CN101507405B - Method for recovering Tamarix chinensis self-maintenance capability by manpower on arid desert - Google Patents

Method for recovering Tamarix chinensis self-maintenance capability by manpower on arid desert Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101507405B
CN101507405B CN2009101132685A CN200910113268A CN101507405B CN 101507405 B CN101507405 B CN 101507405B CN 2009101132685 A CN2009101132685 A CN 2009101132685A CN 200910113268 A CN200910113268 A CN 200910113268A CN 101507405 B CN101507405 B CN 101507405B
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irrigation
chinese tamarisk
root
planting
zanjon
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CN101507405A (en
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朱成刚
李卫红
马晓东
陈亚宁
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Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography of CAS
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Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography of CAS
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for artificially restoring self-maintenance capacity of Chinese tamarisk in a drought desert area, which comprises the following steps of nursery stock selection, early soil preparation, after-treatment and the like, and utilizes hydrotropism of root system development of the Chinese tamarisk and a feedback regulation system formed through drought induction of partial root systems of the Chinese tamarisk to increase water acquiring capacity of the artificially restored Chinese tamarisk and improve the adaptive capacity of the Chinese tamarisk to the drought so as to achieve the aim of improving the integral self-maintenance capacity of the artificially restored Chinese tamarisk in the drought desert area and avoid converse succession after the artificial assistance measures are cancelled. The method realizes survival and growing development of artificially restored Chinese tamarisk seedlings by means of the self-maintenance capacity of the Chinese tamarisk seedlings under the natural conditions of precipitation amount less than 100 mm and groundwater burial depth between 3 and 4 m after the artificial assistance measures are cancelled.

Description

A kind of method of recovering Tamarix chinensis self-maintenance capability by manpower on arid desert
Technical field
The present invention relates to deserta recovery self-maintenance capability and develop skill, be specifically related to the method for the self-maintenance capability of arid desert district manual reversion Chinese tamarisk.
Background technology
The whole world is covered by arid biogeographic zone, semiarid region above 40% continent area, desertification process in the whole world is increasingly sharpened, ccd area has reached 3,600 ten thousand square kilometres, account for 1/4 of whole earth land surface, desertification no longer has been a simple ecological problem, and develops into economy and social concern.The gross area of China's arid, semiarid zone accounts for half of national total area.Desert, the whole nation and desertification land area reach 153.3 ten thousand square kilometres, account for 15.9% of area.Be that the desert area is bigger, distributed more widely and be subjected to one of the most serious country of desertification harm in the world.Xinjiang is located in innerland, the Eurasia, belongs to typical continental aridity weather, and that most areas are in is semiarid, arid and extreme drought area, and soil development is very faint, and natural rainfall is few and the potential evaporation amount is big, and vegetation sparse is a little less than ecotope is highly brittle.The Tarimhe River that is located in the southern Xinjiang Tarim Basin is the continental river of China's maximum, aboundresources in the basin, having country and international strategic importance, is one of important reserved resources storehouse of supporting China's 21 century sustainable development of socio-economy, also is the unusual vulnerable areas of ecotope simultaneously.The deserta species are less in the district, cover degree is lower, but to keeping whole watershed ecosystem ecological safety, and the Sustainable Development and Utilization of environment and resource plays a part can not be ignored in natural calamity, the stable region such as dust storm to resisting.Over nearly 50 years, Tarimhe River is in the hard intensity human economy that with the water resources development and utilization is core, under the effect of social activities, ecotope is degenerated day by day, Lower Reaches of Tarim ecotope serious degradation particularly, the river course cutout, the lake is dry, subterranean water level descends significantly, deserta based on the diversiform-leaved poplar woods decays comprehensively, Desertification Process and eolian erosion aggravation, desertification enlarged areas, bio-diversity is badly damaged, floating dust, sandstorm diastrous weather increases, and becomes the most serious ecocatastrophe district of Tarim River basin, and it is normal seriously to have had influence on this regional economy, stable, sustainable development.The ecology of Tarim River basin sternness and environmental problem have caused the concern of government and international community.The Xinjiang People's Government implements promptly to the Lower Reaches of Tarim water delivery engineering at the severe day by day ecological problem of Lower Reaches of Tarim, is on the verge of wither away " green corridor " to save Lower Reaches of Tarim.By this opportunity, carried out the ecological recovery engineering of suiting measures to local conditions in recent years in the Tahe downstream, wherein, the revegetation of quickening degraded ecosystem by artificial after-culture is a kind of effective technological means.Chinese tamarisk is as a kind of drought-enduring desert district, native country, Xinjiang advantage shrub species, is the first-selected revegetation species in the artificial ecology recovery process of preventing and controling desertification.
In the recovery process, how to improve the self-maintenance capability of manual reversion Chinese tamarisk, after artificial ancillary method (as irrigating) is cancelled, be unlikely to occur degenerating and reverse succession, all be the key and the problem demanding prompt solution of arid desert district revegetation all the time.Traditional surface flooding irrigation or irrigate along the plantation irrigation canals and ditches that often to have water resource utilization efficiency low, the serious drawback of waste of evapotranspiring, in addition, conventional along the many degree of depth that can only have influence on 30-80cm under the face of land of surface irrigation, the ground moistening peak mainly concentrates on the 30-50cm place.Because the hydrotropism of Chinese tamarisk root system, the root system of its new growth is often sought the water growth and is floated on the top layer.And the arid in Xinjiang and extreme drought district bury of groundwater are many below 3 meters, underground water has influence on more than the subterranean water level 2 meters soil horizon by the also multipotency of capillary force, this Chinese tamarisk seedling that just makes in the manual reversion of desert district is difficult to cancelling man-made irrigation to be assisted under the condition that reaches the shortage natural precipitation, realizes relying on its oneself to keep ability in a short time and survives.
Consider the natural conditions of arid desert district manual reversion Chinese tamarisk, and consider the economy and the technical feasibility of novel technical method, utilize in the Chinese tamarisk root system development process to the water characteristic, by changing irrigation method, the Chinese tamarisk root system development is induced, do not influencing under the situation of recovering the Chinese tamarisk survival rate, growth on acceleration arid desert district manual reversion Chinese tamarisk root system is vertical, so that its root system reaches the influence on groundwater soil horizon as early as possible, thereby reach the ability that manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling obtains moisture that improves.In addition, oozing half root by one-sided side irrigates, make Chinese tamarisk seedling part root system be in arid perception state, by the method it is carried out artificial drought stress domestication, utilize the feedback regulation mechanism of vegetation to strengthen the adaptive capacity of restore vegetation, thereby the oneself who totally improves restore vegetation keep ability to drought environment.Research and develop this technology, to be implemented in precipitation less than 100mm, this raising of the self-maintenance capability of the arid desert district manual reversion Chinese tamarisk of big (3-4m) of water buried depth down for this reason.
Summary of the invention
The method that the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of recovering Tamarix chinensis self-maintenance capability by manpower on arid desert, this method is by nursery stock selection, early stage putting in order steps such as ground and post-processed and finish, utilize hydrotropism's energy of Chinese tamarisk root system development and the feedback regulation mechanism that the part vegetation root system forms by the induction to arid thereof, increase the acquisition capability of manual reversion Chinese tamarisk to moisture, improve its adaptive capacity simultaneously to arid, thereby reach the purpose that promotes that the whole self-maintenance capability of arid desert district manual reversion Chinese tamarisk promotes, the reverse succession after avoiding artificial ancillary method to cancel.Be implemented in precipitation and cancel back dependence its self-maintenance capability assurance survival and growing at artificial ancillary method less than manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling under the natural conditions of 100mm and bury of groundwater 3-4m.
The method of a kind of recovering Tamarix chinensis self-maintenance capability by manpower on arid desert of the present invention follows these steps to carry out:
A, nursery stock are selected:
The seeds of planting are selected healthy and strong nursery stock based on the shrub species Chinese tamarisk with certain drought resistance in native country, generally select life in the 1 year nursery stock of growing directly from seeds for use, and root is long, leading thread and highly be 30-40cm on the ground;
Put in order ground in b, early stage:
Should excavate the shallow ridges that is used to plant with early stage saturated irrigation before the field planting, its wide 50-60cm, dark 15-20cm, the hole that plants trees is arranged in the shallow ridges;
C, post-processed:
After the manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling planting to be determined success, along and the parallel irrigation zanjon of plantation shallow ridges at a distance of the wide 50cm of 40-80cm place excavation, irrigate and carry out from one-sided along zanjon, irrigation three times in growth year after field planting, the seedling growth shallow ridges is no longer poured water;
D, after the restore vegetation field planting one to two the growth year in, along with growing of vegetation, deepen to irrigate zanjon 20-40cm before each supplemental irrigation, to reach induced development to vegetation root system, impel it to reach the influence on groundwater soil horizon as early as possible, along with the intensification of irrigation ditch, the each irrigation remains on semlsulcus or big semlsulcus;
E, for preventing the evaporation of irrigation ditch, the sandstone of bedding hay or 15-20cm gets final product in irrigation ditch.
Step c along one-sided utilize side to ooze vegetation is carried out half root irrigate, second half vegetation root system is carried out artificial drought stress domestication.
The irrigation zanjon furrow bank that step c closes on restore vegetation one side scrapes out the gentle slope type, becomes steep bank away from a side.
Steps d is deepened one-sided irrigation zanjon gradually along with recovering growing of Chinese tamarisk, utilizes the hydrotropism of Chinese tamarisk root system development, by moisture root system is carried out induced development, makes its root system quicken growth on vertical.
The method of arid desert of the present invention district's manual reversion vegetation self-maintenance capability, its main technical schemes is: one, at arid desert district manual reversion shrub species Chinese tamarisk commonly used, April 1 year living seedling of restore vegetation is colonizated in the territory, area to be restored, do row for preventing to irrigate the salinity that brings, the wide 50-60cm that is holding successfully in advance can be dug in the plantation hole of 50 * 50 * 50cm, in the shallow ridges of dark 15-20cm, this shallow ridges also can be used for the saturated irrigation use of field planting initial stage simultaneously.Two, treat the field planting of manual reversion Chinese tamarisk after, can change irrigation method.Along parallel with the plantation shallow ridges, handle ditch at a distance of the irrigation of the wide about 50cm of the place of 40-80cm excavation, the plantation hole degree of depth of ID and plantation Chinese tamarisk nursery stock is quite or slightly deeply.In growth year afterwards,, before each the irrigation, deepen irrigation ditch gradually, in first growth year, irrigate three times along with the growth of Chinese tamarisk.Ooze area for improving side, the furrow bank that closes on restore vegetation one side should scrape out the gentle slope type, scrapes out steep bank away from a side.Three, for preventing the evaporation at irrigation ditch place,, conditions permit is used for water conservation with hay or the thick sandstone of 15-20cm if can covering at irrigation ditch.Along with irrigation ditch is deepened, to irrigate along zanjon at every turn and not necessarily fill zanjon, semlsulcus or big semlsulcus get final product.
The present invention has the following advantages and remarkable result:
The present invention is directed to the shrub Chinese tamarisk seedling with certain drought resistance of arid and the extreme artificial after-culture in arid desert district, Chinese tamarisk seedlings root by quickening field planting and influence on groundwater be edaphic gets in touch the time and artificially the part root system is carried out drought stress and tame, improve to recover the Chinese tamarisk root system and obtain the ability of moisture and whole strain seedling adaptive capacity, thereby improve the ability that the oneself of manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling under abominable natural conditions keeps arid.
The present invention compares with the conventional householder method of existing arid desert district's manual reversion vegetation, can extremely hang down under the darker natural conditions of precipitation and bury of groundwater, with low Financial cost, the method of high-tech operability realizes that the self-maintenance capability of arid desert district manual reversion Chinese tamarisk improves purpose, thereby improve the later stage survival rate, avoid the reverse succession in manual reversion Chinese tamarisk later stage.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1:
A, nursery stock are selected:
The seeds of planting are mainly based on the shrub species Chinese tamarisk with certain drought resistance in native country, seedling quality is the key factor that influences survival rate, therefore must select healthy and strong nursery stock, generally select life in the 1 year nursery stock of growing directly from seeds for use, guarantee root length, leading thread and ground height 30cm, root system not damaged, splitting, underproof seedling, sick worm seedling, maimed seedling firmly can not be used;
Put in order ground in b, early stage:
Should excavate the shallow ridges that is used to plant with early stage saturated irrigation before the field planting, its wide 50cm, dark 15cm is used for the saturated irrigation of early stage field planting seedling and prevents that the salinity that Late Irrigation causes from doing row, and the nursery stock spacing in the rows get final product routinely, line-spacing 2m, planting trees to cheat is arranged in the shallow ridges;
C, post-processed:
After the manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling planting success to be determined, along the parallel irrigation processing zanjon of locating to excavate wide about 50cm at a distance of 40cm (concrete distance can be regulated according to seedling root feature and soil characteristics) with the plantation shallow ridges, early stage ID quite or slightly gets final product deeply with the plantation hole degree of depth, the irrigation zanjon furrow bank that closes on restore vegetation one side should scrape out the gentle slope type and ooze area to improve side, scraping out steep bank away from a side reduces idle side and oozes, irrigation is carried out from one-sided along zanjon, along one-sided utilize side to ooze vegetation is carried out half root irrigate, simultaneously second half vegetation root system is carried out artificial drought stress domestication, irrigate three times in a growth year after field planting, the seedling growth shallow ridges is no longer poured water;
D, after the restore vegetation field planting one to two the growth year in, along with growing of vegetation, deepen one-sided irrigation zanjon gradually, deepen to irrigate zanjon 20cm (can decide) before each supplemental irrigation according to the root growth speed of nursery stock and soil characteristics, utilize the hydrotropism of Chinese tamarisk root system development, by moisture root system is carried out induced development, make its root system quicken growth on vertical, impel it to reach the influence on groundwater soil horizon as early as possible, intensification along with irrigation ditch, each irrigation volume initial stage can expire ditch, and suitable semlsulcus of later stage or big semlsulcus are induced with acceleration the vertical of root system;
E, for preventing the evaporation of irrigation ditch, the bedding hay gets final product in irrigation ditch.
Embodiment 2:
A, nursery stock are selected:
The seeds of planting are mainly based on the shrub species Chinese tamarisk with certain drought resistance in native country, seedling quality is the key factor that influences survival rate, therefore must select healthy and strong nursery stock, generally select life in the 1 year nursery stock of growing directly from seeds for use, guarantee root length, leading thread and ground height 35cm, root system not damaged, splitting, underproof seedling, sick worm seedling, maimed seedling firmly can not be used;
Put in order ground in b, early stage:
Should excavate the shallow ridges that is used to plant with early stage saturated irrigation before the field planting, its wide 55cm, dark 18cm, be used for the saturated irrigation of early stage field planting seedling and prevent the dried row of salinity that Late Irrigation causes, the nursery stock spacing in the rows gets final product routinely, line-spacing 2.5m, and the hole that plants trees is arranged in the shallow ridges;
C, post-processed:
After the manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling planting success to be determined, along the parallel irrigation processing zanjon of locating to excavate wide about 50cm at a distance of 60cm (concrete distance can be regulated according to seedling root feature and soil characteristics) with the plantation shallow ridges, early stage ID quite or slightly gets final product deeply with the plantation hole degree of depth, the irrigation zanjon furrow bank that closes on restore vegetation one side should scrape out the gentle slope type and ooze area to improve side, scraping out steep bank away from a side reduces idle side and oozes, irrigation is carried out from one-sided along zanjon, along one-sided utilize side to ooze vegetation is carried out half root irrigate, simultaneously second half vegetation root system is carried out artificial drought stress domestication, irrigate three times in a growth year after field planting, the seedling growth shallow ridges is no longer poured water;
D, after the restore vegetation field planting one to two the growth year in, along with growing of vegetation, deepen one-sided irrigation zanjon gradually, deepen to irrigate zanjon 30cm (can decide) before each supplemental irrigation according to the root growth speed of nursery stock and soil characteristics, utilize the hydrotropism of Chinese tamarisk root system development, by moisture root system is carried out induced development, make its root system quicken growth on vertical, impel it to reach the influence on groundwater soil horizon as early as possible, intensification along with irrigation ditch, each irrigation volume initial stage can expire ditch, and suitable semlsulcus of later stage or big semlsulcus are induced with acceleration the vertical of root system;
E, for preventing the evaporation of irrigation ditch, the sandstone of bedding 15cm gets final product in irrigation ditch.
Embodiment 3
A, nursery stock are selected:
The seeds of planting are mainly based on the shrub species Chinese tamarisk with certain drought resistance in native country, seedling quality is the key factor that influences survival rate, therefore must select healthy and strong nursery stock, generally select life in the 1 year nursery stock of growing directly from seeds for use, guarantee root length, leading thread and ground height 40cm, root system not damaged, splitting, underproof seedling, sick worm seedling, maimed seedling firmly can not be used;
Put in order ground in b, early stage:
Should excavate the shallow ridges that is used to plant with early stage saturated irrigation before the field planting, its wide 60cm, dark 20cm is used for the saturated irrigation of early stage field planting seedling and prevents that the salinity that Late Irrigation causes from doing row, and the nursery stock spacing in the rows get final product routinely, line-spacing 3m, planting trees to cheat is arranged in the shallow ridges;
C, post-processed:
After the manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling planting success to be determined, along the parallel irrigation processing zanjon of locating to excavate wide about 50cm at a distance of 80cm (concrete distance can be regulated according to seedling root feature and soil characteristics) with the plantation shallow ridges, early stage ID quite or slightly gets final product deeply with the plantation hole degree of depth, the irrigation zanjon furrow bank that closes on restore vegetation one side should scrape out the gentle slope type and ooze area to improve side, becoming steep bank to reduce idle side away from a side oozes, irrigation is carried out from one-sided along zanjon, along one-sided utilize side to ooze vegetation is carried out half root irrigate, second half vegetation root system is carried out artificial drought stress domestication, irrigate three times in a growth year after field planting, the seedling growth shallow ridges is no longer poured water;
D, after the restore vegetation field planting one to two the growth year in, along with growing of vegetation, deepen one-sided irrigation zanjon gradually, deepen to irrigate zanjon 40cm (can decide) before each supplemental irrigation according to the root growth speed of nursery stock and soil characteristics, utilize the hydrotropism of Chinese tamarisk root system development, by moisture root system is carried out induced development, make its root system quicken growth on vertical, impel it to reach the influence on groundwater soil horizon as early as possible, intensification along with irrigation ditch, each irrigation volume initial stage can expire ditch, and suitable semlsulcus of later stage or big semlsulcus are induced with acceleration the vertical of root system;
E, for preventing the evaporation of irrigation ditch, the sandstone of bedding 20cm gets final product in irrigation ditch.

Claims (4)

1. the method for a recovering Tamarix chinensis self-maintenance capability by manpower on arid desert is characterized in that following these steps to carrying out:
A, nursery stock are selected:
The seeds of planting are the shrub species Chinese tamarisk in native country, select healthy and strong nursery stock, life in the 1 year nursery stock of growing directly from seeds, and root is long, leading thread and highly be 30-40cm on the ground;
Put in order ground in b, early stage:
Should excavate the shallow ridges that is used to plant with early stage saturated irrigation before the field planting, its wide 50-60cm, dark 15-20cm, the hole that plants trees is arranged in the shallow ridges;
C, post-processed:
After the manual reversion Chinese tamarisk seedling planting to be determined success, along and the parallel irrigation zanjon of plantation shallow ridges at a distance of the wide 50cm of 40-80cm place excavation, irrigate and carry out from one-sided along zanjon, irrigation three times in growth year after field planting, the seedling growth shallow ridges is no longer poured water;
D, in one to two growth year, deepen to irrigate zanjon 20-40cm before each supplemental irrigation after the restore vegetation field planting, the each irrigation remains on semlsulcus or big semlsulcus;
E, for preventing the evaporation of irrigation ditch, the sandstone of bedding hay or 15-20cm gets final product in irrigation ditch.
2. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that step c along one-sided utilize side to ooze vegetation is carried out half root irrigate, second half vegetation root system is carried out artificial drought stress domestication.
3. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the irrigation zanjon furrow bank that step c closes on restore vegetation one side scrapes out the gentle slope type, becomes steep bank away from a side.
4. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that steps d along with recovering growing of Chinese tamarisk, deepens one-sided irrigation zanjon gradually, utilize the hydrotropism of Chinese tamarisk root system development, by moisture root system is carried out induced development, make its root system quicken growth on vertical.
CN2009101132685A 2009-03-23 2009-03-23 Method for recovering Tamarix chinensis self-maintenance capability by manpower on arid desert Expired - Fee Related CN101507405B (en)

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CN102172191B (en) * 2011-01-24 2012-08-01 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Method for rapidly increasing survival rate of artificially-restored poplar in arid desert area
CN102804992B (en) * 2012-08-09 2014-06-11 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Method for improving ecological self-maintenance capability of artificial restored plants in arid desert regions
CN102804991B (en) * 2012-08-09 2013-11-13 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Rapid method for promoting ecological restoration of damaged ecological system under extreme arid environment
CN103329723B (en) * 2013-07-12 2015-03-11 新疆林科院造林治沙研究所 Arid desert region flood plain tamarix chinensis recovery method
CN105850647B (en) * 2016-05-16 2018-09-07 南京红森苗木有限公司 A kind of zelkova schneideriana is grown thickly breeding method
CN105993772A (en) * 2016-05-28 2016-10-12 兰州大学 Efficient planting method for Tamarix ramosissima in northwest arid desert region
CN107493719A (en) * 2017-10-17 2017-12-22 亿利首建生态科技有限公司 A kind of method of desertification salinization of soil area Chinese tamarisk plantation
CN108391480A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-08-14 甘肃省治沙研究所 A kind of method of arid-desert area rejected reasons quick recovering vegetation

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