Middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system
The present invention relates to bee raising technical field, in particular to a kind of middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system.
Apiculture is considered as traditional sideline production by people since ancient times, and with the development of modernization multi-form agriculture, honeybee takes for agricultural
Business, is that crops, fruit tree, vegetables, herbage etc. propagate pollen especially with honeybee, and the product of agricultural product can be significantly increased
Amount and quality, increasingly cause the attention of people.Therefore, bee-keeping is listed in the important component of modernization multi-form agriculture already,
Apiculture do not account for arable land, without grain, small investment, instant effect, income are big, are one both free from environmental pollution, and money is made full use of again
The quick-acting industries in source, are good projects that mountain area is shaken off poverty and set out on the road to prosperity.China region is vast, and floristics enriches.Raising honeybee is in China
There is good traditional and basis, many peasants are to have gone on road of getting wealth by bee-keeping.But bee-keeping is again a science,
The only bee-keeping of science could be had a good harvest, and obtain high profit.
It is one of vital work of apiculture that honeybee breeding is protected and bred, and the flourishing country of some apiculture is right
This work is paid much attention to, and some countries are strictly controlled by decree.As Romania only allows to breed Carpathians honeybee；
The states such as Germany, Austria only use Ka Niela honeybees in beekeeping.《People's Republic of China's herding method》Middle regulation " honeybee, silkworm
Protection of resources utilization and production and operation, be applicable this law pertinent regulations ".Honeybee breeding is protected and bred and is built upon seed selection basis
On carry out, in a population, the phene of each bee colony occurs some differences, and seed selection is needed when breeding, while
By breeding for science, can be maintained the kind of the improved seeds for choosing.Therefore, breed and seed selection is two phases
Auxiliary indivisible link of coordinating.
Changbai Mountain apis cerana (middle honeybee) is the precious resources in apis cerana treasure-house, its cold-resistant, the biology of more resistance to jumpbogroup
Characteristic is learned, at home and abroad can not be common in Eastern bee.With the people for adopting generation and wild middle honeybee of Changbaishan area forestry
Catching, the ecological environment that honeybee depends on for existence in Changbaishan area constantly deteriorates, and at the same time vast middle honeybee raising family is still continued to use
Traditional bucket supports method, and honey is taken by the way of honeybee ruins nest using killing, and seriously destroys the middle honeybee natural resources of Changbaishan area.And such as
Fruit is raised using movable-frame hive, and due to artificial excessive management, the genetic diversity of the middle honeybee of Changbaishan area is lost in and effectively causes honeybee kind
Degenerate, honeybee is in endangered edge in making Changbai Mountain.Therefore it provides during one kind prevents middle honeybee kind matter Resource Degradation, ensures
The middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system of the continuable sound development of honeybee industry is particularly important.
In view of this, it is special to propose the present invention.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system, to solve the above problems.
In order to realize above-mentioned purpose of the invention, spy uses following technical scheme：
A kind of middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system, including：
1), plant bee colony barrel to support, bee colony is tied up into spleen when educating king and crosses beehive, bee colony group cultivates to plant when strong and uses drone and queen bee；
2), after queen's sexal maturity is located, the kind is taken to carry out virgin king's artificial insemination with the seminal fluid of drone；
3) by queen bee feeding original storage king bee colony after the completion of, inseminating, transferred again after 3~4 days into newly point group, newly divide group to open anti-
Fly to escape nest door：Nature mating cultivation honeybee kind is carried out with the maternal drone with new point of group of its work after queen to lay eggs.
The indigenous honeybee kind of Zhong Fengshi China, beekeeping equipment has cold-resistant heat resistanceheat resistant in Changbai Mountain, and food consumption saves and can profit
The features such as with fragmentary sweet powder source, especially adapt to the vast mountain area of China and raise.But because middle honeybee raises swarmming property by force, queen to lay eggs power
It is again relatively low, it is difficult to maintain strong group feeding to support, it is impossible to the production potential of honeybee and the warp for increasing substantially Chinese Bee Feeding in further playing
The middle honeybee honeybee kind of the excellent high yield of present invention selection, carries out original seed preservation and breeds using technology of artificial insemination, cultivates near
Hand over system：The kind of queen breeding is supported with bee colony using ecosystem bucket, and during queen breeding, underway honeybee crosses case.Produce the honeybee of ceromel
Group is raised using movable-frame hive throughout the year.So not only solve bucket and bring up king, produce inconvenient problem and solve again in movable-frame hive raising
During cause honeybee kind to degenerate due to artificial excessively management, the contradiction for yielding poorly.
Preferably, honeybee honeybee kind mating system in as described above, it is described bee colony tied up into spleen cross the operation of case specifically include：
Honeybee bucket where kind of bee colony is slowly inclined, it is continuous to tap honeybee bottom of the barrel expulsion bee colony and crawl toward wooden barrel top, then
The honeycomb of wooden barrel bottom is cut off one by one since a side spleen to centre with knife, and the honeycomb that will be cut off is with being bundled into prior standard
It is put into beehive on the frame got ready, finally the bee colony in bucket is collected into honeybee cover, then lures beehive.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, in step 1) in, the cultivation time of the queen bee is described
Plant and carried out after 8~13 days after being started with the culture of drone.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, the beehive is bubble chamber.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, path length 380mm~390mm, 255mm wide in the beehive
~265mm, 350mm~360mm high：
It is furthermore preferred that the wall thickness of the bubble chamber is 20mm~40mm.
Each beehive can put 8~12 frames.
It is furthermore preferred that the applying date that the frame used by the present invention is inventor to be submitted to is 2016-07-25, Application No.
Frame described in a kind of 201610590604.5 " frame and the beehive using the frame " patent document.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, the bubble chamber is provided with to be prevented flying to escape nest door；
The bubble chamber bottom is provided with the cleaning garbage apparatus of drawer type.
Present invention employs one kind narrow formula foam beehive high, the plastics frame for facilitating main product ceromel is placed in beehive,
Foam bottom board has the cleaning garbage apparatus of individual drawer type, and the rubbish that can so clear up in time in honeycomb prevents from growing nest worm.
It is using bubble chamber advantage：Summer is heat-insulated, winter is cold-proof, darker in honeycomb, and foam beehive is particularly suitable for during mountain area raises
Honeybee.Meanwhile, it is many in order to solve mountain area ant, and then when overcast and rainy, the problem of honeycomb is pierced, so as to cause middle honeybee seriously to fly to escape,
Preferably, foam beehive is placed on anti-ant beehive support throughout the year.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, takes described kind also to be included with before the seminal fluid of drone：
Sterilized syringe and semen collection syringe needle 2~4 times are rinsed with sperm physiological liquid, in syringe and insemination syringe needle
The sperm physiological liquid added with antibiotic is drawn, being filled into syringe needle has one section of sperm physiological liquid in sperm physiological liquid and syringe
Fluid column；Syringe is fixed on insemination instrument, syringe needle is moved on in the visual field of stereomicroscope and adjusted to getting a clear view.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, takes the kind to be included with the operation of the seminal fluid of drone：
Insemination syringe needle sucks 1.0 μ L~1.5 μ L air first, sperm physiological liquid is had bubble phase every then with seminal fluid
Drone seminal fluid is gathered again；
When next drone seminal fluid is gathered, the previous drone seminal fluid that will be collected releases the outer part of needle point, makes it
Sucked again after being in contact with the seminal fluid face of preparation for acquiring.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, the operation of the artificial insemination includes：
A) select individual big, action is sane, and the virgin for going out the age in days of room 8~10 is inseminated；
B) it is fixed on the fixator of insemination instrument base after anesthesia queen bee, being continually fed into carbon dioxide makes it go into a coma；
C) pull open queen bee sting chamber and find introitus, by the syringe needle of collecting semen by introitus propulsion depth 1.6mm~
2mm, when inserting needle slightly experiences resistance, introitus and has sagging sign, stops inserting needle：Syringe needle is slightly exited, starts to inject seminal fluid；
D) 4 μ L~6 μ L microlitre seminal fluid of disposable injection；Or inject seminal fluid at twice, the μ L~4 μ L of per injection 2.
Preferably, middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system as described above, in step 3) in, the bee numbers of the new point of group are institute
Show more than the 30% of former bee colony scale；Preferably 30%~50%.
Embodiment of the present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with embodiment, but those skilled in the art will
Understand, the following example is merely to illustrate the present invention, and is not construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.It is unreceipted specific in embodiment
Condition person, the condition advised according to normal condition or manufacturer is carried out.Agents useful for same or the unreceipted production firm person of instrument, are
The conventional products for obtaining can be bought by market.
The strong group's method for breeding of honeybee in a kind of mountain area is present embodiments provided, it includes：
S1, safeguard measure：The place for raising honeybee in Changbai Mountain isolates with Apis mellifera, without raising Apis mellifera in 15 kilometers of circumference
, raised in honeybee protection zone preferably in being provided with.
The selection and sterilization of S2, beehive：According to wild middle honeybee honeybee bucket life habit, we devise a kind of narrow formula high
Foam beehive, path length 385mm in beehive, 260mm wide, 355mm high；The wall thickness of the bubble chamber is 30mm.
Each beehive can put the frame of 10 or so.Frame used is invented for the applying date that inventor submits to is
2016-07-25, a kind of " frame and the beehive using the frame " of Application No. 201610590604.5 is described in patent document
Foam bottom board has the cleaning honeycomb garbage apparatus of individual drawer type, and foam beehive summer is heat-insulated, and winter prevents again
It is cold, it is the optimal selection of honeybee in the raising Changbai Mountain of the north, use convenience to produce ceromel and beneficial to swarm breeding in foam beehive
Plastics frame device.Usually honeybee equipment will carry out strict sterilization, and foam beehive is placed on anti-ant and puts on honeybee frame throughout the year.
S3, the selection in sweet powder source：Surely Chinese Bee Feeding should try one's best selection Middle hills and remote mountains area crosses outer, the spring for Changbaishan area
The major-minor sweet powder source in the season of summer and autumn three is mutually linked, and takes with can also suiting measures to local conditions mutually to be tied with small turn of ground surely and complete puts honeybee mode.
S4, the selection in place：Place will dry, positive open, sunny, ridge has high mountain to shield.It is best in place
There is the plantation site without the special economic plant such as farmland and ginseng near short and small trees, bee farm：There is the water of cleaning near place
Source, honeybee is advisable during each place raises 50 to 60 groups.
S5, artificial feeding：In the swarm breeding phase, with reference to sweet powder source situation, carry out feeding pollen and dilute syrup in good time.
The selection and cultivation of S6, honeybee kind：To prevent causing local varieties to mix and propagate honeybee disease because introducing a fine variety, Chinese Bee Feeding should
Breeding is bred in Ben Chang.The bee colony done kind in Changbaishan area is supported using bucket, it is to avoid because of artificial excessive management, move back its honeybee kind
Change, when educating king, the bucket bee-keeping group with merit is tied up spleen and crosses case by selection, and bee colony group cultivates drone, enters again after 10 days when strong
Pedestrian's work educates king.Drone carries out a mark after going out room, and after queen's sexal maturity is located, take to plant carries out virgin royal people with drone seminal fluid
Work is inseminated, and ensures the purity of queen bee.Newly point group is sent into after insemination queen bee feeding mating group's spawning, queen at artificial culture is carried out,
Nature mating is carried out with drone with the kind with excellent shape, the queen bee of spawning is used as production king.
S7, the method for artificial swarmming：When honeybee carries out artificial swarmming in raising Changbai Mountain, try not to injure sub- spleen, reduce
Vibrations to bee colony.The method that be divided into two for sub- spleen, honeybee number using original place original group by artificial swarmming.Make its former group each with newly point group
Age honeybee ratio is corresponding, newly point group's feeding royal cell or place queen, after new king is laid eggs, is drawn with former group's distance gradually will newly divide group
Open.Soon, Workflow does not escape for so artificial newly point group's spawning.
Cross case operating process.
Mountain area crosses case and should select good weather in early spring or late fall, and by bucket, foster kind is slowly inclined with bee colony, during inclination in bucket
The vertical plane of honeycomb remains the state consistent with ground, and then avoids the honeycomb that fractures.Then wooden barrel bottom is continuously tapped with waddy
Portion, middle honeybee crawls toward wooden barrel top successively in bucket, at this moment with knife by the honeycomb of wooden barrel bottom since a side spleen, slowly to centre
Cut off one by one, during close to middle part, typically there is sub- spleen, sub- spleen of damaging of trying not.The honeycomb that will be cut off again is bundled into cotton rope
On ready frame, then, finally be collected into the middle honeybee in bucket in honeybee cover by being put into beehive gently, then lures into honeybee
In case.Fly to escape after case to guard against bee colony to cross, can be installed on beehive nest door and prevent flying to escape nest door, cross the 3rd~4 day, honeybee after case
Most of honeycomb is bonded on frame with beeswax, bamboo stick, cotton rope of fixed honeycomb and other items at this moment will be in time removed.
Cultivation drone is carried out when bee colony is strong, queen breeding is carried out behind cultivate drone the 10th day, drone is marked when going out room, protected
The purity of barrier insemination queen bee.
Artificial insemination operations' flow.
The markd sexal maturity kind of pull-in range is acquired seminal fluid with drone.Before collecting semen, first by sterilized injection
Device is installed, then with sperm physiological liquid irrigating syringe and semen collection syringe needle 3 times, drawn in syringe and insemination syringe needle plus
There is the sperm physiological liquid of antibiotic, being filled into syringe needle has the fluid column of one section of sperm physiological liquid in sperm physiological liquid and syringe；
Syringe is fixed on insemination instrument, syringe needle is moved on in the visual field of stereomicroscope, adjustment microscope focus are clear to needle point, connect
And be acquired seminal fluid.
During collecting semen, insemination syringe needle sucks one section of air first, the space of 1.0 μ L~1.5 μ L, makes physiological liquid and seminal fluid
There is bubble phase every in order to avoid seminal fluid is mixed into a large amount of physiological liquids.But the air capacity of suction can not be too big, next drone seminal fluid is being gathered
When, the previous drone seminal fluid that will be gathered releases the outer part of needle point, it is inhaled again after being in contact with the seminal fluid face of preparation for acquiring
Enter, so can both prevent from sucking air during semen collection, the chance of suction mucus can be reduced again.Selection is individual big, and action is sane, goes out
The virgin of the age in days of room 8~10 is inseminated.First allow queen bee to climb into lure in pipe, then anesthesia tube is interfaced, treat queen bee
After being retracted into anesthesia tube, vent piston is pushed in time, untill allowing queen bee belly to expose 3~4 sections, be then mounted to instrument base of inseminating
Fixator on, open carbon dioxide steel cylinder valve, it is observed that carbon dioxide flow from wash bottle, control Flow-rate adjustment rotation
Flow out about 5 bubbles button to each second to be advisable, ventilate 30 seconds or so, virgin enters comatose state.At this moment queen bee is pulled open to sting
Needle cavity, finds queen bee introitus, and when the syringe needle propulsion depth of collecting semen is reached into about 1.8mm, inserting needle slightly experiences resistance, the moon
When there is sagging sign at road junction, stop inserting needle, then slightly exit insemination syringe needle, start to inject seminal fluid.Disposable insemination generally note
4 μ L~6 μ L seminal fluid are penetrated, the μ L~4 μ L seminal fluid of per injection 2 of property insemination twice first sends former bee colony back to, due to original after queen bee revives
Bee colony gesture is strong, helps seminal fluid conversion, is re-fed into newly dividing group after 3~4 days, is carried out cultivating excellent high yield honeybee as female parent with its queen bee
Kind.The middle honeybee quantity of new point of group is more than the 30% of shown former bee colony scale.Newly point group's spring is 2 frame honeybees, a sub- spleen, one
Sweet powder spleen.When temperature is high, honeybee number can be less.
Middle honeybee in more than 2 years, can preferably show strong reproductive capacity, maintenance jumpbogroup, honey yield high before starting to raise
Deng good characteristic, but the decline of queen to lay eggs power, the diminution of group's gesture, reducing of the productivity, resistance against diseases decrease were gradually shown later
Situations such as.Offspring can not exactly express the merit that parent has or trait expression is unstable.Assembled hybridization is carried out
When, the advantage that hybrid bee colony produces diminishes or without advantage, reduces kind use value.Resistance against diseases can also weaken year by year；It is anti-
Inverse property (survive the winter, get over summer, defence) is poor.Therefore, the present invention uses the disease ability of centering honeybee to honeybee kind mating system of the invention
Make evaluation.Wherein experimental group and control group are the forth generation bee colony of the middle honeybee honeybee kind of the same year introduction, and experimental group is using this hair
Bright offer method carries out honeybee kind and breeds, and control group is raised by the way of (movable-frame hive raising) is supported using case all the time, and honeybee kind is numerous
Educate for the offspring for obtaining is bred in natural mating, remaining daily management is consistent with feeding environment.
Experiment material：Each 3 groups of honeybee in the purer experimental group of selection color and control group, respectively by their merging or group's gesture very
Strong parent.Whole reality process carries out stimulating feeding to bee colony.Buying a group honeybee mite endangers more serious middle honeybee in addition, is purchased from Ji
The Changbaishan area bee farm of Lin Sheng, for providing honeybee mite needed for experiment.
The switching of honeybee mite and breeding
(1) selection in acrodomatia room, is connect：Find out what will be covered in the generation bee colony of honeybee the 4th from experimental group and control group respectively
Worker bee larvae and each 50 of drone larvae, put back to plastic sheeting marked and immediately bee colony and make it cover naturally.Will after 6h
Newly cover sub- spleen to take out, gently shake off honeybee on spleen, then be affixed on honeycomb with just labeled plastic sheeting, find out just capping
Soon 30, lair, and mark is performed in addition for honeybee mite of transferring.
(2), the switching process of honeybee mite：First by insect needle and fine, soft fur pen with 75% alcohol disinfecting and make it naturally in dry,
Melted during beeswax is put people's evaporating dish.Honeybee acrodomatia spleen waiting is laid on desktop, with sterilized insect needle through alcohol lights point
After burning and cooling down, the top cover in honeybee acrodomatia room waiting is lightly dug into an aperture, pore size is defined can put people honeybee mite.
Then honeybee mite is chosen in people's lair with fine, soft fur pen, then port lid is paved, and liquid beeswax is stained with hole with other fine, soft fur pen
The flat sealing of mouth brush.In brush mouth it is noted that beeswax should not be too many, and beeswax is prevented to scald honeybee mite and larva.Next honeybee of switching
Before mite, insect needle will burn to reduce pollution on alcolhol burner.The every group of honeybee are transferred 30 lairs, each lair connect 1 property into
Ripe varoa mite.
The honeycomb that honeybee mite is transferred is put back into former bee colony, allows honeybee mite and larva synchronously to develop.Due to covering the phase in honeybee
Between, honeybee mite can substantially complete the breeding of 1~2 generation, so 12d or so just can be taken off connecing acrodomatia spleen inspection honeybee mite breeding situation.
(3), honeybee mite breeds the inspection of situation：Go honeybee to take out in the honeycomb of honeybee mite of transferring, switching is found by above mark
The lair of honeybee mite, the lair number that note does not receive.To having received lair, lair is opened with insect needle and tweezers, checked respectively for
(whether ripe honeybee mite is to have reached ripe daughter mite quantity and immature daughter mite quantity in record lair in addition to mother mite
Can judge from its body colour, sexually matured daughter mite color is puce, the color of immature daughter mite for white slightly
The lair percentage (%) not received=(the lair number not received/connect honeybee acrodomatia room number) × 100%；
Honeybee mite breeding potential (%)=(the lair number of varoa mite number/receiving in lair) × 100%.
The inspection of natural parasitic wasp mite：Extract 50 workers bee and 50 drones in honeybee bee colony immediately from four generations respectively at random
Individuality, between going through bee variety abdominal segment, whether there is parasitic wasp mite on chest fine hair, under wing base, and statistics has parasitic wasp mite
Worker bee quantity.
Honeybee mite nature parasitic rate (%)=(having the honeybee sum of the parasitic honeybee number/inspection of honeybee mite) × 100；
Data processing test data is analyzed with SPSS statistical softwares.
Experimental result is as shown in table 1：
As can be seen from Table 1：There is the lair not received in two groups of bee colonies, so as to illustrate worker bee cleaning honeybee mite
Phenomenon, but proportion control group is substantially less than experimental group：
Honeybee mite successful reproduction rate and honeybee mite nature parasitic rate are the anti-of the i.e. bee colony of easy degree of measurement bee colony infection honeybee mite
The important indicator of mite power, on this two, experimental group data are still significantly higher than control group.
In addition, through inventor's long-term practice, when breeding is to 3 generation, the honey yield of experimental group bee colony is also than control
Group will be higher by 40%~60% or so, and these all illustrate that the honeybee kind mating system of present invention offer can significantly avoid middle honeybee honeybee
The degeneration planted.
It refers to a certain excellent honeybee kind after raising sum generation breeding for many years that honeybee kind is degenerated, and its merit is using process
In can not keep the original good characteristic of the kind, cause the economic characters of the honeybee kind to be lost in beekeeping and possess
Use value, or can use, but can not receive expected effect.It is mainly shown as that reproductive capacity (valid ovulation quantity, educates worm
Ability, worker bee life-span, bee colony development speed, group gesture can be maintained) decline：Production capacity is low, collection power (power of circling in the air, the duty of bee colony
Put forth energy degree, the utilization to nectar source) reduce；Productivity (honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis etc.) declines：Resistance against diseases weakens；It is degeneration-resistant
Property (survive the winter, more the summer, defence) it is poor.For example：After apis mellifera introduces China, start to raise in two or three years, can be preferably
Show the good characteristics such as reproductive capacity is strong, maintain jumpbogroup, honey yield high, but gradually showed later queen to lay eggs power decline,
Situations such as group's gesture reduces, has lower productivity, resistance against diseases weakens.Offspring can not exactly express the merit that parent has
Or trait expression is unstable.When carrying out hybridization and assembling, the advantage that hybrid bee colony produces diminishes or without advantage, reduces the kind
The reason for honeybee kind is degenerated is more complicated, on the one hand relevant with inherent cause.Honeybee inbreeding or seed selection and selective pairing etc.
Reason, directly results in kind of a degeneration for property；On the other hand influenceed (such as unsuitable feeding and management method etc.) by environmental factor.
The present invention is supported by technology of artificial insemination with bucket, case is supported and is combined, overcome middle honeybee inbreeding, drone quality it is whard to control,
Mix and breed and honeybee kind that excessive artificial excessive management is caused is degenerated, it is thus also avoided that the inconvenient problem of production.It is a kind of
The middle honeybee honeybee kind mating system that should be widely promoted.
Although illustrate and describing the present invention with specific embodiment, but will be appreciated that without departing substantially from of the invention
Many other changes and modification can be made in the case of spirit and scope.It is, therefore, intended that in the following claims
Including belonging to all such changes and modifications in the scope of the invention.