CN104862251B - The implantation methods of winter green manure are planted between a kind of tea place - Google Patents

The implantation methods of winter green manure are planted between a kind of tea place Download PDF

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CN104862251B
CN104862251B CN201510252694.2A CN201510252694A CN104862251B CN 104862251 B CN104862251 B CN 104862251B CN 201510252694 A CN201510252694 A CN 201510252694A CN 104862251 B CN104862251 B CN 104862251B
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green manure
tea
winter
seed
fertilizer
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CN104862251A (en
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傅海平
周品谦
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HUNAN TEA INSTITUTE (HUNAN TEA INSPECTION CENTER)
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HUNAN TEA INSTITUTE (HUNAN TEA INSPECTION CENTER)
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Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of high stubble using tea place plantation summer green manure " tea fertilizer 1 " for the deficiency of existing winter tea garden management technology, carries out the seeding technique that winter green manure gently simplifies.On the one hand it is not required to carry out summer green manure " tea fertilizer No. 1 " to cradle and turn over, on the other hand avoiding sowing winter being capable of plowed soils again.Plantation winter green manure amount of labour demanded and labor intensity is greatly reduced by this method, improves labor efficiency;The winding for avoiding type green manure of crawling simultaneously influences the growth of tea tree.This method is the implantation methods for planting winter green manure in the production practices that can be planted between tea place between a kind of widely applied tea place.

Description

The implantation methods of winter green manure are planted between a kind of tea place
Technical field
The present invention relates to crop planting technical fields, more particularly to the plantation side for planting winter green manure between a kind of tea place Method.
Background technique
Young tea plantations deeply prune tea place and deep pruning tea place since its tea tree is immature, and tree crown coverage is small, earth's surface bare area Greatly, loosing soil meets precipitation and easily causes soil erosion, soil layer, and fertility decline brings serious environmental problem.Tea place Green manuring can improve the micro- domain environment of soil, reduce rainwater and wash away to soil, absorb activating soil nutrient, prevent nutrient flow It loses;And green manure utilizes itself fixed nitrogen and photosynthesis, improves the ecosystem and inputs to the fixation of carbon and nitrogen nutrient, reduces tea Dependence of the garden to chemical fertilizer reduces Tea Production energy consumption indirectly, reduces the discharge of greenhouse gases;Tea place is improved to provide light, heat The utilization efficiency in source pushes the development of low-carbon agriculture, low-carbon industry.
The general early or mid April sowing of green manure is planted between tea place at present, winter combines tea place to apply fertilizer to the subsoil and turns over green manure to tea place, Winter green manure is sowed again.The implantation methods need a large amount of labours, and large labor intensity.With the transition of industry, labour is serious Lack, the development that green manure is planted between tea place is seriously hampered, wherein traditional winter green manure seeding technique is that green manure is developed in tea place One of important technology obstacle.
Summary of the invention
It is a kind of green using tea place plantation summer the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide in view of the deficiencies of the prior art The high stubble of fertilizer " tea fertilizer 1 ", carries out the seeding technique that winter green manure gently simplifies.On the one hand it is not required to carry out summer green manure " tea fertilizer 1 Number " cradle and turn over, on the other hand avoiding sowing winter being capable of plowed soils again.Plantation winter is greatly reduced by this method Green manure amount of labour demanded and labor intensity, improve labor efficiency;The winding for avoiding type green manure of crawling simultaneously influences tea tree Growth.This method is to plant the plantation side of winter green manure in the production practices that can be planted between tea place between a kind of widely applied tea place Method.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the implantation methods of winter green manure are planted between a kind of tea place provided by the invention, including with Lower step:
(1) summer green manure " tea fertilizer 1 " is planted:Plough, harrow a kind of farm tools site preparation, keep surface soil smooth, active soil stratum is deep, in 4 months under Sowing ten days~the first tenday period of a month in May, green manure summer " tea fertilizer 1 ", application rate is 0.75kg~1.0kg/ mu, with the spacing of tea tree for 40~ 50cm opens the shallow ridges of 8~10cm depth using drilling method, imposes the base manure based on phosphate fertilizer, then covers the thick soil of 2cm, enterprising in soil layer Row sowing, finally in seed upper cover thin layer soil;
(2) blueness is cut for the first time:Cutting blueness is covered in tea row for the first time for 25cm progress that mid or late July is liftoff;
(3) winter green manure sows pre-treatment:With containing 400 times of carbendazim and 800 times before the sowing of winter mid-September green manure seed The aqueous solution constant temperature of thiophanate methyl impregnates 12~14h, and solution temperature is maintained at 25~30 DEG C, and next day is pulled out, and filtered through gauze is gone Except aqueous solution;
(4) winter green manure vernalization:Gauze moisturizing seed is kept the skin wet with sprayer with mist, and centre cannot be such that seed soaks Duck in drink, reach 90% or more to broken shell vernalization rate, sprinkling root nodule bacteria culture fluid handles 1~3h, after using broadcasting sowing Mode directly broadcasts sowing the green manure seed after vernalization among summer green manure " tea fertilizer No. 1 " plant, application rate be per acre 2~ 2.5kg;
(5) blueness is cut for the second time:Broadcast sowing after vernalization winter green manure 3~5 days, liftoff 40~50cm to summer green manure plant into Row cuts blueness for the second time and is covered in tea row;
(6) winter green manure seedling management:After cutting blueness for the second time, spread fertilizer over the fields after winter green manure full stand normal superphosphate 8~ 10kg/666.7m2, 4~5kg/666.7m of urea2, promote the growth of winter green manure.
(7) winter green manure gathers in:Next year by the end of March~early or mid April buried using manually or mechanically carrying out cutting blueness turning over.
It is combined prior to seeding in (1) and turns over site preparation, applied base manure, apply compound fertilizer (N~P per acre2O5~K2O, 15% ~15%~15%) 11kg~15kg, calcium magnesium phosphate 10kg~12kg.
Top dressing is carried out in the restraining the growth of seedlings end of term (after germination 40 days or so) in the step (1), applies 1~2kg of urea per acre.
The ratio of the amount kg of the amount L and green manure seed of step (4) the sprinkling root nodule bacteria culture fluid is 0.5~1.5:1, often The viable count of root nodule bacterium solution is risen up to 106It is a.
By winter green manure seed after 1kg vernalization and 6kg~7kg thin mud (thin mud when winter green manure is sowed in the step (4) Water content be 7%~9%) mix thoroughly and broadcast sowing.
The winter green manure kind is that villose vetch, Smooth vetch, Jian Kuo pea or blue flower sweet potato, seed quality meet state Family's above breeding of three-level, purity are not less than 92%, and physical purity of seed is not less than 94%, and percentage of seedgermination is not less than 75%.
Technical effect
Using the above method, the present invention has as follows a little:
The present invention overcomes traditional types of seeding, innovatively propose and utilize summer green manure " tea fertilizer 1 " no-tillage seeding The method of winter green manure.
(1) wide adaptability of the invention is suitable for young tea plantations, deeplys prune tea place and deep pruning tea place.
(2) it reduces winter Green manuring and cradles the recruitment cost of summer green manure.Winter green manure uses no-tillage and direct-seeding, than cutting It cuts and carries out turning over sowing winter green manure after summer green manure and spend 12~18 works/mu less, mu saves 120~180 yuan of cost.
(3) winter green manure is no-tillage is conducive to maintain soil aggregate structure, reduces the soil erosion of tea garden soil.
(4) protection can be provided for the early growth of winter green manure using the high stubble of summer green manure " tea fertilizer 1 " and the later period is raw It is long that facilitation is provided, the production blueness amount of green manure is improved, than unicast volume increase 49~55%, while avoiding climbing for type green manure of crawling Rock adversely affects growth of tea plant.
(5) sprinkling rhizobium solution is carried out after using the vernalization of winter green manure, then is sowed, the life of root nodule can be greatly increased Long speed improves the utilization rate of nitrogen, with reaching the mesh of getting fat.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1:Set plants the growth result figure of villose vetch in 2 years raw tea places
Fig. 2:Set plants the growth result figure of villose vetch in deep pruning tea place
Specific embodiment
The present invention is further explained in the light of specific embodiments, but its any for being not limited to these examples A or similar example.
Embodiment one
2 years raw young tea plantations are selected, turns over and levels land, apply compound fertilizer 12kg and calcium magnesium phosphate 10kg per acre.April 22 Day sowing tea fertilizer 1, application rate is 750g/ mus.In the restraining the growth of seedlings end of term, (40 days or so after No. 1 germination of tea fertilizer) carries out top dressing, per acre Apply 1~2kg of urea.July 28 is liftoff, and 25cm carries out cutting green covering tea row for the first time.
Mid-September selects winter green manure kind villose vetch, and seed quality meets the above breeding of national three-level, and purity is not low In 92%, physical purity of seed is not less than 95%, and percentage of seedgermination is not less than 75%.By 400 times of carbendazim of villose vetch seed and 800 times of thiophanate methyl solution constant temperature impregnate 12h, and solution temperature is maintained at 25~30 DEG C, and next day is pulled out, and filtered through gauze is gone molten Liquid.Gauze moisturizing seed is kept the skin wet with sprayer with mist, and centre cannot be such that seed impregnates in water, is reached to vernalization rate 90% or more, sprinkling root nodule bacteria culture fluid handles 2.5h, sprays in root nodule bacteria culture fluid 1.2L and villose vetch seed 1kg ratio It spills, the viable count of every liter of root nodule bacterium solution is up to 106It is a.After 1kg villose vetch seed and 6.5kg thin mud are mixed, using spreading The mode broadcast directly broadcasts sowing the villose vetch seed after vernalization among summer green manure " tea fertilizer 1 " plant, and application rate is every 2~2.5kg of mu.
It broadcasts sowing after vernalization villose vetch 3~5 days (probably at September 27th or so), in liftoff 40~50cm to summer green manure Plant is cut blueness for the second time and is covered in tea row.After cutting blueness for the second time, spread fertilizer over the fields after villose vetch full stand normal superphosphate 8~ 10kg/666.7m2, 4~5kg/666.7m of urea2, promote villose vetch growth.April 14 next year is by villose vetch and tea fertilizer 1 Number stubble is manually gathered in, and is turned over and is embedded in tea place.
Embodiment two
Deep pruning tea place is selected, turns over and levels land, apply compound fertilizer 12kg and calcium magnesium phosphate 10kg per acre.Sowing on May 9 tea Fertilizer 1, application rate are 800g/ mus, and in the restraining the growth of seedlings end of term, (40 days or so after No. 1 germination of tea fertilizer) carries out top dressing, applies urea 1 per acre ~2kg.July 26 is liftoff, and 25cm carries out cutting green covering tea row for the first time.
Mid-September selects winter green manure kind Smooth vetch, and seed quality meets the above breeding of national three-level, and purity is not low In 92%, physical purity of seed is not less than 95%, and percentage of seedgermination is not less than 75%.By 400 times of carbendazim of Smooth vetch seed and 800 times of thiophanate methyl solution constant temperature impregnate 12h, and solution temperature is maintained at 25~30 DEG C, and next day is pulled out, and filtered through gauze is gone molten Liquid.Gauze moisturizing seed is kept the skin wet with sprayer with mist, and centre cannot be such that seed impregnates in water, is reached to vernalization rate 90% or more, sprinkling root nodule bacteria culture fluid handles 2.5h, sprays in root nodule bacteria culture fluid 1L and Smooth vetch seed 1kg ratio, The viable count of every liter of root nodule bacterium solution is up to 106It is a.After 1kg Smooth vetch seed and 7kg thin mud are mixed, using the side broadcasted sowing Formula directly broadcasts sowing the Smooth vetch seed after vernalization among summer green manure " tea fertilizer No. 1 " plant, application rate be per acre 2~ 2.5kg。
It broadcasts sowing after vernalization Smooth vetch 3~5 days (probably at September 25th or so), in liftoff 40~50cm to summer green manure Plant is cut blueness for the second time and is covered in tea row.After cutting blueness for the second time, spread fertilizer over the fields after Smooth vetch full stand normal superphosphate 8~ 10kg/666.7m2, 4~5kg/666.7m of urea2, promote Smooth vetch growth.April 12 next year is by Smooth vetch and tea fertilizer 1 Number stubble is manually gathered in, and is turned over and is embedded in tea place.

Claims (1)

1. planting the implantation methods of winter green manure between a kind of tea place, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
(1) summer green manure " tea fertilizer 1 " is planted:It ploughs, harrow a kind of farm tools site preparation, keep surface soil smooth, active soil stratum is deep, mid or late April~5 Sowing the first tenday period of a month moon, green manure summer " tea fertilizer 1 ", application rate is 0.75kg~1.0kg/666.7m2, with the spacing of tea tree be 40~ 50cm opens the shallow ridges of 8~10cm depth using drilling method, imposes the base manure based on phosphate fertilizer, then covers the thick soil of 2cm, enterprising in soil layer Row sowing, finally in seed upper cover thin layer soil, base manure refers to applies compound fertilizer 11kg~15kg per acre, wherein N:P2O5:K2O Content ratio be 15%:15%:15%, calcium magnesium phosphate 10kg~12kg are carried out for 40 days or so after as germinateing in the restraining the growth of seedlings end of term 1~2kg of urea is applied in top dressing per acre;
(2) blueness is cut for the first time:Cutting blueness is covered in tea row for the first time for 25cm progress that mid or late July is liftoff;
(3) winter green manure sows pre-treatment:Winter green manure kind is that villose vetch, Smooth vetch, Jian Kuo pea or indigo plant spend sweet potato, Seed quality meets the above breeding of national three-level, and purity is not less than 92%, and physical purity of seed is not less than 94%, and percentage of seedgermination is not low With the aqueous solution constant temperature for containing 400 times of carbendazim and 800 times of thiophanate methyls before 75%, the sowing of winter mid-September green manure seed 12~14h is impregnated, solution temperature is maintained at 25~30 DEG C, and next day is pulled out, and filtered through gauze removes aqueous solution;
(4) winter green manure vernalization:Gauze moisturizing seed is kept the skin wet with sprayer with mist, and centre cannot be such that seed is immersed in In water, reach 90% or more to broken shell vernalization rate, sprinkling root nodule bacteria culture fluid handles 1~3h, sprays the amount L of root nodule bacteria culture fluid Ratio with the amount kg of green manure seed is 0.5~1.5:1, the viable count of every liter of root nodule bacterium solution is up to 106It is a, after using broadcasting sowing Mode, the green manure seed after vernalization is directly broadcasted sowing among summer green manure " tea fertilizer No. 1 " plant, application rate be per acre 2~ 2.5kg is mixed thoroughly and is broadcasted sowing by winter green manure seed after 1kg vernalization and 6kg~7kg thin mud when wherein winter green manure is sowed;
(5) blueness is cut for the second time:It broadcasts sowing after vernalization winter green manure 3~5 days, the is carried out to summer green manure plant in liftoff 40~50cm It is secondary to cut blueness and be covered in tea row;
(6) winter green manure seedling management:After cutting blueness for the second time, 8~10kg/ of normal superphosphate is spread fertilizer over the fields after winter green manure full stand 666.7m2, 4~5kg/666.7m of urea2, promote the growth of winter green manure;
(7) winter green manure gathers in:Next year by the end of March~early or mid April buried using manually or mechanically carrying out cutting blueness turning over.
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CN106105995B (en) * 2016-07-24 2019-04-02 普定县新华农业种植专业合作社 The plantation technique of ecological wild tea
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CN107466637A (en) * 2017-08-22 2017-12-15 湖南省茶叶研究所(湖南省茶叶检测中心) Tea place green manure carries out the method that efficiently set is planted with radix ampelopsis
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