CN102183214A - Method for optically detecting large-aperture aspherical mirror structure - Google Patents

Method for optically detecting large-aperture aspherical mirror structure Download PDF

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CN102183214A
CN102183214A CN 201110050685 CN201110050685A CN102183214A CN 102183214 A CN102183214 A CN 102183214A CN 201110050685 CN201110050685 CN 201110050685 CN 201110050685 A CN201110050685 A CN 201110050685A CN 102183214 A CN102183214 A CN 102183214A
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mirror
measured
camera
display
large
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CN102183214B (en
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万勇建
伍凡
范斌
赵文川
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中国科学院光电技术研究所
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for optically detecting a large-aperture aspherical mirror structure. The method comprises the following steps of: displaying a structure characteristic pattern on a display screen, projecting the structure characteristic pattern on a detected mirror and reflecting the structure characteristic pattern, and shooting by a camera. By performing analysis process on a shot image, surface shape full information of the detected aspheric surface can be obtained. The large-aperture aspherical mirror has a simple structure; the method is convenient in use and high in sensitivity; no special requirement on the environment is needed; the method can be used for detecting in a workshop environment; an effective measure is provided for detection of large-aperture or relevant-large-aperture aspherical mirror; in particular, the method has wide application prospect in accurate grinding and polishing stages during manufacturing.

Description

一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法 One kind of structure of large aspheric mirror optical detection method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种光学检测技术,特别是一种针对大口径非球面镜的检测方法,属于先进光学制造与检测技术领域。 [0001] The present invention relates to an optical detection technique, particularly to a method for detecting large aspheric mirror, belong to the advanced optical manufacturing and testing art.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 所谓非球面光学元件,是指面形由多项高次方程决定、面形上各点的半径均不相同的光学元件。 [0002] The so-called aspheric optical element means surface shape determined by the number of high-order equation, the radius at each point on the surface shape of the optical element are not the same. 将非球面用于光学系统中,能够减少系统中光学元件的数量或能提高成像质量。 The aspherical surface used in an optical system, it is possible to reduce the number of optical elements or systems can improve the image quality. 随着光学精密加工的发展,非球面越来越广泛地应用于各种光学系统中。 With the development of optical precision machining, non-spherical increasingly widely used in various optical systems. 对非球面的测量尤其是大口径深型非球面的高精度测量成为现在的一个热点问题。 Measurement of aspheric especially deep aspherical high-precision measurement of large-caliber now become a hot issue. 长期以来非球面的制造与检测技术一直是制约其广泛应用的两大难题,尤其是大口径非球面的检测更是如此。 For a long time aspheric manufacturing and detection technology it has two problems restricting its widely used, especially the large-diameter aspherical detection even more so. 众所周知,大口径非球面在精磨阶段的检测是影响整个非球面加工效率的关键所在。 As we all know, large-diameter aspherical surface grinding stage of detection is the key to the whole impact of aspherical processing efficiency.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明的技术解决问题是:克服现有技术的不足,提供一种结构光检测大口径非球面镜的方法,具有测量动态范围大,可一次完成全场测量,结构简单、成本低、灵活性高等特点。 [0003] The techniques of the present invention is to solve the problem: to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art, there is provided a method of construction of large aspheric mirror optical detector having a large dynamic measuring range, measurement can be completed the whole, simple structure, low cost, and high flexibility.

[0004] 本发明的技术解决方案:一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法,其特点在于:采用的测量系统由摄像机、显示屏和计算机组成;首先进行系统标定,包括摄像机标定、显示屏标定和被测镜标定,得到系统中摄像机、显示屏和被测镜三者之间的空间位置关系,也就是摄像机坐标系、显示屏坐标系和被测镜坐标系三个空间坐标系的坐标转换关系;再由计算机产生一定结构的特征图样,显示在显示屏上,并投影到被测镜面,反射后被摄像机所记录,也就是摄像机通过被测镜来观察显示屏,可以拍摄到显示屏上显示的特征图样;摄像机拍摄的反射图像就携带了被测镜的面形信息,会发生变形而不同于显示屏所显示的特征图样,变形量取决于被测镜的面形;根据特征图样提取图像特征点,结合到显示屏、摄像机、被测镜三者的空间位置关系,进行光线追 [0004] The technical solution of the invention: one large structure aspheric mirror optical detection method, characterized by: a measurement system used by the camera, and a computer display screen; first calibration system, including camera calibration, the calibration screen test and calibration mirror, to obtain the spatial positional relationship between the camera, display and the three test lens system, i.e. the coordinate transformation camera coordinate system, screen coordinate system and the measured coordinates mirror three space coordinate system relationship; regenerate some structure feature pattern by a computer, on a display screen, and projected to the measured specular, reflection after recording camera, the camera is measured by a mirror to observe the display screen, you can be photographed on the display screen wherein the display pattern; reflection image captured by the camera on the information carrying surface shape of the tested mirror, wherein the deformation differs from the pattern shown in the display may occur, depending on the amount of deformation of the mirror surface shape measured; extracting the feature pattern image feature points, the spatial relationship is coupled to a display screen, a camera, mirror the three measured, for ray- 迹确定入射光线与反射光线的空间位置,由反射定律计算得到被测镜面的面形法线方向,再通过积分重建被测镜面面形。 We are determining the incident ray trace and the spatial position of the reflected light, by the law of reflection surface shape calculated in the normal direction of the tested mirror, mirror surface and then reconstructed by integration test.

[0005] 可一次完成全场测量,也可在被测镜整个面内进行扫描完成全场测量。 [0005] The measurement can be done once the audience, the audience can also be measured in the scan test is completed the entire surface of the mirror.

[0006] 所述显示屏标定可以通过尺子、激光跟踪仪工具直接测量完成,也可利用已标定的摄像机测量和带特征图样的参考平面镜通过坐标系变换计算完成。 [0006] The display screen can be calibrated ruler, the laser tracker is completed by direct measurement tool can also be measured using calibrated cameras with features and a reference plane mirror pattern calculated by the coordinate transformation is completed.

[0007] 所述被测镜标定可通过尺子、激光跟踪仪等工具直接测量完成,也可在被测镜上放置特征图样,利用已标定的摄像机来完成。 The [0007] test mirror calibration can be measured directly by a ruler, and other tools to complete the laser tracker can also be placed on the test pattern wherein mirror using calibrated cameras to complete.

[0008] 所述一定结构的特征图样可以是正弦或余弦周期条纹、圆斑、实心方块、棋盘格、 直线网格或十字交叉线。 [0008] wherein the pattern structure may be a certain sine or cosine periodic stripes, circular spot, solid squares, checkerboard, cross-hairs or rectilinear grid.

[0009] 所述的提取图像特征点为提取正弦或余弦周期条纹的位相分布,提取圆斑的中心点,提取实心方块、棋盘格的角点,提取直线网格、十字交叉线的交点。 Extracting an image feature points according [0009] to extract the sine or cosine of the phase distribution of the stripe period, the center point of the circular spot extraction, extracting solid squares, checkerboard corners, the intersection of the straight line extraction grid, cross lines.

[0010] 本发明有如下的优点在于:[0011] (1)本发明具有较大的测量动态范围,可用于大口径深型非球面制造的精磨和抛光阶段的检测。 [0010] The present invention has the following advantages: [0011] (1) Measurement of the present invention has a large dynamic range, can be used to detect fine grinding and polishing stages deep aspherical producing large diameter.

[0012] (2)本发明对环境无特殊要求,可在车间环境中进行检测。 [0012] (2) according to the present invention, no special requirements on the environment, can be detected in the workshop environment.

[0013] (3)本发明中无需特殊光学元件,成本非常低廉。 [0013] (3) In the present invention, no special optical element, the cost is very low.

[0014] (4)本发明采用的系统结构简单,对系统元件放置无特殊的要求。 [0014] (4) The system structure of the present invention employs a simple, no special requirements placed on the system components.

[0015] (5)本发明检测方法具有很高的灵敏度。 [0015] (5) detection method of the present invention has high sensitivity.

[0016] (6)本发明中所采用的结构图样和相移技术具有相当高的精度,并且能有效地抑制噪声和周围环境对检测结果的影响。 [0016] (6) The structure of the pattern employed in the present invention and the phase-shift technique with a very high precision, and can effectively suppress ambient noise and the influence on the detection results.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0017] 图1为本发明的结构示意图; [0017] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the structure of the present invention;

[0018] 图2为本发明的测量原理图; [0018] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the measurement of the invention;

[0019] 图3基于参考平面反射镜标定摄像机与显示屏的空间位置关系方法的原理图; [0019] FIG 3 the camera calibration method of spatial relationship of the display screen based on a reference plane mirror diagram;

[0020] 图4为本发明中典型特征图样形状及特征点,其中图如为正(余)弦周期条纹; 图4b为圆斑;图如为实心方块;图4d为棋盘格;图如为直线网格; [0020] FIG. 4 is a typical feature of the shape and pattern feature points invention, wherein FIG as positive (cosine) fringe cycle; FIG. 4b is a circular spot; FIG as a solid block; Figure 4d is a checkerboard; is as FIG. rectilinear grid;

[0021] 图5为本发明中摄像机拍摄得到的水平方向条纹图分布; [0021] FIG. 5 of the present invention, the fringe pattern in the horizontal direction distribution obtained cameras;

[0022] 图6为本发明中摄像机拍摄得到的竖直方向条纹图分布; [0022] FIG. 6 fringe pattern captured by the camera in the vertical direction obtained distribution of the present invention;

[0023] 图7为本发明中摄像机入射光线重叠示意图; [0023] FIG. 7 of the present invention, the incident light overlaps a schematic view camera;

[0024] 图8为本发明中扫描型十字交叉线特征图样。 [0024] FIG. 8 of the present invention, wherein a scanning pattern of cross lines.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0025] 如图1所示,本发明中检测系统主要是由摄像机、显示屏和计算机组成。 [0025] 1, the detection system of the present invention is mainly composed of a camera, and a computer display. 显示屏上显示由计算机生成的特征图样,经被测镜反射后被摄像机所拍摄。 Display feature pattern generated by the computer on the display, after being reflected by the mirror measured captured by the camera. 测量原理如图2所示,摄像机拍摄得到的图像送往计算机进行处理,通过计算进行光线追迹,根据光线反射定律得到被测面形的梯度分布,最后积分重建被测镜的面形分布。 Measurement principle shown in Figure 2, an image captured by the camera sent to the computer for processing, performed by the ray tracing calculation, the gradient profile of the test surface shape according to the law of reflection of light, and finally integrating the measured surface shape reconstruction mirror distribution. 下面以显示屏上显示正弦条纹特征图样为例进行说明,当显示其他特征图样时具有类似的测量过程,本例子并不包括本发明的所有内容。 The following features sinusoidal fringe pattern to display on the display screen will be described as an example, a similar measurement process when the display pattern of other features, the present example does not include all the contents of the present invention.

[0026] 首先对进行摄像机标定。 [0026] First, the camera calibration. 摄像机标定方法很多,如Tsai和Roger提出的两步法,张正友提出的平面标定法等。 Many camera calibration method, such as a two-step process proposed and Roger Tsai, Zhang Zhengyou proposed plane calibration method. 其中,张正友的平法标定法应用较为广泛。 Wherein the method of Zhang Zhengyou flat calibration method is widely used. 这是一种在相机成像的非线性模型下,采用多幅平面模板标定摄像机所有内外参数的方法。 This is a nonlinear model in the camera image, the plurality of flat template method to calibrate all internal and external parameters of the camera. 该方法中使用的平面模板上具有多个特征点,并且特征点与其图像上相应的像点之间存在一个对应关系, 这就为内部参数的求解提供了约束条件。 Having plane templates used in the method of the plurality of feature points, and there is a correspondence between the respective feature points on the image point and its image, which provides for the constraint solving internal parameters. 摄像机从不同角度拍摄平面模板的多幅图像(三幅以上),先由线性解法求出部分参数的初始值,然后考虑径向畸变(一阶和二阶)并以基于极大似然准则对线性结果进行非线性优化最后利用计算好的内部参数和平面模板映射矩阵求出外部参数。 Cameras a plurality of images from different angles of the template plane (three or more), first linear portion of the initial solution obtained values ​​of the parameters, and then consider the radial distortion (first and second order) and is based on maximum likelihood criterion the calculated result of the linear internal parameters and external planar template mapping matrix determined last parameter nonlinear optimization.

[0027] 第二步,显示屏标定,得到摄像机与显示屏的空间位置关系,可以通过尺子、激光跟踪仪工具直接测量完成,也可利用已标定的摄像机和带特征图样的参考平面镜通过坐标系变换计算完成。 [0027] The second step, the calibration screen, the camera to obtain the spatial relationship of the display screen, can be a ruler, the laser tracker direct measurement tool is completed, it may be utilized with a calibrated camera features and the reference pattern by a coordinate system plane mirror transform calculations are complete. 这里以带特征图样的参考平面镜来进行说明,如图3。 Reference herein to a plane mirror with characteristic pattern will be described, as shown in FIG 3. 在已标定的摄像机系统中,由单个平面的共面特征点可确定出该平面的空间位置。 In calibrated camera system, a single plane coplanar feature points may determine the spatial position of the plane. 通过相机拍摄的参考平面镜上的特征点,可以得到参考平面坐标系(Xr,Yr,4)与摄像机坐标系(X。,Y。,Z。)之间的空间位置关系。 Feature points on the reference plane through the camera lens, the reference plane can be obtained coordinates (Xr, Yr, 4) and the camera coordinate system (X., Y., Z.) Spatial relationship between. 再由摄像机拍摄参考平面镜对显示屏的镜像,计算摄像机坐标系(X。,Y。,Zc) 和该镜像平面(Xs',Ys',ν )的空间位置关系。 Then captured by the camera with reference to the spatial positional relationship display image is calculated camera coordinate system (X., Y., Zc) and the image plane (Xs ', Ys', ν) of the plane mirror. 根据平面镜成像特性:所成的镜像是与原物大小相同的虚像,可以得到显示屏(xs,Ys,Zs)与其镜像(xs,,Ys,,zs,)的空间位置关系。 The plane mirror image characteristic: the mirror is formed by the same original size of the virtual image display can be obtained (xs, Ys, Zs) and its mirror image (xs ,, Ys ,, zs,) the spatial relationship. 结合参考平面与摄像机坐标系之间的空间位置关系,就可以转换得到显示屏(xs,Ys, Zs)与摄像机坐标系(χ。,γ。,ζ。)之间的空间位置关系。 Binding relationship between the spatial position of the reference plane of the camera coordinate system can be converted display (xs, Ys, Zs) and the camera coordinate system (χ., Γ., Ζ.) Spatial relationship between.

[0028] 第三步,被测镜标定,得到摄像机与被测镜的空间位置关系,可通过尺子、激光跟踪仪等工具直接测量完成,也可在被测镜上放置特征图样,利用已标定的摄像机来完成。 [0028] The third step, the mirror calibration test, to give the measured spatial relationship with the camera lens can be done by measuring ruler, direct laser tracker and other tools can also be placed on the test pattern wherein mirror, calibrated using camera to complete. 完成系统标定得到摄像机、显示屏和被测镜三个坐标系的空间位置关系后,就可以将三者统一到同一个坐标系下(摄像机坐标系或显示屏坐标系或被测镜坐标系)。 After completion of the system calibration to obtain spatial relationship between the camera, and display the measured three mirror coordinate system, the three can be unified into the same coordinate system (camera coordinate system or screen coordinate system or test mirror coordinate system) . 设被测镜的模型可以表示为:2111 = €0^,7111),考虑显示屏上点3(\,^3)发出的光线经被测镜面上点M(xm, ym,zffl)反射后,通过摄像机光心0点入射到摄像机像素平面上的点P (Xp,yp, zp),反射光线的方向用向量表示为:Γί = (xm-xs,ym-ys, Zm-Zs)。 Let the measured model may be represented as a mirror: 2111 = € 0 ^, 7111), consider the point on the display 3 (\ ^ 3) measured on light emitted by the mirror point M (xm, ym, zffl) after reflection , 0:00 through the optical center to a point on the incident plane of the camera pixels P (Xp, yp, zp), the direction of the reflected light is represented by a vector: Γί = (xm-xs, ym-ys, Zm-Zs).

[0029] 第四步,摄像机拍摄通过被测镜观察显示屏,并拍摄得到显示屏上的正弦条纹图。 [0029] The fourth step, measured by cameras monitor microscope, and photographed on the display screen of FIG sinusoidal fringe. 摄像机拍摄的反射图像就携带了被测镜的面形信息,会发生变形而不同于显示屏所显示的特征图样,变形量取决于被测镜的面形,如图5、图6所示为拍摄的水平和竖直两垂直方向的正弦条纹图,再由相移算法和相位展开算法提取得到相位分布。 Reflection image captured by the camera on the information carrying surface shape of the tested mirror, wherein the deformation differs from the pattern shown in the display may occur, depending on the amount of deformation of the mirror surface shape of the test, FIG. 5, FIG. 6 is a FIG sinusoidal fringe horizontal and vertical directions of the two vertical shot, then the phase shift by the phase unwrapping algorithm and the extraction algorithm to obtain the phase distribution. 根据相位分布可以计算出S点的空间坐标(xs,ys, zs),反射光线的方向用向量表示为:rr = (xp-xm, yp-ym,zp-zm)。 S can be calculated spatial coordinates of the point (xs, ys, zs) according to the phase distribution of the reflected light direction vector is represented by: rr = (xp-xm, yp-ym, zp-zm).

[0030] 第五步,如图2所示,根据光线反射定律,由入射光线方向向量^和反射光线方向向量&计算得到被测镜面形法线: [0030] The fifth step, as shown, according to the law of reflection light, the incident light ray and the reflected ray direction vector ^ calculated from the measured direction vector & Mirror Surface normals FIG 2:

[0031] [0031]

Figure CN102183214AD00051

[0032] 第六步,由被测面形法线向量得到面形梯度分布,再积分重建面形: [0032] The sixth step, obtained by the surface shape of the test surface normal vector gradient profile shape, and then integrating the reconstruction surface shape:

[0033] [0033]

Figure CN102183214AD00052

[0034] 由面形梯度数据积分重建面形的方法很多,如任意路径积分法,十字积分法,傅立叶变换积分法,区域波前重构法等。 [0034] Integral reconstructed surface shape data from the plane shape of the gradient many ways, such as any path integral method, cross integration method, the Fourier transform integral method, area method or the like wavefront reconstruction.

[0035] 当被测镜面形很陡峭或局部区域变化很快时,摄像机的入射光线可能会发生重叠,如图7所示,即显示屏上的同一点经被测镜反射后会被不同的相机像素点所探测。 [0035] When the measured shape mirror steep change quickly or local area, the incident light may overlap the camera shown in Figure 7, i.e., the same point measured by the mirror on the display will be different the detection of camera pixels. 这时,如果使用条纹特征图样,就会产生相位模糊而包裹相位不能展开,造成显示屏上对应点的空间位置不能确定。 In this case, if a pattern of stripe features, it will produce wrapped phase and phase ambiguities can not expand, resulting in a corresponding spatial position of a point can not be determined on the display. 类似地,当使用图4中的其他特征图样也会有同样的问题。 Similarly, when the other pattern feature in FIG 4 will have the same problem. 这时,可采用图8所示的十字交叉线特征图样来唯一确定显示屏上对应点的位置,在被测镜整个面内进行扫描提取其交叉点,来完成整个面形的测量。 In this case, cross lines characteristic pattern shown in FIG. 8 can be used to uniquely determine the position of a corresponding point on the display screen, for scanning the entire surface of the mirror at the test intersection point extracted to complete the measurement of the surface shape.

[0036] 综上所述,本发明结构简单、使用方便、灵敏度高,对环境无特殊要求,可在车间环境中进行检测,为大口径、大相对口径非球面镜的检测提供了一种有效的手段,尤其是在制造的精磨和抛光阶段,具有广阔的应用前景。 [0036] In summary, the present invention has simple structure, easy to use, high sensitivity, no special requirements on the environment, can be detected in the workshop environment, large diameter, large relative aperture detecting non-spherical mirror provides an effective means, particularly in the manufacture of grinding and polishing stages, has broad application prospect.

[0037] 本发明未详细阐述部分属于本领域公知技术。 [0037] The present invention belongs to the part not elaborated techniques known in the art.

Claims (6)

1. 一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法,其特征在于:采用的测量系统由摄像机、显示屏和计算机组成;首先进行系统标定,包括摄像机标定、显示屏标定和被测镜标定,得到系统中摄像机、显示屏和被测镜三者之间的空间位置关系,也就是摄像机坐标系、显示屏坐标系和被测镜坐标系三个空间坐标系的坐标转换关系;再由计算机产生一定结构的特征图样,显示在显示屏上,并投影到被测镜面,反射后被摄像机所记录,也就是摄像机通过被测镜来观察显示屏,可以拍摄到显示屏上显示的特征图样;摄像机拍摄的反射图像就携带了被测镜的面形信息,会发生变形而不同于显示屏所显示的特征图样,变形量取决于被测镜的面形;根据特征图样提取图像特征点,结合到显示屏、摄像机、被测镜三者的空间位置关系,进行光线追迹确定入射光线与反射光线 A large aspheric mirror configuration of the photodetector, characterized in that: the measuring system employed by the camera, and a computer display screen; first calibration system, including camera calibration, calibration and display calibration test lens system is obtained spatial positional relationship between the camera, the display and the measured three mirrors, that is, the coordinate conversion relationship camera coordinate system, coordinate system and the display coordinate system measured three mirror space coordinate system; regenerate certain structure by a computer feature pattern, on a display screen, and projected to the measured specular, reflection after recording camera, the camera is measured by a mirror to observe the display screen, wherein the pattern can be photographed on the display screen of the display; camcorders the image reflected on the information carrying surface shape of the tested mirror, wherein the deformation differs from the pattern shown in the display may occur, depending on the amount of deformation of the mirror surface shape measured; the feature pattern extracted image feature points, coupled to the display camera, the positional relationship between the measured spatial three mirrors, for determining the incident light ray tracing and light reflected 空间位置,由反射定律计算得到被测镜面的面形法线方向,再通过积分重建被测镜面面形。 Spatial position, by the law of reflection calculated from the measured surface normal direction of the mirror surface shape, and then reconstructed by integrating the measured mirror surface.
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法,其特征在于:可一次完成全场测量,也可在被测镜整个面内进行扫描完成全场测量。 A large aspheric mirror optical detection method of the structure according to claim 1, wherein: the audience measurement to be completed once, the audience can also be measured in the scan test is completed the entire surface of the mirror.
3.根据权利要求1所述的一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法,其特征在于:所述显示屏标定可以通过尺子、激光跟踪仪工具直接测量完成,也可利用已标定的摄像机和带特征图样的参考平面镜通过坐标系变换计算完成。 3. According to one large aspheric mirror optical structure detection method according to claim 1, wherein: the display screen can be calibrated ruler, the laser tracker is completed by direct measurement tool may also be utilized with cameras and calibrated wherein the reference pattern is done by a plane mirror coordinate transformation calculation.
4.根据权利要求1所述的一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法,其特征在于:所述被测镜标定可通过尺子、激光跟踪仪等工具直接测量完成,也可在被测镜上放置特征图样,利用已标定的摄像机来完成。 4. According to one large aspheric mirror optical structure detection method according to claim 1, characterized in that: said mirror calibration can be measured directly by measuring ruler, the laser tracker and other tools is completed, the mirror can also be measured in place a feature pattern using calibrated cameras to complete.
5.根据权利要求1所述的一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法,其特征在于:所述一定结构的特征图样可以是正弦或余弦周期条纹、圆斑、实心方块、棋盘格、直线网格或十字交叉线。 A large aspheric mirror optical detection method of the structure according to claim 1, wherein: the structure wherein a certain pattern may be sine or cosine periodic stripes, circular spot, solid squares, checkerboard, linear network or cross-line grid.
6.根据权利要求1所述的一种大口径非球面镜结构光检测方法,其特征在于:所述的提取图像特征点为提取正弦或余弦周期条纹的位相分布,提取圆斑的中心点,提取实心方块、棋盘格的角点,提取直线网格、十字交叉线的交点。 6. According to one large aspheric mirror optical structure detection method according to claim 1, wherein: said extracted image feature points to extract a sine or cosine fringes cycle phase distribution, the center point of the circular spot extraction, extraction solid squares, checkerboard corners, the intersection of the straight line extraction grid, cross lines.
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