CN102392453A - Terrace bank construction method for changing slope farmland into level terrace in reservoir area of Three Gorges - Google Patents

Terrace bank construction method for changing slope farmland into level terrace in reservoir area of Three Gorges Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102392453A
CN102392453A CN2011102714322A CN201110271432A CN102392453A CN 102392453 A CN102392453 A CN 102392453A CN 2011102714322 A CN2011102714322 A CN 2011102714322A CN 201110271432 A CN201110271432 A CN 201110271432A CN 102392453 A CN102392453 A CN 102392453A
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terrace
slope
bank
earth steps
ridge
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CN2011102714322A
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CN102392453B (en
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韦杰
金慧芳
郑红丽
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Chongqing Normal University
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Chongqing Normal University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a terrace bank construction method for changing slope farmland into level terraces in the reservoir area of the Three Gorges. The slope farmland consists of a plurality of transversely-partitioned cultivation units; a terrace bank for soil reinforcement walking is built on the outer side of every cultivation unit; all terrace banks include stone banks and soil banks; the soil banks are always arranged between every two stone banks; the terrace bank on the outer side of the cultivation unit on the bottommost layer of a slope surface is a stone bank; every cultivation unit is cultivated by keeping the original slope farmland micro-topographic feature; and the soil banks are positioned on the outer edges of the original cultivation units. The method has the advantages of reduction in the cost investment, convenience for agricultural cultivation, good water and soil conservation effect and easy acceptance by farmers.

Description

The transforming slope into terrace ridge, reservoir area of Three Gorges bank construction method
Technical field
The present invention relates to conservation technology; Specifically refer to a kind of ridge bank construction method that on arable land, slope, reservoir area of Three Gorges, carries out transforming slope into terrace, the horizontal terrace land of the relative stone dam of this method can reduce construction cost, and soil and water conservation effect is better; More ecological than all building up stone dam, belong to the conservation technology field.
 
Background technology
China's natural conditions are complicated, and the mountain and hill area is big, has cultivated area per capita and has only 1.38 mu, less than 40% of world average level.Reservoir area of Three Gorges particularly, only 0.81 mu of per capita area of cultivated farmland, existing cultivated land resource is main with the arable land, slope, the sloping cultivated area more than 15 ° accounts for total cultivated area 47.6%, is the important carrier of reservoir area grain and industrial crops.Simultaneously, plough and be considered to the main source of reservoir area of Three Gorges soil erosion and warehouse-in silt in the slope.The average erosion modulus in sloping arable land, reservoir area of Three Gorges is 7500 tons/square kilometre. year, a year erosion amount reaches 9,450 ten thousand tons, accounts for reservoir area year to corrode 60.0% of total amount, year puts a quantity of sand and mud in storage and reaches 1,890 ten thousand tons, accounts for 46.16% of reservoir area year warehouse-in total volume of silt.
Ploughing and administer in the slope is the emphasis of water and soil conservation in recent decades.Transforming slope into terrace (its principal mode transform the horizontal terrace land of stone dam as for ploughing the slope) is a kind of important method that present erosion and torrent control works adopts, and also is the effective measures of ploughing and build basic farmland in the mountainous treatment slope.The transforming slope into terrace engineering is through changing domatic length, segmentation interception runoff; Increase soil the time of infiltrating, slow down the surface flow flow velocity; Effectively prevent and reduce the souring of runoff his-and-hers watches soil; Also can transfer the precipitation of retaining to deep subsoil water or underground water by domatic water, improve the drought-resistant ability of crop.According to investigations, it is about 97% that the soil loss amount that horizontal terrace land is ploughed than the slope reduces, and soil organic matter content improves 16.6%, and total nitrogen content improves 21.4%.
But arable land, slope, reservoir area of Three Gorges ratio is big, and the gradient is steep, and it is bigger all to turn the arable land, slope into stone dam horizontal terrace land difficulty.At first, the peasant accepts the aspect.In shallow hilly area, low mountain, the sloping arable land gradient is little, and length of grade is long, and the stone dam terrace land is ploughed the slope and effectively integrated, and it is obvious that guarantor's soil subtracts husky benefit, not only effectively improved local agricultural production conditions and ecological environment, and promoted development of rural economy, and the peasant is acceptant.But with regard to middle alpine region, the slope is ploughed domatic big, and the gradient is steep, and length of grade is short, and the stone dam transforming slope into terrace brings some inconvenience to farming production, generally, and high about 1~2 meter of stone dam, inconvenient peasant's farming and livestock walking.Ladder ridge occupation of land many (7%~12%) makes cultivated land resource nervous more, and the peasant is difficult for accepting, and the peasant in indivedual districts would rather let a piece of farmland go to waste the horizontal terrace land of stone dam and select abrupt slope reclamation of wasteland plantation.Secondly, cost input aspect.According to investigations, build big (earth volume 3000~6000 m of horizontal terrace land engineering quantity 3/ hm 2), high (30,000~100,000 yuan/hm of cost 2, do not contain domatic water system related investment), and need the lot of manpower and material resources input, under a large amount of backgrounds that shift of reservoir area of Three Gorges rural laborer, be difficult to realize.To sum up; Although the horizontal terrace land layout of stone dam standard, moulding are regular; It is obvious to subtract husky benefit; But being not the optimal form of reservoir area of Three Gorges transforming slope into terrace, how seeking and a kind ofly be more suitable for the reservoir area of Three Gorges, be easy to arable land, the slope renovation and utilization mode accepted into the peasant, is conservationist and local government's problem demanding prompt solution.
Summary of the invention
To the existing slope above-mentioned deficiency that the rectification technology exists of ploughing, the object of the present invention is to provide that a kind of cost input reduces, agricultural tillage is convenient, soil and water conservation effect better, the transforming slope into terrace ridge, the more acceptable reservoir area of Three Gorges of peasant bank construction method.
Technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that the transforming slope into terrace ridge, reservoir area of Three Gorges bank construction method; The arable land, slope is made up of the cultivating unit of some horizontal divisions; The ridge bank of solid soil walking is built in each cultivating unit outside, and existing stone dam has earth steps again in all ridge banks, is separated with earth steps between all the time between two stone dams; The ridge bank in the domatic bottom cultivating unit outside is a stone dam, and each cultivating unit keeps original arable land, slope microrelief form to carry out farming.
Further, said stone dam wall upper edge different height is laid drain hole with suiting measures to local conditions, strengthens the drainability in rainy season, avoids the heavy showers runoff that stone dam is produced and destroys.Build gutter back of the body ditch at the earth steps inwall, prevent runoff washing away earth steps in order to dam.
The placement position of said earth steps all is positioned at the outer of former cultivating unit, needn't repartition original cultivating unit, keeps original plot microrelief; Along with farming activities year by year; To ploughing of soil, the gradient is slowed down gradually, reduces the engineering quantity in the rectification process; Can suitably practice thrift cost, more be prone to accepted by the peasant.
Consider the relative stability of stone dam, the stone dam longitudinal section is a rectangle, can reduce floor space, economizes the land resource.Because earth steps stability is not as stone dam, it is the stability of right-angled trapezium with the enhancing earth steps that the earth steps longitudinal section is built, and earth steps can be planted short bar industrial crops, and the raising land utilization ratio also makes things convenient for the peasant to be adjacent to interblock two simultaneously and walks up and down.
Plantation economic plants hedge on the said earth steps, the plant hedge can further play the effect of consolidated soil.Also can not establish earth steps,, can play the effect that keeps soil equally, can also improve land utilization ratio, increase output directly at high economic plants hedges such as earth steps position plantations.
Ridge bank constructional materials should locally be drawn materials, and the constructional materials of stone dam can adopt building stones also can adopt hollow brick.
Compare existing " transforming slope into terrace " (the horizontal stone dam terrace land) water and soil conservation and the corresponding methods of cultivation, this method has following effect:
1) according to the investigation of reservoir area of Three Gorges; Earth steps transforming slope into terrace erosion modulus is 555 tons/square kilometre. year; Stone dam transforming slope into terrace erosion modulus is 26 tons/square kilometre. year; The soil erosion modulus of " earth steps+stone dam " alternate layout pattern that this method proposes is less than allowing 500 tons/square kilometre of numbers of dropouts. year, can reach the water and soil conservation requirement.
2) because be separated with earth steps in the middle of the stone dam, earth steps are constructed cost less than stone dam, so whole cost reduces.
3) can plant short industrial crops on the earth steps, increase working area and land utilization ratio virtually, avoid constructing originally that the stone dam of the single layout of terrace land causes can not plant the defective high with the land seizure rate.
4) cultivating unit need not be organized into horizontal terrace land in this method, but keeps original arable land, slope microrelief form, and in the farming activities in later stage, the peasant ploughs the soil year by year, and the gradient is slowed down gradually.Not only meet peasant's farming custom, comply with the demand of locality draining in rainy season, and greatly reduce improvement cost.The investigation of reservoir area of Three Gorges shows that also the operation of field, middle alpine region " transforming slope into terrace " is convenient not to the utmost, and the peasant not too welcomes, and ploughs by the slope that this method is transformed, and the peasant is convenient to produce, and farming efficient strengthens, and water and fertilizer utilization improves, and the peasant is acceptant.
In a word, this method is compared with the horizontal terrace land of existing stone dam, and cost decreases; Simple to operate, rationally plant the economic plants hedge and can consolidate soil and also can increase economic efficiency, welcome by the peasant; Also more ecological than all building up stone dam simultaneously, promote the alpine region in being adapted at.
 
Description of drawings
Fig. 1-one embodiment of the invention front schematic view.
Fig. 2-Fig. 1 side schematic view.
 
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is described further.
The transforming slope into terrace ridge, reservoir area of Three Gorges of the present invention bank construction method, the arable land, slope is made up of the cultivating unit of some horizontal divisions, and the ridge bank of solid soil walking is built in each cultivating unit outside.Existing stone dam has earth steps again in the bank of this method ridge; All the time be separated with earth steps between between two stone dams; Form " stone dam+earth steps " mixed mode at interval, and based on ridge bank stability requirement, the ridge bank in (the domatic bottom) next stage cultivating unit outside is configured to stone dam all the time.Earth steps are according to the gradient and length of grade and the configuration of rill erosion generation threshold.The structure material of stone dam can adopt piece stone, gravel, (hollow) fragment of brick etc., and stone dam wall upper edge different height evenly is provided with drain hole in building process, strengthens the drainability in rainy season, avoids the destruction of heavy showers runoff to stone dam.Build gutter back of the body ditch at the earth steps inwall simultaneously, prevent runoff washing away earth steps in order to dam.The present invention is separated with earth steps in the middle of stone dam, and earth steps are constructed cost less than stone dam, so cost reduces.Original arable land, the slope microrelief form of each cultivating unit maintenance is carried out farming and is got final product, and the horizontal terrace land of formation that need not degradate can further reduce improvement cost like this.
The placement position of said earth steps all is positioned at the outer of former cultivating unit, and the field face is remained stationary in principle, needn't repartition original cultivating unit like this; Can keep original plot mima type microrelief; In the farming activities in later stage, the peasant ploughs the soil year by year, and the gradient is slowed down gradually.More be prone to accepted, can suitably practice thrift cost simultaneously by the peasant.
Consider the relative stability of stone dam, the stone dam longitudinal section is a rectangle, can reduce floor space, economizes the land resource.Because earth steps stability is not as stone dam; The earth steps longitudinal section is built to the stability of right-angled trapezium with the enhancing earth steps, can be planted the economic plants hedge on the earth steps, not only can improve land utilization ratio; And can also play the effect of consolidated soil, also make things convenient for the peasant to be adjacent to interblock simultaneously and walk up and down two.
Domatic the going up of the ridge of said earth steps and bank planted short bar industrial crops usually, and industrial crops are liked according to the peasant, and the market demand and site condition etc. are selected with suiting measures to local conditions.Utilize the further fixed earth steps of plant hedge, strengthen soil anti-impact erosion ability, increase income simultaneously.The gradient hour (below 8 °) also can not make up earth steps, directly at high economic plants hedges such as earth steps position plantations, can play the effect that keeps soil equally, can also improve land utilization ratio, increases output.
During this method practical implementation with the slope plough by the gradient be divided into below 8 °, 8 ° ~ 15 °, 15 ° ~ 25 ° three kinds of situation consider, and are suitable to ploughing because 25 ° be the district that concedes the land to forestry with the upgrade, so not at the row of this method consideration.Simultaneously because the toe run-off is big, to wash away the most seriously, the likelihood ratio that avalanche takes place is higher, and the steadiness of stone dam is greater than earth steps, so toe is built stone dam all the time.The structure road number of (plant hedge) earth steps and stone dam need come definite flexibly according to rill erosion generation threshold, the gradient, length of grade and farming, specifically can be with reference to table 1 way of recommendation.
Table 1 this method ridge bank mode of construction is recommended
The aligning method that indicates stone dam, earth steps in the table is a layout type from bottom to top, and above-mentioned stone dam is respectively with earth steps.The original ground length of grade is can dispose according to exceeding length in above-mentioned scope separately not.
Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 are 1 specific embodiment of building twice earth steps 2 of two stone dams. l 1Be the original ground length of grade between stone dam, l 2 Be the original ground length of grade between earth steps.
The transforming slope into terrace ridge bank construction method that the present invention proposes; Its effect is near horizontal terrace land; The horizontal terrace land of stone dam that extensively adopts is changed into the alternate layout with earth steps of stone dam, changes the method that the part stone dam is earth steps, keep original hillside fields microrelief form to carry out farming, not ploughed in the slope degradates; The domatic water system construction process of the structure of its domatic water system and existing transforming slope into terrace is similar basically, is adapted at the massif district and particularly promotes the reservoir area of Three Gorges.

Claims (5)

1. reservoir area of Three Gorges transforming slope into terrace ridge bank construction method; The arable land, slope is made up of the cultivating unit of some horizontal divisions; The ridge bank of solid soil walking is built in each cultivating unit outside, and it is characterized in that: existing stone dam has earth steps again in all ridge banks, is separated with earth steps between all the time between two stone dams; And the ridge bank in the next stage cultivating unit outside is a stone dam, and each cultivating unit keeps original arable land, slope microrelief form.
2. the transforming slope into terrace ridge, reservoir area of Three Gorges according to claim 1 bank construction method is characterized in that: said stone dam wall upper edge different height is provided with and is used for permeable drain hole, and the earth steps inwall is built the gutter back of the body ditch in order to dam.
3. the transforming slope into terrace ridge, reservoir area of Three Gorges according to claim 1 and 2 bank construction method is characterized in that: said earth steps the outer that the position all is positioned at the cultivating unit of original formation is set.
4. the transforming slope into terrace ridge, reservoir area of Three Gorges according to claim 3 bank construction method, it is characterized in that: said stone dam vertical section is a rectangle, the earth steps vertical section is a right-angled trapezium.
5. the transforming slope into terrace ridge, reservoir area of Three Gorges according to claim 3 bank construction method is characterized in that: plantation economic plants hedge is not perhaps repaiied earth steps directly at high economic plants hedges such as earth steps position plantations on the said earth steps.
CN201110271432.2A 2011-09-14 2011-09-14 Terrace bank construction method for changing slope farmland into level terrace in reservoir area of Three Gorges Expired - Fee Related CN102392453B (en)

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Cited By (7)

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CN103088835A (en) * 2013-02-16 2013-05-08 重庆师范大学 Three gorge reservoir region slope cropland bank building method and slope cropland bank
CN104303799A (en) * 2014-10-31 2015-01-28 贵州师范大学 Karst slope hedgerow planting method
CN104947692A (en) * 2015-03-03 2015-09-30 西南大学 Transformation method for protective slope of field ridge
CN105145068A (en) * 2015-09-02 2015-12-16 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所 Hedge earth bank ridge-direction pitting field having functions of conserving water, soil, nitrogen and phosphorus and cultivation method
CN105300364A (en) * 2015-10-12 2016-02-03 山东东泰工程咨询有限公司 Method for determining slope surface by using intersection method
CN106982723A (en) * 2017-04-01 2017-07-28 兴义首草谷中药材有限公司 It is a kind of to utilize the method that the stem of noble dendrobium is planted on regional transforming slope into terrace stone dam of conceding the land to forestry
CN113279417A (en) * 2021-05-19 2021-08-20 广西大学 System and method for collapse ecological management and protection

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103088835A (en) * 2013-02-16 2013-05-08 重庆师范大学 Three gorge reservoir region slope cropland bank building method and slope cropland bank
CN103088835B (en) * 2013-02-16 2015-07-22 重庆师范大学 Three gorge reservoir region slope cropland bank building method and slope cropland bank
CN104303799A (en) * 2014-10-31 2015-01-28 贵州师范大学 Karst slope hedgerow planting method
CN104947692A (en) * 2015-03-03 2015-09-30 西南大学 Transformation method for protective slope of field ridge
CN105145068A (en) * 2015-09-02 2015-12-16 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所 Hedge earth bank ridge-direction pitting field having functions of conserving water, soil, nitrogen and phosphorus and cultivation method
CN105145068B (en) * 2015-09-02 2018-03-02 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所 Plant hedge Geng Longxiang areas field and the methods of cultivation with water and soil nitrogen phosphorus holding effect
CN105300364A (en) * 2015-10-12 2016-02-03 山东东泰工程咨询有限公司 Method for determining slope surface by using intersection method
CN105300364B (en) * 2015-10-12 2018-03-30 山东东泰工程咨询有限公司 Domatic method is determined using Convergence method
CN106982723A (en) * 2017-04-01 2017-07-28 兴义首草谷中药材有限公司 It is a kind of to utilize the method that the stem of noble dendrobium is planted on regional transforming slope into terrace stone dam of conceding the land to forestry
CN113279417A (en) * 2021-05-19 2021-08-20 广西大学 System and method for collapse ecological management and protection

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