CN105494264B - A kind of selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination - Google Patents

A kind of selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination Download PDF

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CN105494264B
CN105494264B CN201510968531.4A CN201510968531A CN105494264B CN 105494264 B CN105494264 B CN 105494264B CN 201510968531 A CN201510968531 A CN 201510968531A CN 105494264 B CN105494264 B CN 105494264B
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honeybee
bee
coughing
vomiting
group
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CN105494264A (en
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刘彩云
王谦
汪应祥
张世文
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GANSU BEE INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION MAIN STATION
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GANSU BEE INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION MAIN STATION
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/033Rearing or breeding invertebrates; New breeds of invertebrates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K2227/00Animals characterised by species
    • A01K2227/70Invertebrates
    • A01K2227/706Insects, e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, medfly

Abstract

The present invention relates to apiculture technology, to solve the problems, such as that the excellent honeybee kind of existing utility crop pollination is few, quality is weak, Pollination Effect is bad, there is provided a kind of method of the seed selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination.This method passes through seed selection Italian Bee, introduce and cultivate golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee kind, using single cross or backcrossing mode, hybridize by multiple artificial insemination, cultivate and both meet biology of bee characteristic, and can is used for the improved seeds (strain) that protected crop is effectively pollinated, with height collection, high spawning, strong stress resistance, the good characteristic such as premunition is strong, disposition is docile, food consumption is low, significantly improve the activity enthusiasm for the honeybee that pollinated under protected crop environment, the pollination of crop is effectively realized, improves crop Pollination Effect.

Description

A kind of selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination
Technical field
The present invention relates to apiculture technology, the method for the seed selection of specifically a kind of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination.
Background technology
Bee colony has the highly developed ability for creating stable living condition in oneself nest.Influenceing honeybee life In weather factors, temperature is most important.Apis mellifera is flown more than 10 DEG C, and 16 DEG C are largely turned out for work, and 35 DEG C are most suitable Suitable collecting temperature, when temperature reaches more than 40 DEG C, almost stop field collecting work.Capping in bee colony at 37 DEG C, Although the worker bee puberty shortens 3 days, mortality, and many undergrown honeybees occurs.Industrialized agriculture be it is current most Vigourous rural area NPD projects, pole is played in the anti-season and trans-regional plantation of China vegetables and other Important Economic crops For important effect.According to " the 4th national industrialized agriculture annual meeting " report in 2004, all kinds of installment agriculture growth faces in China at present Product accounts for the 70% of world's facility cultivation area up to 2,100,000 hectares.Under protected crop cultivation condition, canopy room is closed to be made High temperature in into spring and summer stubble canopy, the improper low temperature that can cause autumn and winter stubble, survive the winter in stubble and Winter-Spring stubble canopy of Insulation.Therefore, facility It is the big barrier factors in protected crop pollination that hot environment has turned into current honeybee in greenhouse.
The fine-variety breeding of honeybee and popularization and application, it is to improve the important measures that beekeeping is horizontal, increases production, increases income, it is wrapped Include the approach such as utilize of Systematic selection, crossbreeding and hybrid vigour.The flourishing country of apiculture, all attaches great importance to honeybee breeding Selection work, and according to the nectar source weather conditions of locality, from excellent honeybee kind, extensively using hybrid vigour, establish specialization Benign epilepsy.This famous tower Rhein application technology of artificial insemination is carried out after selecting 4 Apis mellifera inbred strais in the world Hybridize the seed of double cross cultivated, the resistance to spy of Mead trains using technology of artificial insemination after Apis mellifera and Caucasia honeybee select 4 inbred strais Educate seed of double cross honeybee.U.S.'s karr cultivates the honeybee for clover pollination, by the seed selection of several generations, has cultivated and has had to clover There is the clover honeybee that height gathers power.China's honeybee fine-variety breeding work is started late compared with the flourishing country of apiculture, 20 The beginning of the sixties in century, just formally started honeybee heredity and honeybee fine-variety breeding in terms of research work.With to using honeybee Technology of artificial insemination succeeds, and various regions carry out breed improvement using the west honeybee kind introduced, and have therefrom selected new height Product system.Material is also made in many places using the honeybee kind of introduction, carries out cross experiment, has made some excellent hybridization groups Close.On the whole, the honeybee breeding that China is bred has high honey production type (such as " Song Dan 1 "), high-yield pulp type (such as " Zhejiang agriculture 1 " Deng), honey slurry high yield type (such as " Mount Huang 1 "), anti-mite type (such as Beijing 1), sweet glue-type (such as sweet glue 1).
In nature, honeybee is that crops are most important, optimal Pollinating Insect, by honeybee pollination yield can be made bright Aobvious to improve, quality significantly improves, and is the maximally effective increasing yield and improving quality measure in addition to conventional Means To Increase Production in agricultural production.According to joint The statistical confirmation of food and agricultural organization of state (FAO), chemical fertilizer is to the contribution rate or amount of increase in production average out to 40% or so of increases in grain production, agricultural chemicals For 20% or so, and honeybee pollination has then reached more than 45%, it is seen that great function of the honeybee pollination to agricultural production and income.Mesh The preceding acquired patent related to honeybee pollination in China has:A kind of bee colony special for pollination (CN201110393119.6), one Kind is used for the bee raising box (CN201010224537.8) of protected crop pollination, a kind of special bee pollination strength control box (CN201010505038.6) etc., mainly improved and innovated from pollination honeybee casing, be related to seed selection and be used for protected crop The patent for honeybee kind of pollinating is at present also in space state.Xu Xi lotuses in 2008 etc. are entered using the Apis mellifera easily to lay eggs and cold-resistant noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee Row hybridization, is utilized, the special bee colony of the pollination cultivated by heterosis, hybrid vigor, improves the delivery and feed infant power and worker honeybees foraging activity of canopy room queen bee The enthusiasm of nectar, but do not improved in terms of honeybee resistance and disease and insect resistance.
The content of the invention
To solve the problems, such as that the excellent honeybee kind of existing utility crop pollination is few, quality is weak, Pollination Effect is bad, the present invention carries For a kind of selection of the excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination, select with high collection, high spawning, strong stress resistance, The excellent honeybee kind that premunition is strong, disposition is docile, food consumption is low, pollinated for protected crop.
Technical scheme:
A kind of selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination, comprises the following steps:
(1) screening of Italian Bee purifies with processing:
According to fecundity, collection power, docility, maintain the performance indications such as group's force, investigate Italian Bee economic characters, Production performance and Main Morphology index, are compared analysis, filter out that delivery and feed infant power is strong, collection power is strong, disposition is docile, and heredity is steady Fixed healthy Italian Bee E.
Using the inbreeding means of mother and sons' mating and female father's backcrossing, honeybee kind purification is carried out, forms kind of the purer local of property Apis mellifera bee colony, as female group Em.
1 strong group is selected in Italian Bee E, the queen bee for cutting wing is limited in egg reproduction in hive with queen partition, after Case is as Yu Wang areas.In Yu Wang areas, put 2 maturations for having powder honey and cover sub- spleens, be i.e. Italian Bee E development of fertilized ova to the The worker bee larvae spleen of lair capping in 10 days, and put 2 larva spleens, i.e., Italian Bee E development of fertilized ova to the 4th day lair does not seal The worker bee larvae spleen of lid, larva spleen is placed in the middle, and composition Italian Bee educates Wang Qun Ey.
(2) Italian Bee virgin's Wang Zuowei female parents Eb is cultivated:
King's bar is educated in 2~3 layers of installation first in king's frame is educated, and each educates and 5~6 paraffin bowls are glued on king's bar, is dripped in each paraffin bowl It is upper 1 drop dilution royal jelly or honey, be put into educate allowed in Wang Qun Ey honeybee clear up 2~3 hours.In cleaning, bright, temperature 25 ~30 DEG C, the interior of relative humidity 80~90%, 1 frame small grub spleen is proposed from Italian Bee mother group Em, it is small will wherein to hatch 24 When within of the right age larva (larva body is in crescent, egg white color) move into paraffin bowl in.After shifting worm is terminated, king is educated educating king's frame and being added in In group Ey between larva spleen, continuously in dusk stimulating feeding.Small grub is sprouted wings after 12 days, and room be virgin king, selection individual Greatly, belly is large and long, the virgin's Wang Zuowei female parents Eb for taking action sane.
(3) according to resistance, premunition, food consumption, collection power, docility, the index such as reproductive capacity, select resistance, Premunition, low consumption, collection power, reproductive capacity, the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee of maintenance group's gesture excellent ability introduce Hunan Lixian County and supported to introduce a fine variety object Honeybee research institute gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee breeding queen bee, i.e., it is fertilized by golden noise made in coughing or vomiting drone, the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K in waiting out to produce or laying eggs.
The golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K of introduction is concentrated into raising in the seed farm that this breeding is selected, carries out seed selection and raising, is formed The purer golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee bee colony of kind property, as father group Kf;
(4) cultivate golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee kind and be used as male parent Kj by the use of drone:
In golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf, 1 drone sky honeycomb of the high-quality, top half equipped with sweet powder feed is added to 2 Between larva spleen, the larva spleen is the worker bee larvae spleen that the development of fertilized ova of golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K productions did not covered to the 4th day lair. Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K is controlled to produce unfertilized egg, 34~35 DEG C of keeping temperature, relative humidity 70~80% on drone honeycomb.Drone Ovum is that the unfertilized egg development of golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K productions widens the honeybee of both sides to the 7th day i.e. big larval stage, mobile drone honeycomb Road;Develop to the 11st day drone honeycomb after covering, gradually add honey comb and expand bee colony.The bee colony for cultivating drone protects all the time Feed abundance is held, under conditions of feed abundance, carries out stimulating feeding pollen and honey feed at dusk daily.Drone goes out 8 behind room Day or so start nest and circle in the air, sexal maturity in 13 days or so, the selection drone quicker, that belly is solid that takes action is male parent Kj.
(5) tissue mating group:
In the 10th day after step (2) moves worm or the 7th day after royal cell capping, mating group is got out, mating group is Specialize in and lure into virgin king, allow its mating, spawning Italian Bee group.Put in each mating group on 1~2 honeycomb have honey or The sweet powder spleen of pollen, 1 maturation for soon going out room cover the sub- spleen i.e. development of fertilized ova of Italian Bee queen bee production to a 20th day left side Right worker bee larvae spleen, and the young honeybee spleen of 1~2 sufficient frame (full honeybee is all climbed on every honeycomb two sides), form mating group.
(6) the maternal Eb of tissue and male parent Kj carries out artificial insemination hybridization:
Operated under the honeybee artificial insemination instrument device of laboratory, using single cross or backcrossing mode, by repeatedly hybridization, selector The ideal type simple group for closing breeding objective is hybrid bee colony F1, eliminates bad bee colony combination, cultivates select and remain excellent group Close.
(7) in hybrid bee colony F1 virgin Wang Yuqun in f3generation caused by drone hybridization, selection collection power, production Ovum power, premunition, docility are strong, small, character stable and consistent the simple group of consumption is hybrid bee colony (F2), equally cultivate virgin king And drone, take drone mixed semen manually to virgin Wang Shoujing.After new queen to lay eggs, the bee colony F3 of third generation hybrid system just into For a new lines.
(8) the new lines bee colony (F3) that step (7) is cultivated is used into inbreeding means, traversed by or backcrossing, made bad Gene pure, it is easy to eliminate, makes excellent gene pure, character reaches unanimity, and is formed new with the honeybee for stablizing hereditary basis Strain.
In the above-mentioned technical solutions:During cultivating Italian Bee virgin king in the step (2), using compound shifting worm Method, i.e., move worm after 24 hours the 1st time, taking-up educates king's frame, takes off royal cell, tweezer abandons larva, is moved into one again immediately in the original location Of the right age larva (larva body is in crescent, egg white color) within hatching 24 hours from Italian Bee mother group's Em larva spleens, so The virgin king brought out is physically fit, and fecundity is high.The step (4) cultivates process of the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee kind by the use of drone as male parent Kj In, spring gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf is minimum to be no less than 7 sufficient frame honeybees (full honeybee is all climbed on every honeycomb two sides), summer gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf Answer more than 10 sufficient frame honeybees (full honeybee is all climbed on every honeycomb two sides).
In the above-mentioned technical solutions:The new lines honeybee kind cultivated in the step (8), body colour are purplish red, and afterbody is black Color, it is specially:Three, the 4th backboard plates point is black, and the 5th backboard 1/5 is black, and the 6th backboard 2/3 is black.
The biological characteristics of father and mother group's honeybee kind is as follows in the present invention:
Italian Bee delivery and feed infant power is strong, and it is gentle to educate worm section rate, after early spring queen bee starts spawning, its egg laying amount climate, nectar source Influence etc. natural conditions is little.Swarmming property is weak, easily maintains jumpbogroup.Collection power to large nectar source is strong, but to fragmentary sweet powder source Utilization ability it is poor, it is big to the collection capacity of pollen.Feed consumption is big, and disposition is docile, does not keep in dark place, and directive force is poor, easily fan Nest, the property stolen is strong, and clear nest habit is strong.Survived the winter in the form of strong group, overwintering feed consumption is big, poor in extremely frigid zones hibernating ability. Premunition is weaker.
Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee is yellow noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee, is one separated from black honeybee kind Ka Nialan honeybees using its natural variation Individual yellow honeybee kind.The worker bee long lifespan that golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee is brought out, the advantages of this is one very big, so golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee can maintain 16 sufficient frames Group's gesture, and through excessive wash with watercolours honey phase group's gesture decline it is small.The rate of attendance of golden noise made in coughing or vomiting worker bee is higher than Italian Bee by more than 32.3%.Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting Honeybee fecundity is strong, can maintain jumpbogroup, and large area nectar source collection power is strong, and and can is heat-resisting etc..Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee is relatively excelled at leveraging sporadicly Nectar source, relatively save feed.Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee has stronger resistivity to several obstinate sexually transmitted diseases.Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting not only resists cold, and It is also heat-resisting, it is the preferable insect of pollination.
Above-mentioned honeybee kind has the characteristic for being suitable for actively being pollinated under protected crop growing environment, use of advantage, after cross combination The activity enthusiasm under protected crop environment can be improved, effectively realizes the pollination of crop, improves crop Pollination Effect.
Beneficial effect:
The present invention is hybridized using Italian Bee and Jin Ka honeybees, use of advantage, has been filtered out and has both been met biology of bee Characteristic, and can are used for the improved seeds (strain) that protected crop is effectively pollinated.The spy of the honeybee new varieties (new lines) selected Point is:First, under the conditions of the high and cold high-heat environment of protected crop, obtained in honeybee worker honeybees foraging activity power and pollination ability effectively Improve;Second, under the conditions of canopy room, honeybee disposition is docile and phototaxis is weak, and the probability that such honeybee hits canopy will be reduced, loss Reduce;Third, under hot and humid environment, resistance, the ability of disease and insect resistance of honeybee are strengthened, and honeybee loss is greatly reduced.
By investigating experiment to the economic characters of pollination honeybee new varieties (strain), the results showed that:In protected crop environment bar Under part, the new lines honeybee collection power of cultivation improves 10~30% than Italian Bee, and metahomomorphisms on groups and the local of this area are anticipated Honeybee is similar or slightly above Italian Bee, high-temp resisting high-humidity resisting ability improve 20~25% than Italian Bee, and honeybee resistance against diseases is than this Ground Apis mellifera improves 10~20%, and feed conversion ratio Italian Bee reduces by 20~30%, and the worker bee life-span is local in Harvest time average specific Apis mellifera grows 6~8 days, has the good characteristics such as strong stress resistance, disposition are docile, phototaxis is weak.Therefore, the present invention passes through cross combination Cultivate, significantly improve the activity enthusiasm for the honeybee that pollinated under protected crop environment, effectively realize the pollination of crop, improve crop Pollination Effect.
Embodiment
A kind of selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination, comprises the following steps:
(1) screening of Italian Bee purifies with processing:
According to fecundity, collection power, docility, maintain the performance indications such as group's force, investigate Italian Bee economic characters, Production performance and Main Morphology index, are compared analysis, filter out that delivery and feed infant power is strong, collection power is strong, disposition is docile, and heredity is steady Fixed healthy Italian Bee E.
Using the inbreeding means of mother and sons' mating and female father's backcrossing, honeybee kind purification is carried out, forms kind of the purer local of property Apis mellifera bee colony, as female group Em.
1 strong group is selected in Italian Bee E, the queen bee for cutting wing is limited in egg reproduction in hive with queen partition, after Case is as Yu Wang areas.In Yu Wang areas, put 2 maturations for having powder honey and cover sub- spleens, be i.e. Italian Bee E development of fertilized ova to the The worker bee larvae spleen of lair capping in 10 days, and put 2 larva spleens, i.e., Italian Bee E development of fertilized ova to the 4th day lair does not seal The worker bee larvae spleen of lid, larva spleen is placed in the middle, and composition Italian Bee educates Wang Qun Ey.
(2) Italian Bee virgin's Wang Zuowei female parents Eb is cultivated:
King's bar is educated in 2~3 layers of installation first in king's frame is educated, and each educates and 5~6 paraffin bowls are glued on king's bar, is dripped in each paraffin bowl It is upper 1 drop dilution royal jelly or honey, be put into educate allowed in Wang Qun Ey honeybee clear up 2~3 hours.In cleaning, bright, temperature 25 ~30 DEG C, the interior of relative humidity 80~90%, 1 frame small grub spleen is proposed from Italian Bee mother group Em, it is small will wherein to hatch 24 When within of the right age larva (larva body is in crescent, egg white color) move into paraffin bowl in.After shifting worm is terminated, king is educated educating king's frame and being added in In group Ey between larva spleen, continuously in dusk stimulating feeding.Small grub is sprouted wings after 12 days, and room be virgin king, selection individual Greatly, belly is large and long, the virgin's Wang Zuowei female parents Eb for taking action sane.
(3) according to resistance, premunition, food consumption, collection power, docility, the index such as reproductive capacity, select resistance, Premunition, low consumption, collection power, reproductive capacity, the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee of maintenance group's gesture excellent ability introduce Hunan Lixian County and supported to introduce a fine variety object Honeybee research institute gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee breeding queen bee, i.e., it is fertilized by golden noise made in coughing or vomiting drone, the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K in waiting out to produce or laying eggs.
The golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K of introduction is concentrated into raising in the seed farm that this breeding is selected, carries out seed selection and raising, is formed The purer golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee bee colony of kind property, as father group Kf;
(4) cultivate golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee kind and be used as male parent Kj by the use of drone:
In golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf, 1 drone sky honeycomb of the high-quality, top half equipped with sweet powder feed is added to 2 Between larva spleen, the larva spleen is the worker bee larvae spleen that the development of fertilized ova of golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K productions did not covered to the 4th day lair. Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K is controlled to produce unfertilized egg, 34~35 DEG C of keeping temperature, relative humidity 70~80% on drone honeycomb.Drone Ovum is that the unfertilized egg development of golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K productions widens the honeybee of both sides to the 7th day i.e. big larval stage, mobile drone honeycomb Road;Develop to the 11st day drone honeycomb after covering, gradually add honey comb and expand bee colony.The bee colony for cultivating drone protects all the time Feed abundance is held, under conditions of feed abundance, carries out stimulating feeding pollen and honey feed at dusk daily.Drone goes out 8 behind room Day or so start nest and circle in the air, sexal maturity in 13 days or so, the selection drone quicker, that belly is solid that takes action is male parent Kj.
(5) tissue mating group:
In the 10th day after step (2) moves worm or the 7th day after royal cell capping, mating group is got out, mating group is Specialize in and lure into virgin king, allow its mating, spawning Italian Bee group.Put in each mating group on 1~2 honeycomb have honey or The sweet powder spleen of pollen, 1 maturation for soon going out room cover the sub- spleen i.e. development of fertilized ova of Italian Bee queen bee production to a 20th day left side Right worker bee larvae spleen, and the young honeybee spleen of 1~2 sufficient frame (full honeybee is all climbed on every honeycomb two sides), form mating group.
(6) the maternal Eb of tissue and male parent Kj carries out artificial insemination hybridization:
Operated under the honeybee artificial insemination instrument device of laboratory, using single cross or backcrossing mode, by repeatedly hybridization, selector The ideal type simple group for closing breeding objective is hybrid bee colony F1, eliminates bad bee colony combination, cultivates select and remain excellent group Close.Has this Crossing system as shown in table 1, table 2:
Table 1:Single cross
Table 2:Backcrossing
(7) in hybrid bee colony F1 virgin Wang Yuqun in f3generation caused by drone hybridization, selection collection power, production Ovum power, premunition, docility are strong, small, character stable and consistent the simple group of consumption is hybrid bee colony (F2), equally cultivate virgin king And drone, take drone mixed semen manually to virgin Wang Shoujing.After new queen to lay eggs, the bee colony F3 of third generation hybrid system just into For a new lines.Specific Crossing system is as shown in table 3:
Table 3:
(8) the new lines bee colony (F3) that step (7) is cultivated is used into inbreeding means, traversed by or backcrossing, made bad Gene pure, it is easy to eliminate, makes excellent gene pure, character reaches unanimity, and is formed new with the honeybee for stablizing hereditary basis Strain.Specific traversed by mode is as shown in table 4:
Table 4:Traversed by
In the above-described embodiment:During cultivating Italian Bee virgin king in the step (2), using compound shifting worm Method, i.e., move worm after 24 hours the 1st time, taking-up educates king's frame, takes off royal cell, tweezer abandons larva, is moved into one again immediately in the original location Of the right age larva (larva body is in crescent, egg white color) within hatching 24 hours from Italian Bee mother group's Em larva spleens, so The virgin king brought out is physically fit, and fecundity is high.The step (4) cultivates process of the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee kind by the use of drone as male parent Kj In, spring gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf is minimum to be no less than 7 sufficient frame honeybees (full honeybee is all climbed on every honeycomb two sides), summer gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf Answer more than 10 sufficient frame honeybees (full honeybee is all climbed on every honeycomb two sides).
In the above-described embodiment:The new lines honeybee kind cultivated in the step (8), body colour are purplish red, and afterbody is black Color, it is specially:Three, the 4th backboard plates point is black, and the 5th backboard 1/5 is black, and the 6th backboard 2/3 is black.

Claims (4)

  1. A kind of 1. selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination, it is characterised in that:Comprise the following steps:
    (1) screening of Italian Bee purifies with processing:
    According to performance indications such as fecundity, collection power, docility, maintenance group's force, economic characters, the production of Italian Bee are investigated Performance and Main Morphology index, are compared analysis, filter out that delivery and feed infant power is strong, collection power is strong, disposition is docile, and inheritance stability Healthy Italian Bee E;
    Using the inbreeding means of mother and sons' mating and female father's backcrossing, honeybee kind purification is carried out, forms kind of the purer Italian Bee of property Bee colony, as female group Em;
    1 strong group is selected in Italian Bee E, the queen bee for cutting wing is limited in egg reproduction in hive with queen partition, is made after case For Yu Wang areas;In Yu Wang areas, put 2 maturations for having powder honey and cover sub- spleen, i.e., Italian Bee E development of fertilized ova was to the 10th day The worker bee larvae spleen of lair capping, and put 2 larva spleens, i.e., Italian Bee E development of fertilized ova to the 4th day lair does not cover Worker bee larvae spleen, larva spleen is placed in the middle, and composition Italian Bee educates Wang Qun Ey;
    (2) Italian Bee virgin's Wang Zuowei female parents Eb is cultivated:
    King's bar is educated in 2~3 layers of installation first in king's frame is educated, and each educates and 5~6 paraffin bowls are glued on king's bar, upper 1 drop of drop in each paraffin bowl The royal jelly or honey of dilution, be put into educate allowed in Wang Qun Ey honeybee clear up 2~3 hours;In cleaning, bright, temperature 25~30 DEG C, the interior of relative humidity 80~90%, from Italian Bee mother group Em propose 1 frame small grub spleen, will wherein hatch 24 hours with Interior of the right age larva is moved into paraffin bowl, and the larva body of the of the right age larva is in crescent, egg white color;Move after worm terminates, educating king Frame, which is added in, educates in Wang Qun Ey between larva spleen, continuously in dusk stimulating feeding;Small grub is sprouted wings after 12 days, and room be virgin king, Selection individual is big, belly is large and long, the virgin's Wang Zuowei female parents Eb for taking action sane;
    (3) according to resistance, premunition, food consumption, collection power, docility, the index such as reproductive capacity, resistance, disease-resistant is selected Power, low consumption, collection power, reproductive capacity, the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee of maintenance group's gesture excellent ability introduce the bee-keeping of Hunan Lixian County and ground to introduce a fine variety object Study carefully the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee breeding queen bee of institute, i.e., be fertilized by golden noise made in coughing or vomiting drone, the golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K in waiting out to produce or laying eggs;
    The golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K of introduction is concentrated into raising in the seed farm that this breeding is selected, carries out seed selection and raising, forms kind of a property Purer golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee bee colony, as father group Kf;
    (4) cultivate golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee kind and be used as male parent Kj by the use of drone:
    In golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf, 1 drone sky honeycomb of the high-quality, top half equipped with sweet powder feed is added to 2 larvas Between spleen, the larva spleen is the worker bee larvae spleen that the development of fertilized ova of golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K productions did not covered to the 4th day lair;Control Golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K produces unfertilized egg, 34~35 DEG C of keeping temperature, relative humidity 70~80% on drone honeycomb;Drone ovum is By the 7th day, i.e. big larval stage, mobile drone honeycomb widened the honeybee road of both sides, hair for the unfertilized egg development of golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee queen bee K productions Educate to the 11st day drone honeycomb after covering, gradually add honey comb and expand bee colony;The bee colony for cultivating drone remains feeding Material is sufficient, under conditions of feed abundance, carries out stimulating feeding pollen and honey feed at dusk daily;Drone goes out a left side on the 8th behind room It is right start nest circle in the air, sexal maturity in 13 days or so;The drone quicker, that belly is solid of selection action is male parent Kj;
    (5) tissue mating group:
    In the 10th day after the step (2) moves worm or the 7th day after royal cell capping, mating group is got out, mating group is Specialize in and lure into virgin king, allow its mating, spawning Italian Bee group;Put in each mating group on 1~2 honeycomb have honey or The sweet powder spleen of pollen, 1 maturation for soon going out room cover the sub- spleen i.e. development of fertilized ova of Italian Bee queen bee production to a 20th day left side Right worker bee larvae spleen, and the young honeybee spleen of 1~2 sufficient frame, form mating group, and the sufficient frame refers to that every honeycomb two sides is all climbed Full honeybee;
    (6) the maternal Eb of tissue and male parent Kj carries out artificial insemination hybridization:
    Operated under the honeybee artificial insemination instrument device of laboratory, using single cross or backcrossing mode, by repeatedly hybridization, selection, which meets, educates The ideal type simple group of kind target is hybrid bee colony F1, eliminates bad bee colony combination, cultivates the excellent combination for selecting and remain;
    (7) in hybrid bee colony F1 virgin Wang Yuqun in f3generation caused by drone hybridization, selection collection power, spawning Power, premunition, docility are strong, small, character stable and consistent the simple group of consumption is hybrid bee colony F2, equally cultivate virgin Wang Hexiong Honeybee, take drone mixed semen manually to virgin Wang Shoujing;After new queen to lay eggs, the bee colony F3 of third generation hybrid system just turns into one Individual new lines;
    (8) the new lines bee colony F3 that the step (7) is cultivated is used into inbreeding means, traversed by or backcrossing, makes bad base Because of homozygosis, it is easy to eliminate, makes excellent gene pure, character reaches unanimity, and is formed with the honeybee new product for stablizing hereditary basis System.
  2. A kind of 2. selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: During Italian Bee virgin king is cultivated in the step (2), using the method for compound shifting worm, i.e., worm is moved 24 hours the 1st time Afterwards, take out and educate king's frame, take off royal cell, tweezer abandons larva, is moved into one again immediately in the original location from Italian Bee mother group's Em larva spleens Of the right age larva within hatching 24 hours, the larva body of the of the right age larva are in crescent, egg white color, the virgin king so brought out Physically fit, fecundity is high.
  3. A kind of 3. selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: The step (4) cultivates golden noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee kind by the use of drone as during male parent Kj, and spring gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf is no less than 7 sufficient frames Honeybee, summer, gold noise made in coughing or vomiting honeybee father group Kf was answered more than 10 sufficient frame honeybees, and the sufficient frame refers to that full honeybee is all climbed on every honeycomb two sides.
  4. A kind of 4. selection of excellent honeybee kind for protected crop pollination according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: The new lines honeybee kind cultivated in the step (8), body colour is purplish red, and afterbody is black, is specially:Three, the 4th backboard plates Point is black, and the 5th backboard 1/5 is black, and the 6th backboard 2/3 is black.
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CN107258703B (en) * 2017-08-16 2019-12-13 福建农林大学 Bee egg removal method for microinjection
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