CN106568143A - Intelligent passive building integrated designing method - Google Patents

Intelligent passive building integrated designing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106568143A
CN106568143A CN201610979396.8A CN201610979396A CN106568143A CN 106568143 A CN106568143 A CN 106568143A CN 201610979396 A CN201610979396 A CN 201610979396A CN 106568143 A CN106568143 A CN 106568143A
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air
building
energy
heat
conditioning
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王梦祥
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王梦祥
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F7/00Ventilation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S11/00Non-electric lighting devices or systems using daylight
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F5/00Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater
    • F24F5/0046Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater using natural energy, e.g. solar energy, energy from the ground
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • H02J7/35Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering with light sensitive cells
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F7/00Ventilation
    • F24F2007/004Natural ventilation using convection
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/272Solar heating or cooling
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/60Planning or developing urban green infrastructure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal

Abstract

The invention relates to an intelligent passive building integrated designing method. A reversal building design method, namely a multi-layer heat insulation body manner is adopted, a corridor, a traffic core, an auxiliary function room and an equipment room are arranged on the periphery of a building, main functions of the building are arranged insides, and light rooms are arranged inside the main functions to be used for lighting and ventilating; reversal buildings are distributed on the periphery of the building in the four directions of the building in the manners of the corridor, the traffic core, the auxiliary function room and the equipment room to form an insulation body, a large window is formed in the south direction and is relatively opened to the outdoor temperature, and small windows or no windows are formed in the west side and the north side; and effective opening is carried out in the direction of the local prevailing wind direction, and natural ventilation is facilitated. According to the intelligent passive building integrated designing method, creative changes are made on the aspects of plane layout and space design; and the method is combined with the technical method capable of achieving in China, the building serves as a unit of an intelligent city, and therefore it is possible to energetically develop the passive building in China even on the international.

Description

A kind of comprehensive designing method of intelligent passive type building
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of architectural design, specifically a kind of comprehensive designing method of intelligent passive type building.
Background technology
Passive type house is called passive type energy-saving house, is the energy efficient building built based on Passive design.Need not Realizing the building in comfortable winter and Summer Indoor environment, building is not actively for the air conditioning form of traditional heating system and active Outside resources are introduced, to greatest extent by design and technology reducing energy consumption.Passive type house actively need not be heated, and it is basic On be to collect the heat that comes to make one comfortable temperature of house holding itself by passive.Using the sun, human body, family's electrically and thermally The heat energy that retracting device etc. brings, it is not necessary to the supply of active thermal source.The concept in passive type house is applied to all over the world no matter Passive type house can be all built in cold district or warm area, and its basic mode is consistent.According to local weather bar Part, the consumption of the building structural materials in house understand some differences.Thickness of wall body, insulation layer thickness are concerned in cold district; And hot area more concerned be refrigerating method and ventilation drying, to ensure also keep comfortable indoor environment in summer. The characteristics of personality in any passive type house will be optimized according to local weather conditions.
Interior can be adjusted to suitable temperature with very little energy consumption by passive type house, reach the mesh of energy efficient 's.Suitable for almost all of public and civil buildings.
19 century 70s, architect and scientist begin to the house for studying zero energy consumption, and it is very that energy consumption is dropped to zero Harsh, although it is feasible from theoretical angle, the technique of high cost and complexity is because, up to now also only It is to rest on scientific research project aspect.Zero energy consumption house lacks popularization after all, so more people are being devoted to low energy building Research, because which has the superior ratio of performance to price, so popularization quickly is come, thus bring the development of passive type energy-saving house. If passive type energy-saving house is combined upper more solar power plants, then be also achieved that the house of " zero energy consumption ".
Although passive type house is focused on reducing energy consumption, is cut operating costs, but is not meant to reduce quality of the life.With The progress and development of human society science, the mankind can not possibly return the epoch of banda, and need more comfortable people to occupy ring Border.Intellectual technology is combined with passive type technology, intelligent passive type building will be formed, this will be the important side of future development To.
Traditional building can be located inside with traffic core corridor, and major function is in outside.Such plane major function Directly contact with outdoor environment, so will strengthen building outermost insulation in traditional passive type house desigh, carry Height is to bubble-tight requirement.This building makes Single-layer Insulation insulator formula passive type build.It is hardened that exterior wall uses Double-layer clamp Structure, equipped with more than 24 centimeters of thick heat-insulation layers between cold temperature climate zone ectonexine.Meanwhile, exterior window uses 3 layers of glass construction, is provided with Radiation protective layer, and ensure there is good air-tightness and heat insulating effect.This building directly affecting due to external wind photo-thermal And the regulating power of increasing indoor environment, also therefore certainly will bring the increase of investment.
The passive type of Single-layer Insulation insulator formula is built its southern side and keeps more south orientation sunshines, and as far as possible by auxiliary function Such as traffic core, device rooms etc. are positioned over building west side, with stop west to heat enter, and should be in northern its north side as far as possible Do not open a window.
Passive type house is shorter to the time of practice from cognition in China, even if also not pushed away completely in developed country Extensively, but it has the advantage that obviously.But due to entire society's System forming from cognition to technology again to material and The variety of problems of the aspects such as construction ability so as to a variety of restrictions are subject in development.
The content of the invention
For passive type house in prior art due to the variety of problems of the aspects such as entire society's system so as in development It is restricted etc. not enough, the problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of practical situation that can be effectively combined China, flat The comprehensive designing method of the intelligent passive type building of creative change is carried out in face layout and spatial design.
To solve above-mentioned technical problem, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of comprehensive designing method of intelligent passive type building of the present invention, using reversion architectural design method, i.e. multi-layer heat preserving Corridor, traffic core and miscellaneous function room, device rooms are arranged on building external by insulator formula, the function of tonic chord of building internally, Light front yard is arranged inside the function of tonic chord is used for daylighting and ventilation.
Reversion building is being built with corridor, traffic core and miscellaneous function room, device rooms layout in the four direction of building Periphery is opened a window less or is not opened in outdoor environment, west side and north side in the south orientation larger and opposing open of windowing to form thermal insulator Window.
Direction along local cardinal wind carries out effective vent, is beneficial to gravity-flow ventilation.
The function of tonic chord space of building provides daylighting, including closed Zhongting and open type Zhongting by Zhongting, when setting Zhongting Height and the width ratio be more than 2:Closed smooth front yard, daylighting is adopted to introduce available light by light modulating device when 1, top arranges folding The mirror assembly of the intelligent traceable sun angle of shining sun light, the sunlight gathering that will be become clear using the combination of secondary, three secondary mirrors Each layer of interior of building and bottom.
Openable skylight is provided with the top of closed Zhongting, the passage of indoor and outdoor air convection current is formed.
Design height is less than 2 with the ratio of width:Open type Zhongting is adopted during 1 Zhongting, if be computed daylighting be discontented with During sufficient national standard, compensate using solaria and by a sunlight reflection unit.
Present invention additionally comprises:Wind environment simulation, luminous environment simulation, thermal environment simulation and acoustic environment are carried out to building interior Simulation, is required with meeting air flow, illumination, thermal and insulating performance and its anti-noise, to improve the comfort level of indoor environment.
Present invention additionally comprises:
Buried pipe ground-source heat pump system:Heat supply and refrigeration are realized using underground shallow layer geothermal energy resources, by ground heat exchanger, Water source heat pump units and room conditioning end system composition;
Water source heat pump system:With water body as low level heat energy, prepared for air conditioning system using underground water type water source heat pump units With provide hot and cold water, then by air conditioner end equipment realize space air adjust system form;
Air source heat pump system:Air source heat pump makes energy from low level using the energy of outdoor air by mechanical work done The cooling/heating device that thermal source is shifted to high-order thermal source;
Solar energy system:Photovoltaic equipment is set in building roof, winter provides the electric energy needed for building heating; Spring, summer, three season of autumn provide domestic hot-water;Meanwhile, the system forms shading system on roof, in the case of summer sun direct projection Heat radiation is reduced, and winter can then receive the sunlight of more oblique fires;
Natural ventilation system:Including Natural Ventilation Mode, gravity-flow ventilation+air-conditioning with pattern, low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern And air-conditioning cold/hot wind mode, outer surface of building will be according to the enough outer air introducing holes of simulation and calculated case setting;Wherein certainly So air vent mode refers to that outdoor natural wind is interacted in Various Seasonal with indoor air-conditioning system, is adopted in conditioning in Transition Season completely Natural Ventilation Mode, indoors comfort level allow in the case of adopt Natural Ventilation Mode, the now air-supply in air conditioning system and Hot and cold water will stop providing, and natural wind is by steam vent nature aerofluxuss;Gravity-flow ventilation+air-conditioning is simultaneously referred to pattern and works as gravity-flow ventilation The cold water provided with air conditioning system and fraction air-supply can be aided in compensate when can not meet indoor comfort degree, under this pattern still It is nature aerofluxuss;Low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern refers to after outdoor air is mechanically introduced that the cold water that air-conditioning is provided will be outer Gas is lowered the temperature, and is indoor offer low temperature exogenous QI air-supply.
Present invention additionally comprises:VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System), whole building are provided with the comfort ventilation system with heat recovery function, the system Ensure the fresh air supply of whole building, to discharge the dampness of interior of building, including outdoor cold air absorption system, heat exchange series System, air heating system, indoor exhaust air absorption system and exhaust emission system.
Present invention additionally comprises:Energy management system, with building building intelligent control system collaborative work, by all peaces The energy expenditure information of the supply arrangement of dress is monitored and manages, and energy expenditure and energy-saving information are directly displayed at display screen On.
The invention has the advantages that and advantage:
1. the present invention carries out creative change in plane figure and spatial design, with domestic accessible technological means phase With reference to, and using building as a smart city unit so that even greatly develop in the world at home it is passive Formula house is possibly realized.
If the passive type house 2. by the inventive method design is expanded in northern China, and overall reduction heating is empty The energy consumption of tune, alleviates significantly the energy and reduction of greenhouse gas discharge pressure in Urbanization in China, can greatly extend making for house With the life-span, the tropical island effect in city can be also overcome.Summer ventilation, mouldy and moist problem can be solved in south.
3. as method for designing of the present invention proposes reversion building, its peripheral protective formed by corridor and miscellaneous function room Insulation body, by than the simple thermal and insulating performance for improving exterior wall, increases air-tightness etc. and easily processes.By plane figure The insulation body of formation will not increase more investments, so as to have more operability.
Although 4. passive type energy saving building improves price to a certain extent, come from the overall life cycle cost in house See it is economical, while increased comfortableness;Due to the recessive character of passive type energy saving building advantage, consumer is with room Room maximization of utility can show the characteristics of only valuing room rate for the behavior of motivation at the beginning, and method for designing of the present invention makes passively The advantage domination of formula energy saving building, can effectively expand demand.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is illustrated for the basic demand of passive type house energy consumption;
Fig. 2 is present invention intelligence passive type architectural design method diagram.
The multiple-layer heat insulation body formula building structure schematic diagram that Fig. 3 is related to for the inventive method;
Fig. 4 solaria schematic diagram of structure
Fig. 5 solaria illumination analysis figures
Fig. 6 Natural Ventilation Mode schematic diagrams
Fig. 7 gravity-flow ventilations+air-conditioning simultaneously uses pattern schematic diagram
Fig. 8 low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern schematic diagrams
The closed smooth front yard structural representation that Fig. 9 is related to for the inventive method;
The open type light front yard structural representation that Figure 10 is related to for the inventive method.
Wherein, 1 mirror surface device is followed for vertical-type sun angle, 2 is mirror surface device, 3 outer air introducing holes, 4 For insulating layer of external wall, 5 is solaria, and 6 is solar panels.
Specific embodiment
With reference to Figure of description, the present invention is further elaborated.
The basic demand of passive type house energy consumption is as shown in Figure 1.Comfort conditions, Ying Tong are preferably located in interior environmental requirement throughout the year When meet be specified below:
20~26 DEG C of indoor temperature;Indoor relative humidity is 40~60%;Overtemperature frequency≤5%;Indoor carbon dioxide contains Amount≤1000ppm;The indoor building enclosure inner surface temperature difference must not exceed 3 DEG C;In door and window room, side is without dew condensation phenomenon;
With regard to noise limit value, should be met by pipe network and accessory channel transmission sound limit value and be specified below:
Machine room≤35dB;Function room≤30dB;Living room≤20dB;With regard to it is bubble-tight requirement must be fulfilled for N50≤ 0.6, i.e., indoors under conditions of external differential 50Pa, rate of ventilation hourly must not exceed 0.6 time.
Heat recovery rate must carry out recuperation of heat when requiring that winter ventilation is taken a breath to air-out, heat recovery rate preferably meet Rh >= 75%.
Should ensure that some basic principles in addition in design, such as the Shape Coefficient in house preferably≤0.7, forbid by outer enclosed structure There is structural heat bridge;Meet requirement of gravity-flow ventilation, natural lighting etc..
To meet upper this requirement, using closed design, building body is succinct, and Shape Coefficient is less than 0.7 for building.
The comprehensive designing method overall conception of intelligence passive type building of the invention is as shown in Fig. 2 using reversion architectural design Corridor, traffic core and miscellaneous function room (for major function is said, are referred generally to health by method, i.e. multiple-layer heat insulation body formula Between, meeting room, storehouse, the function such as kitchen), device rooms be arranged on building external, the function of tonic chord of building (refers to the master in building Function, office building is office part, and school is classroom part, is commercially market part) internally, the internal light front yard that arranges is used to adopt Light and ventilation, as shown in Figure 3.
Reversion building is being built with corridor, traffic core and miscellaneous function room, device rooms layout in the four direction of building Periphery is opened a window less or is not opened in outdoor environment, west side and north side in the south orientation larger and opposing open of windowing to form thermal insulator Window.Direction along local cardinal wind carries out effective vent, is beneficial to gravity-flow ventilation.
The function of tonic chord space of internal building provides daylighting, including closed Zhongting and open type Zhongting by Zhongting, when setting The ratio for putting the height and the width of Zhongting is more than 2:Closed smooth front yard, daylighting is adopted to introduce available light, top by light modulating device when 1 The mirror assembly of the intelligent traceable sun angle of refraction sunlight, the sun that will be become clear using the combination of secondary, three secondary mirrors are set Light imports each layer and bottom of interior of building;Openable skylight is provided with the top of Zhongting, the logical of indoor and outdoor air convection current is formed Road.
Design height is less than 2 with the ratio of width:Open type light front yard is adopted during 1 Zhongting, can be with by sunlight chamber device Collect sunlight and sufficient light is provided to Zhongting, if be computed daylighting and be unsatisfactory for national standard, reflected using a sunlight Device is compensated, as shown in Figure 4, Figure 5.
Wind environment simulation, luminous environment simulation, thermal environment simulation and acoustic environment simulation are carried out to building interior, to meet sky Flow of air, illumination, thermal and insulating performance and its anti-noise are required, to improve the comfort level of indoor environment.
Present invention additionally comprises:
Buried pipe ground-source heat pump system:Heat supply and refrigeration are realized using underground shallow layer geothermal energy resources (10~20 DEG C).Typically By ground heat exchanger (earth's surface sets cast-in-situ bored pile, forms plastic tube network), water source heat pump units and room conditioning end system Composition.
Water source heat pump system:With water body as low level heat energy, prepared for air conditioning system using underground water type water source heat pump units With provide hot and cold water, then by air conditioner end equipment realize space air adjust system form.
Air source heat pump system:Air source heat pump makes energy from low level using the energy of outdoor air by mechanical work done The cooling/heating device that thermal source is shifted to high-order thermal source.Solar energy system:In building roof, photovoltaic equipment, winter are set The main electric energy provided needed for building heating;Spring, summer, three season of autumn offer domestic hot-water or other use heat.Meanwhile, the system is in room Shading system is formed on top, heat radiation is reduced in the case of summer sun direct projection, and winter can then be received the sun of more oblique fires Light;
Natural ventilation system:Including Natural Ventilation Mode, gravity-flow ventilation+air-conditioning with pattern, low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern, Outer surface of building will arrange enough outer air introducing holes, such as Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8 according to simulation and calculated case.Wherein gravity-flow ventilation Pattern:Refer to that outdoor natural wind is interacted in Various Seasonal with indoor air-conditioning system;In conditioning in Transition Season (when referring to season alternation Section, non-heating season also non-brake method season) Natural Ventilation Mode is adopted completely, nature is adopted in the case that comfort level is allowed indoors Air vent mode, the now air-supply in air conditioning system and hot and cold water will stop providing, and natural wind is by steam vent nature aerofluxuss;It is natural Ventilation+air-conditioning simultaneously uses pattern:Can aid in when gravity-flow ventilation can not meet indoor comfort degree with air conditioning system provide cold water and Fraction blows to compensate, and nature aerofluxuss are remained under this pattern;Low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern:By outdoor air mechanically After introducing, exogenous QI is lowered the temperature by the cold water that air-conditioning is provided, and is indoor offer low temperature exogenous QI air-supply;
VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System):Whole building is provided with the comfort ventilation system with heat recovery function, and the system ensures whole building Fresh air supply, to discharge the dampness of interior of building, including the heating of outdoor cold air absorption system, heat-exchange system, air System, indoor exhaust air absorption system and exhaust emission system.
Energy management system:With building building intelligent control system collaborative work, by the supply arrangement of all installations Energy expenditure information be monitored and manage, energy expenditure and energy-saving information are directly displayed on a display screen.It is pre- in building The various sensors such as temperature humidity are embedded with, data can constantly be collected and are passed to terminal unit by sensor, and by data by aobvious Display screen is shown.
Specific implementation step
1. closed design
In the present invention, reversion building will form the insulation body of function formula in building external, just as the principle of thermos flask, Outdoor honourable thermal environment defines less impact to the built-in function space built so that it is permanent that internal volume carries out constant temperature Wet regulation is relative to become easy.This building makes multiple-layer heat insulation body formula passive type build.
Reversion building can in south orientation opposing open in outdoor environment, and west, north, three, east direction with miscellaneous function room and Traffic core layout especially more to be avoided west side heat to internal impact in west side in building external to form thermal insulator.In north Side to be avoided the impact of north side cold air.Direction along local cardinal wind effectively will be open, and be beneficial to gravity-flow ventilation. Internal major function space provides daylighting by Zhongting, where Zhongting is not only daylighting and heat collection, can also play ventilation Effect.
As reversion building is the insulation body of the peripheral protective formed by corridor and miscellaneous function room, will be than simple raising The thermal and insulating performance of exterior wall, increases air-tightness etc. and easily processes.The insulation body formed by plane figure will not increase Plus more investments, so as to have more operability.
2. green light front yard
The passive type of multiple-layer heat insulation body formula is built its daylighting and is mainly derived from Zhongting, and according to practical situation, Zhongting There are two kinds of closed Zhongting and open type Zhongting.In sleet or in the case of the cloudy day, the day of abundance is not provided anyway yet According to so it is also necessary to be aided with guiding device.
(1) closed smooth front yard
As shown in figure 9, adopting closed smooth front yard, main daylighting to be drawn by light modulating device when can arrange the limited area of Zhongting Enter available light, top arranges the mirror assembly of the intelligent traceable sun angle of refraction sunlight, using secondary, three secondary mirrors Combine each layer and bottom of bright sunlight gathering interior of building.Light is provided with unlatching dormer window at the top of front yard, can form interior Outer cross-ventilated passage.
(2) open type light front yard
As shown in Figure 10, open type light front yard is contemplated that when there is sufficient condition design larger area Zhongting.Due to light front yard face Product is enough can to make building receive enough light greatly, need not aid in guiding device.If be computed daylighting deficiency standard, Can be compensated using a common sunlight reflection unit.
3. the simulation of honourable thermoacoustic
(1) wind environment simulation
The wind environment simulation of outdoor summer and winter cardinal wind is carried out, to judge what is formed on building surface and periphery Blast and wind conditions, are Natural Ventilation Design provided auxiliary.The wind environment of building interior is simulated, the reality of simulated air Border is flowed, to ensure the realization of gravity-flow ventilation.
(2) luminous environment simulation
The simulation of outdoor lighting environment mainly understands the sunshine of outer surface of building and obtains heat situation, is building function layout Technical support is provided.The region sufficient for sunshine will utilize available light as far as possible, and will examine for the larger region of heat is obtained Consider placement miscellaneous function to be thermally shielded.The front yard daylighting of Interior Illumination Environment main analog light and the light conditions using functional areas, for To aid in the mirror assembly of light modulating device or traceable sun angle where sunshine deficiency, to aid in sunlight gathering room It is interior, so as to ensure enough natural lightings.
(3) thermal environment simulation
Whether the thermal and insulating performance of simulation insulation body meets requirement, and simulating chamber internal heat generation source such as device rooms, The impact to indoor environment such as escalator.The mobility status in indoor cold and hot space are simulated, and technical support are provided for equipment arrangement.
(4) acoustic environment simulation
Outdoor sonochemistry decomposition judges impact situation of the noise source to building with simulation, by the facade of noise effect Carry out its anti-noise process.The noise that indoor equipment is produced carries out its anti-noise design Jing after simulation, improves the comfort level of indoor environment.
4. the utilization of natural energy resources
(1) buried pipe ground-source heat pump system:Heat supply and refrigeration are realized using underground shallow layer geothermal energy resources (10~20 DEG C).One As by ground heat exchanger (earth's surface sets cast-in-situ bored pile, forms plastic tube network), water source heat pump units and room conditioning end system System composition.Heat transfer medium (water or anti-icing fluid) within summer, underground pipe sends into condenser by water pump, and source pump is discharged Heat take away and be released to stratum (to the earth heat extraction, stratum is accumulation of heat);The cold water produced in vaporizer, by water circulating pump Delivering to air conditioner end equipment carries out cooling to room.In the winter time, source pump (is absorbed heat to the earth, stratum is by underground buried tube Cold-storage) condenser produce hot water, then air conditioner end equipment is delivered to by water circulating pump and room is heated.
(2) water source heat pump system:With water body as low level heat energy, it is air conditioning system system using underground water type water source heat pump units It is standby with hot and cold water is provided, then the system form that space air is adjusted is realized by air conditioner end equipment.Low level heat energy is exactly can not The low grade heat energy for directly utilizing, such as air, soil, water, solar energy, industrial waste heat etc..Summer will be built by water resource heat pump Heat " taking " in thing out, is discharged in water body, to reach the purpose that summer freezes to Indoor environment;And winter then leads to Water source heat pump units are crossed, heat energy " is extracted " from water source, heating in building is sent to;As the water body of low level heat energy, can be with profit With the suitable subsoil water of temperature, surface water (sea water, lake water, river etc.), recycled water (city domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, ore deposit Mountain waste water, oil field waste and cooling water of thermoelectric plant etc. are manually discharged and treated water source using rear) etc..
(3) air source heat pump system:Air source heat pump makes energy from low using the energy of outdoor air by mechanical work done The cooling/heating device that position thermal source is shifted to high-order thermal source.High-order thermal source referred to for calorific value is higher, the heat for such as easily utilizing Source such as steam, fuel, combustion gas, electric energy etc..It is and the air source heat pump as low-temperature heat source using ambient temperature that air source heat pump is heated It (is not a concept with high-order thermal source, high temperature heat source just refers to the thermal source temperature using ambient temperature as high temperature heat source that refrigeration is then Degree is higher than environment room temperature).It carrys out heat supply with condenser liberated heat, is freezed with the heat of vaporizer absorption, meets user Demand to domestic hot-water, floor heating or air-conditioning;
(4) solar energy system:Photovoltaic equipment is set in building roof, winter is mainly provided needed for building heating Electric energy;Spring, summer, three season of autumn offer domestic hot-water or other use heat.Meanwhile, the system forms shading system on roof, in the summer Heat radiation is reduced in the case of Ji Taiyang direct projections, and winter can then receive the sunlight of more oblique fires;
(5) natural ventilation system
Outdoor natural wind is interacted in Various Seasonal with indoor air-conditioning system, when the situation that indoor comfort degree is allowed It is lower to adopt Natural Ventilation Mode as far as possible.Outer surface of building will arrange enough outer air introducing holes according to simulation and calculated case.
Natural Ventilation Mode:Natural Ventilation Mode, the now air-supply in air conditioning system and cold and hot are adopted completely in conditioning in Transition Season Water will stop providing, and natural wind is by steam vent nature aerofluxuss;
Gravity-flow ventilation+air-conditioning simultaneously uses pattern:Can be aided in when gravity-flow ventilation can not meet indoor comfort degree with air conditioning system The cold water of offer and fraction blow to compensate.Nature aerofluxuss are remained under this pattern.
Low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern:After outdoor air is mechanically introduced, exogenous QI is lowered the temperature by the cold water that air-conditioning is provided, Blow for indoor offer low temperature exogenous QI.
5. VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System)
In order to avoid energy loss, building will have good sealing, but thing followed problem is indoor moisture Air can not timely be discharged to outdoor, can still cause indoor mouldy and condensation.VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System) will play discharge dampness Effect.Whole building is provided with the comfort ventilation system with heat recovery function, and the fresh air for ensureing whole building is supplied by the system Should.Building roof is provided with and is equipped with the central ventilated equipment with a set of efficient heat reclamation device, and the efficiency in the case of heating is extremely 90% is can reach less, and the efficiency in the case of refrigeration can reach 80%.
VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System) is mainly absorbed by outdoor cold air absorption system, heat-exchange system, air heating system, indoor exhaust air System and exhaust emission system composition.
Outdoor cold air absorption system:Mainly it is made up of air inlet, defecator and outdoor cold air heating system, cold sky Gas heating system has three kinds:Electric heater, air source heat pump and water source (source) heat pump.When the air temperature of VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System) it is low When -3 DEG C, cold air is heated to prevent condensation and dewfall.
Heat-exchange system:VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System) has two major functions, and one is the conveying of air, and two is energy exchange.In air In terms of conveying, the power consumption of VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System) answers≤0.45Wh/m3, while noise≤35dB (A);The heat exchange in terms of energy exchange Rate should>75%.Improve rate of heat exchange and by increasing heat exchange area and can ensure that air-tightness reveals area<3%.
Air heating system:Common air heating system is water-air heater.
Air distribution system:Air distribution mainly has four types by ventilation shaft, pipeline:Flexible built-in heat insulation The aluminum pipe of material, flexible aluminum pipe, zinc-coated spiral airduct and synthetic material or sheet steel pipe road, connect the ventilation duct of two spaces Road is connected with deafener.
The discharge of indoor exhaust air:The filtration network level at least G4 of indoor exhaust air exhaust outlet.
Waste gas discharge:Exhaust outlet tangent plane avoids condensed water from flowing to ground along exterior finish using jet pipe form, and built-in barrier is simultaneously Note the distance with air intake vent.
The design for being mainly designed to air flow requirements of VMC (Ventilation Mechanical Control System).Affect the factor of air flow requirements design main Have room area, personnel amount, the source of dampness, the source of abnormal flavour, the source of pollutant, desired IAQ (indoor air quality) and The cold heat load in each space.
6. intelligence control system
The fire-fighting of building, illumination and relevant equipment adopt Based Intelligent Control, its terminal to be incorporated into the letter in city Breath system, becomes a unit of smart city, is condition based on following smart city development.Building ability is passive Formula, while and intelligence, meet the development need in future city.
7. energy management system
Building is provided with the control of a set of building and communication system, and intelligence control system collaborative work, can be by all installations The energy expenditure information of supply arrangement is monitored and manages, energy expenditure and energy-saving information can directly display on a display screen to People is experienced with intuitively data.There is this sets of data acquisition system, administration fee will be substantially reduced, also can set up for constructing operation A set of comprehensive equipment management system.

Claims (10)

1. the comprehensive designing method that a kind of intelligent passive type is built, it is characterised in that:
Using reversion architectural design method, i.e. multiple-layer heat insulation body formula, by corridor, traffic core and miscellaneous function room, device rooms Building external is arranged on, the function of tonic chord of building internally, inside the function of tonic chord arranges light front yard is used for daylighting and ventilation.
2. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 1 is built, it is characterised in that:
Reversion building is in the four direction built with corridor, traffic core and miscellaneous function room, device rooms layout in building external To form thermal insulator, open a window less or do not open a window in outdoor environment, west side and north side in the south orientation larger and opposing open of windowing.
3. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 1 is built, it is characterised in that:Along local cardinal wind Direction carry out effective vent, be beneficial to gravity-flow ventilation.
4. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 1 is built, it is characterised in that:The function of tonic chord of building is empty Between provide daylighting, including closed Zhongting and open type Zhongting by Zhongting, when arrange Zhongting height and the width ratio be more than 2:1 The closed smooth front yards of Shi Caiyong, daylighting introduce available light by light modulating device, top arrange refraction sunlight it is intelligent traceable too The mirror assembly of external corner degree, each layer and bottom that the sunlight gathering interior of building that will be become clear is combined using secondary, three secondary mirrors.
5. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 4 is built, it is characterised in that:At the top of closed Zhongting Openable skylight is provided with, the passage of indoor and outdoor air convection current is formed.
6. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 4 is built, it is characterised in that:Design height and width Ratio be less than 2:Open type Zhongting is adopted during 1 Zhongting, if be computed daylighting and be unsatisfactory for national standard, using solaria And compensated by a sunlight reflection unit.
7. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 1 is built, it is characterised in that also include:To in building Portion carries out wind environment simulation, luminous environment simulation, thermal environment simulation and acoustic environment simulation, to meet air flow, illumination, insulation Heat-proof quality and its anti-noise are required, to improve the comfort level of indoor environment.
8. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 1 is built, it is characterised in that also include:
Buried pipe ground-source heat pump system:Heat supply and refrigeration are realized using underground shallow layer geothermal energy resources, by ground heat exchanger, water source Source pump and room conditioning end system composition;
Water source heat pump system:With water body as low level heat energy, prepare and carry for air conditioning system using underground water type water source heat pump units For hot and cold water, then the system form that space air is adjusted is realized by air conditioner end equipment;
Air source heat pump system:Air source heat pump makes energy from low level heat energy using the energy of outdoor air by mechanical work done To the cooling/heating device of high-order thermal source transfer;
Solar energy system:Photovoltaic equipment is set in building roof, winter provides the electric energy needed for building heating;Spring, the summer, Qiu Sanji provides domestic hot-water;Meanwhile, the system forms shading system on roof, and heat is reduced in the case of summer sun direct projection Radiation, and winter can then receive the sunlight of more oblique fires;
Natural ventilation system:Including Natural Ventilation Mode, gravity-flow ventilation+air-conditioning and with pattern, low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern and Air-conditioning cold/hot wind mode, outer surface of building will arrange enough outer air introducing holes according to simulation and calculated case;Wherein lead to naturally Wind pattern refers to that outdoor natural wind is interacted in Various Seasonal with indoor air-conditioning system, adopts nature completely in conditioning in Transition Season Air vent mode, adopts Natural Ventilation Mode, the now air-supply in air conditioning system and cold and hot in the case that comfort level is allowed indoors Water will stop providing, and natural wind is by steam vent nature aerofluxuss;Gravity-flow ventilation+air-conditioning referred to pattern can not when gravity-flow ventilation The cold water provided with air conditioning system and fraction air-supply can be aided in compensate when meeting indoor comfort degree, remained under this pattern certainly So aerofluxuss;Low temperature exogenous QI air supply pattern refers to after outdoor air is mechanically introduced that exogenous QI is dropped by the cold water that air-conditioning is provided Temperature, is indoor offer low temperature exogenous QI air-supply.
9. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 1 is built, it is characterised in that also include:Fresh air system System, whole building are provided with the comfort ventilation system with heat recovery function, and the system ensures the fresh air supply of whole building, to arrange Go out the dampness of interior of building, including outdoor cold air absorption system, heat-exchange system, air heating system, indoor exhaust air are inhaled Receipts system and exhaust emission system.
10. the comprehensive designing method that the intelligent passive type as described in claim 1 is built, it is characterised in that also include:Energy disappears Consumption monitoring system, with building building intelligent control system collaborative work, by the energy expenditure information of the supply arrangement of all installations It is monitored and manages, energy expenditure and energy-saving information is directly displayed on a display screen.
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CN109555185A (en) * 2018-11-30 2019-04-02 常成 A kind of solar energy intelligence passive type building system
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CN112460702A (en) * 2020-11-13 2021-03-09 山东汉泉建筑工程有限公司 Passive building

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Application publication date: 20170419