CN102577687A - Comprehensive improving method for coastal saline soil - Google Patents

Comprehensive improving method for coastal saline soil Download PDF

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CN102577687A
CN102577687A CN2012100625530A CN201210062553A CN102577687A CN 102577687 A CN102577687 A CN 102577687A CN 2012100625530 A CN2012100625530 A CN 2012100625530A CN 201210062553 A CN201210062553 A CN 201210062553A CN 102577687 A CN102577687 A CN 102577687A
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soil
microbial
pipe
salt
improvement
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CN102577687B (en
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杨永利
张清
刘忠阳
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Tianjin TEDA Green Technology Group Co.,Ltd.
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TIANJIN TAIDA GARDEN CONSTRUCTION CO Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a comprehensive improving method for coastal saline soil. The method includes the steps as follows: 1) underground desalting; 2) improvement of soil physical structure; 3) salt leaching by a great quantity of water; 4) application of microorganism bacterial manure for soil improvement; and 5) plant arrangement and transplantation. The engineering patent technology of desalting using covered conduits, the technical measures for improving the soil physical structure and the improvement of microbial manure are firstly integrated by the comprehensive improving method so as to conduct sequential and comprehensive work. The comprehensive improving method is remarkable in the effect of soil improvement and has the advantages of effectively reducing the salt content in high saline-alkali soil in short time (within one growing season), preventing secondary alkalization, increasing soil fertility and establishing microorganism communities; beneficial microorganisms relieve the threat and the harm of salt and alkali to plants in the original saline soil, accelerate soil ripening and promote the greening progress of the original soil; and the survival rate of plants in the same year is up to above 95% and the water resource is saved.

Description

A kind of synthesis improvement method of marine solonchak
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of soil melioration technology, particularly a kind of synthesis improvement method of marine solonchak.
Background technology
Along with deepening continuously of economic development, ecological problem becomes increasingly conspicuous, soil salination problem particularly, and the soil salinization problem of coastal region is more outstanding.Coastal saline-alkali soil has that salinity height, nutrient are low, proportion and shortcoming such as unit weight is big, porosity and osmotic coefficient are little, has greatly restricted the ecological construction and the agricultural production of coastal region.Explore utilization how fast to have deposited the strand primary saline soil that gets off (comprise salt pan or hydraulic reclamation come out heavily salted soil) improvement be to demand the problem studied at present urgently for planting technique soil.
The soil melioration of marine solonchak technology mainly adopts hidden pipe salt discharge, the soil moved in to improve the original planting technology that technology is relatively ripe, easy to implement and promote at present; The soil moved in to improve the original planting technology is bigger to the farmland destructiveness in the zone of fetching earth, even destroys local ecotope, and long-term, a large amount of planting soil transportations; Cause road traffic to strengthen; Be prone to cause congestion in road, heavy goods vehicles has had a strong impact on the service life of road again, and discharge tail gas is contaminated environment again; Flow to energy flow from goods and materials and all caused great waste, also had a strong impact on the quality of environment.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is factor to the greening of restriction beach saline land primary saline soil; Be that hypsography low-lying, subterranean water level are high; Soil is sticking heavy, structure is poor, and soil salt content is high, soil depletion, hardens; A kind of synthesis improvement method of suitable marine solonchak is provided, reaches and do not change the target that the soil moved in to improve the original direct green changes into merit.
The technical scheme that the present invention adopts is:
The invention provides a kind of method of microbial-bacterial fertilizer improvement marine solonchak, comprise the steps:
1), underground salt discharge
The underground structure hidden pipe salt discharge system of primary saline soil in the strand;
2), improve the soil physics structure
In primary saline soil, add organic farmyard manure or organic waste, mix and mix, backfill, adding proportion is 1 part of a primary saline soil, organic farmyard manure or organic waste 0.1-0.3 part, above-mentioned umber is a volume parts;
3), the big flood desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching
Begin the border irrigation big flood, pressed 0.5~1.0 times of water consumption of soil body volume, slowly poured into the soil body; Soak the soil body after at least 24 hours; Discharge salt water through hidden pipe salt discharge system, detects the interior soil salt content of 1 meter soil body on average reach 0.7~0.8% or below, can stop the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching; Combine microbial manure use and plant setting to water further desalination later on;
4), using microbial-bacterial fertilizer improves the soil
30cm soil mixes microbial-bacterial fertilizer on the top layer, and incorporation is 2kg/m 2, rotary tillage is puddled evenly; In plant pit, apply microbial-bacterial fertilizer during field planting, amount of application is 3~5kg/, mixes with soil, around tree root, spreads fertilizer over the fields;
5), plants configuration and planting
Select saline alkali tolerant plant arbor, shrub, draft stereoscopic configurations, guarantee that as early as possible ground covers; Accomplish by the gardens standard of planting.
Preferably, the backfill of backfill step exceeds plane 50-100cm peripherally described step 2).
Preferably, described organic farmyard manure is one or more the mixture in cow dung, pig manure, chicken manure, sheep excrement or the human excrement.
Preferably, described organic waste is one or more the mixture in rice husk, crushing straw, the dregs of a decoction or the chaff slag.
Preferably; Described microbial-bacterial fertilizer is by microbial bacterial agent animal wastes and vegetable fiber fermentation to be formed; Viable bacteria in the described microbial bacterial agent comprise produce yellowish fiber monad (Cellulomonas flavigena), bacillus stearothermophilus (Bacillussterothermophilus), Lactobacillus casei (Lactobacillus casei), pselaphid alkane bacillus (Methanobacteriumformicium), ruminate methagen (Methanobacterium ruminantium), Thiobacillus thioxidans (Thiobacillusthiooxidans), Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans), bacillus subtilis (Bacillus subtilis), bacillus licheniformis (Bacillus licheniformis), bacillus polymyxa (Bacillus polymyxa), streptomyces thermophilus (Streptomyces thermophilus), thermoactinomyces vulgaris (Thermoactinomyces vulgaris), crooked thermomonospora fusca (Thermonospora curvata), azotobacter vinelandii (Azotobacter vinelandii), Nitrosomonas europaea (Nitrosomonas europeae), dimension formula bacterium nitrobacter (Nitrobacter winogradskyi), rhizobium of bean (Rhizobiumjaponicum), rhizobium leguminosarum (Rhizobium leguminosarum), aspergillus niger (Aspergillus niger), aspergillus oryzae (Aspergillus oryzae), brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), some mould (Penicillium notatum), special humicola lanuginosa (Humicola insolens), Rhizopus oligosporus (Rhizopus oligosporus) and cereal rhizoctonia (Rhizoctoniacerealis); Also comprise matrix in the described microbial bacterial agent, described matrix comprises one or more in vegetable fiber, animal wastes, animal-based protein, plant source protein and the single cell protein.
Preferably, described microbial-bacterial fertilizer (organic manure that the microbial bacterial agent fermentation produces) can be selected the kind board biological organic fertilizer of ploughing of product for use.Manufacturer: grand celebration Bao Si biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Preferably, described hidden pipe salt discharge system adopts underground horizontal closed drainage pipeline and the hidden pipe salt discharge system of constructing the row of putting forward water pouring pipeline formation; Its underground horizontal closed drainage pipeline is embedded in liftoff surperficial 0.6-1.5 rice, and underground horizontal closed drainage pipeline is made up of main drainpipe and collector pipe, and main salt discharge pipe and collector pipe line series adopt secondary; With orthogonal grid type or the chevron shaped laying of oblique; The vertical laying length of collector pipe is 100 meters, gradient 1-3/1000, and the spacing between the collector pipe is a 6-10 rice; Construct the row's of putting forward weep pipe route inspection well, sump formation; Its inspection shaft and sump be provided with direction and collector pipe that direction is set is consistent, the well spacing of inspection shaft is a 20-30 rice, the well spacing of sump is a 80-100 rice.
Advantage that the present invention had and beneficial effect are:
1, the present invention integrates orderly synthetic job application with the engineering patented technology of hidden pipe salt discharge, the technical measures of improving the soil physics structure and microbial-bacterial fertilizer improvement first.Improvement saline-alkali soil effect is remarkable, has at short notice the salinity that (season of growth is interior) effectively reduces high salinity soil, prevents secondary alkalization; Increased soil fertility, set up microbiologic population, beneficial microbe has been alleviated in former saline soil environment and saline and alkaline plant stress has been endangered; Quickened the soil-ripening degree; Promote original soil greening progress, guaranteed that plant survival rate then reaches more than 95%, practiced thrift water resource simultaneously.
2, the present invention is through engineering, the physically improved and multiple measure of biological treating, and comprehensive effectiveness is remarkable, effectively reduces the greening cost, and every square meter cost has reduced 5-38 unit (as shown in table 2), like large scale application, and the economic benefit highly significant.
3, in the primary saline soil improved, process, do not re-use soil moved in to improve the original, avoided damaging the influence to environment such as farmland, effective subduction transportation; And the use of agricultural wastes such as stalk, eliminated its pollution to environment, thus had with useless make green, the dual ecological significance that changing waste into resources utilizes.
4, the present invention goes for all beach saline lands; The heavily salted soil that can't handle to existing other processing methods simultaneously also has the good treatment ability; Be 1.38%~3.5% promptly to 1 meter soil body saliferous; The physics clay is the heavy cement marine solonchak more than 40%, even is up to 7% marine solonchak to salt content and can both it be improved successfully.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment the present invention is described further, but does not limit protection scope of the present invention.
Embodiment 1
The location is closed in both sides by Yongding, main road, beach, Tianjin Xinhe River charge station, and physical features is more smooth, is about 19470m at area 2, charge station southern side 9500m wherein 2, north side 9970m 2Implement primary saline soil greening project.
A kind of microbial-bacterial fertilizer is improved the method for above-mentioned primary saline soil, comprises the steps:
1) mud shape soil is spread out with excavator, carried out airing.Underground engineering is mainly carried out grooving, lays salt discharge blind pipe and shop trickle layer, and concrete operations are: dig deeply down to 1.5m according to orthogonal grid type in the secondary progression laying pattern; Pad is put and is drenched layer in digging the dell road, on the pouring layer, lays main salt discharge pipe and collector pipe, and the vertical laying length of collector pipe is 100 meters; Gradient 1/1000, the spacing between the collector pipe are 10 meters, the terminal and main salt discharge pipe of the tube head of each collector pipe UNICOM; It is thick on collector pipe that lays and main salt discharge pipe, to re-lay pouring layer 0.3m; The direction that is provided with along collector pipe begins to construct the underground row of carrying water pouring pipeline, construct the row's of carrying weep pipe route inspection well, sump and constitute, its inspection shaft and sump be provided with direction and collector pipe that direction is set is consistent; The well spacing of inspection shaft is 20 meters; The well spacing of sump is 100 meters, and sump is arranged on the end points place of each main salt discharge pipe and main salt discharge pipe is communicated with sump, and the main salt discharge pipe that will pass through the municipal drainage pipe network simultaneously is communicated with municipal drainage pipe network well; Carry arranging device and install wind-force additional, carry water that arranging device discharges through wind-force and send into the municipal drainage pipe network through drainage pipeline and discharge in the lump without the sump at the main salt discharge pipe place of municipal drainage pipe network.
2), improve the soil physics structure
In primary saline soil, mix cow dung, carry out, improve backfill behind its permeability, exceed plane 60cm peripherally according to primary saline soil volume 15% ratio.
3), big flood desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching salt discharge
After backfill, the smooth landform; Begin the border irrigation big flood, pressed 0.8 times of water consumption of soil body volume, slowly poured into the soil body; Soak the soil body after 36 hours; Discharge salt water through hidden pipe salt discharge system, after 1 drip washing, total salt quantity is reduced to mean value about 0.78% by 3.4% of primary saline soil in 0~60cm soil body.
4), use microbial-bacterial fertilizer
30cm soil mixes microbial-bacterial fertilizer on the top layer, and incorporation is 2kg/m 2, rotary tillage is puddled evenly.
5), plant
Arbor 1686 strains such as Chinese scholar tree, Chinese wax, tree-of-heaven that May 6 began to plant, torch 3954 strains of planting, lawn 19470 square meters.In plant pit, apply microbial-bacterial fertilizer according to 3kg/, accomplished the trees work of planting on June 15, this moment, the planting soil total salt quantity was 0.78%, and pH is 7.8; Accomplished planting lawn on July 15.Saline and alkaline the improvement progress is greatly accelerated to the coercing of nursery stock because beneficial microbe has weakened, and vegetation growth state is good, and October, trees surviving rate reached 95%, and the lawn coverage rate reaches 98%, and the soil index is seen table 1.
Table 1 primary saline soil and the comparison of improvement for the soil physico-chemical index of planting soil
(numerical value that relates in the table is mean value)
Index The primary saline soil during reclamation of wasteland Use soil through a season of growth greening after the improvement
The soil total salt content 2.49% (referring to mean value in the 1m soil body) 0.23% (referring to root zone 0~60cm mean value)
PH 7.40 8.36
Osmotic coefficient 7.38×10 -6cm/s 6.82×10 -5cm/s
Unit weight 1.53 1.35
Porosity (%) 43% 57%
Proportion (g/cm 3) 2.74 2.65
Particle diameter (mm) Physics clay particle diameter is 0.002 to account for 58% Physics clay particle diameter is 0.002 to account for 36%
Quality Heavily sticking Loamy texture
Organic 0.88% 2.32%
Square meter cost contrast under the table 2 different construction condition
Unit: yuan/m 2

Claims (6)

1. the method for a microbial-bacterial fertilizer improvement marine solonchak is characterized in that: comprise the steps:
1), underground salt discharge:
The underground structure hidden pipe salt discharge system of primary saline soil in the strand;
2), improve the soil physics structure
In primary saline soil, add organic farmyard manure or organic waste, mix and mix, backfill, adding proportion is 1 part of a primary saline soil, organic farmyard manure or organic waste 0.1-0.3 part, above-mentioned umber is a volume parts;
3), the big flood desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching
Begin the border irrigation big flood, pressed 0.5~1.0 times of water consumption of soil body volume, slowly poured into the soil body; Soak the soil body after at least 24 hours; Discharge salt water through hidden pipe salt discharge system, detects the interior soil salt content of 1 meter soil body on average reach 0.7~0.8% or below, can stop the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching;
4) organic manure of, using microbial bacterial agent fermentation generation is improved the soil:
30cm soil mixes microbial-bacterial fertilizer on the top layer, and incorporation is 2kg/m 2, rotary tillage is puddled evenly; In plant pit, apply microbial-bacterial fertilizer during field planting, amount of application is 3~5kg/, mixes with soil, around tree root, spreads fertilizer over the fields;
5), plants configuration and planting:
Select saline alkali tolerant plant arbor, shrub, draft stereoscopic configurations, guarantee that as early as possible ground covers; Accomplish by the gardens standard of planting.
2. the method for a kind of microbial-bacterial fertilizer improvement marine solonchak according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the backfill of backfill step exceeds plane 50-100cm peripherally described step 2).
3. the method for a kind of microbial-bacterial fertilizer improvement marine solonchak according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: described organic farmyard manure is one or more the mixture in cow dung, pig manure, chicken manure, sheep excrement or the human excrement.
4. according to the method for each described a kind of microbial-bacterial fertilizer improvement marine solonchak of claim 1-3, it is characterized in that: described organic waste is one or more the mixture in rice husk, crushing straw, the dregs of a decoction or the chaff slag.
5. improve the method for marine solonchak according to each described a kind of microbial-bacterial fertilizer of claim 1-4; It is characterized in that: described microbial-bacterial fertilizer is by microbial bacterial agent animal wastes and vegetable fiber fermentation to be formed; Viable bacteria in the described microbial bacterial agent comprise produce yellowish fiber monad (Cellulomonas flavigena), bacillus stearothermophilus (Bacillussterothermophilus), Lactobacillus casei (Lactobacillus casei), pselaphid alkane bacillus (Methanobacteriumformicium), ruminate methagen (Methanobacterium ruminantium), Thiobacillus thioxidans (Thiobacillusthiooxidans), Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans), bacillus subtilis (Bacillus subtilis), bacillus licheniformis (Bacillus licheniformis), bacillus polymyxa (Bacillus polymyxa), streptomyces thermophilus (Streptomyces thermophilus), thermoactinomyces vulgaris (Thermoactinomyces vulgaris), crooked thermomonospora fusca (Thermonospora curvata), azotobacter vinelandii (Azotobacter vinelandii), Nitrosomonas europaea (Nitrosomonas europeae), dimension formula bacterium nitrobacter (Nitrobacter winogradskyi), rhizobium of bean (Rhizobiumjaponicum), rhizobium leguminosarum (Rhizobium leguminosarum), aspergillus niger (Aspergillus niger), aspergillus oryzae (Aspergillus oryzae), brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), some mould (Penicillium notatum), special humicola lanuginosa (Humicola insolens), Rhizopus oligosporus (Rhizopus oligosporus) and cereal rhizoctonia (Rhizoctoniacerealis); Also comprise matrix in the described microbial bacterial agent, described matrix comprises one or more in vegetable fiber, animal wastes, animal-based protein, plant source protein and the single cell protein.
6. according to the method for each described a kind of microbial-bacterial fertilizer improvement marine solonchak of claim 1-5, it is characterized in that: described hidden pipe salt discharge system adopts underground horizontal closed drainage pipeline and the hidden pipe salt discharge system of constructing the row of putting forward water pouring pipeline formation; Its underground horizontal closed drainage pipeline is embedded in liftoff surperficial 0.6-1.5 rice, and underground horizontal closed drainage pipeline is made up of main drainpipe and collector pipe, and main salt discharge pipe and collector pipe line series adopt secondary; With orthogonal grid type or the chevron shaped laying of oblique; The vertical laying length of collector pipe is 100 meters, gradient 1-3/1000, and the spacing between the collector pipe is a 6-10 rice; Construct the row's of putting forward weep pipe route inspection well, sump formation; Its inspection shaft and sump be provided with direction and collector pipe that direction is set is consistent, the well spacing of inspection shaft is a 20-30 rice, the well spacing of sump is a 80-100 rice.
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CN103583106A (en) * 2013-11-22 2014-02-19 上海创博生态工程有限公司 Method for biologically improving saline-alkali soil
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CN103922846A (en) * 2014-04-21 2014-07-16 赵光 Saline-alkali soil improvement method
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CN104969681A (en) * 2015-07-10 2015-10-14 山东农业大学 Method for rapidly improving clay solonchak by using sediment from Yellow River water transferring
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CN103283338A (en) * 2013-07-03 2013-09-11 张维 Method for planting paddy rice on saline-alkali soil
CN103583106A (en) * 2013-11-22 2014-02-19 上海创博生态工程有限公司 Method for biologically improving saline-alkali soil
CN103828509A (en) * 2014-03-19 2014-06-04 徐文艺 Rapid and effective soil improvement method
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