CN105728493A - Composite large plastic deformation device for combined type twisting and extruding pier and forming method - Google Patents

Composite large plastic deformation device for combined type twisting and extruding pier and forming method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105728493A
CN105728493A CN201610139512.5A CN201610139512A CN105728493A CN 105728493 A CN105728493 A CN 105728493A CN 201610139512 A CN201610139512 A CN 201610139512A CN 105728493 A CN105728493 A CN 105728493A
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die
bar
chamber
extruding
pier
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CN201610139512.5A
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CN105728493B (en
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滕杰
张斌
张辉
傅定发
谭傲霜
曾祥
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Hunan University
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Hunan University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C37/00Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape
    • B21C37/04Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape of bars or wire
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C25/00Profiling tools for metal extruding
    • B21C25/02Dies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J13/00Details of machines for forging, pressing, or hammering
    • B21J13/02Dies or mountings therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/002Hybrid process, e.g. forging following casting

Abstract

The invention provides a combined type large plastic deformation device integrating extruding, twisting and upsetting and a forming method of the device. The combined type large plastic deformation device mainly comprises an oppositely-opened combined type forming female die and an outer-layer die sleeve in interference fit with the female die. The forming female die is provided with a bar containing cavity, a twisting cavity and an extruding and upsetting cavity in sequence from top to bottom, and the three cavities can be freely separated from one another and can be rapidly installed and combined together to form the female die through a positioning device. In addition, the twisting cavity with threads different in rotating direction can be adopted for changing the twisting direction of a material during machining in adjacent gates. By means of the combined type large plastic deformation device integrating extruding, twisting and upsetting and the forming method of the device, twisting, extruding and setting technologies are combined into a whole, and a fine-grain material uniform in texture is prepared under the common effect of twisting, extruding and upsetting in the plastic deformation process; and twisting, upsetting and deforming in multiple passes can be achieved so that the size of alloy grains can be effectively reduced, the structure and the direction of the grains are adjusted by changing the twisting direction of a bar between different passes, and the mechanical performance of an alloy is greatly improved.

Description

A kind of combination type is turned round and is squeezed pier compound large plastometric set device and manufacturing process
Technical field
The present invention relates to the apparatus and method in a kind of severe Plastic Deformation Methods field, specifically pier compound large plastometric set device and processing method thereof are squeezed in a kind of torsion for preparing super fine crystal material, and using raw material is aluminium alloy and magnesium alloy.
Background and prior art
The light metal structure material such as aluminium alloy or magnesium alloy is in the increase day by day of the field application such as automobile, Aero-Space, military project, its performance requirement is also more and more higher, and preparation has one of alloy material focus being always up material science research of high specific strength and good strong plasticity coupling.It is improve alloy property further and do not damage the efficient hardening method of its ductility by crystal grain thinning and adjustment grainiess and orientation, and large plastometric set method (severeplasticdeformation is called for short SPD) has the advantage of uniqueness in preparing thin brilliant or Ultra-fine Grained alloy and improving alloy heterogeneous microstructure.According to Hall-Page empirical equation it can be seen that owing to grain refinement can promote the strength of materials to be significantly increased in certain grain size range.But after crystallite dimension refine to a certain degree (in particular up to submicron even nanoscale), it is no longer just that this single mechanism of refined crystalline strengthening is acting on, but several strengthening mechanism coupling rises leading.Large plastometric set may be defined as to obtain the process of super fine crystal material in the metal that super large plastic strain acts on certain volume in metal material forming process, namely makes material obtain bigger accumulation strain amount by specific manufacturing process or path and realizes a class process of efficiently strengthening.It is prepare one of block nanometer or the most promising method of super fine crystal material that SPD technology is known as by material circle, is widely used in the preparation process such as high performance simple metal, alloy, intermetallic compound, composite.
At present, Equal-channel Angular Pressing (equalchannelangularpressing, ECAP), reciprocating extrusion (cyclicextrusioncompression, CEC) and high pressure torsion (highpressureandtorsion, HPT) etc. be representative one of the SPD technology study hotspot direction being increasingly becoming this area.ECAP technique is that the former Russian scholar Segal proposed in patent (USSRPatentNo.575892) in 1977, this technology shape time blank flow through two in certain angle of cut (including inside and outside both sides) die cavity passage time be subject to pure shear metamorphosis, owing to die cavity shape of cross section and area are constant, therefore repeated multiple times extruding can obtain bigger accumulation strain amount, reach the effect that product grain refines and improves mechanical property.Through the development of nearly more than two decades, ECAP method has become one of most widely used SPD technology.Along with deepening continuously of research, successively develop and developed the multiple method such as rotating mould ECAP, limit crowded mould ECAP, multi-pass ECAP, continuous ECAP, rolling ECAP and tubulose PTCAP, not only enrich ECAP manufacturing process and promoted the raising of efficiency.But ECAP method on the corner inside and outside variable quantity there are differences, the overall uniformity of gained alloy product structure property is existed certain impact.
Reciprocating extrusion technology is proposed by J.Richert and M.Richert the earliest, and when this technology shapes, blank back and forth flows to B chamber through extruded hole, flows to A chamber from B chamber from A chamber, accumulative large strain amount after multi-pass circulates.Subsequently, CEC technique has been improved by researcheres.C type (Cshapeequalchannelreciprocatingextrusion, CECRE), S type and the different ECAP mode structure such as U-shaped are used in succession.ZANGIABADI etc. propose similar tube passage extruding (tubechannelpressing, TCP).PARDIS etc. propose similar reciprocating expansion squeezing and pressing method (cyclicexpansion extrusion, CEE), enrich the mentality of designing of existing mold version, it is provided that new technological means.Extruding and two independent process of jumping-up are used by ZAHARIA etc. continuously, and then propose cycle extrusion one By Means of Upsetting (repetitiveextrusionandupsetting, REU), further enhancing preparation effect and expand range of application
HPT deformation namely room temperature or lower than 0.4T temperature conditions under be opposite to original sample in die cavity and apply the pressure of several GPa, drift rotates through active friction and produces moment of torsion on its cross section simultaneously, promotes deformable body to produce the SPD technology of axially compression and tangential detrusion.Additionally, the high pressure torsion tube similar to it (high pressuretubetwisting, HPTT) technology has been used for the experimentation of the materials such as fine copper, fine aluminium and IF steel.When utilizing HPT to deform, mould to bear high pressure and prepare being relatively small in size of material.In addition, also been developed (the accumulativerollbonding of ply rolling technology repeatedly, ARB), multidirectional compression or forging (MAC/F), sheet material continuous confined strip shearing method (C2S2), multistage continuous ECAP deformation method (MP-ECAP), rotation mould ECAP technology (RD-ECAP) etc., also occur in that the deformation process of multiple Combination of Methods simultaneously, such as the combination of ECAP and HPT, ECAP and cold rolling combination etc..Generally speaking, said method can realize the large plastometric set of material under certain condition, but there is respective defect, if desired for the processing (i.e. big distortion) material carried out repeatedly, appointed condition is required higher, how to simplify the course of processing, improve the efficiency of crystal grain thinning, become the new research direction of SPD.
Retrieval finds, a kind of vortex squash type large plastometric set device of Chinese patent (application publication number CN103785702A), by arranging torsion extrusion chamber at die, described torsion extrusion chamber is in from upper port to the shape of lower port reducing, reversing and be provided with the crowded deformed area of torsion in extrusion chamber.This invention is combined with torsion and extrusion technique in one, so that mould is rotated to realize the torsion of material without extra device by the present invention, only can realize same effect by structural design, and the slip between material and mould can be eliminated when torsion.But due to the reducing of diameter of rod after deformation, it is impossible to utilize this device to realize the plastic deformation processing of multi-pass.
M.Shahbaz et al. is at " MaterialsScienceandEngineeringA " (material science engineering A, 2011, in " Anovelsinglepasssevereplasticdeformationtechnique:Vortex extrusion " (a kind of desirably single pass large plastometric set: the vortex extrudes) literary composition delivered on 530:469-472), describe the principle of vortex extruding.But the disadvantage of the vortex extruding introduced is to be only capable of carrying out single pass extruding, after extruding due to vortex, bar diameter size reduces, same device is utilized to cannot be carried out the deformation processing of back pass, cannot meet and obtain bigger overall strain amount through multi-pass extruding, in the effectiveness preparing super fine crystal material, there is certain defect.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the deficiency that above-mentioned technology exists, there is provided one to turn round and squeeze pier compound large plastometric set device and processing method thereof, material is made to produce a torsion, extruding and upset composite deformation by the method, and multi-pass processing can be realized, and split combined die structure owing to using, multi-pass adds the crowded chamber of the torsion that can use different rotation direction screw thread man-hour, change the torsional direction of bar between passage, bar same direction all the time is avoided to reverse, thus preparing the super fine crystal material of even tissue, installation cost is low.The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions.
The present invention relates to a kind of torsion and squeeze pier compound large plastometric set mould, including: drift, split combined die, cushion block and die sleeve.Splitting and rely on wedge shape boss to be installed together between combined die three chamber, and form cylinder under the effect of linking closely of die sleeve, die is on the whole in inverted cone.The internal die cavity of die is followed successively by torsion chamber, extrusion chamber and upset chamber from top to bottom.
Bar placed cavity is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape size is identical with the geomery of extruded bars, and its cross section is circular, and diameter is d1, its value is at 5~100mm.
Reversing chamber be area of section grading profile is the passage of inverted trapezoidal, vias inner walls is uniform-distribution with the screw-like in certain helixangleβ protruding, helixangleβ between 45 °~60 °, screw thread rotation direction can left-handed or dextrorotation, guide bar to rotate during extruding.
Extrude upset chamber and farther include extrusion chamber and upset chamber.
Extrusion chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circular, and diameter is (0.5~0.8) d1, height 5~10mm.
Upset chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circular, and diameter is d2, d2=d1-1 is upset in this region through the bar of extrusion chamber extrusion, and bar diameter returns to close to original size, ready for lower a time deformation processing.
The present invention relates to the torsion of said apparatus and squeeze pier compound large plastometric set manufacturing process, its concrete steps include:
Step one, die assembly: combined die dependence wedge shape boss will be split and alignment pin is combined and installed together and forms circular die, and be pressed in die sleeve, afterwards by bolt and pressing plate fastening fastening die and die sleeve;
Step 2, prepare: treat crowded bar and carry out pretreatment, such as machining, homogenizing annealing etc., and clean die mould intracavity wall, and smear extrusion lubricant on bar outer surface and mould intracavity wall, respectively bar and mould it is heated as required and reaches design temperature;
Step 3, moulding shaping: opening pressurizing unit, drift is with certain extrusion speed extruded bars, when the extruding operative end surface of drift overlaps with the upper surface in die torsion chamber, closing pressurizing unit, the extruding stopping drift running, and completes the plastic deformation of a passage;
Step 4, takes out bar: unclamp hold-down bolt and pressing plate, is taken out by die and separately, finally take out extruded bar stock, and the upset part of bar separated with remainder from die sleeve;
Step 5, back pass deforms: to completing extruding, reversing and the bar of mushrooming deformation, repeat step one, two, three and four, it is achieved multi-pass is turned round and is squeezed pier large plastometric set, changes and reverse chamber between neighboring track time, changes bar torsional direction between different passage.
The present invention has following technical effect that
1. the present invention designs a kind of composite deformation device that crimp, torsional deflection and mushrooming deformation is integrated in one, and solves simple torsion and squeezes (vortex extruding) and be difficult to multi-pass deformation and process this defect.
2. utilize and can freely change the torsion chamber with different directions screw thread, the torsional direction of bar can be controlled, by this optimization of mould structure, the super fine crystal material that single mold obtains the organizational structure of fine uniform can be passed through, heterogeneous microstructure is more uniform, material has higher mechanical property, and equipment cost is low.
3. mould structure is simple, it is easy to dismounting, safety coefficient is higher.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the main TV structure schematic diagram of this mould.
Fig. 2 is the torsion chamber with right-handed thread
Fig. 3 is the torsion chamber with left hand thread
In Fig. 1: 1, pressure ram;2, fastening bolt;3, combined die (including 31,10 and 32) is split;4 add heat pipe rest area;5, die sleeve;6, shop bolt 1;7, shop bolt 2;8, pressing plate;9, extruded bar stock;10, chamber is reversed;11, cushion block.
Detailed description of the invention
For aluminium alloy, embodiments of the invention being elaborated below, the present embodiment is carried out under premised on technical solution of the present invention, gives detailed embodiment and concrete operating process, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.
As it is shown in figure 1, the device that the present embodiment relates to includes: pressure ram 1, fasten bolt 2, split combined die 3, add heat pipe rest area 4, die sleeve 5, alignment pin 6 and 7, pressing plate 8, cushion block 11.First, splitting combined die (31,10 and 32) and be combined and be pressed into by wedge shape boss and alignment pin location in die sleeve, fixed by bolt and pressing plate simultaneously, die inwall smears graphite machine oil.Then, die sleeve is put into and is added heat pipe and be heated, and mould adds temperature 400 DEG C~450 DEG C, waits to squeeze bar and puts into chamber type electric resistance furnace and be heated, and heating-up temperature is 400 DEG C~480 DEG C and is incubated 1 hour.Followed by deformation processing, bar is put into die bar rest area (i.e. barrel), torsion chamber, extrusion chamber is passed sequentially through with the speed of 1mm/s~5mm/s under pressure ram pressure effect, bar through extruding realizes mushrooming deformation in upset chamber, thus realizing once turning round squeezing pier compound large plastometric set.Bar achieves the torsion of material when by reversing chamber, so that mould is rotated to realize the torsion of material without extra device by the present invention.And then bar through reversing and extrude carries out mushrooming deformation, and while changing bar heterogeneous microstructure, so as to return to original diameter dimensions, the large plastometric set for lower a time is ready.
After completing a time deformation, take out die sharp separation bar placed cavity, reverse chamber, extrude upset chamber, and then take out bar after extruding, remove extruding clout (namely remaining in the part bar reversing chamber), retain upset part.Change as required and reverse chamber, then Rapid Combination is installed together formation die, repeat abovementioned steps after completing every preparation and carry out lower a time deformation processing.

Claims (9)

1. a combination type is turned round and is squeezed pier compound large plastometric set device, including: drift, split combined die, cushion block and die sleeve, it is characterized in that: split combined die and be followed successively by bar placed cavity from top to bottom, reverse chamber, extrude upset chamber, can be freely separating between three chambeies, and be grouped together into die by wedge shape boss positioner and alignment pin Fast Installation.
2. combination type as claimed in claim 1 is turned round and is squeezed pier compound large plastometric set device, it is characterised in that die has on the whole to split and is divided into axisymmetric two parts, quickly to be taken out from concave die cavity by blank after facilitating processing;The die split relies on upper and lower two alignment pins to be accurately positioned, and forms concave die cavity under the effect of linking closely of die sleeve, and die is on the whole in inverted cone.
3. combination type as claimed in claim 1 is turned round and is squeezed pier compound large plastometric set device, it is characterised in that: by torsion, extruding and upset set of procedures in one, bar is material original dimension before reversing, extrude and return to again after upset composite deformation excellent deformation processing.
4. combination type as claimed in claim 1 is turned round and is squeezed pier compound large plastometric set device, it is characterised in that: bar placed cavity is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape size is identical with the geomery of extruded bars, and its cross section is circular, and diameter is d1, its value is 5~100mm;Torsion chamber is area of section grading profile is the passage of inverted trapezoidal, vias inner walls is uniform-distribution with the screw-like in certain helixangleβ protruding, guides bar to rotate during extruding;Extruding upset chamber and farther include extrusion chamber and upset chamber, extrusion chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circular, and diameter is (0.5~0.8) d1, height 5~10mm;Upset chamber is isometrical passage, and cross sectional shape is circular, and diameter is d2, d2=d1-1, i.e. d2Less than d1About 1mm, upset in upset chamber through the bar of extrusion chamber extrusion, bar diameter returns to original dimension before deformation processing, ready for lower a time deformation processing.
5. combination type as claimed in claim 4 is turned round and is squeezed pier compound large plastometric set device, it is characterised in that: reversing chamber helixangleβ between 45 °~60 °, screw thread rotation direction can left-handed or dextrorotation;Add man-hour a set of processing unit (plant) and be furnished with the torsion chamber in different rotary direction simultaneously, according to different passage torsional directions need select corresponding chamber of reversing to realize different passages are reversed the conversion of machine directions.
6. the manufacturing process turning round crowded pier compound large plastometric set device adopted described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: comprise the following steps:
Step one, die assembly: combined die will be split and rely on wedge shape boss and alignment pin bit combination together into circular die, and be pressed in die sleeve, and fasten die and die sleeve by bolt and pressing plate fastening afterwards;
Step 2, processing prepares: treats crowded bar and carries out pretreatment: machining, homogenizing annealing etc., cleaning die mould intracavity wall, and on bar outer surface and mould intracavity wall, smear the extrusion lubricants such as graphite machine oil, respectively bar and mould being heated and reached design temperature as required, mould heating-up temperature is 400 DEG C~450 DEG C;
Step 3, deformation processing: open pressurizing unit, pressure ram is with the extrusion speed extruded bars of 1mm/s~5mm/s, make bar pass sequentially through torsion chamber, extrusion chamber and upset chamber and complete plastic working, when the extruding operative end surface of drift overlaps with the upper surface in die torsion chamber, closing pressurizing unit, the extruding stopping drift running, and completes the plastic deformation of a passage;
Step 4, takes out bar: unclamp hold-down bolt and pressing plate, is taken out by combined die and separately, finally take out extruded bar stock, and remove torsion nubbin bar, retain the upset part of bar to carry out lower passage plastic working from die sleeve;
Step 5, multi-pass deformation: as required to the bar completing the torsion of upper a time, extruding and mushrooming deformation, repeat step one, two, three and four, realize multi-pass and turn round crowded pier large plastometric set, and be used interchangeably the torsion with different hand of spiral during adjacent passage deformation processing and squeeze chamber die, thus changing bar torsional direction between adjacent passage, it is to avoid bar is that single direction reverses, and after deformation processing, Fine Texture of Material is more uniform.
7. pier compound large plastometric set method is squeezed in torsion according to claim 6, it is characterized in that, die is heated, and maintains temperature stabilization while that heating-up temperature being 400-450 DEG C in whole extrusion process.
8. turn round according to claim 6 and squeeze pier compound large plastometric set method, it is characterised in that: wait that squeezing bar blank is magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy.
9. turn round according to claim 6 and squeeze pier compound large plastometric set method, it is characterised in that: described aluminium alloy homogenizing annealing temperature is 400 DEG C~450 DEG C;Described magnesium alloy homogenizing annealing temperature is 380 DEG C~420 DEG C.
CN201610139512.5A 2016-03-11 2016-03-11 A kind of combined type, which is turned round, squeezes the compound large plastometric set device of pier and manufacturing process Active CN105728493B (en)

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CN106111718A (en) * 2016-07-08 2016-11-16 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of forward extrusion continuously turns round composite forming device and method with squeezing
CN106636697A (en) * 2016-12-09 2017-05-10 重庆固鼎合金材料有限公司 Aluminum strontium alloy production process
CN106623718A (en) * 2016-12-08 2017-05-10 山东大学 Continuous tapered upsetting die and upsetting method for bar material with superhigh height-diameter ratio
CN106825097A (en) * 2017-04-01 2017-06-13 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of Equal-channel Angular Pressing and reciprocating crowded torsion compound molding device and method
CN106955902A (en) * 2017-05-25 2017-07-18 天津工业大学 Shaping dies and its manufacturing process are squeezed in a kind of tubing rotation
CN106984665A (en) * 2017-05-25 2017-07-28 天津工业大学 A kind of off-axis rotation extruding mold and its moulding material method
CN107282681A (en) * 2017-08-17 2017-10-24 西京学院 A kind of bar screw extrusion mould and its application method
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CN106111718A (en) * 2016-07-08 2016-11-16 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of forward extrusion continuously turns round composite forming device and method with squeezing
CN106111718B (en) * 2016-07-08 2018-02-09 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of continuous forward extrusion and crowded torsion composite forming device and method
CN106623718B (en) * 2016-12-08 2018-05-11 山东大学 The continuous cone upsetting die and method for upsetting of a kind of super large ratio of height to diameter bar
CN106623718A (en) * 2016-12-08 2017-05-10 山东大学 Continuous tapered upsetting die and upsetting method for bar material with superhigh height-diameter ratio
CN106636697A (en) * 2016-12-09 2017-05-10 重庆固鼎合金材料有限公司 Aluminum strontium alloy production process
CN106636697B (en) * 2016-12-09 2018-08-07 重庆固鼎合金材料有限公司 Al-sr alloy production technology
CN106825097B (en) * 2017-04-01 2018-06-19 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of Equal-channel Angular Pressing and reciprocating crowded torsion compound molding device and method
CN106825097A (en) * 2017-04-01 2017-06-13 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of Equal-channel Angular Pressing and reciprocating crowded torsion compound molding device and method
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