CN105728493B - A kind of combined type, which is turned round, squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier and manufacturing process - Google Patents

A kind of combined type, which is turned round, squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier and manufacturing process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105728493B
CN105728493B CN201610139512.5A CN201610139512A CN105728493B CN 105728493 B CN105728493 B CN 105728493B CN 201610139512 A CN201610139512 A CN 201610139512A CN 105728493 B CN105728493 B CN 105728493B
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China
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bar
chamber
upset
torsion
extruding
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CN201610139512.5A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105728493A (en
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滕杰
张斌
张辉
傅定发
谭傲霜
曾祥
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湖南大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C37/00Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape
    • B21C37/04Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape of bars or wire
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C25/00Profiling tools for metal extruding
    • B21C25/02Dies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J13/00Details of machines for forging, pressing, or hammering
    • B21J13/02Dies or mountings therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/002Hybrid process, e.g. forging following casting

Abstract

Gather extruding, torsion and upset combined type large plastometric set device and its manufacturing process in one the invention provides a kind of, the device mainly includes split combined type female die for forming and the outer layer die sleeve being interference fitted with cavity plate, female die for forming is followed successively by bar placed cavity, reverses chamber, extrudes upset chamber from top to bottom, it can be freely separating between three chambers, and cavity plate is grouped together into by positioner Fast Installation;It is also possible to use the torsion chamber with different rotary direction screw thread, the torsional direction of material when changing adjacent passage processing;Torsion, extruding and upset technical combinations in one, by reversing, extruding and upset collective effect in plastic history, are prepared the grained material of even tissue by the present invention;The present invention can realize that multi-pass is turned round and squeeze mushrooming deformation, thus effectively refining alloy crystallite dimension, and grainiess and orientation are adjusted by changing the torsional direction between the different passages of bar, and then greatly improve the mechanical property of alloy.

Description

A kind of combined type, which is turned round, squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier and manufacturing process

Technical field

It is specifically a kind of super for preparing the present invention relates to a kind of apparatus and method in severe Plastic Deformation Methods field The torsion of grained material squeezes pier and is combined large plastometric set device and its processing method, the use of raw material is aluminium alloy and magnesium alloy.

Background and prior art

The increasingly increasing that the light metal structure such as aluminium alloy or magnesium alloy material is applied in fields such as automobile, Aero-Space, military projects Plus, to its performance requirement also more and more higher, it is always material to prepare the alloy material with high specific strength and good strong plasticity matching Expect one of focus of scientific domain research.It is further raising alloy property by crystal grain thinning and adjustment grainiess and orientation And do not damage the efficient hardening method of its ductility, and large plastometric set method (severe plastic deformation, referred to as SPD) there is unique advantage in terms of fine grain or ultra-fine peritectic alloy and improvement alloy heterogeneous microstructure is prepared.According to suddenly That-Page empirical equation is understood, because crystal grain refinement can promote the strength of materials to be significantly increased in certain grain size range.But Crystallite dimension is refined after (in particular up to sub-micron even nanoscale) to a certain extent, is no longer just that this is single for refined crystalline strengthening Mechanism is being acted on, but several strengthening mechanism couplings rise and dominated.Large plastometric set may be defined as shaping in metal material During super large plastic strain is acted on to obtain the process of super fine crystal material in the metal of certain volume, i.e., by specific Manufacturing process or path make material obtain the class process that larger accumulation strain amount realization is efficiently strengthened.SPD technologies are by material Material circle is known as being to prepare one of most promising method of block nanometer or super fine crystal material, is widely used in high performance proof gold In the preparation process such as category, alloy, intermetallic compound, composite.

At present, Equal-channel Angular Pressing (equal channel angular pressing, ECAP), reciprocating extrusion (cyclic extrusion compression, CEC) and high pressure torsion (high pressure and torsion, HPT) etc. One of the study hotspot direction of this area is increasingly becoming for the SPD technologies of representative.ECAP techniques be the former Russian scholar Segal in Proposed in patent (USSR Patent No.575892) within 1977, it is in certain angle of cut that blank, which flows through two, when the technology shapes By pure shear metamorphosis during (including inside and outside both sides) die cavity passage, because die cavity shape of cross section and area are constant, therefore instead Multiple repeatedly extruding can obtain larger accumulation strain amount, reach that product grain refines and improves the effect of mechanical property.By nearly more than 20 Year continue to develop, ECAP methods turn into one of most widely used SPD technologies.With deepening continuously for research, successively drill Become and developed rotating mould ECAP, mould ECAP, multi-pass ECAP, continuous ECAP, rolling ECAP and tubulose P TCAP etc. are squeezed in side A variety of methods, not only enrich ECAP manufacturing process and promote the raising of efficiency.But ECAP methods on the corner inside and outside Variable quantity has differences, and there is certain influence to the overall uniformity of gained alloy product structure property.

Reciprocating extrusion technology is proposed that blank is past through extruded hole when the technology shapes by J.Richert and M.Richert earliest It is multiple to flow to B chambers from A chambers, flow to A chambers from B chambers, add up large strain amount after being circulated through multi-pass.Then, researchers are to CEC works Skill is improved.C types (C shape equal channel reciprocating extrusion, CECRE), S types and U The different ECAP mode structures such as type are used in succession.ZANGIABADI etc. proposes similar tube passage extruding (tube Channel pressing, TCP).PARDIS etc. propose similar reciprocating expansion extrusion (cyclic expansion- Extrusion, CEE), enriching the mentality of designing of existing mold structure type, there is provided new technological means.ZAHARIA etc. Extruding and two independent process of jumping-up are continuously used, and then propose the Means of Upsetting (repetitive of cycle extrusion one Extrusion and upsetting, REU), it further enhancing preparation effect and expand application

The original sample that HPT deformations are opposite under room temperature or less than 0.4T temperature conditionss in die cavity applies several GPa Pressure, while drift rotate moment of torsion is produced on its cross section by active friction, promote deformable body produce be compressed axially with The SPD technologies of tangential detrusion.In addition, the high pressure torsion tube similar to its (high-pressure tube twisting, HPTT) technology has been used for the experimental study of the materials such as fine copper, fine aluminium and IF steel.When being deformed using HPT mould to bear high pressure and The size for preparing material is relatively small.In addition, also been developed repeatedly ply rolling technology (accumulative roll bonding, ARB), multidirectional compression or forging (MAC/F), sheet material continuous confined strip shearing method (C2S2), multistage continuous ECAP deformation method (MP- ECAP), rotating mould ECAP technologies (RD-ECAP) etc., while also occurring in that the deformation process of a variety of Combination of Methods, such as ECAP and HPT combination, ECAP is combined with cold rolling.Sum it up, the above method can realize the big of material under certain condition Plastic deformation, but there is respective defect, if desired for the processing (i.e. big distortion) carried out to material repeatedly, to appointed condition It is required that it is higher, how to simplify process, the efficiency of crystal grain thinning is improved, as the new research directions of SPD.

Retrieval discovery, a kind of vortex squash type large plastometric set of Chinese patent (application publication number CN 103785702A) Device, extrusion chamber is reversed by being set in cavity plate, and the torsion extrusion chamber is in, from upper port to the shape of lower port necking, to reverse In extrusion chamber deformed area is squeezed provided with torsion.The invention is combined with torsion and extrusion technique in one, so that the present invention is without extra Device be rotated to realize the torsion of material to mould, be that same effect can be achieved only by structure design, and can be with Eliminate the slip between material and mould when reversing.But due to the diminution of diameter of rod after deformation, it is impossible to real using the device The plastic deformation processing of existing multi-pass.

M.Shahbaz et al. exists《Materials Science and Engineering A》(material science engineering A, 2011,530:" the A novel single pass severe plastic deformation delivered on 469-472) technique:A kind of Vortex extrusion " (preferable single pass large plastometric sets:Be vortexed extruding) in a text, describe Be vortexed the principle extruded.But the disadvantage for the vortex extruding introduced is to be only capable of carrying out single pass extruding, due to being vortexed after extruding Bar diameter size reduces, and the deformation processing of back pass can not be carried out using same device, it is impossible to meets and is squeezed by multi-pass Press and obtain larger overall strain amount, there is certain defect in terms of the validity for preparing super fine crystal material.

The content of the invention

The present invention squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier and its processing for not enough turned round there is provided one kind of above-mentioned technology presence Method, by this method so that material produces a torsion, extruding and upset composite deformation, and can realize that multi-pass is processed, And due to using split combined die structure, multi-pass the torsion of different rotation direction screw threads can be used to squeeze chamber, change road when processing The torsional direction of bar between secondary, it is to avoid bar all the time reverse by same direction, so as to prepare the super fine crystal material of even tissue, device Cost is low.The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions.

Turned round the present invention relates to one kind and squeeze the compound large plastometric set mould of pier, including:Drift, split combined die, cushion block And die sleeve.It is installed together, and is formed under the effect of linking closely of die sleeve by wedge-shaped boss between the split chamber of combined die three Cylinder, cavity plate is in inverted cone on the whole.Die cavity is followed successively by torsion chamber, extrusion chamber and upset chamber from top to bottom inside cavity plate.

Bar placed cavity is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape size is identical with the geomery of extruded barses, and its section is circle Shape, a diameter of d1, its value is in 5~100mm.

It is to be uniform-distribution with the passage that area of section grading profile is inverted trapezoidal, vias inner walls in certain spiral to reverse chamber The shape of threads of angle beta is raised, helixangleβ between 45 °~60 °, screw thread rotation direction can left-handed or dextrorotation, bar is guided during extruding Rotate.

Extrude upset chamber and further comprise extrusion chamber and upset chamber.

Extrusion chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circle, a diameter of (0.5~0.8) d1, 5~10mm of height.

Upset chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circle, a diameter of d2, d2=d1- 1 bar extruded through extrusion chamber exists This region is upset, and bar diameter is returned to close to original size, is ready for lower a time deformation processing.

Pier is squeezed the present invention relates to the torsion of said apparatus and is combined large plastometric set manufacturing process, and its specific steps includes:

Step one, mould is assembled:Split combined die is combined and installed together shape by wedge-shaped boss and alignment pin Into circular cavity plate, and it is pressed into die sleeve, cavity plate and die sleeve is fastened by bolt and pressing plate fastening afterwards;

Step 2, prepares:Treat crowded bar to be pre-processed, such as machining, homogenizing annealing, and clean cavity plate die cavity Inwall, and extrusion lubricant is smeared on bar outer surface and mould intracavity wall, bar and mould are added respectively as needed Heat simultaneously reaches design temperature;

Step 3, moulding shaping:Pressurizing unit is opened, drift is with certain extrusion speed extruded barses, when squeezing for drift When pressure operative end surface is overlapped with the upper surface that cavity plate reverses chamber, pressurizing unit is closed, stops the extruding operation of drift, completes one The plastic deformation of passage;

Step 4, takes out bar:Hold-down bolt and pressing plate are unclamped, cavity plate is taken out and separated from die sleeve, is finally taken out Extruded bar stock, and the upset part of bar is separated with remainder;

Step 5, back pass deformation:Bar to completing extruding, torsion and mushrooming deformation, repeat step one, two, three With four, realize that multi-pass is turned round and squeeze pier large plastometric set, changed between neighboring track time and reverse chamber, bar is turned round between changing different passages Turn direction.

The present invention has following technique effect:

Crimp, torsional deflection and mushrooming deformation are integrated in one composite deformation device, solution 1. present invention design is a kind of Simple torsion of having determined crowded (be vortexed extruding) is difficult to multi-pass deformation and processes this defect.

2. using can freely change the torsion chamber with different directions screw thread, the torsional direction of bar is can control, passes through mould This optimization of lamps structure, can obtain the super fine crystal material of the institutional framework of fine uniform, microstructure by single mold Structure is more uniform, and material possesses higher mechanical property, and equipment cost is low.

3. mould structure is simple, it is easy to dismount, safety coefficient is higher.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is this mould main structure diagram.

Fig. 2 is the torsion chamber with right-handed thread

Fig. 3 is the torsion chamber with left hand thread

In Fig. 1:1st, pressure ram;2nd, fastening bolt;3rd, split combined die (including 31,10 and 32);4 heating tubes are placed Area;5th, die sleeve;6th, shop bolt 1;7th, shop bolt 2;8th, pressing plate;9th, extruded bar stock;10th, chamber is reversed;11st, cushion block.

Embodiment

Embodiments of the invention are elaborated by taking aluminium alloy as an example below, the present embodiment is with technical solution of the present invention Premised on it is lower implemented, give detailed embodiment and specific operating process, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited In following embodiments.

As shown in figure 1, the device that the present embodiment is related to includes:Pressure ram 1, fastening bolt 2, split combined die 3, plus Heat pipe rest area 4, die sleeve 5, alignment pin 6 and 7, pressing plate 8, cushion block 11.First, split combined die (31,10 and 32) is by wedge Shape boss and positioning finger setting are combined and are pressed into die sleeve, while being fixed by bolt and pressing plate, cavity plate inwall smears graphite Machine oil.Then, die sleeve is put into heating tube and heated, and mould adds 400 DEG C~450 DEG C of temperature, and bar to be squeezed is put into box electricity Resistance stove is heated, and heating-up temperature is 400 DEG C~480 DEG C and is incubated 1 hour.Followed by deformation processing, bar is put into Cavity plate bar rest area (i.e. barrel), extruding rod pressure effect under with 1mm/s~5mm/s speed pass sequentially through torsion chamber, Extrusion chamber, the bar by extruding realizes mushrooming deformation in upset chamber, and the compound large plastometric set of pier is squeezed so as to realize and once turn round.Rod Material realizes the torsion of material when by reversing chamber, so that the present invention is rotated to reality without extra device to mould The torsion of existing material.And then bar through reversing and extruding carries out mushrooming deformation, is changing the same of bar heterogeneous microstructure When, it is allowed to return to original diameter dimensions, the large plastometric set for lower a time is ready.

After completion a time deformation, cavity plate and quick separating bar placed cavity, torsion chamber, the upset chamber of extruding are taken out, and then Bar after extruding is taken out, extruding clout (remaining in the part bar for reversing chamber) is removed, retains upset part.As needed more Torsion chamber is changed, then Rapid Combination is installed together to form cavity plate, it is next to repeat abovementioned steps progress after the every preparation of completion Passage deformation processing.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of combined type, which is turned round, squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier, including:Drift, split combined die, cushion block and die sleeve, It is characterized in that:Split combined die is followed successively by bar placed cavity, reverses chamber, extrudes upset chamber from top to bottom, three chambers it Between can be freely separating, and be grouped together into cavity plate by wedge-shaped boss positioner and alignment pin Fast Installation;Cavity plate is overall On have and can be divided into axisymmetric two parts with split, with facilitate processing after quickly blank is taken out from concave die cavity;Split Cavity plate is accurately positioned by two alignment pins up and down, and forms concave die cavity under the effect of linking closely of die sleeve, and cavity plate is on the whole Inverted cone;By torsion, extruding and upset set of procedures in one, bar is after torsion, extruding and upset composite deformation and extensive The shape for expecting original dimension bar placed cavity be isometrical passage, cross sectional shape size and extruded barses is arrived before bar deformation processing again Size is identical, and its section is circle, and a diameter of d1, its value is 5~100mm;It is that area of section grading profile is terraced to fall to reverse chamber , during extruding guiding bar rotation raised in the shape of threads of certain helixangleβ is uniform-distribution with the passage of shape, vias inner walls;Squeeze Upset chamber is pressed to further comprise extrusion chamber and upset chamber, extrusion chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circle, a diameter of (0.5~ 0.8) d1,5~10mm of height;Upset chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circle, and a diameter of d2, d2=d1-1, i.e. d2 are less than D1 1mm, the bar extruded through extrusion chamber is upset in upset chamber, and bar diameter returns to the original dimension close to before deformation processing, is Lower a time deformation processing is ready.
2. combined type as claimed in claim 1, which is turned round, squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier, it is characterised in that:Reverse chamber helical angle β is between 45 °~60 °, and screw thread rotation direction can left-handed or dextrorotation;A set of processing unit (plant) is simultaneously equipped with different rotary side during processing To torsion chamber, according to selecting the need for different passage torsional directions corresponding to reverse chamber and process to realize to reverse different passages The conversion in direction.
3. the combined type described in a kind of use claim 1, which is turned round, squeezes the manufacturing process that pier is combined large plastometric set device, its feature It is:Comprise the following steps:
Step one, mould is assembled:Split combined die is formed into circle by wedge-shaped boss together with alignment pin bit combination Shape cavity plate, and be pressed into die sleeve, cavity plate and die sleeve are fastened by bolt and pressing plate fastening afterwards;
Step 2, processing prepares:Crowded bar is treated to be pre-processed:In machining, homogenizing annealing, cleaning cavity plate die cavity Wall, and graphite machine oil extrusion lubricant is smeared on bar outer surface and mould intracavity wall, as needed respectively to bar and mould Heated and reach design temperature, mould heating-up temperature is 400 DEG C~450 DEG C;
Step 3, deformation processing:Pressurizing unit is opened, pressure ram makes rod with 1mm/s~5mm/s extrusion speed extruded barses Material passes sequentially through torsion chamber, extrusion chamber and upset chamber and completes plastic working, when extruding operative end surface and the cavity plate of drift reverse chamber Upper surface overlap when, close pressurizing unit, stop drift extruding operation, complete a passage plastic deformation;
Step 4, takes out bar:Bolt and pressing plate are unclamped, combined die is taken out and separated from die sleeve, finally takes out and squeezes Pressure bar material, and torsion nubbin bar is removed, retain the upset part of bar to carry out lower passage plastic working;
Step 5, multi-pass deformation:As needed to completing upper a time torsion, extruding and the bar of mushrooming deformation, repeat to walk Rapid one, two, three and four, realize that multi-pass is turned round and squeeze pier large plastometric set, and tool is used interchangeably during adjacent passage deformation processing The cavity plate for having different hand of spirals reverses chamber, so as to change torsional direction of the bar between adjacent passage, it is to avoid bar is in single Direction is reversed, and Fine Texture of Material is more uniform after deformation processing.
4. combined type according to claim 3, which is turned round, squeezes the manufacturing process that pier is combined large plastometric set device, it is characterized in that, it is right Cavity plate is heated, and heating-up temperature is 400-450 DEG C and maintains temperature stabilization in whole extrusion process simultaneously.
5. combined type according to claim 3, which is turned round, squeezes the manufacturing process that pier is combined large plastometric set device, it is characterised in that: Bar blank to be squeezed is magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy.
6. combined type according to claim 5, which is turned round, squeezes the manufacturing process that pier is combined large plastometric set device, it is characterised in that: The aluminium alloy homogenizing annealing temperature is 400 DEG C~450 DEG C;The magnesium alloy homogenizing annealing temperature is 380 DEG C~420 ℃。
CN201610139512.5A 2016-03-11 2016-03-11 A kind of combined type, which is turned round, squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier and manufacturing process CN105728493B (en)

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