CN104772661A - Full-band high-precise machining method for aspheric surface optical element - Google Patents

Full-band high-precise machining method for aspheric surface optical element Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104772661A
CN104772661A CN201510149320.8A CN201510149320A CN104772661A CN 104772661 A CN104772661 A CN 104772661A CN 201510149320 A CN201510149320 A CN 201510149320A CN 104772661 A CN104772661 A CN 104772661A
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China
Prior art keywords
aspheric
shape
polishing
small tool
machining
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CN201510149320.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104772661B (en
Inventor
邵建达
张逸中
魏朝阳
胡晨
张海超
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Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of CAS
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Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of CAS
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B13/00Machines or devices designed for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape on other work; Accessories therefor
    • B24B13/02Machines or devices designed for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape on other work; Accessories therefor by means of tools with abrading surfaces corresponding in shape with the lenses to be made
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B13/00Machines or devices designed for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape on other work; Accessories therefor
    • B24B13/01Specific tools, e.g. bowl-like; Production, dressing or fastening of these tools
    • B24B13/012Specific tools, e.g. bowl-like; Production, dressing or fastening of these tools conformable in shape to the optical surface, e.g. by fluid pressure acting on an elastic membrane
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B49/00Measuring or gauging equipment for controlling the feed movement of the grinding tool or work; Arrangements of indicating or measuring equipment, e.g. for indicating the start of the grinding operation
    • B24B49/12Measuring or gauging equipment for controlling the feed movement of the grinding tool or work; Arrangements of indicating or measuring equipment, e.g. for indicating the start of the grinding operation involving optical means

Abstract

The invention discloses a full-band high-precise aspheric surface machining method. The method mainly comprises the following steps: 1) detecting the surface shape of a to-be-machined aspheric surface which is formed by milling and grinding by using an interferometer; 2) according to the error data of the surface shape to be machined, selecting a suitable flexible polishing small tool, and determining machining parameters of a numerical control machine tool by combining a removal function of the small tool; 3) placing an aspheric surface element to be machined on a machining platform of the machine tool, inputting machining parameters, and executing a polishing process by adopting a variable step pitch spiral machining path; 4) after one-period polishing is completed, detecting the surface shape of the aspheric surface element, and repeating the steps 2, 3 and 4 until the precision of the low-frequency surface shape of the aspheric surface reaches a standard according to the feedback situation of the error data of the surface shape; 5) performing PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis on the surface shape data of the low-frequency surface shape which reaches the standard, selecting a flexible polishing small tool with a large diameter according to medium-high frequency error frequency distribution characteristics determined by a PSD curve, performing fairing process machining on the aspheric surface optical element, and repeating several times until the medium-high frequency error is controlled effectively. According to the full-band high-precise machining method for the aspheric surface optical element, the full-band high-precise machining of the aspheric surface optical element is completed by only using a CCOS (Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing) numerical control small grinding head machine tool.

Description

The processing method of full frequency band High-precision aspheric optical element
Technical field
The invention belongs to the digital control processing field of aspherical optical element, be specifically related to a kind of method of full frequency band control errors of aspherical optical element.
Background technology
Along with the development of contemporary optics element process technology, traditional craft process aspheric method progressively by have with " certainty processing " be mark modern advanced manufacturing technique---computer control optical surface formation (CCOS) technology is replaced.CCOS technology is that a kind of profit small tool that computerizeds control realizes determining the technology of the determined amounts processing in region, and its theoretical foundation realizing that material removes is Preston equation, and it is a kind of processing method relying on normal pressure to realize material effectively to remove.Typical small tool structure covers one deck pitch on a metal chassis, because the rigidity of whole small tool is comparatively large, so be commonly called rigid disk.Within the scope of small tool polishing, the removal of material can macroscopic view show as removal function, usual shape is class Gaussian.Small tool is in the process of polishing in addition, " high some advantage is removed " principle is followed in the removal of material, namely when small tool is adding man-hour, first be come in contact with the height point region of surface of the work, then can there is microdeformation in asphalt material under the effect of positive pressure, to adapt to surface of the work microstructure, because high point other regions of pressure ratio suffered by region are large, so the material removal amount caused is also large, this and Preston equation also match.Due to use small tool size be generally all far smaller than workpiece size, therefore realize low frequency face shape error determine convergence while, increasing small scale error is also producing thereupon.In addition, because traditional small tool is rigidity polishing disk, it cannot meet non-spherical surface Curvature varying everywhere, therefore, brings many difficulties to manufacturing, especially the medium-high frequency control errors of non-spherical surface.
In order to effectively suppress these medium-high frequency errors, the aspheric method of increasing Digit Control Machine Tool Combined machining is suggested.The thought of Combined machining is the advantage in conjunction with different processing mode, stage by stage element to be processed is distributed to different processing modes, finally obtain a high-precision optical surface.Such as, University of Science and Technology for National Defence proposes a kind of method adopting numerical control small tool, magnetorheological processing and ion beam processing to combine to control medium-high frequency error.This processing mode first uses numerical control small tool smoothing to the non-spherical surface that low frequency surface figure accuracy is up to standard, then the flexible polishing principle of Technique of Magnetorheological Finishing is utilized, suppress the periodicity endless belt error that the polishing of numerical control small tool produces, the small scale error once more using the magnetorheological machining of numerical control small tool quick and smooth to produce afterwards, finally uses ion beam polishing technology to improve final surface figure accuracy.Although the method effectively inhibits the medium-high frequency error produced in process, achieve the processing of high-precision non-spherical element, the process of the method is too loaded down with trivial details, needs to use three precise numerical control machines, and processing cost is high.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention overcomes above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, provides a kind of low cost, easily to realize and the high full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method of working (machining) efficiency.
For realizing above-mentioned technical purpose, reach above-mentioned technique effect, the technical scheme that the present invention proposes is the method for a kind of full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing, and it comprises the following steps:
Step 1) by after non-spherical element milling shaping to be processed, by interferometer measurement aspheric surface error;
Step 2) according to the face shape error recorded, caliber size is selected to be not more than the flexible polishing small tool of this aspheric surface diameter 1/4, again according to the shape of the removal function of this small tool under the public rotational velocity condition of difference, select class Gaussian to remove function, determine the machined parameters of Digit Control Machine Tool;
Step 3) non-spherical element to be processed is placed on the processing platform of lathe, machined parameters is input to Machine-Tool Control center, carries out glossing by change step pitch screw processing path;
Step 4) after one-period polishing terminates, surface testing is carried out to non-spherical element to be processed, according to the feedback of face shape error data, repeats step 2,3,4 until aspheric low frequency surface figure accuracy is up to standard;
Step 5) the face graphic data up to standard to low frequency surface figure accuracy carry out power spectral density (Power SpectralDensity, PSD) analyze, according to the medium-high frequency error frequency distribution characteristics that PSD curve is determined, caliber size is selected to be not less than the heavy caliber flexible polishing small tool of aspheric surface diameter 1/3, again fairing processes is carried out to non-spherical element, repeat for several times until medium-high frequency error is effectively controlled.
In above-mentioned full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method, described flexible polishing small tool comprises metal chassis, foamed silica gel plate and pitch polishing layer, its pressure that can be provided by lathe, realizes coincideing in real time of polishing small tool and non-spherical surface.
In above-mentioned full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method, described fairing technique is that small tool adopts single spinning motion mode and the at the uniform velocity level and smooth technique of to be processed, can while the shape of guarantee low frequency face, effectively smoothly to be processed, improves surface quality.
In above-mentioned full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method, described processing method only uses a CCOS numerical control small abrasive nose lathe just to achieve the full frequency band high accuracy processing of aspherical optical element.
Compared with existing process technology, the invention has the advantages that: the positive pressure that flexible polishing small tool used in the present invention can be provided by lathe, and realize polishing small tool self adaptation non-spherical surface face shape, while the type of guarantee low frequency face, effectively can suppress the medium-high frequency error because polishing disk cannot coincide produced with non-spherical surface; Fairing technique of the present invention adopts small tool list spinning motion mode and at the uniform velocity smoothly to be processed, and comparatively planetary motion mode, more can effectively suppress medium-high frequency error, improves optical surface quality; The present invention only uses CCOS numerical control small abrasive nose lathe just to process full frequency band High-precision aspheric surface, have found a kind of low cost, easily realization and efficient processing method.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of flexible polishing small tool in the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 be in the embodiment of the present invention polishing and fairing stage use etc. step pitch screw processing path schematic diagram.
Marginal data:
1, metal chassis; 2, elastomeric layer; 3 polishing glue
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with Figure of description and specific embodiment, the invention will be further described.
The processing object of the present embodiment processing method is the convex aspheric surface mirror of one piece of 200mm, vertex curvature radius 1700mm.Consult Fig. 1, the operating procedure of the present embodiment full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method is as follows:
Step 1) by after non-spherical element milling shaping to be processed, by interferometer measurement now aspheric surface error.
Step 2) according to the face shape error data recorded, caliber size is selected to be not more than the flexible polishing small tool of aspheric surface diameter 1/4, again according to the shape of the removal function of this small tool under the public rotational velocity condition of difference, optimum class Gaussian is selected to remove function, and determine the machined parameters of Digit Control Machine Tool thus, comprise public rotational velocity, eccentric throw, positive pressure etc.
Step 3) non-spherical element to be processed is placed on (placement that faces up to be processed) on the processing platform of lathe, and machined parameters is input to Machine-Tool Control center, carry out glossing by change step pitch screw processing path.
Step 4) after one-period polishing terminates, surface testing is carried out to machine component, according to the feedback of face shape error data, repeats step 2,3,4 until aspheric low frequency surface figure accuracy is up to standard.
Step 5) the face graphic data up to standard to low frequency surface figure accuracy carry out PSD analysis, according to the medium-high frequency error frequency distribution characteristics that PSD curve is determined, caliber size is selected to be not less than the heavy caliber flexible polishing small tool of aspheric surface diameter 1/3, again fairing processes is carried out to non-spherical element, repeat for several times until medium-high frequency error is effectively controlled.
Further, consult Fig. 2, Fig. 2 is the structural representation of flexible small tool selected in the present embodiment, and it mainly comprises metal chassis 1, foamed silica gel plate 2 and pitch polishing layer 3.Flexible polishing small tool size selected by the polishing stage is 30mm, and foamed silica gel thickness is 7mm, and pitch polishing thickness is 3mm; Small tool size selected by the fairing stage is 80mm, and foamed silica gel thickness is 10mm, and pitch polishing thickness is 3mm.
Further, consult Fig. 3, Fig. 3 for polishing in the present embodiment and fairing stage use etc. step pitch screw processing path schematic diagram.
Further, the machined parameters that in the present embodiment, fairing technique uses is: the positive pressure that lathe provides is 150KPa, flexible small tool rotational velocity is 50RPM, and the level and smooth speed of small tool is 500mm/min, and the sense of rotation of small tool is contrary with machining path direction.Non-spherical surface final face shape after the processing of the present embodiment processing method, face shape error PV=0.18 λ, the RMS=1.5nm of medium-high frequency wave band.
A kind of full frequency band High-precision aspheric of the present invention processing method is simple efficient again, and achieves and only use CCOS numerical control small abrasive nose lathe just can process the high-precision non-spherical surface of full frequency band.

Claims (3)

1. a processing method for full frequency band High-precision aspheric optical element, is characterized in that, the method comprises the following steps:
Step 1) by after non-spherical element milling shaping to be processed, by interferometer measurement aspheric surface error;
Step 2) according to the face shape error recorded, caliber size is selected to be not more than the flexible polishing small tool of this aspheric surface diameter 1/4, again according to the shape of the removal function of this small tool under the public rotational velocity condition of difference, select class Gaussian to remove function, determine the machined parameters of Digit Control Machine Tool;
Step 3) non-spherical element to be processed is placed on the processing platform of lathe, machined parameters is input to Machine-Tool Control center, carries out glossing by change step pitch screw processing path;
Step 4) after one-period polishing terminates, surface testing is carried out to non-spherical element to be processed, according to the feedback of face shape error data, repeats step 2,3,4 until aspheric low frequency surface figure accuracy is up to standard;
Step 5) the face graphic data up to standard to low frequency surface figure accuracy carry out PSD analysis, according to the medium-high frequency error frequency distribution characteristics that PSD curve is determined, caliber size is selected to be not less than the heavy caliber flexible polishing small tool of aspheric surface diameter 1/3, again fairing processes is carried out to non-spherical element, repeat for several times until medium-high frequency error is effectively controlled.
2. a kind of full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described flexible polishing small tool comprises metal chassis (1), foamed silica gel plate (2) and pitch polishing layer (3), by the pressure that lathe provides, realize coincideing in real time of polishing small tool and non-spherical surface.
3. a kind of full frequency band High-precision aspheric processing method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described fairing technique is that small tool adopts single spinning motion mode and the at the uniform velocity level and smooth technique of to be processed, can while the shape of guarantee low frequency face, effective smoothly to be processed, improve surface quality.
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CN105171535A (en) * 2015-08-07 2015-12-23 四川九洲电器集团有限责任公司 Mirror finishing method
CN105364636A (en) * 2015-09-25 2016-03-02 宁波市锦泰橡塑有限公司 Mirror polishing method for detector body inner cavity
CN105643394A (en) * 2016-01-14 2016-06-08 长春设备工艺研究所 High-efficiency and high-precision advanced manufacturing technology process for medium or large caliber aspherical optical element
CN106312697A (en) * 2016-10-20 2017-01-11 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所 High-precision rectangular optical wedge machining method
CN107415060A (en) * 2017-09-26 2017-12-01 长沙理工大学 A kind of small-bore axisymmetry optical surface element precision machining method
CN107520683A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-12-29 中国工程物理研究院激光聚变研究中心 The contour paths planning method of rim of the mouth footpath polishing
CN108581715A (en) * 2018-04-25 2018-09-28 成都精密光学工程研究中心 A kind of numerical-control processing method of optical glass device, apparatus and system
CN108857588A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-11-23 中国建筑材料科学研究总院有限公司 Burnishing device and polishing method
CN111190386A (en) * 2020-01-07 2020-05-22 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所 Path planning and processing method based on magneto-rheological polishing technology
CN111843629A (en) * 2020-07-31 2020-10-30 长春博信光电子有限公司 Aspherical mirror polishing process and polishing disk thereof

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Cited By (14)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105171535A (en) * 2015-08-07 2015-12-23 四川九洲电器集团有限责任公司 Mirror finishing method
CN105364636B (en) * 2015-09-25 2017-11-21 宁波市锦泰橡塑有限公司 A kind of mirror polishing method of detector body inner chamber
CN105364636A (en) * 2015-09-25 2016-03-02 宁波市锦泰橡塑有限公司 Mirror polishing method for detector body inner cavity
CN105643394B (en) * 2016-01-14 2018-12-11 长春设备工艺研究所 A kind of medium/large-aperturaspheric aspheric optical element high-efficiency high-accuracy advanced manufacturing technology process flow
CN105643394A (en) * 2016-01-14 2016-06-08 长春设备工艺研究所 High-efficiency and high-precision advanced manufacturing technology process for medium or large caliber aspherical optical element
CN106312697A (en) * 2016-10-20 2017-01-11 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所 High-precision rectangular optical wedge machining method
CN106312697B (en) * 2016-10-20 2019-04-19 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所 A kind of processing method of high-precision rectangular optical wedge
CN107520683A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-12-29 中国工程物理研究院激光聚变研究中心 The contour paths planning method of rim of the mouth footpath polishing
CN107415060A (en) * 2017-09-26 2017-12-01 长沙理工大学 A kind of small-bore axisymmetry optical surface element precision machining method
CN108581715A (en) * 2018-04-25 2018-09-28 成都精密光学工程研究中心 A kind of numerical-control processing method of optical glass device, apparatus and system
CN108857588A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-11-23 中国建筑材料科学研究总院有限公司 Burnishing device and polishing method
CN111190386A (en) * 2020-01-07 2020-05-22 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所 Path planning and processing method based on magneto-rheological polishing technology
CN111190386B (en) * 2020-01-07 2021-01-01 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所 Path planning and processing method based on magneto-rheological polishing technology
CN111843629A (en) * 2020-07-31 2020-10-30 长春博信光电子有限公司 Aspherical mirror polishing process and polishing disk thereof

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