CN100484893C - Integrated ecology renovation method for extratropical eutrophication marine site - Google Patents

Integrated ecology renovation method for extratropical eutrophication marine site Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100484893C
CN100484893C CNB2005101367752A CN200510136775A CN100484893C CN 100484893 C CN100484893 C CN 100484893C CN B2005101367752 A CNB2005101367752 A CN B2005101367752A CN 200510136775 A CN200510136775 A CN 200510136775A CN 100484893 C CN100484893 C CN 100484893C
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China
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cultivation
marine site
eutrophication
extratropical
macro
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CNB2005101367752A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1990394A (en
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周毅
杨红生
王晓宇
刘鹰
周兴
许强
张涛
张福绥
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中国科学院海洋研究所
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/88

Abstract

The invention relates to a technique for treating polluted environment, which in detail is a comprehensive ecological restore method especially for etrophication waters in temperate zone in part of China. It combines the cultivation of large scale of algae and culture filter feeding animal of in etrophication waters to build a biological filter device and then restore polluted environment. The invention makes full use of ecological function of large scale algae absorbing dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in large amount and ecological function of filter feeding animal filtering suspended particle and nutrient matter from water, to restore etrophication waters. The applied algae and filter feeding animal are important economical varieties, thus they can also bring economical benefit. The invention is characterized by both ecological benefit and economical benefit and suitability for etrophication waters in temperate zone in north of China.

Description

A kind of integrated ecology renovation method of extratropical eutrophication marine site

Technical field

The present invention relates to the improvement technology of contaminate environment, specifically a kind of integrated ecology renovation method at the northern China extratropical eutrophication marine site.

Background technology

Along with the development of human urbanization and industrial and agricultural production, the sewage and the rainwash that are rich in nitrogen, phosphorus in a large number are discharged in the seawater, cause the eutrophication of the stretch of coastal water.It is a kind of important form of pollution of the sea that nutritive salt pollutes, and has become the problem of a global concern.The nutritive salt load that the stretch of coastal water is too much, the consequence of making us familiar most is exactly the hormesis to planktonic algae, causes plant plankton wawter bloom even red tide.The harm of red tide is known by people.

In order to reduce the pollution of mankind's activity to the littoral ecosystem, the control of source of pollution is the most basic measure that take with administering, and has obtained the attention of society and relevant administrative authority already, has obtained certain effect.But a large amount of both at home and abroad research and practice only show that control and the improvement to source of pollution is far from being enough, and owing to often be pollution of area source to the pollution of littoral sea, be difficult to obtain elimination, and usually be difficult to take effect in a short time.The eutrophication of the shallow water along the coast is more and more paid attention to the environment remediation of polluted waters is controlled or alleviated in countries in the world.

China is an ocean big country, and the eutrophication of littoral sea extensively exists from north to south, and particularly in marine site, the vast temperate zone of northern China, as Bohai Sea Gulf, Laizhou Wan, Dalian Bay, Jiaozhou Bay or the like, eutrophication problem is particularly outstanding.

At present, seen have the cultivation of using a kind of marine alga (edible seaweed) to administer the technology report of the eutrophication of China marine cage fish culture district, subtropics, south and cultivating pool.And for the vast eutrophication marine site of northern China, the technology report that the utilization ecological method carries out eutrophication control also very lacks.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is eutrophication pollution environment at marine site, northern China temperate zone provides a kind of and can effectively remove and utilize the dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus nutritive salt in the eutrophication water and the comprehensive ecological improvement method of particulate form phosphorus and nitrogen.

Technical scheme of the present invention is: in northern China eutrophication marine site, the cultivation of macro and the breed of filter feeder are combined, promptly pass through the dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus nutritive salt in the cultivation kelp removal water body, simultaneously by culturing the suspended particle attitude phosphorus and nitrogen in the filter-feeding bivalve shellfish removal water body.Described eutrophication marine site is positioned at zone, northern China temperate zone (0~27 ℃ of water temperature anniversary scope); Described macro means water warm (high temperature resistant) macro and the cold water macro of cultivation successively, to administer the eutrophication environment; Described resistant to elevated temperatures macro is the Gracilaria Thallus Gracilariae, derives from marine site, subtropics, China south; Described cold water macro is sea-tangle, wakame, is marine site, northern temperate zone low temperature season breed variety; Described filter-feeding bivalve shellfish comprises oyster, scallop, mussel etc.

Filter-feeding bivalve shellfish utilization raft (frame) formula cultural technique, this technology is a prior art, extensively adopts in China's shallow sea bivalve shellfish is cultured.Cursory by (plastics), floating (rope) and the short wooden stake formation obstructed of raft frame, bivalve shellfish adopts the cage cultural method, perhaps adopts the formula cultural method of piercing one's ears.Raft frame spacing is 4~5 meters.Utilization filter-feeding bivalve shellfish is administered the eutrophication environment as biofilter, and the shallow water along the coast wide in China also rarely has report.

The present invention also cultivates macro simultaneously on these raft framves except cultivated shellfish on the raft frame.The cultivation scheme of kelp is as follows: warm season (at the beginning of spring end, summer and autumn, 5~October; 12~27 ℃ of water temperature range), cultivate resistant to elevated temperatures macro (Thallus Gracilariae); And in temperature lower season (autumn end, winter, spring, 0~18 ℃ of water temperature range), cultivation cold water macro (sea-tangle, wakame), cultivating method is a prior art, extensively adopts in the cultivation of northern China algae.

A kind of cultivating method of Thallus Gracilariae is to cultivate Thallus Gracilariae on the middle raft frame of the adjacent breeding cage of shellfish, on the middle raft frame of shellfish culture cage, take to press from both sides seedling and hang method cultivation from above, or horizontal extension method all can, the every rope clamp seedling of the method that hangs from above partly is 0.9~1.1 meter, 16~18 bunches of folder seedlings, every bunch of seedling is grown 13~15 centimetres, 0.09~0.11 kilogram of every rope clamp seedling, tenesmus dropstone, 0.6~0.8 meter of rope spacing, Thallus Gracilariae cultivation water layer is different because of the height of transparency of sea water.In the horizontal extension method cultivation of Thallus Gracilariae, every rope clamp seedling partly is 1.4~1.6 meters, 24~27 bunches of folder seedlings, and every bunch of seedling is grown 13~15 centimetres, 0.14~0.16 kilogram of every rope clamp seedling.Control the harmful animal animal by mode artificial or the adjusting water layer during the breed---the quantity of gammarid.

Thallus Gracilariae is extensively cultured in marine site, subtropics, China south, is a kind of important economical alga, has grow fast, agar-agar content advantages of higher.And utilize this algae to administer the eutrophication environment as biofilter, yet there are no report in marine site, northern China temperate zone, and be mistaken as in marine site, northern China temperate zone and be not enough to form economic scale.And employing the present invention can make Thallus Gracilariae form economic scale in the marine site, temperate zone.

A kind of cultivating method of sea-tangle and wakame is to cultivate on the middle raft frame of the adjacent breeding cage of shellfish, adopts horizontal extension method cultivation, 46~54 of every rope cultivations, 23~27 bunches of folder seedlings, 2 every bunch, 1.4~1.6 meters of rope spacings.Cultivating method is originally as prior art.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:

1. the ecological benefits characteristics that had.The present invention uses ecological principle, and macro and filter-feeding bivalve shellfish are organically combined, and coordinates each other, jointly as biofilter, strengthens the self-purification capacity of the stretch of coastal water, repairs the eutrophication environment.Be embodied in:

1. macro can effectively absorb a large amount of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus nutritive substances that exist in the contained in eutrophic seawater, this has realized the recycling of pollutent simultaneously, both repaired the eutrophication environment, and formed the consumption sea-food again, this follows the demand for development of China's " recycling economy "; In addition, macro utilizes CO in the water body by photosynthesis 2, and then the pH value of regulating seawater, produce a large amount of oxygen simultaneously, be useful to animal in the seawater and littoral ecotope;

2. filter-feeding bivalve shellfish, as oyster, scallop and mussel, all has very powerful drainage capacity, they can filter a large amount of tiny particulate matters, comprise planktonic algae, seston, microorganism, shellfish larva and medium-sized zooplankton etc., also comprise the faecal pellet chip that derives from bivalve shellfish and other animal such as fish simultaneously, remove particulate form phosphorus and nitrogen in the seawater simultaneously, can control the quantity of suspended substances such as planktonic algae in the water body, the generation of prevention red tide.In addition, shellfish gives off CO by respiration 2, this photosynthesis and growth to macro is useful.Because these bivalve shellfishs are consumption species, thereby have also obtained value product in environment purification.

2. adopt the present invention can fully utilize existing shellfish raft culture technology and macro raft formula cultivation technique, without specific installation and complex technology, thereby cost is low, and the environmental improvement that is in particular the vast temperate waters of northern China eutrophication provides an effective technological line.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is described in further detail.

Embodiment 1

Adopt shellfish and the algae raft culture technology generally used in the prior art,, carried out the test of eutrophication environment remediation in 2003~2004 years, 2~27 ℃ of sea area water temperatures in eutrophication sea area, Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao (near the sea area estuario of Hai Bo river).The cultivation mode of macro is as follows, at the beginning of 2003 5 months, and cultivation Gracilaria Thallus Gracilariae (Gracilaria lemaneiformis).The Thallus Gracilariae of being adopted is coastal from Pu field, Fujian.Take to press from both sides seedling and hang method cultivation Thallus Gracilariae from above, 1 meter of every rope clamp seedling part, 16~18 bunches of folder seedlings, every bunch of seedling is grown 13~15 centimetres, 0.1 kilogram of every rope clamp seedling.Thallus Gracilariae is dried up 1~2 meter, the tenesmus dropstone.Raft frame spacing is 4 meters.Every mu of cultivation Thallus Gracilariae 400 ropes.Begin to have cultivated 2 mu, at the beginning of 7 months, divide seedling to enlarge cultivation scale to 10 mu.In October, after the Thallus Gracilariae results, utilize existing cultivation technique to cultivate sea-tangle (Laminariajaponica), horizontal extension method cultivation, 50 of every rope cultivations, 25 bunches of folder seedlings, 2 every bunch, 1.5 meters of rope spacings were gathered in the crops at the beginning of 2004 5 months.

Culture the filter-feeding bivalve shellfish on the raft frame simultaneously, culture Pacific oyster (Crassostreagigas), chlamys farreri (Chlamys farreri) and bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians) in the present embodiment, all adopted the cage cultural method.In the used 10 layers breeding cage, oyster is whenever raised in cages and grows 130, and chlamys farreri is whenever raised in cages and grown 300, and bay scallop is whenever raised in cages and grown 400.Every mu 400 cage, every kind of shellfish is cultured 4 mu, has cultured 12 mu altogether.

More than these macros and filter-feeding shellfish, can effectively utilize solubilised state and particulate form phosphorus and nitrogen in the seawater, play the control of eutrophication and the effect that purifies water.Formed the economy product after these economy animals and plants grow up to simultaneously.

Its result is: solubilised state nutritive substance and overall suspended pellet in the shellfish algae culture zone obviously reduce, and compare with non-culture zone on every side, have on average reduced approximately 30%, and water quality is obviously improved.Macro of being cultured and the growth of filter-feeding shellfish are all very fast.The bright Thallus Gracilariae of every per mu yield is about 5000 kilograms during culturing, wherein nitrogenous (N) 16 kilograms, phosphorous (P) 2 kilograms; About 3000 kilograms of the bright sea-tangle of every per mu yield, wherein nitrogenous (N) 10 kilograms, phosphorous (P) 1 kilogram.It is as follows that the filter-feeding shellfish of being cultured is formed the every per mu yield in back (total weight in wet base): 3.6 tons of chlamys farreris, 3.9 tons of bay scallops, 3.1 tons of oysters, shellfish output is compared with the shellfish culture (as Shandong Sang Gouwan shellfish culture) in the non-eutrophication bay, and growth velocity has on average improved about 20%.Through measuring and calculating, during culturing, every mu of bay scallop is handled 38 kilograms of suspended particulates (dry weight) every day, and every mu of oyster is handled 81 kilograms of suspended particulates (dry weight) every day, and every mu of chlamys farreri is handled 42 kilograms of suspended particulates (dry weight) every day.

The integrated ecology renovation method that present embodiment adopts macro and filter feeder to combine recovers and control shallow sea eutrophication environment, obtains effect preferably.This helps to solve the pollution problem of human development to shore-environment.Present embodiment carries out in northern China eutrophication sea area, cultivates resistant to elevated temperatures Thallus Gracilariae in warm season, utilizes characteristics such as its growth is fast, high temperature resistant; And in temperature lower season, cultivation cold water macro---sea-tangle.Thallus Gracilariae and sea-tangle can both fast and effeciently absorb a large amount of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus nutritive substances that exist in the contained in eutrophic seawater.Simultaneously, present embodiment is cultured filter-feeding bivalve shellfish (oyster and scallop) and is used as biofilter, removes in the seawater suspended particulate matter and phosphorus and nitrogens wherein such as planktonic algae.According to the results presumption of present embodiment,, will obtain good eutrophication environmental improvement effect in the gulf if the scale of macro and filter-feeding shellfish is promoted.

Claims (9)

1, a kind of integrated ecology renovation method of extratropical eutrophication marine site, it is characterized in that: at extratropical eutrophication marine site, the cultivation of macro and the breed of filter-feeding bivalve shellfish are combined, jointly as biofilter, repair the eutrophication environment, promptly pass through the dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus nutritive salt in the cultivation kelp removal water body, simultaneously by culturing the suspended particle attitude phosphorus and nitrogen in the filter-feeding bivalve shellfish removal water body; Described filter-feeding bivalve shellfish comprises oyster, scallop or mussel.
2, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 1, it is characterized in that: described eutrophication marine site is the marine site, temperate zone, 0~27 ℃ of anniversary water temperature range.
3, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 1, it is characterized in that: described macro means water warm macro and cold water macro.
4, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 3, it is characterized in that: described water warm macro is a Thallus Gracilariae, derives from marine site, subtropics, China south, in warm cultivation in season; Described cold water macro is sea-tangle or wakame, is marine site, northern temperate zone low temperature season breed variety, in the lower cultivation in season of temperature.
5, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 1, it is characterized in that: the breed utilization raft culture technology of described filter-feeding bivalve shellfish, the raft frame is made of cursory, floating stalk and short wooden stake, bivalve shellfish adopts the cage cultural method, perhaps adopt the formula cultural method of piercing one's ears, raft frame spacing is 4~5 meters.
6, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 1, it is characterized in that: the cultivation of described macro is carried out on shellfish culture raft frame, the cultivation scheme of kelp is as follows: in warm season, 12~27 ℃ of water temperature range, cultivation water warm macro: Thallus Gracilariae; And in the temperate zone lower season, 0~18 ℃ of water temperature range, cultivation cold water macro: sea-tangle or wakame.
7, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 6, it is characterized in that: described Thallus Gracilariae is on the middle raft frame of the adjacent breeding cage of shellfish, take rope folder seedling to hang method or the cultivation of horizontal extension method, 0.6~0.8 meter of rope spacing, tenesmus dropstone from above; Described sea-tangle or wakame take to press from both sides the horizontal extension method cultivation of seedling on the middle raft frame of the adjacent breeding cage of shellfish.
8, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 7, it is characterized in that: described Thallus Gracilariae is hung the method cultivation from above, and every rope clamp seedling partly is 0.9~1.1 meter, 16~18 bunches of folder seedlings, every bunch of seedling is grown 13~15 centimetres, 0.09~0.11 kilogram of every rope clamp seedling; The horizontal extension method cultivation of described Thallus Gracilariae, every rope clamp seedling partly is 1.4~1.6 meters, 24~27 bunches of folder seedlings, every bunch of seedling is grown 13~15 centimetres, 0.14~0.16 kilogram of every rope clamp seedling.
9, according to the integrated ecology renovation method of the described extratropical eutrophication marine site of claim 7, it is characterized in that: the horizontal extension method cultivation of described sea-tangle or wakame, 46~54 of every rope cultivations, 23~27 bunches of folder seedlings, 2 every bunch, 1.4~1.6 meters of rope spacings.
CNB2005101367752A 2005-12-30 2005-12-30 Integrated ecology renovation method for extratropical eutrophication marine site CN100484893C (en)

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