CN105557580B - A kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile - Google Patents

A kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile Download PDF

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CN105557580B
CN105557580B CN201510979674.5A CN201510979674A CN105557580B CN 105557580 B CN105557580 B CN 105557580B CN 201510979674 A CN201510979674 A CN 201510979674A CN 105557580 B CN105557580 B CN 105557580B
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water
juvenile
seedling
prawn
net cage
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CN105557580A (en
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孔令富
毕保良
李永能
邓君明
张曦
林秋叶
武祥伟
荣华
苏艳华
胡青
王晓雯
吴志蕾
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Yunnan Agricultural University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of cultural methods of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, belong to aquaculture field, the present invention before putting seedling by preparing, shrimp seedling is launched, bait feeding, daily management and etc. carry out greenhouse cage culture, by rationally controlling cultivation temperature, salinity, the technical parameters such as breeding density provide a good living environment for juvenile prawn, and special bait is provided for juvenile prawn, reduce aquaculture cost, improve juvenile prawn immunity, it effectively prevent the generation of prawn disease, ensure that the growth shell of juvenile prawn is normally carried out, maximumlly juvenile prawn can be promoted to grow, the survival rate of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile reaches 65% or more, up to 85.8%.

Description

A kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile
Technical field
The invention belongs to aquaculture fields, specifically, being related to a kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile.
Background technology
Macrobrachium rosenbergii is also known as white foot shrimp, Malaysian prawn, money shrimp, Penaeus vannamei etc., is known as the title of fresh water shrimp king.It is former The place of production concentrates on Ecuador bank, is one of highest three big shrimp species of cultivation amount in the world.The thin body fertilizer of its shell, it is Fresh & Tender in Texture, Delicious flavour, it is full of nutrition.In addition to the flavor rich in general Freshwater shrimps, life is filled in ripe Macrobrachium rosenbergii carapace Gland is grown, there is the special delicious taste for being similar to crab cream.Contain 20.6 grams of protein, 0.7 gram of fat per hectogram shrimp shrimp, and contains There are many vitamin and the necessary trace elements of human body, are high-protein nutrient aquatic products.
Larger change can all occur for transition stage of the Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile from the young to adult, feeding habits and nutritional need Change, the bait supply in juvenile prawn stage will have a direct impact on growth and the survival rate of juvenile prawn.Macrobrachium rosenbergii is not low temperature resistant, usual Roche natural pond Shrimp carries out cage culture in greenhouse, and temperature of cultivation there are certain requirements, and needs to realize constant temperature by boiler, makes Macrobrachium rosenbergii in this way Two batches of cultivation in 1 year is achieved, and significantly improves Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultured output and benefit, rational temperature controlling range be to It closes important.Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile adapts to wider salinity range, with the growth and development of juvenile prawn, salinity adaptation range Certain variation can occur, in the breeding process of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, it is the pass of cultivation to select a suitable salinity range Key can influence growth and the survival rate of juvenile prawn.The control of cultivation density is also particularly important, if improving cultivation density, water Middle dissolved oxygen amount is inadequate so that the risk of cultivation also increases therewith, if reduce cultivation density, cost but increase therewith, how to take House, which reaches benefit, becomes urgent problem to be solved.
The prevention of prawn disease is the important link in Macrobrachium rosenbergii breeding process, and stringent feeding management can effectively prevent shrimp The large area of disease occurs, and culturing economic is avoided to lose, and reduces cultivation wind.Therefore, it is necessary to propose a kind of to improve Macrobrachium rosenbergii Growth rate and survival rate are cultivated, fanning economics are improved, the method for reducing the Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile cultivation of cultivation risk.
Invention content
In order to solve the problems, such as background technology, the present invention provides a kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, The growth rate and survival rate of juvenile prawn can be effectively improved by rationally controlling the technical parameters such as cultivation temperature, salinity, breeding density, While rational bait of arranging in pairs or groups, aquaculture cost is reduced, can maximumlly promote juvenile prawn to grow and the generation of disease can be reduced.
To achieve the above object, the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, is as follows:
1) prepare before putting seedling:Put before seedling 3-5 days, sweep greenhouse health and simultaneously sterilizes, will in heat preservation net cage frame to greenhouse pond, Boiler tubing is connected, clean water is put into, salinity adjusting is carried out, salt pond complete again soluble in water is uniformly splashed when putting salt, is used Water in pond is extracted by water pump in hot-water boiler and is heated to Aeration in the water oxygenation by turbine type aerator, and will be heated Water be discharged into heat preservation net cage in, make the constant water temperature in heat preservation net cage to 27-28 DEG C, keep the temperature net cage in be arranged 10% it is hidden Object;
2) shrimp seedling is launched:First shrimp seedling bag is put into heat preservation net cage when launching shrimp seedling, then slowly stirs shrimp seedling bag, constant temperature Opening shrimp seedling sack is included in a little water and again slowly puts into shrimp seedling band water in heat preservation net cage after 30 minutes;
3) bait feeding:Put the mixing of the 1-10 days bait feeding algivorous insects, yolk, prawn slice, grass-leaved sweetflag, cordate houttuynia of seedling Object, put seedling feed after the 10th day algivorous insect, yolk, prawn slice, juvenile prawn mixed feed, grass-leaved sweetflag, cordate houttuynia mixture, daily It feeds four times, the time is respectively morning 6:00, noon 12:00, afternoon 18:00, night 0:00, each feeding volume is juvenile prawn weight 3%-5%, pay attention to when feeding bait close aerator, examine the situation of ingesting of shrimp seedling, according to ingest situation increase and decrease raise Feed amount;
4) daily management:After shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed, heat preservation net cage is checked daily, examine the ingesting of shrimp seedling, shell, The activities such as growth, pay attention to control and prevention of disease, pay attention to the variation of water quality, water temperature, salvage residual bait, sundries in water in time, every 7-10 days, It splashes limewash, the salinity of detection in 2-3 days, PH and ammonia nitrogen concentration are irregularly changed at fine day noon depending on water quality situation Water, and control fluctuating temperature amplitude.
Preferably, in step 1), control salinity range is 5-25.
Preferably, in step 2), control shrimp seedling throw-in density is every cubic metre and puts 5000-8000 tails in a suitable place to breed.
Preferably, in step 2), after shrimp seedling is launched, the water temperature in control heat preservation net cage is 28-31 DEG C.
Preferably, in step 3), it is algivorous insect 23%, yolk 10%, prawn slice to put the 1-10 days bait of seedling proportioning 64%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, cordate houttuynia 1% put the 10th day later bait of seedling and match and match for algivorous insect 25%, yolk 4%, juvenile prawn Close feed 10%, prawn slice 58%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, cordate houttuynia 1%.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:The present invention provides a kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, foster by rationally controlling The growth rate and survival rate of juvenile prawn can be effectively improved by growing the technical parameters such as temperature, salinity, density, while rational bait of arranging in pairs or groups Material reduces aquaculture cost, improves juvenile prawn immunity, effectively prevent the generation of prawn disease, ensure that the growth shell of juvenile prawn is normally carried out, Maximumlly juvenile prawn can be promoted to grow, the survival rate of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile reaches 65% or more, up to 85.8%.
Specific implementation mode
A kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, is as follows:
1) prepare before putting seedling:Put before seedling 3-5 days, sweep greenhouse health and simultaneously sterilizes, will in heat preservation net cage frame to greenhouse pond, Boiler tubing is connected, is put into clean water, carries out salinity adjusting, control salinity range is 5-25, and salt is dissolved in water when putting salt In again full pond uniformly splash, using turbine type aerator to Aeration in the water oxygenation, the water in pond is extracted into hot water by water pump It is heated in boiler, and the water heated is discharged into heat preservation net cage, made the constant water temperature in heat preservation net cage to 27-28 DEG C, protect The things concealed of setting 10% in Wembledon tennis open competition case;
2) shrimp seedling is launched:First shrimp seedling bag is put into heat preservation net cage when launching shrimp seedling, then slowly stirs shrimp seedling bag, constant temperature Opening shrimp seedling sack is included in a little water and again slowly puts into shrimp seedling band water in heat preservation net cage after 30 minutes, and control shrimp seedling is launched close Degree puts 5000-8000 tails in a suitable place to breed for every cubic metre, and after shrimp seedling is launched, the water temperature in control heat preservation net cage is 28-31 DEG C;
3) bait feeding:It is algivorous insect 23%, yolk 10%, prawn slice 64%, stone Chang to put the 1-10 days bait of seedling proportioning Pu 2%, cordate houttuynia 1%, it is algivorous insect 25%, yolk 4%, juvenile prawn mixed feed to put the 10th day later bait proportioning of seedling 10%, prawn slice 58%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, cordate houttuynia 1% feed four times daily, and the time is respectively morning 6:00, noon 12:00、 Afternoon 18:00, night 0:00, each feeding volume is the 3%-5% of juvenile prawn weight, pays attention to closing aerator when feeding bait, young The situation of ingesting of thin observation shrimp seedling, according to ingesting, situation increases and decreases scale of feeding;
4) daily management:After shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed, heat preservation net cage is checked daily, examine the ingesting of shrimp seedling, shell, The activities such as growth, pay attention to control and prevention of disease, pay attention to the variation of water quality, water temperature, salvage residual bait, sundries in water in time, every 7-10 days, It splashes limewash, the salinity of detection in 2-3 days, PH and ammonia nitrogen concentration are irregularly changed at fine day noon depending on water quality situation Water, and control fluctuating temperature amplitude.
Juvenile prawn mixed feed is commercial diet, and grass-leaved sweetflag and cordate houttuynia were the fine powder of 60 mesh sieve, and cordate houttuynia is perennial Draft is improved the function of immunity of organisms, has inhibiting effect to various microorganisms, streptococcus, golden yellow Portugal to haemolysis Grape coccus, micrococcus catarrhalis etc. have apparent inhibiting effect;Cordate houttuynia still has analgesia, antibechic, hemostasis, the work for inhibiting serous secretion With.
Grass-leaved sweetflag also known as water hold back grass, grass-leaved sweetflag, stone centipede, calamus etc., are the root of Araeceae herbaceos perennial Stem has antibacterial, antifungic action, can prevent enteritis disease, red skin disease, fin rot, saprolegniasis etc..
Embodiment 1
It puts before seedling 3-5 days, sweeps greenhouse health and simultaneously sterilizes, clean water will be put into, controlled in heat preservation net cage frame to greenhouse pond Salt manufacturing degree ranging from 5 realizes the constant water temperature in heat preservation net cage using turbine type aerator to Aeration in the water oxygenation by boiler It is 27 DEG C;When shrimp seedling is launched, control shrimp seedling throw-in density is every cubic metre and puts 5000 tails in a suitable place to breed, after shrimp seedling is launched, control heat preservation net Water temperature in case is 28 DEG C;It is algivorous insect 23%, yolk 10%, prawn slice 64%, grass-leaved sweetflag to put the 1-10 days bait of seedling proportioning 2%, cordate houttuynia 1%, put the later bait proportioning of seedling the 10th day be algivorous insect 25%, yolk 4%, juvenile prawn mixed feed 10%, Prawn slice 58%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, cordate houttuynia 1% feed four times daily, and the time is respectively morning 6:00, noon 12:00, afternoon 18:00, night 0:00, each feeding volume is the 3%-5% of juvenile prawn weight, pays attention to closing aerator when feeding bait, carefully see The situation of ingesting for examining shrimp seedling, according to ingesting, situation increases and decreases scale of feeding;After shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed, heat preservation net cage is checked daily, is noted Meaning control and prevention of disease, pays attention to the variation of water quality, water temperature, every 7-10 days, limewash of splashing, and the salinity of detection in 2-3 days, PH and ammonia Nitrogen concentration irregularly carries out changing water at fine day noon, and control fluctuating temperature amplitude depending on water quality situation.
By raising in 30 days, the survival rate of acquired data statistics, Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile reached 73.8%, and body length is average Increase by 0.72 ㎜ days, weight average day increases 0.069g.
Embodiment 2
It puts before seedling 3-5 days, sweeps greenhouse health and simultaneously sterilizes, clean water will be put into, controlled in heat preservation net cage frame to greenhouse pond Salt manufacturing degree ranging from 10 realizes that the water temperature in heat preservation net cage is permanent using turbine type aerator to Aeration in the water oxygenation by boiler It is set to 28 DEG C;When shrimp seedling is launched, control shrimp seedling throw-in density is every cubic metre and puts 6800 tails in a suitable place to breed, after shrimp seedling is launched, control heat preservation Water temperature in net cage is 29.5 DEG C;It is algivorous insect 23%, yolk 10%, prawn slice 64%, stone to put the 1-10 days bait of seedling proportioning Calamus 2%, cordate houttuynia 1%, it is algivorous insect 25%, yolk 4%, juvenile prawn mixed feed to put the 10th day later bait proportioning of seedling 10%, prawn slice 58%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, cordate houttuynia 1% feed four times daily, and the time is respectively morning 6:00, noon 12:00、 Afternoon 18:00, night 0:00, each feeding volume is the 3%-5% of juvenile prawn weight, pays attention to closing aerator when feeding bait, young The situation of ingesting of thin observation shrimp seedling, according to ingesting, situation increases and decreases scale of feeding;After shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed, heat preservation net cage is looked into daily It sees, pays attention to control and prevention of disease, pay attention to the variation of water quality, water temperature, every 7-10 days, limewash of splashing, the salinity of detection in 2-3 days, PH and ammonia nitrogen concentration irregularly carry out changing water at fine day noon, and control fluctuating temperature amplitude depending on water quality situation.
By raising in 30 days, the survival rate of acquired data statistics, Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile reached 85.8%, and body length is average Increase by 0.93 ㎜ days, weight average day increases 0.088g.
Embodiment 3
It puts before seedling 3-5 days, sweeps greenhouse health and simultaneously sterilizes, clean water will be put into, controlled in heat preservation net cage frame to greenhouse pond Salt manufacturing degree ranging from 25 realizes that the water temperature in heat preservation net cage is permanent using turbine type aerator to Aeration in the water oxygenation by boiler It is set to 28 DEG C;When shrimp seedling is launched, control shrimp seedling throw-in density is every cubic metre and puts 8000 tails in a suitable place to breed, after shrimp seedling is launched, control heat preservation Water temperature in net cage is 31 DEG C;It is algivorous insect 23%, yolk 10%, prawn slice 64%, stone Chang to put the 1-10 days bait of seedling proportioning Pu 2%, cordate houttuynia 1%, it is algivorous insect 25%, yolk 4%, juvenile prawn mixed feed to put the 10th day later bait proportioning of seedling 10%, prawn slice 58%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, cordate houttuynia 1% feed four times daily, and the time is respectively morning 6:00, noon 12:00、 Afternoon 18:00, night 0:00, each feeding volume is the 3%-5% of juvenile prawn weight, pays attention to closing aerator when feeding bait, young The situation of ingesting of thin observation shrimp seedling, according to ingesting, situation increases and decreases scale of feeding;After shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed, heat preservation net cage is looked into daily It sees, pays attention to control and prevention of disease, pay attention to the variation of water quality, water temperature, every 7-10 days, limewash of splashing, the salinity of detection in 2-3 days, PH and ammonia nitrogen concentration irregularly carry out changing water at fine day noon, and control fluctuating temperature amplitude depending on water quality situation.
By raising in 30 days, the survival rate of acquired data statistics, Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile reached 69.1%, and body length is average Increase by 0.67 ㎜ days, weight average day increases 0.071g.
Experimental analysis:
In the breeding process of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, consider that temperature, salinity, breeding density are factor design orthogonal test.
1 Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile of table cultivates orthogonal test conceptual design
2 Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile of table cultivates orthogonal test analysis result
By table 1,2 it is found that best is combined as A2B2C3, i.e., it is 29.5 DEG C in temperature, salinity 10, breeding density is 6800 tails/m3Cultivating condition under, Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivation survival rate reach 85.8%.
Temperature, salinity, breeding density have significant impact, Macrobrachium rosenbergii to the growth of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile and survival rate It is warm water shrimps, not low temperature resistant, when water temperature is relatively low, juvenile prawn stress reaction is larger, leads to the death of juvenile prawn, and in suitable temperature It spends in range, water temperature is higher, and the speed of growth of shrimp is faster;Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile is wider to the accommodation of salinity, but works as Salinity is more than a certain range, and the growth of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile can be slack-off, and survival rate can also decline;Breeding density is high, can cause a The rate that cuts one another's throat between body improves, and to reduce survival rate, and the usually weaker young of constitution is more in a disadvantageous position, and growth rate is further Decline.Three temperature, salinity, breeding density factors can also influence each other, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii is directly affected to the control of three's size The cultivation of juvenile prawn.
Palatability, nutrition and quantity of bait etc. are to influence the key factor of juvenile prawn growth rate and survival rate, in bait Cordate houttuynia and grass-leaved sweetflag are added, the immunity of juvenile prawn is improved, effectively prevent the generation of prawn disease, ensure that the growth shell of juvenile prawn is normal It carries out, promotes the growth of juvenile prawn.Comparison raising experiment is carried out with the bait for being not added with cordate houttuynia and grass-leaved sweetflag, is as a result shown with this After the bait feeding Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile that invention provides, average daily gain is higher by 3% compared with control group, and survival rate is higher by 5%.
The present invention provides a kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, by rationally controlling cultivation temperature, salinity, density etc. Technical parameter can effectively improve the growth rate and survival rate of juvenile prawn, while rational bait of arranging in pairs or groups, and reduce aquaculture cost, improve Juvenile prawn immunity effectively prevent the generation of prawn disease, ensure that the growth shell of juvenile prawn is normally carried out, can maximumlly promote juvenile prawn Growth, the survival rate of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile reach 65% or more, up to 85.8%.
Finally illustrate, preferred embodiment above is merely illustrative of the technical solution of the present invention and unrestricted, although logical It crosses above preferred embodiment the present invention is described in detail, however, those skilled in the art should understand that, can be Various changes are made to it in form and in details, without departing from claims of the present invention limited range.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of cultural method of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile, it is characterised in that:The cultural method of the Macrobrachium Rosenbergii Juvenile it is specific Step is:
1)Prepare before putting seedling:It puts before seedling 3-5 days, sweeps greenhouse health and simultaneously sterilizes, will connect in heat preservation net cage frame to greenhouse pond Boiler tubing is put into clean water, carries out salinity adjusting, and control salinity range is 5-25, puts when salt that salt is soluble in water complete again Pond is uniformly splashed, and using turbine type aerator to Aeration in the water oxygenation, the water in pond is extracted by water pump in hot-water boiler Heating, and the water heated is discharged into heat preservation net cage, make the constant water temperature in heat preservation net cage to 27-28 DEG C, keeps the temperature net cage The things concealed of middle setting 10%;
2)Shrimp seedling is launched:First shrimp seedling bag is put into heat preservation net cage when launching shrimp seedling, then slowly stirs shrimp seedling bag, constant temperature 30 divides Opening shrimp seedling sack is included in a little water and again slowly puts into shrimp seedling band water in heat preservation net cage after clock, and control shrimp seedling throw-in density is Every cubic metre is put in a suitable place to breed 5000-8000 tails, and after shrimp seedling is launched, the water temperature in control heat preservation net cage is 28-31 DEG C;
3)Bait feeding:It puts seedling and feeds within 1-10 days algivorous insect 23%, yolk 10%, prawn slice 64%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, cordate houttuynia 1% Mixture puts seedling and feeds algivorous insect 25%, yolk 4%, juvenile prawn mixed feed 10%, prawn slice 58%, grass-leaved sweetflag 2%, fish after the 10th day The mixture of raw meat grass 1% is fed four times daily, and the time is respectively morning 6:00, noon 12:00, afternoon 18:00, night 0:00, Each feeding volume is the 3%-5% of juvenile prawn weight, pays attention to closing aerator when feeding bait, examines the situation of ingesting of shrimp seedling, According to ingesting, situation increases and decreases scale of feeding;
4)Daily management:After shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed, heat preservation net cage is checked daily, examines the ingesting of shrimp, shell and growth Situation pays attention to control and prevention of disease, pays attention to the variation of water quality, water temperature, salvages residual bait, sundries in water, every 7-10 days, stone of splashing in time Buck, the salinity of detection in 2-3 days, pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration irregularly carry out changing water at fine day noon, and control depending on water quality situation Fluctuating temperature amplitude processed.
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