CN106017863A - Phase measurement deflection method for aspheric surface detection - Google Patents

Phase measurement deflection method for aspheric surface detection Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106017863A
CN106017863A CN201610309060.0A CN201610309060A CN106017863A CN 106017863 A CN106017863 A CN 106017863A CN 201610309060 A CN201610309060 A CN 201610309060A CN 106017863 A CN106017863 A CN 106017863A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
measured
minute surface
deviation
lcds
detection
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CN201610309060.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
郭春凤
林晓艳
邹军
居家奇
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上海应用技术学院
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Priority to CN201610309060.0A priority Critical patent/CN106017863A/en
Publication of CN106017863A publication Critical patent/CN106017863A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures
    • G01B11/25Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures by projecting a pattern, e.g. one or more lines, moiré fringes on the object
    • G01B11/2513Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures by projecting a pattern, e.g. one or more lines, moiré fringes on the object with several lines being projected in more than one direction, e.g. grids, patterns
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M11/00Testing of optical apparatus; Testing structures by optical methods not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to a phase measurement deflection method for aspheric surface detection. On the basis of a geometric principle of Ronchi test, a reverse optical path analysis is carried out on an improved phase measurement deflection detection method for an aspheric surface so as to obtain a deviation gradient of a to-be-detected mirror surface relative to an ideal surface shape; and integrating processing is carried out on the gradient to recover the deviation of the to-be-detected mirror surface and thus the to-be-detected mirror surface is reconstructed, so that non-contact full-field detection is carried out on the aspheric surface. With the method, a problem that incident light is obtained by display screen moving, calibration or approximation during the existing phase measurement deflection process or Ronchi testing and thus aspheric surface detection becomes inconvenient.

Description

Detect aspheric phase measurement deviation method

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of optical detective technology, detect aspheric phase measurement deviation particularly to one Method.

Background technology

Aspherics element has and improves image quality, reduces the number of optical elements of system and weight etc. Advantage, is widely used in multiple optical system.But, the extensively application of aspherical mirror receives processing Technology and the restriction of detection method.In the manufacture process of aspherical mirror, different process segment opposite shape essences The requirement of degree is different, be difficult to have one to have simultaneously accuracy of detection is high, easy to use, versatility is good, The detection method of low cost and other advantages is applied to each stage of aspherical mirror processing, it is therefore necessary to formed a set of Complete diversified detection scheme, thus adapt to the testing requirement of different processing stages and different accuracy.

The most existing multiple Aspherical-surface testing method, according to whether shape surface, contact measured face, can be by these Detection method is divided into two classes: contact and tether-free technologies.Three coordinate measuring machine is the one of comparative maturity Planting instrument with contacts, its certainty of measurement can reach micron dimension, can be used for the detection of refining stage. But, this detection method can damage specular surface to be measured, and when one massive minute surface of comparison of detection Time, the time operating and calibrating is long.Contactless measurement is broadly divided into two classes: interferometric method is with inclined Folding method.Interferometric method has higher certainty of measurement, but interferometer is expensive.Deflectometry is due to structure letter Single, low cost and other advantages is detected aspheric method as a kind of, and deflectometry i.e. gradiometry is a class weight The surface testing method wanted, has simple in construction, low cost and other advantages, by many experts of optical field and Scholar is widely studied, has been developed in multiple deflectometry at present, such as: More's deviation art, Foucault knife method, bright Strange method, Hartmann's method of testing and phase measurement deviation art etc..Based on phase measurement deviation art, U.S. Ya Lisang That university's optical research center is developed can the Systems for optical inspection (SCOTS) of software arrangements and portable slope Measure Systems for optical inspection (SPOTS).In existing phase measurement deviation art, utilize and measure entering of acquisition Penetrate light and the gradient of reflection light line computation tested surface shape, these Gradient Reconstruction tested surface shapes of integration.But, Incident ray can not simply directly obtain, and needs by moving display screen, demarcates or approximate and obtain, thus Certain difficulty is brought to aspheric detection.Develop a kind of detection method without determining incident ray will carry Rise actual aspheric detection efficiency.

Summary of the invention

The present invention be directed to the problem that Aspherical-surface testing method exists, it is proposed that the aspheric phase place of a kind of detection Measure deviation method, the method geometrical principle based on bright strange detection aspheric surface phase measurement deviation to improving Detection method carries out reverse optical path analysis, it is thus achieved that minute surface to be measured is relative to the deviation gradient of its preferable face shape, long-pending Divide these gradients to recover minute surface deviation to be measured, and then rebuild tested surface shape, thus realize carrying out non-to aspheric surface The whole audience detection of contact.This method avoid in existing phase measurement deviation art or bright strange detection and need by movement Display screen, demarcate or approximate and obtain incident ray, bring bigger convenience to aspheric detection.

The technical scheme is that and a kind of detect aspheric phase measurement deviation method, specifically include as Lower step:

1) set up detection light path: the minute surface of minute surface to be measured just to LCDs, minute surface summit the most to be measured and liquid crystal The line at display screen center is perpendicular to liquid crystal display screen, and semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens tilts to be placed in minute surface to be measured and liquid crystal Between display screen, the light sent from LCDs illuminates whole minute surface to be measured through semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens, through to be measured The light of direct reflection is reflected by semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens again, is finally received by camera, and signal is sent into through camera and calculated Machine;

2) LCDs, minute surface to be measured and camera coordinates being unified under a coordinate system, the Descartes of foundation sits Mark system, computer compiles straight sine streak liquor charging crystal display screen and shows;

3) collected by camera is through the straight sine streak of direct reflection to be measured, send in computer and analyzes;

4) computer analysis obtains the minute surface to be measured deviation gradient relative to its preferable face shape, then amasss deviation gradient Point, recover the deviation of minute surface to be measured, finally utilize the reconstruction of relations mirror to be measured between this deviation and preferable face shape The 3 d shape in face.

Described step 3) LCDs of straight sine streak by as sinusoidal grating and phase changer, make sine Striped produces phase shift.

Described straight sine streak includes vertical sine streak and Horizontal sinusoidal striped, vertical sine streak and level The direction of sine streak is different, and cycle, phase place, amplitude are the most identical.

Described computer analysis obtains minute surface to be measured and specifically includes relative to the deviation gradient of its preferable face shape: pass through The phase point of the same name gathering striped and sinusoidal grating is looked for determine the reality of each pixel light in image plane Lateral aberration, in recycling camera image plane, pixel and light relation, obtained this light by Ray tracing Determining preferable lateral aberration with the intersection point of preferable face shape, the geometrical principle being then based on bright strange detection obtains edge The minute surface to be measured of aspheric surface normal direction deviates the deviation gradient of its preferable face shape.

The beneficial effects of the present invention is: the present invention detects aspheric phase measurement deviation method, the present invention With use compared with three coordinate measuring machine and interferometer detect aspheric method, have structure of the detecting device simple, Low cost, the advantage such as easy to operate;Compared with existing phase measurement deviation detection method, it is only necessary to determine anti- Penetrate light, it is not necessary to by moving display screen, demarcate or approximate and obtain incident ray, improve to a certain extent Aspheric accuracy of detection;Compared with the bright strange detection method, it is to avoid determine during preferable lateral aberration used Approximation or demarcation.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the detection device schematic diagram that the present invention detects aspheric phase measurement deviation method;

Fig. 2 is the geometrical principle figure that the present invention detects aspheric phase measurement deviation method;

Fig. 3 is the straight sine streak figure that the present invention generates in LCDs;

Fig. 4 is the bar graph that the present invention uses collected by camera;

Fig. 5 is that the present invention rebuilds mirror shape figure to be measured.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is detection device schematic diagram, and wherein 1 is LCDs, and 2 is semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens, and 3 is to be measured Minute surface, 4 is camera, and 5 is computer.When detection, LCDs 1 generating sine streak, this is just String striped is compiled out by computer.The minute surface of minute surface 3 to be measured is just to LCDs 1, and minute surface 3 the most to be measured pushes up Point is perpendicular to LCDs 1 with the line at LCDs 1 center, and semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens 2 tilts to be placed in Between minute surface 3 to be measured and LCDs 1, the light sent from LCDs 1 is through semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens 2 Illuminating whole minute surface to be measured 3, the light reflected through minute surface 3 is reflected by semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens, again finally by camera 4 Receiving, signal sends into computer 5 through camera 4.

The use of described semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens avoids the resistance that LCDs central area is emitted beam by camera Gear, and avoid and make because of the stop of LCDs camera can not gather deforming stripe, it is achieved that with Axle measurement of full field.

Before surface testing, LCDs, minute surface to be measured and camera coordinates need to be unified in a coordinate system Under, the cartesian coordinate system of foundation is as in figure 2 it is shown, summit that initial point o is minute surface to be measured, and oz is mirror to be measured Face optical axis, or with oz axle is vertical.In order to clearly illustrate the spatial relationship of light and LCDs, Fig. 2 Right half part shows the intersection point of light and LCDs at a certain angle, and wherein x/y plane represents liquid crystal Display screen, x/y plane is perpendicular to oz axle, and intersects at o with plane1, o1x、o1Y is respectively along horizontally and vertically side To.During detection, LCDs shows respectively generate in LCDs as shown in Figure 3 straight the most just String bar graph, wherein in Fig. 3, (a) is vertical sine streak, and in Fig. 3, (b) is Horizontal sinusoidal striped, vertically Sine streak is different from the direction of Horizontal sinusoidal striped, and cycle, phase place, amplitude are the most identical.Vertical stripes hangs down Straight and x-axis, horizontal stripe is parallel and x-axis.The LCDs of display sine streak by as sinusoidal grating and Phase changer, makes sine streak produce phase shift.First being generated in LCDs by vertical stripes, it is strong Degree distribution can be expressed as:

A in above formula1And a2For constant, x is the x-component of liquid crystal display screen pixel coordinates, and p is the cycle of sine streak, 2 π x/p are phase places,It it is the initial phase of sine streak.These stripeds reflected by minute surface 3 to be measured after by camera 4 gather, and the phase place gathering striped is denoted asThis phase place can be solved by phase shift algorithm.Current existing phase shift Algorithm is a lot, and the phase shift step number phase accuracy solved the highest more, but the time of detection is the longest.Therefore, The present invention uses a four-step phase-shifting technology to obtain PHASE DISTRIBUTION, and this PHASE DISTRIBUTION is truncated at anti-triangle letter In the range of the main value of number, thus it is discontinuous.A space or deployment algorithm time phase is utilized to obtain Obtain continuous print PHASE DISTRIBUTION.In the present invention, because non-spherical surface is smooth and continuous print, use one Individual simple space phase deployment algorithm just can obtain gathering the continuous phase distribution of bar graphAdopt by looking for The phase point of the same name of collection bar graph and on a display screen generation vertical stripes figure, determined on imaging plane any The x-component x of the actual lateral aberration that pixel light is correspondinga.Then horizontal stripe is generated on a display screen, By above-mentioned steps, the y of the actual lateral aberration that any pixel light is corresponding on imaging plane can be obtained Component ya

In the present invention it is assumed that camera is a pin-hole model, the i.e. stop down of camera is a bit, through mirror The light of face reflection is imaged in image plane by after this point, then cross each pixel in image plane Light is known, by Ray tracing, can obtain this light and the intersection point of preferable face shape, and accordingly Intersection point T (the x of incident ray and display screeni,yi,D).Figure it is seen that δ x=xa-xi, δ y=ya-yi, and the difference δ b of actual lateral aberration and preferable lateral aberration,

δ b = ( δ x ) 2 + ( δ y ) 2 - - - ( 2 )

In above formula, the size of δ b relies on and the deviation of minute surface to be measured relatively its ideal face shape, it is assumed that the table of ideal face shape Reaching formula is f (r), and the deviation of minute surface to be measured is g (r), geometrical principle based on bright strange detection, treats along normal direction The deviation gradient surveying minute surface is

d g ( r ) d r = - [ D - f ( r ) ] { r 2 + [ N - f ( r ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 δ b 2 [ N - f ( r ) ] { ( r - b ) 2 + [ D - f ( r ) ] 2 } - - - ( 3 )

In above formula, D is the distance between LCDs and minute surface summit, and N is preferable face shape normal and the friendship of oz axle Distance between point and minute surface summit.The x of minute surface deviation gradient to be measured in integral formula (3), y-component, extensive The minute surface deviation to be measured of complex edge normal direction, utilizes the relation between minute surface deviation to be measured and preferable face shape, weight Build minute surface to be measured.

Fig. 4 be utilize the actually detected recessed paraboloidal mirror of straight sine streak during, collected by camera Carry minute surface to be measured relative to 2 width in 8 width phase shift bar graphs of its preferable surface form deviation information, wherein Fig. 4 (a) For the bar graph of vertical direction, Fig. 4 (b) is the bar graph of horizontal direction.

Fig. 5 is the mirror shape to be measured utilizing the present invention to rebuild.

Claims (4)

1. one kind is detected aspheric phase measurement deviation method, it is characterised in that specifically include following steps:
1) detection light path is set up: the minute surface of minute surface to be measured is just to LCDs, minute surface summit the most to be measured is perpendicular to liquid crystal display screen with the line at LCDs center, semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens tilts to be placed between minute surface to be measured and LCDs, the light sent from LCDs illuminates whole minute surface to be measured through semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens, again reflected by semi-transparent semi-reflecting lens through the light of direct reflection to be measured, finally being received by camera, signal sends into computer through camera;
2) LCDs, minute surface to be measured and camera coordinates being unified under a coordinate system, the cartesian coordinate system of foundation, computer compiles straight sine streak liquor charging crystal display screen and shows;
3) collected by camera is through the straight sine streak of direct reflection to be measured, send in computer and analyzes;
4) computer analysis obtains the deviation gradient of minute surface to be measured relatively its preferable face shape, then is integrated deviation gradient, recovers the deviation of minute surface to be measured, finally utilizes the 3 d shape of reconstruction of relations minute surface to be measured between this deviation and ideal face shape.
Detect aspheric phase measurement deviation method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the LCDs of the straight sine streak of described step 3), by as sinusoidal grating and phase changer, makes sine streak produce phase shift.
Detection the most according to claim 1 or claim 2 aspheric phase measurement deviation method, it is characterized in that, described straight sine streak includes vertical sine streak and Horizontal sinusoidal striped, and vertical sine streak is different from the direction of Horizontal sinusoidal striped, and cycle, phase place, amplitude are the most identical.
Detect aspheric phase measurement deviation method the most according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, described computer analysis obtains minute surface to be measured and specifically includes relative to the deviation gradient of its preferable face shape: by looking for the phase point of the same name gathering striped and sinusoidal grating to determine the actual lateral aberration of each pixel light in image plane, pixel and light relation in recycling camera image plane, the intersection point being obtained this light and preferable face shape by Ray tracing determines preferable lateral aberration, the geometrical principle being then based on bright strange detection obtains deviateing the deviation gradient of its preferable face shape along the minute surface to be measured of aspheric surface normal direction.
CN201610309060.0A 2016-05-11 2016-05-11 Phase measurement deflection method for aspheric surface detection CN106017863A (en)

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CN107869964A (en) * 2017-11-22 2018-04-03 上海应用技术大学 The detection method and device of aspheric surface
CN107957251A (en) * 2016-10-18 2018-04-24 中国计量大学 Reflecting sphere generalization detection method based on computer-assisted correction
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CN108917652A (en) * 2018-07-09 2018-11-30 中国科学院光电技术研究所 A kind of pose optimization method of structure light detection off-axis aspheric surface

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CN107957251B (en) * 2016-10-18 2019-12-20 中国计量大学 Computer-aided correction-based general detection method for reflection spherical surface
CN107957251A (en) * 2016-10-18 2018-04-24 中国计量大学 Reflecting sphere generalization detection method based on computer-assisted correction
CN107869964A (en) * 2017-11-22 2018-04-03 上海应用技术大学 The detection method and device of aspheric surface
CN108413894A (en) * 2018-03-12 2018-08-17 四川大学 A kind of phase measurement deviation art method of shearing dislocation absolute measurement
CN108426539A (en) * 2018-03-12 2018-08-21 四川大学 A method of detection reflecting element face shape is projected based on double frequency orthogonal grating
CN108489421A (en) * 2018-03-12 2018-09-04 四川大学 A kind of fringe projection detection plane component face shape method and device
CN108917652A (en) * 2018-07-09 2018-11-30 中国科学院光电技术研究所 A kind of pose optimization method of structure light detection off-axis aspheric surface

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Application publication date: 20161012