in the middle of the shell of a corresponding auger is configured, the auger pushes crushed straws from two sides to the middle by a spiral push plate, the crushed straws are discharged downwards from the straw discharging port to cover a straw laying area with wide rows in the middle, and the seeding of a no-tillage area of a full-straw covered land planted in the wide and narrow rows of the corn is completed.
The invention has the beneficial effects that by introducing the operation process, the invention provides a more economic and suitable improvement scheme aiming at the wide-narrow row planting mode of the corn and the working condition of the whole corn straw covered land which are rapidly developed in the northeast region, the complete machine consists of a straw cleaning device and a fertilizing and seeding device, wherein the straw cleaning device mainly consists of a frame, a transmission system, a straw picking mechanism, an auger shell and the like, a downward straw discharging port is arranged at the middle position of the auger shell, the opening size of the straw discharging port can be adjusted according to the quantity of the corn straws and the corn planting row spacing, the picking mechanism picks up and crushes all the straws above the ground surface and conveys the straws to the auger, the auger conveys the crushed straws from the left side and the right side to the middle of the auger and discharges the straws to the ground surface through the straw discharging port, the straws fall between wide rows of the corn furrows, and the seeder works on the soil without straw covered land, thoroughly solves the difficult problems of grass hanging, blockage, seed erecting and seed airing during the sowing operation of the whole straw covered land.
Moreover, compared with the patent ZL201210397462.2, the invention has the following advantages: firstly, an impeller type straw throwing mechanism is omitted, power consumption is obviously reduced, the possible blockage situation of the impeller type straw throwing mechanism is thoroughly avoided, and the operation smoothness of machines and tools is improved; secondly, the straws are laid among the wide rows of the corns in strips instead of covering the whole sowing width, and sunlight can directly irradiate the soil on the ground surface, so that the soil is favorable for heating up quickly, and the germination of seeds and the growth of seedlings are favorable.
The invention does not need to throw out the straws by using an impeller type throwing mechanism, but directly discharges the straws to the ground surface through the auger, thereby saving the impeller type throwing mechanism, obviously reducing the power consumption, simultaneously realizing the effect that the same fertilizing and seeding parts work in the area without straw influence, expanding the application range of wide and narrow row planting of corn on the basis of not changing the large structure and reducing the manufacturing cost of the original machine tool, and having good economical efficiency.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is an isometric view of the overall configuration of one embodiment of a no-tillage clean area seeder for straw covered land suitable for wide and narrow row planting of corn in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a structural diagram of a straw cleaning apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, showing the shape and position of a straw discharge port;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the structure of FIG. 2 with the auger housing removed, showing the structure of the auger screw pushing from both sides to the middle;
FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of the FIG. 1 machine of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a top plan view of the FIG. 1 machine of the present invention, viewed from above and looking down;
FIG. 6 is a view showing a straw placement area covering a middle wide row, namely, a region A in the figure, on the basis of FIG. 5;
fig. 7 is a schematic view of wide and narrow row planting of corn.
In the figure:
the device comprises a ground wheel 1, a seed box 2, a fertilizer box 3, a power system 4, a three-point suspension 5, a straw pick-up mechanism 6, an auger 7, an auger shell 8, a fertilizer shovel 9, a seed shovel 10, a straw discharge port 11, a rack 12, a fertilizer discharger 13, a seed sowing device 14 and a pulling plate 15.
Detailed Description
The structure of the present invention will be described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
A no-tillage planter for full straw covered land suitable for wide and narrow row planting of corn comprises two main components, namely a straw cleaning device at the front part and a fertilizing and seeding device at the rear part;
the straw cleaning device; the straw picking mechanism 6 driven by a rotating shaft, the parallel rear auger 7 and the auger shell 8 wrapped at the bottom and the back of the auger 7 are arc-shaped, the downward straw discharging port 11 is formed in the middle of the auger shell 8, the unfolding shape of the straw discharging port 11 is rectangular, the left and right spiral directions of the auger 7 are opposite, crushed straw is pushed to the middle from two sides, and the width of the straw discharging port 11 is adjusted according to the distance of the wide rows of local corn and the quantity of the previous corn straw.
The fertilizing and seeding device; the fertilizer box 3 and the seed box 2 are arranged at the front and the back, the fertilizer shovel 9 and the fertilizer apparatus 13 are arranged at the lower part of the fertilizer box 3, the land wheel 1 is arranged at the lower part of the seed box 2 to drive the seed sowing device 14 and the fertilizer apparatus 13, and the land wheel 1 also plays a role in fertilizing and compacting after sowing.
The straw pick-up mechanism 6 picks up and crushes all straws above the ground surface, the straws are conveyed to the middle of the auger and are discharged to the ground surface through the straw discharge port 11, the straws fall between wide rows of corns, the fertilizing and seeding furrow opener works on the soil without straw coverage, and the integrated machine operation of the straw-covered land no-tillage clean area seeder for wide-narrow row planting of corns can be realized.
Two pull plates are arranged on two sides of the rectangle of the straw discharging port 11 and fixed by bolts, so that the width of the rectangle port can be changed. And fixing and shielding the areas of the two side parts according to different wide row distances and the quantity of the previous corn straws, and performing targeted operation. The scheme has simple structure and reliable use.
The two sides of the rectangle of the straw outlet 11 are provided with pull plates which can pull towards the two sides to change the width of the rectangle. The width of this scheme adjustment is easy, convenient to use.
The changeable range of the rectangular width of the straw discharging port 11 is 40-60 cm. When the conventional corn is planted in wide and narrow rows, the wide row spacing is generally 90cm, the narrow row spacing is generally 40cm, and when the conventional corn is planted in equal row spacing, the row spacing is generally 65 cm. The present invention has been devised and embodied in accordance with the principles and spirit of the present invention as set forth in the description of the preferred embodiments and the claims.
The straw picking mechanism 6 is characterized in that: set up the horizontal rotation arbor, radially dispose many garrulous straw knives on the arbor, many garrulous straw knives arrange on the arbor with the helix mode, and the direction of rotation of garrulous straw knife is opposite with the direction of rotation of tractor wheel, is a horizontal screw feeder 7 in garrulous straw knife's rear. This also takes and maintains the technical advantages of ZL 201210397462.2.
The straw cleaning device is characterized in that a front three-point suspension 5 is connected with a tractor, a rear three-point suspension is connected with the fertilizing and seeding device, an upper pull rod of the rear three-point suspension is of a length-adjustable structure, and the fertilizing and seeding device is an integrated machine assembled on a rear rack for fertilizing and seeding. The effect of convenient and reliable 'one-piece machine' is realized.

Claims (5)

1. The utility model provides a straw mulching land no-tillage clean area seeder suitable for maize wide narrow row is planted which characterized in that: the no-tillage clean area seeder comprises two main components, namely a straw cleaning device at the front part and a fertilizing and seeding device at the rear part;
the straw cleaning device; the straw picking mechanism (6) driven by a rear power output shaft of a tractor, a parallel rear auger (7) and an auger shell (8) which is wrapped at the bottom and the back of the auger (7) and is arc-shaped are arranged at the front part in the rack (12), a straw discharging port (11) with a downward direction is formed in the middle of the auger shell (8), the unfolding shape of the straw discharging port (11) is rectangular, the spiral directions of the left section and the right section of the auger (7) are opposite, and crushed straws are pushed to the middle from two sides;
the rectangular width of the straw discharging port (11) can be changed, and the change range is 40-60 cm;
the fertilizing and seeding device; a fertilizer box (3) and a seed box (2) are arranged at the front and the back, a fertilizer shovel (9) is arranged at the lower part of the fertilizer box (3), and a land wheel (1) is arranged at the lower part of the seed box (2) to drive a seed sowing device (14) and a fertilizer discharging device (13).
2. The no-tillage and clean-area seeder for straw covered land suitable for wide and narrow row planting of corn as claimed in claim 1, wherein two pull plates (15) are provided at two sides of the rectangle of the straw discharge port (11) and fixed by bolts, and the width of the straw discharge port (11) can be changed according to the row spacing of the wide and narrow rows of corn.
3. The no-tillage and clean-area seeder for straw-covered lands suitable for wide-and-narrow-row corn planting according to claim 1, characterized in that the two sides of the rectangle of the straw discharge port (11) are provided with pull plates (15) capable of pulling the width of the straw discharge port (11) to the two sides.
4. The straw mulching land no-tillage clean area seeder suitable for wide and narrow row planting of corn according to claim 1, characterized in that the straw pickup mechanism (6) is structured as: the straw crushing machine is characterized in that a horizontal rotating cutter shaft is arranged, a plurality of straw crushing cutters are radially arranged on the cutter shaft and are arranged on the cutter shaft in a spiral line mode, the rotating direction of the straw crushing cutters is opposite to the rotating direction of a tractor wheel, and a transverse auger (7) is arranged behind the straw crushing cutters.
5. The no-tillage and clean-area seeder for straw covered land suitable for wide-and-narrow-row planting of corn as claimed in claim 1, wherein the straw cleaning device is connected with a tractor by a front three-point suspension (5), the rear three-point suspension is connected with the fertilizing and seeding device, an upper pull rod of the rear three-point suspension is of a length-adjustable structure, and the fertilizing and seeding device is an all-in-one machine assembled on a rear frame for fertilizing and seeding.
CN201711161716.XA 2017-11-21 2017-11-21 Straw mulching land no-tillage clean area seeder suitable for wide-narrow row planting of corn Active CN107980368B (en)

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Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108718569B (en) * 2018-08-01 2023-12-19 农业农村部南京农业机械化研究所 Straw crushing row-to-row collecting no-tillage planter
CN109673214A (en) * 2019-01-29 2019-04-26 山东省农业机械科学研究院 The no-tillage seeding machine for throwing device is set in a kind of
AU2021218238A1 (en) * 2020-08-22 2022-03-10 Bourgelat Pty Ltd Apparatus for attachment to a tractor
CN112715104A (en) * 2021-01-05 2021-04-30 安徽省农业科学院棉花研究所 Single-seed precision seed and fertilizer co-sowing machine for no-tillage clean areas of cotton

Citations (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB942785A (en) * 1961-09-25 1963-11-27 Landbouwwerktuigen & Maschf Improvements in and relating to apparatus for bruising green fodder
CN103348804A (en) * 2013-06-19 2013-10-16 山东大华机械有限公司 Corn planter
CN203661545U (en) * 2013-12-23 2014-06-25 农业部南京农业机械化研究所 Wheat no-tillage planter suitable for full straw mulched ground operation
CN205755435U (en) * 2016-04-26 2016-12-07 安徽农业大学 A kind of no-tillage automatically controlled corn compound seeder
CN206380262U (en) * 2016-10-31 2017-08-08 中国农业大学 Straw field pickup crushes trench digging and buries combine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB942785A (en) * 1961-09-25 1963-11-27 Landbouwwerktuigen & Maschf Improvements in and relating to apparatus for bruising green fodder
CN103348804A (en) * 2013-06-19 2013-10-16 山东大华机械有限公司 Corn planter
CN203661545U (en) * 2013-12-23 2014-06-25 农业部南京农业机械化研究所 Wheat no-tillage planter suitable for full straw mulched ground operation
CN205755435U (en) * 2016-04-26 2016-12-07 安徽农业大学 A kind of no-tillage automatically controlled corn compound seeder
CN206380262U (en) * 2016-10-31 2017-08-08 中国农业大学 Straw field pickup crushes trench digging and buries combine

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