CN102183213A - Aspherical mirror detection method based on phase measurement deflectometry - Google Patents

Aspherical mirror detection method based on phase measurement deflectometry Download PDF

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CN102183213A
CN102183213A CN 201110049994 CN201110049994A CN102183213A CN 102183213 A CN102183213 A CN 102183213A CN 201110049994 CN201110049994 CN 201110049994 CN 201110049994 A CN201110049994 A CN 201110049994A CN 102183213 A CN102183213 A CN 102183213A
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mirror
phase
normal
camera
measured
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CN102183213B (en
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万勇建
伍凡
范斌
赵文川
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中国科学院光电技术研究所
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Abstract

The invention provides an aspheric mirror detection method based on phase measurement deflectometry. The detection system is composed of a display screen, a camera, an electronic control translation stage, a half transparent and half reflecting mirror and an electronic computer, wherein the optical centre of the camera is arranged on the optical axis of the mirror to be detected; a sine (cosine) fringe pattern is generated by the computer and is displayed on the display screen; then the fringe pattern on the display screen can be projected on the mirror to be detected and the camera can shoot the reflected image; during the process of measurement, the mirror to be detected is fixed on the electronic control translation stage and can precisely move along the optical axis under the control of the computer; the fringe pattern shot during the moving process of the mirror to be detected can be analyzed and processed to obtain a phase distribution, then the relationship between the normal line distance and the normal angle of the aspherical surface can be obtained by calculation, namely the surface shape can be described by the normal line congruence of the aspherical surface; and meanwhile, the normal line congruence can be converted to the rectangular coordinate system through geometry calculation for evaluation. The invention has a large dynamic measurement range and provides detection means for the accurate grinding and primary polishing processes of a non-spherical reflector with a larger wavefront variation range during processing.

Description

一种基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法 A non-spherical lens detection method based on phase measurement deflectometry

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种光学检测技术,尤其是一种针对非球面镜的检测方法,属于先进光学制造与检测技术领域。 [0001] The present invention relates to an optical detection technique, in particular to a method for detecting a non-spherical mirror, and belong to the advanced optical manufacturing technical field of detection.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 所谓非球面光学元件,是指面形由多项高次方程决定、面形上各点的半径均不相同的光学元件。 [0002] The so-called aspheric optical element means surface shape determined by the number of high-order equation, the radius at each point on the surface shape of the optical element are not the same. 非球面光学零件能够校正像差、改善像质、扩大视场,并使光学系统结构简化、重量减轻。 Aspheric optical parts aberration can be corrected to improve image quality, to expand the field of view, and simplify the structure of the optical system, weight loss. 随着光学精密加工和光电子学的发展,非球面越来越广泛地应用于各种光学系统中。 With the development of optoelectronics and optical precision machining, non-spherical increasingly widely used in various optical systems. 因此,随着非球面越来越广泛的应用,对非球面的测量尤其是大口径深型非球面的高精度测量成为现在的一个热点问题。 Thus, with the aspheric more widely used, the measurement of aspheric surfaces, especially large-diameter aspherical deep precision measurement now become a hot issue. 长期以来非球面的制造与检测技术一直是制约其广泛应用的两大难题,尤其是大口径非球面的检测更是如此。 For a long time aspheric manufacturing and detection technology it has two problems restricting its widely used, especially the large-diameter aspherical detection even more so. 众所周知,大口径非球面在精磨阶段的检测是影响整个非球面加工效率的关键所在。 As we all know, large-diameter aspherical surface grinding stage of detection is the key to the whole impact of aspherical processing efficiency. 目前通常采用的干涉计量技术,其精度很高,可以达到几十分之一个波长。 Interferometry now commonly used, high accuracy, and tens of one-half wavelength. 但其测量动态范围很小,在测量非球面时,一般都需要制造辅助元件,同时对机械的振动和空气的扰动也非常敏感,这样对使用的环境有很高的要求。 However, the measurement dynamic range is very small, in the measurement of aspheric surface, are generally necessary to manufacture the auxiliary element, and mechanical vibration and disturbance is also very sensitive to air, such high demands on the environment of use. 同时,在细磨过程中,由于其表面较粗糙,面形误差较大,也不适合用干涉计量等常规的方法检测。 Meanwhile, the fine grinding process, because of its rough surface, the surface shape error is large, not suitable for detection by conventional methods like interferometry. 三坐标测量仪是用测头对被测面进行接触式测量,因此非常费事、费时,并且精度受测头、运动机构影响特别大,测量的口径也受到限制,对大于使用范围的镜面就无法使用。 Coordinate measuring instrument is measured with a surface contact probe for measurement, it is very laborious, time consuming, and accuracy is limited by the probe, particularly affect the movement mechanism, the measured diameter is also limited, it is greater than the range of the mirror can not be use.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明的技术解决问题:克服现有技术的不足,提供一种基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法,该方法具有较大的动态测量范围,为加工过程中波前变化范围较大的非球面反射镜精磨和初抛光阶段提供了检验手段。 [0003] The techniques of the present invention to solve the problem: to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art, there is provided a phase-based method of measuring the aspherical mirror deflection detection technique, the method has a large dynamic range, before the process of change in the wave range larger non-spherical mirror grinding and polishing the early stages provides a means of inspection.

[0004] 本发明的技术解决方案:一种基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法,其特点在于:采用的检测系统由显示屏、已标定的摄像机、电控平移台、半透半反镜和电子计算机组成;摄像机的光心置于待测镜的光轴上,显示屏平面垂直于被测镜光轴,并显示由计算机产生正弦或余弦条纹图,经被测镜和半透半反镜反射后为摄像机所接收,即摄像机通过待测镜来观察显示屏,拍摄到显示屏上显示的图像即条纹图样,这样摄像机拍摄的条纹图像就携带了被测镜的面形信息,会发生变形而不同于显示屏所显示的标准条纹图,变形量取决于被测镜的面形;在测量过程中,将被测镜固定在电控平移台上,并在计算机的控制下沿光轴精确移动,而摄像机、半透半反镜和显示屏的位置都保持不变。 [0004] The technical solutions of the present invention: a non-spherical lens detection method based on phase measurement deflectometry, characterized by: a detection system using a display screen, a calibrated camera, motorized translation stage, transflective microscope and computer composition; the optical center of the camera lens to be tested is placed in the optical axis, measured perpendicular to the display plane mirror optical axis, and displays computer-generated sine or cosine fringes, measured by the half mirror and after reflection mirror is received by the camera, i.e. the camera lens to be measured by observing the display, i.e., the captured image of the fringe pattern displayed on the display screen, so that the fringe image captured by the camera on the information carrying surface shape of the tested mirror, will differs from the standard screen shown in FIG fringe deformed, the deformation amount depends on the measured surface shape mirror; during measurement, the measured electric control mirror fixed to the translation stage, and light under computer control along the precise movement of the shaft, and a video camera, a half mirror and a position of the display screen remains unchanged. 由于在被测镜移动过程中,摄像机位置保持不变,所以两者的相对位置发生了变化,摄像机的成像率会发生改变, 观察到的显示屏上的区域也会改变;在不同的位置,摄像机的像素单元会从待测镜上的不同点反射,到达显示屏上的不同位置,并记录下不同的条纹图像;使用相移技术和相位展开技术对记录的条纹图像进行处理得到各个位置处的相位分布,再计算得到非球面法线距和法线角的关系,即非球面的法线汇来描述非球面的面形;同时还可以由法线汇通过几何计算转换到直角坐标系,对被测镜面形进行评价。 Since the mirror during movement of the test, the camera position remains unchanged, the relative position of the two changes, the imaging camera will change the rate, the observed area of ​​the display will change; in different positions, camera pixel units from different points will be reflected on the mirror to be measured, reaches a different location on the display, and record different fringe images; phase-shift technique and the use of phase unwrapping techniques fringe image obtained by processing recorded at various locations phase distribution, and then calculated from the aspherical surface normals and normal angle relationship, i.e., the normal aspherical surface sinks described aspheric surface shape; also be converted by the geometric calculation normals to sink through the Cartesian coordinate system, evaluation of the measured shape mirror.

[0005] 所述正弦或余弦条纹图可以是两垂直方向(如水平、竖直方向)的标准正弦或余弦条纹图,也可以是环形标准正弦或余弦条纹图。 The [0005] FIG sine or cosine fringes may be two in the vertical direction (e.g., horizontal, vertical direction) of the standard sine or cosine fringe pattern may be an annular fringe standard sine or cosine FIG.

[0006] 所述条纹图像进行分析处理得到相位分布是通过多次(大于等于3次)相移,采用相移技术得到截断相位分布,再通过相位展开技术得到连续的相位分布。 [0006] The fringe image analysis process to obtain the phase distribution is a phase shift by multiple (greater than or equal to 3 times) obtained using the phase-shift technique truncated phase distribution, phase distribution and then expanded to obtain a continuous phase techniques.

[0007] 所述计算得到非球面法线距和法线角的关系是根据反射定律,通过连续相位分布找到原始光线、偏折光线与被测镜面法线重合的位置,从而得到法线距和法线角。 [0007] The aspherical surface normal is calculated from the relationship and normal angle is based on the law of reflection, to find the initial light, and the light deflection measured normal to the mirror coincide on successive phase distribution, and to obtain a normal pitch normal angle.

[0008] 所述的法线汇通过几何计算转换到直角坐标系是非球面上距离很近的相邻两点, 可以近似看成是处在同一段圆弧上,根据法线距与法线汇的关系找到这个圆弧的中心和直径,结合几何关系可以计算得到被测面形的直角坐标分布。 [0008] The geometrical calculation of the conversion to the normal exchange through Cartesian coordinates aspherical surface adjacent points very close distance can be approximated as a circular arc is in the same, according to the normal exchange from normal and find the relationship between the diameter of the center arc, binding geometry can be calculated Cartesian coordinates of the shape of the test surface profile.

[0009] 本发明与现有技术相比的优点在于: [0009] The advantages of the present invention compared to the prior art in that:

[0010] (1)本发明具有较大的测量动态范围,可用于大口径深型非球面制造的精磨和抛光阶段的检测,与三维坐标测量仪相比,可以一次完成全场测量,更方便快捷省时。 [0010] (1) Measurement of the present invention has a large dynamic range, it can be used to detect fine grinding and polishing stages deep aspherical producing large diameter, compared with the three-dimensional coordinate measuring instrument, the audience measurement can be done once more convenient and time-saving.

[0011] (2)本发明对环境无特殊要求,可在车间环境中进行检测。 [0011] (2) according to the present invention, no special requirements on the environment, can be detected in the workshop environment.

[0012] (3)本发明结构简单、灵活性高,无需特殊光学元件,成本非常低廉。 [0012] (3) The structure of the present invention is simple, flexible, without special optical element, the cost is very low.

[0013] (4)本发明检测方法可以用非球面的法线汇,即法线距与法线角的关系,来描述非球面的面形,更清楚表述了所提方法的原理和测量过程,也使计算公式和计算过程更加简洁,同时也可以转换到直角坐标系进行评价。 Principle [0013] (4) The detection method may be a normal aspheric sinks, i.e. from the normal relationship between the normal angle, described aspheric surface shape, a clearer representation of the proposed method and the measurement process , also calculated and the calculation process more simple, but also can be converted to a Cartesian coordinate system was evaluated.

[0014] (5)本发明中所采用的结构图样和相移技术具有相当高的精度,并且能有效地抑制噪声和周围环境对检测结果的影响。 [0014] (5) pattern structure employed in the present invention and the phase-shift technique with a very high precision, and can effectively suppress the influence of ambient noise and the detection result.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0015] 图1为非球面的法线汇示意图; [0015] Fig 1 a schematic view of exchange aspherical surface normal;

[0016] 图2为本发明的实现示意图; [0016] FIG. 2 is a schematic implementation of the invention;

[0017] 图3为本发明测量时的光线变化示意图,其中图3 (a)、图3 (b)、图3 (c)、图3 (d)、 图3(e)分别表示被测镜远离检测系统的移动过程中,不同位置时的光线示意图; [0017] FIG. 3 is a schematic of the measurement light changes invention, wherein FIG. 3 (A), FIG. 3 (B), FIG. 3 (C), FIG. 3 (D), FIG. 3 (e) represent measured mirrors the process of moving away from the detection system, the light at different positions in a schematic view;

[0018] 图4本发明测量时摄像机记录的条纹变化示意图,其中图4 (a)、图4 (b)、图4 (c)、 图4(d)、图4(e)分别表示被测镜远离检测系统的移动过程中,不同位置时的摄像机记录的条纹示意图; [0018] a schematic view of the video camera recorder fringe changes when measured 4 FIG invention, wherein FIG. 4 (a), FIG. 4 (b), FIG. 4 (c), FIG. 4 (d), FIG. 4 (e) represent measured movement away from the mirror in the detection system, when a streak camera recorder schematic different positions;

[0019] 图5本发明测量原理示意图;其中:0M是摄像机光心与显示屏的距离; [0019] FIG. 5 measurements Schematic of the present invention; wherein: 0M is the distance optical center of the display screen;

[0020] 图6由非球面法线恢复面形原理图。 [0020] FIG. 6 aspherical surface shape recovery normal schematics.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0021] 如图1所示,事实上,任何一种非球面都具有法线汇,其法线与光轴交于不同点并构成不同角度,如图1所示。 [0021] 1, in fact, have any of a normal aspheric exchange, whose normal and the optical axis intersect at different angles and different configuration, as shown in FIG. 非球面不仅仅可以用它的直角坐标系方程来表征,也可以用纵向法线像差和法线与光轴的夹角来表征。 Not only can aspherical surface by its Cartesian coordinates characterized equation, it may be an angle with the normal to the longitudinal aberration of the optical axis and the normal to be characterized. 为了方便说明,本发明将非球面顶点和非球面法线与光轴的交点之间距离称为法线距,用ρ来表示;将非球面法线对于光轴的倾角称为法线角,用U来表示。 For convenience of description, the present invention is the distance between the apex and the intersection of the aspherical aspherical surface normal to the optical axis from the normal line is referred to, it is represented by ρ; the inclination angle of the optical axis normal to the aspheric surface is referred to as normal angle, by U to represent. 显然,非球面面形除了可以用直角坐标系来表征外,还可以用法线汇的性质,即法线距P与法线角U的关系连续函数g :P = g(u)来表征。 Obviously, in addition to the aspherical surface shape characterized by a Cartesian coordinate system, but also can use wire exchange properties, i.e., normal to the pitch P and the normal angle relationship U continuous function g: P = g (u) characterized. [0022] 如图2所示,本发明中的检测系统由显示屏、摄像机、电控平移台、半透半反镜和电子计算机组成。 [0022] As shown in FIG 2, in the present invention by a detection system display, a video camera, motorized translation stage, a half mirror and computer components. 下面以显示屏上显示环形正弦条纹特征图样为例进行说明,当显示其他形式条纹图时具有类似的测量过程,本例子并不包括本专利的所有内容。 The following features annular sinusoidal fringe pattern displayed on the display screen as an example, a similar measurement process when displaying other forms fringes, the present example does not include all the contents of this patent.

[0023] 第一步,检测系统的搭建。 [0023] The first step structures, the detection system. 首先对摄像机进行标定得到其内参数和外参数,即二维图像信息和世界三维空间坐标转换的关系。 First calibrate the camera to get its internal parameters and external parameters, namely the relationship between the two-dimensional image information and the three-dimensional world space coordinate conversion. 摄像机标定方法很多,如Tsai和Roger提出的两步法,张正友提出的平面标定法等。 Many camera calibration method, such as a two-step process proposed and Roger Tsai, Zhang Zhengyou proposed plane calibration method. 然后将摄像机的光心0置于被测镜的光轴上,其光轴与被测镜光轴重合。 The optical center is then placed on the optical axis 0 of the camera under test of the mirror with its optical axis coincides with the optical axis of the mirror under test. 将被测镜固定在电控平移台上,可以在计算机的控制下沿光轴精确移动。 The measured electric control mirror fixed to the translation stage can be accurately moved in the optical axis direction under computer control. 由计算机产生环形正(余)弦条纹图,并显示在显示屏上。 A toroidal positive (cosine) fringe pattern by a computer, and displayed on the display screen. 将显示屏上的条纹图投影在被测镜上,反射回来后由摄像机进行拍摄。 The fringe pattern projected on the display screen in the tested mirror, reflected back by the camera to shoot.

[0024] 第二步,条纹图像采集及分析。 [0024] The second step, a fringe image acquisition and analysis. 保持摄像机、半透半反镜和显示屏的位置都不动, 计算机控制电控平移台将被测镜在光轴方向上精确移动。 Holding the camera, the position of the half mirror and the display screen is not moving, the computer controlled motorized translation stage precisely moves the mirror to be tested in the optical axis direction. 在移动过程中,被测镜和摄像机的相对位置发生了变化,所以摄像机的成像率发生了改变,观察到的显示屏上的区域也发生了改变。 During the movement, the relative position of the mirror and the measured change of the camera, so the image of the camera is changed, the observed area of ​​the display has also changed. 在不同的位置,摄像机的像素单元会从待测镜上的不同点反射,到达显示屏上的不同位置,如图3,并记录下不同的条纹图像,如图4。 At different locations, the pixel unit of the camera will be reflected from different points on the mirror to be measured, reaches a different location on the display screen, as shown in FIG 3, and record images of different stripes, as shown in FIG 4. 使用相移技术和相位展开技术对记录的条纹图像进行处理得到不同位置处的对应相位分布。 And using the phase-shift technique fringe phase unwrapping technique of the image recording is processed to obtain the corresponding phase distribution at different positions.

[0025] 第三步,计算法线汇。 [0025] The third step, calculating normals sinks. 测量过程中,被测镜的位置分别为PtlP1……pn。 Measurement process, the position of the mirror were measured PtlP1 ...... pn. 在这里将光线看成是从摄像机出射,经被测镜反射发生偏折到达显示屏,所以称摄像机出射光线为原始光线,称反射光线为偏折光线。 Here the light emitted from the camera as a, measured via the deflection mirror to the display screen occurs, so called camera emergent ray of light to the original, said reflected light beam is deflected. 在从Po到&的移动过程中,光线会被待测镜上的不同点& S1……&反射,并与显示屏相交于不同点。 During the movement from the & Po, the light will be measured in different points on the mirror reflection & ...... & Sl, and intersects with the display screen at different points. 由于移动过程中,环形条纹的周期是不变的,而偏折光线与显示屏的相交点逐渐远离光轴,所以在不同位置得到的相位值是是不一样的, 其绝对值趋势是单调增加的。 Since the movement, the annular fringe period is constant, the point of intersection of rays deflected from the optical axis of the display screen gradually, the phase value is obtained at the different positions are not the same, the absolute value monotonically increasing trend of. 在每个位置P处,分别使用条纹相移技术和截断相位展开方法,可以得到所对应的不同相位值φ,......狗。 At each position P, respectively, using phase shifting and truncation fringe phase unwrapping method can provide a different phase values ​​corresponding to φ, ...... dog. 当待测镜处于一个特殊位置Pk时,也就是 When tested in a special mirror position Pk, i.e.

P = Pk,像素k对应的原始光线在待测镜&处反射成为偏折光线并原路返回。 P = Pk, k corresponding original pixels in the measured light reflected at the mirror & backtrack and be deflected light. 根据反射定律,此时待测镜在&点的法线与原始光线、偏折光线重合,即SkO就是待测镜面形&点处的法线。 According to the law of reflection, when measured normal to the initial light mirror & points, coincident light deflector, i.e. SkO test it is normal at the point & shaped mirror.

[0026] 从图5中的几何关系可以得到,在位置Pk处,像素k测量得到的相位值Ok可表示为: [0026] can be obtained from the geometry of FIG. 5, at the position Pk, Ok pixel values ​​of phase k measured can be expressed as:

[0027] Φ1ί = 2 π (tanuk * 0M) /T (1) [0027] Φ1ί = 2 π (tanuk * 0M) / T (1)

[0028] 式中,OM是摄像机光心与显示屏的距离;T为显示屏显示环形正弦条纹的周期; Ok称为标准参考相位值。 [0028] wherein, OM is the distance from the optical center of the display screen; T is a display screen of annular sinusoidal fringe period; Ok called standard reference phase value. 根据待测镜在不同位置像素单元k记录的条纹相位信息和测量系统的参数,就可以计算得到位置Pk。 The mirror in the parameter to be measured and the measuring system fringe phase information different positions k pixel units recorded, the position can be calculated Pk. 这样,就得到了待测镜面面形在&点处的法线距Pk 和法线角Uk的关系,决定了待测镜面面形的法线汇,也就描述了待测镜面的面形。 Thus, the mirror surface was measured at a normal distance & relationship point Pk and the normal angle of Uk, determines the mirror surface shape of the measured normal to sink, it describes the surface shape of the mirror under test. Sk点称为是法线角Uk的匹配点。 Sk point matching point is called the normal angle Uk.

[0029] 下面讨论计算方法,待测镜的位置可以表示为向量P : [0029] The calculating method discussed below, the mirror position to be measured may be represented as a vector P:

[0030] P = [poPl……pn] (2) [0030] P = [poPl ...... pn] (2)

[0031] 像素单元k在待测镜处于不同位置P时得到的相位值可以表示为向量φ: [0031] The phase values ​​obtained k pixel units when measured in the mirror in different positions can be represented as a vector P φ:

[0032] [0032]

φ = [Φο Φι ……φη] (3) φ = [Φο Φι ...... φη] (3)

[0033] 通过多项式拟合,P和φ的关系可以用函数F表示: [0033], P φ and the relationship may be expressed by a polynomial fit function F:

5[0034] 5 [0034]

Figure CN102183213AD00061

[0035] 由1式求出角度Uk对应的标准参考相位值并代入上式,就可以得到pk。 [0035] From equation 1 Uk angle corresponding to the reference phase values ​​and the standard into the above equation, can be obtained pk. 这表示待测镜面面形在&点处的法线距Pk,法线角为uk。 This test represents a mirror surface at a point of the normal distance & Pk, normal angle of uk. 这里法线距P与法线角U的关系是用离散数据来表示的,可将法线角和法线距的关系用多项式拟合,表示为连续函数G : Here the relationship between P and the normal line from normal angle U is represented by discrete data, and may be normal angle from the normal relationship with the polynomial expressed as a continuous function G:

[0036] ρ = G (U) (5) [0036] ρ = G (U) (5)

[0037] 函数G表示了待测镜面的法线汇,也描述了待测镜的面形。 [0037] G represents a normal function of the measured specular sinks, also describes the surface shape of the lens under test.

[0038] 第三步,由非球面法线得到被测镜面形直角坐标分布。 [0038] The third step, measured normal to the aspheric mirror shaped to give a rectangular coordinate distribution. 如图6所示,设S为待测镜面形,向量S([Sf Sh 表示为法线角U([IV··UH Uk…Uk])的匹配点,对应的法线距为pCpfPH ΐν··Ρκ])。 Shown in Figure 6, the test set S is a mirror shape, the vector S ([Sf Sh normal angle expressed as U ([IV ·· UH Uk ... Uk]) matching points, corresponding to the normal pitch of pCpfPH ΐν · · Ρκ]). 当角度u趋进于0时,函数G的值Ltl就是待测镜面的顶点球曲率半径,即: When the angle u to converge on zero, the value of the function G Ltl the sphere of the mirror is a curvature radius of the test, namely:

[0039] [0039]

Figure CN102183213AD00062

(6) (6)

[0040] 不失一般性,设A是待测镜面形相邻法线SlriQk和SkQk的交点。 [0040] Without loss of generality, let A mirror shaped intersection adjacent to the test and normal SlriQk of SkQk. 由于Pk与Ph的差值很小,法线SlrlQk和4¾非常接近,所以点Slri和&可以看成是处在同一个圆弧上,这个圆的中心是A点,所以根据半径相等有如下近似关系: Ph Pk and since the difference is very small, and normal SlrlQk 4¾ very close, so the point can be viewed as & Slri and are on the same arc, the center of the circle is at point A, so the radius is approximately equal to the following relationship:

[0041] [0041]

Figure CN102183213AD00063

[0042] 设点&到交点Pk的距离为Lk,即SkPk = Lk,则上式可表示为: [0042] & distance set point is the intersection point Pk Lk, i.e. SkPk = Lk, then the above equation can be expressed as:

[0043] [0043]

Figure CN102183213AD00064

[0044] 在Ap1JV1A中,根据三角正弦定理可得: [0044] In Ap1JV1A in accordance with the law of sines triangle can be obtained:

[0045] [0045]

Figure CN102183213AD00065

[0046] 联立8式、9式,Lk表示可以为: [0046] simultaneous Formula 8, Formula 9, of Lk can be expressed as:

[0047] [0047]

Figure CN102183213AD00066

[0048] 以直角坐标系形式表示的面形数据点&(yk,xk)表示为: [0048] Data points represent the surface shape in rectangular coordinate system in the form & (yk, xk) is expressed as:

[0049] [0049]

Figure CN102183213AD00067

[0050] 这样就得到了被测镜面形的直角坐标分布。 [0050] Thus obtained rectangular coordinate distribution of the measured shape mirror.

[0051] 本发明未详细阐述部分属于本领域公知技术。 [0051] The present invention belongs to the part not elaborated techniques known in the art.

Claims (5)

1. 一种基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法,其特征在于:采用的检测系统由显示屏、已标定的摄像机、电控平移台、半透半反镜和电子计算机组成;摄像机的光心置于待测镜的光轴上,显示屏平面垂直于被测镜光轴,并显示由计算机产生正弦或余弦条纹图,经被测镜和半透半反镜反射后为摄像机所接收,即摄像机通过待测镜来观察显示屏,拍摄到显示屏上显示的图像即条纹图样,这样摄像机拍摄的条纹图像就携带了被测镜的面形信息,会发生变形而不同于显示屏所显示的标准条纹图,变形量取决于被测镜的面形;在测量过程中,将被测镜固定在电控平移台上,并在计算机的控制下沿光轴精确移动,而摄像机、 半透半反镜和显示屏的位置都保持不变;由于在被测镜移动过程中,摄像机位置保持不变, 所以两者的相对位置发生了变化,摄像机 1. Based on the phase detection method of measuring the aspherical mirror deflection surgery, wherein: a detection system using a display screen, a calibrated camera, motorized translation stage, and a half mirror consisting computer; camera a mirror disposed on the optical center of the optical axis of the test, the test mirror plane perpendicular to the display screen axis, and displays computer-generated sine or cosine fringes, measured after mirror and the half mirror being received by the camera , i.e., the camera display screen is viewed via the mirror to be measured, i.e., the fringe pattern captured image shown on the display, so that streak camera image carrying surface shape information on the tested mirror, deformed display differs from the standard fringe pattern shows the amount of deformation depends on the measured surface shape mirror; during measurement, the measured electric control mirror fixed to the translation stage, and precise movement along the optical axis under the control of a computer, and a camera, and a half semipermeable mirror and the display screen positions remain unchanged; as measured in the mirror during movement, the camera position remains unchanged, the relative position of the two changes, the camera 成像率会发生改变,观察到的显示屏上的区域也会改变;在不同的位置,摄像机的像素单元会从待测镜上的不同点反射,到达显示屏上的不同位置,并记录下不同的条纹图像;使用相移技术和相位展开技术对记录的条纹图像进行处理得到各个位置处的相位分布,再计算得到非球面法线距和法线角的关系,即非球面的法线汇来描述非球面的面形;同时还可以由法线汇通过几何计算转换到直角坐标系,对被测镜面形进行评价。 Will change the rate of imaging, the region on the display screen will change observed; in a different location, the pixel unit of the camera will be reflected from different points on the mirror to be measured, reaches a different location on the display, and record different fringe images; phase-shift technique and the use of phase unwrapping techniques fringe image recording process is performed to obtain the phase distribution at the respective positions, and then from the relationship between the calculated aspherical surface normals and normal angle, i.e. the aspherical sinks to the normal described aspheric surface shape; also be calculated from the normal exchange geometric conversion to Cartesian coordinates, the measured specular shape was evaluated.
2.根据权利要求1所述的基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法,其特征在于:所述正弦或余弦条纹图可以是两垂直方向(如水平、竖直方向)的标准正弦或余弦条纹图,也可以是环形标准正弦或余弦条纹图。 According to claim aspherical mirror on the phase measurement method for detecting the deflection operation, characterized in that said 1: sine or cosine of the fringe pattern may be two in the vertical direction (e.g., horizontal, vertical direction) of the standard sine or cosine fringe pattern may be an annular fringe standard sine or cosine FIG.
3.根据权利要求1所述的基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法,其特征在于:所述条纹图像进行分析处理得到相位分布是通过多次(大于等于3次)相移,采用相移技术得到截断相位分布,再通过相位展开技术得到连续的相位分布。 3. Detection Based aspherical mirror deflection surgery phase measurement, wherein according to claim 1: The fringe image is analyzed to obtain the phase distribution is obtained by processing a plurality of times (three times or greater) phase shift by phase shifting technique to obtain a phase distribution truncated, then continuous phase distribution obtained by the phase expansion technique.
4.根据权利要求1所述的基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法,其特征在于:所述计算得到非球面法线距和法线角的关系是根据反射定律,通过连续相位分布找到原始光线、偏折光线与被测镜面法线重合的位置,从而得到法线距和法线角。 4. Based on the phase detection method for measuring an aspherical mirror deflection surgery, characterized in that said claim 1: said aspherical surface normal is calculated from the relationship and normal angle is based on the law of reflection, the distribution found by a continuous-phase initial light, the light deflecting mirror and the measured normal position overlapping pitch to obtain normal and normal angle.
5.根据权利要求1所述的基于相位测量偏折术的非球面镜检测方法,其特征在于:所述的由法线汇通过几何计算转换到直角坐标系,非球面上距离F很近的相邻两点,可以近似看成是处在同一段圆弧上,根据法线距与法线汇的关系找到这个圆弧的中心和直径,结合几何关系可以计算得到被测面形的直角坐标分布。 According to claim aspherical mirror on the phase measurement method for detecting the deflection operation, characterized in that said 1: phase close distance F converted to a Cartesian coordinate system, the aspherical surface is calculated from the geometric normal exchange through said two o may be seen in approximately the same arc of a circle, the diameter of the circular arc center and to find the distance relation according to the normal normal sinks, binding geometry can be calculated Cartesian coordinates of the test surface shape distribution .
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