CN100349693C - 用于万能铣床的主轴头以及万能铣床 - Google Patents

用于万能铣床的主轴头以及万能铣床 Download PDF

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CN100349693C
CN100349693C CNB038062364A CN03806236A CN100349693C CN 100349693 C CN100349693 C CN 100349693C CN B038062364 A CNB038062364 A CN B038062364A CN 03806236 A CN03806236 A CN 03806236A CN 100349693 C CN100349693 C CN 100349693C
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spindle
working
jaw
casing
main
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CN1642689A (zh
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W·格斯蒂尔
P·哈斯
H·弗里茨
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Deckel Maho Pfronten GmbH
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q1/00Members which are comprised in the general build-up of a form of machine, particularly relatively large fixed members
    • B23Q1/25Movable or adjustable work or tool supports
    • B23Q1/44Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms
    • B23Q1/50Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with rotating pairs only, the rotating pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism
    • B23Q1/54Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with rotating pairs only, the rotating pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism two rotating pairs only
    • B23Q1/5406Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with rotating pairs only, the rotating pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism two rotating pairs only a single rotating pair followed perpendicularly by a single rotating pair
    • B23Q1/5412Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with rotating pairs only, the rotating pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism two rotating pairs only a single rotating pair followed perpendicularly by a single rotating pair followed perpendicularly by a single rotating pair
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q1/00Members which are comprised in the general build-up of a form of machine, particularly relatively large fixed members
    • B23Q1/01Frames, beds, pillars or like members; Arrangement of ways
    • B23Q1/012Portals
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q1/00Members which are comprised in the general build-up of a form of machine, particularly relatively large fixed members
    • B23Q1/25Movable or adjustable work or tool supports
    • B23Q1/44Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms
    • B23Q1/56Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism
    • B23Q1/60Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism two sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism
    • B23Q1/62Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism two sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism with perpendicular axes, e.g. cross-slides
    • B23Q1/621Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism two sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism with perpendicular axes, e.g. cross-slides a single sliding pair followed perpendicularly by a single sliding pair
    • B23Q1/623Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism two sliding pairs only, the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism with perpendicular axes, e.g. cross-slides a single sliding pair followed perpendicularly by a single sliding pair followed perpendicularly by a single rotating pair
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q5/00Driving or feeding mechanisms; Control arrangements therefor
    • B23Q5/02Driving main working members
    • B23Q5/04Driving main working members rotary shafts, e.g. working-spindles
    • B23Q5/043Accessories for spindle drives
    • B23Q5/045Angle drives
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q2210/00Machine tools incorporating a specific component
    • B23Q2210/004Torque motors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q2220/00Machine tool components
    • B23Q2220/006Spindle heads
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/51Plural diverse manufacturing apparatus including means for metal shaping or assembling
    • Y10T29/5104Type of machine
    • Y10T29/5109Lathe
    • Y10T29/5114Lathe and tool
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T409/00Gear cutting, milling, or planing
    • Y10T409/30Milling
    • Y10T409/304536Milling including means to infeed work to cutter
    • Y10T409/305544Milling including means to infeed work to cutter with work holder
    • Y10T409/305656Milling including means to infeed work to cutter with work holder including means to support work for rotation during operation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T409/00Gear cutting, milling, or planing
    • Y10T409/30Milling
    • Y10T409/306664Milling including means to infeed rotary cutter toward work
    • Y10T409/307672Angularly adjustable cutter head
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T409/00Gear cutting, milling, or planing
    • Y10T409/30Milling
    • Y10T409/306664Milling including means to infeed rotary cutter toward work
    • Y10T409/307784Plural cutters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T409/00Gear cutting, milling, or planing
    • Y10T409/40Broaching
    • Y10T409/40455Broaching with means to advance, infeed, or manipulate work
    • Y10T409/404725Interrelated with cutter infeed

Abstract

本发明涉及一种用于万能铣床的主轴头。所述主轴头包括旋转安装在机床部件(10)上的箱体(12)以及轴线平行地设置在箱体内的被直接驱动的工作主轴(14)。根据本发明,一个可绕两根轴调整的第二主轴单元(15,2)设置在该箱体(12)的背面上。

Description

用于万能铣床的主轴头以及万能铣床
技术领域
本发明涉及一种用于万能铣床的主轴头以及配备有这类主轴头的万能铣床。
背景技术
近年来,人们力求在一次夹紧时对工件进行复杂的加工,以便提高生产率和精度。已知有各种不同的万能铣床,在这些铣床上,也能通过使用旋转驱动的圆形工作台来车铣相当庞大笨重的工件。此外,过去经常在同一台机床上对一个工件进行粗加工和精加工。然而,要实现这一目的,不得不在一个单一的工作主轴里插入和取走不同的工具,这当然会引起一定的延迟。
此外,例如由DE 299 07 810 U公开的万能铣床包括在一个通用的升降台上具有两个铣头或主轴头。该升降台具有等边矩形棱柱体形状并且以其斜边表面可绕其中轴线旋转地支承在一个45°的支承面上。在它的两个彼此垂直的台面上,各固定安装有一个铣头。通过借助电动机驱动升降台绕其45°轴线旋转,铣头和另一个铣头可被移动到这样的工作位置上,即被卡入各自工作主轴中的铣刀或钻头能在同一次安装过程中切削加工工件。更换铣削主轴头所需的升降台限制了自由工作空间,增加了结构费用和成本。
在DE 296 23 999 U1中,描述了一种用于铣床的直接驱动的多轴旋转主轴头,它包括一个可绕第一轴线旋转的并有两个间隔布置的托叉臂的托叉。在托叉臂中形成有相互对准的孔,一个工作主轴通过两个完全相反地突出的承颈旋转支承在所述孔里。为了使托叉绕第一轴线旋转以及为了使工作主轴在托叉孔内转动,使用一个呈电动机形式的直接传动装置。
此外,从DE 88 09 972 U中可以知道一种不同类型的工件定位装置,它包括一个支承工件的平面圆盘。由于驱动单元可以不同地相互组合,所以,所述定位装置可以如此进行模块式组装和扩展,即,平面圆盘能通过电动机绕第一轴线旋转,通过电动机绕第二轴线翻转和/或通过电动机绕第三轴线回转。
发明内容
本发明的一个目的是提供一个用于万能铣床的主轴头,能在一次夹紧时对甚至很庞大笨重的工件进行复杂加工,同时能减少时间延误。
根据本发明,实现所述目的技术方案是一种用于万能铣床的主轴头,其包括:
一个可在机床机架上移动的机床部件和一个可绕第一轴线旋转地安装的箱体;一个在该箱体内轴向平行安装的且直接驱动的第一工作主轴,它用于对紧固在工作台上的工件进行粗加工和精加工,其中,一个可绕两个轴调整的第二主轴单元设置在该箱体的与第一工作主轴相对的那端侧上,所述第二主轴单元在一个主轴箱内具有一个用于精加工被夹固的工件的并带有自身的驱动电动机的第二工作主轴。
通过本发明,配备有主轴头的机床的工作区域显著增大。集成在主轴箱内的第一工作主轴被设计用来进行不同的钻铣加工并且其尺寸也适用于粗加工。相应地,常见的加工都能采用该工作主轴以高生产率完成。粗加工和不精确的精整加工也同样可行。在主轴箱背侧设置可沿两根轴调节的第二主轴单元增大了机床加工区域,因此,精整加工、雕刻加工、精钻削等也能以简单的方式进行,而无需进行上述工具更换。由于在两根轴上可以调整彼此垂直的第二工作主轴,所以,可以通过简单方式来加工斜孔、槽和切口,以及通过连续角度调整在工件上加工出球形表面。
本发明的另一个主题是提供一台具有以上述方式设计的主轴头和一个放置笨重大型工件的圆形工作台的机床,该机床包括一个有效旋转的驱动装置,能以几百转/分的速度驱动工件转动。在将车刀优选夹入第一个即更有效的工作主轴后,能对工件进行一定的车削加工。但除此之外,铣削加工也可以使用第二主轴在旋转工件上进行。
为了在高刚度下获得高的灵活性,第二主轴单元包括一个可旋转地安装在主轴箱背侧上的叉头,在叉头的两托叉之间,可转动地支撑着直接驱动的工作主轴。工作主轴是高速主轴(HS主轴)可能是适当的,其转速大于20000转/分。
适合的是,托叉这样构成,即,使得其旋转轴平行于设置在箱体内的工作主轴的轴线并且横向错开,结果,在这两个工作主轴的轴线平行时,在两根主轴轴线彼此对准即重合。
工作主轴通常通过两根柔性管连接到两个供给系统,例如,能源供应系统和冲洗系统。根据本发明的一个适当的实施例,仅有一根单独的柔性供应管连接到托叉上,第二供给系统的连接是通过该托叉的通向该主轴箱的一个内部的旋转通道实现的。
根据本发明的另一个合适的实施例,为了调整在托叉内的工作主轴的角度和在主轴箱上的托叉的旋转位置,特别是为了能足够牢固地固定所调节出的位置,一台电动机和一个作为第二工作主轴的回转驱动装置的传动装置设置在托叉上,而且作为用于使叉头转动的直接驱动装置的另一台电动机设置在箱体内。
附图说明
从以下参照附图对本发明的设置在万能铣床中的主轴头的描述,本发明的其它特征和优点将变得显而易见。附图中:
图1是具有根据本发明的主轴头的万能铣床的示意性透视图;
图2是主轴头的不同工作位置的示意性透视图。
具体实施方式
图1所示的万能铣床在机座1上具有一个连贯的高刚性床身2,在该床身上,可沿箭头方向5通过电动机移动地安置有一个其上夹持着圆柱形工件4的圆形工作台3。此外,在机座1上还支承着一个龙门吊车式机架6,在机架6的面对工件4的前侧上,可通过电动机在垂直导轨8上移动地设置着一个滑座7。一个水平滑座10在垂直的滑座7的水平前导轨9上导向移动,在水平滑座10的前端装有一个主轴头11,它通过电动机绕水平轴线13旋转。主轴头11包括一个箱体12,在该箱体内安装有第一工作主轴14和直接驱动电动机。一个用于叉头15的旋转驱动装置设置在图1所示的主轴箱体12的加宽下部里,叉头15可绕轴线16旋转地安装在与第一工作主轴14相对的箱体端侧上。
尤其从图2b中将会清楚地看到,叉头15通过可旋转的圆盘17固定到箱体后壁上,该箱体后壁包围着一个用于第一种供给管路的旋转通道(未示出)。叉头15包括一个箱体部18和两个端侧托叉19、20,托叉19、20各有一个开口21,一个主轴箱22通过两个承颈可绕承颈轴线回转地支承在所述开口里。
在主轴箱22内安装着第二工作主轴23及其驱动电动机(未示出)。在叉头15的箱体部18的一侧,设有一个用于单根柔性供给管26的连接件25。从图2a、2b中可看到,一个驱动电动机在叉头15另一侧设置在窄箱体部27内,所述驱动电动机通过被一个侧盖28盖住的传动装置驱动第二工作主轴23及其箱体22绕承颈21回转并用足够大的制动力矩将它们固定在各自所希望的主轴位置上。
如图2部分显示的那样,根据本发明的主轴头能在不同的位置上进行各种不同的加工。在图2a的工作位置上,非常高效的第一主轴14准备工作,就是说,在换上相应的工具后,可以对工件4进行粗加工。为了对工件4进行各种精加工,使主轴头绕其水平轴线13旋转180°,使得叉头和其第二工作主轴23处于工作位置。对于主轴头11能进行无冲突旋转来说,叉头的不同部件不会或者基本上不会从主轴箱体12中突出是重要的,例如可以从图1、2a中看到的。
本发明不局限于所述实施例。因此,例如当用在具有可垂直移动的工件台的所谓升降台式机床中时,本发明的主轴头也可以由水平头构成,例如,其可以绕垂直轴线旋转布置在机架上部。此外,叉头的不同变型方案也是可能的,例如,去掉托叉19、20的一个或另一个,从而精整主轴的箱体22被单侧支承和仅回转支承。最后,一个所谓的直接驱动装置可用作精整主轴23的回转驱动装置,所述直接驱动装置的定子被固定在托叉19、20的至少其中一个上,这样的电动机的转子连接到主轴箱22的不同承颈上。通过这样的直接驱动装置,可以省掉被盖28盖住的传动装置。作为另一个变型方案,供应管26a可以连接到精整主轴箱体22的轴颈支承件21上,如图2c的虚线所示。

Claims (8)

1.用于万能铣床的主轴头,包括:
一个可在机床机架上移动的机床部件(10)和一个可绕第一轴线(13)旋转地安装的箱体(12);
一个在该箱体(12)内轴向平行安装的且直接驱动的第一工作主轴(14),它用于对紧固在工作台(3)上的工件(4)进行粗加工和精加工,
其特征在于:
一个可绕两个轴调整的第二主轴单元设置在该箱体(12)的与第一工作主轴(14)相对的那端侧上,所述第二主轴单元在一个主轴箱(22)内具有一个用于精加工被夹固的工件(4)的并带有自身的驱动电动机的第二工作主轴(23)。
2.根据权利要求1所述主轴头,其特征在于:该第二主轴单元包括一个叉头(15),该叉头可绕一旋转轴线(16)旋转地安装在该箱体(12)的所述端侧上,第二工作主轴(23)的主轴箱(22)可通过电动机回转地支承在该叉头(15)的托叉(19,20)中。
3.根据权利要求2所述的主轴头,其特征在于:该叉头(15)的旋转轴线(16)平行于设置在该箱体(12)内的工作主轴(14)延伸,但横向错开。
4.根据前述权利要求1所述的主轴头,其特征在于:在这两根工作主轴(14,23)的轴向平行取向时,它们的轴线重合。
5.根据前述权利要求2所述的主轴头,其特征在于:一根柔性供给管(26,26a)连接到该叉头(15)上。
6.根据前述权利要求2所述的主轴头,其特征在于:该叉头(15)包括一电动机和一传动装置,所述传动装置用作第二工作主轴(23)的回转驱动装置。
7.根据前述权利要求2所述主轴头,其特征在于:第二工作主轴(23)的回转轴线、叉头(15)的旋转轴线(16)以及箱体(12)的旋转轴线(13)在彼此垂直的平面里延伸。
8.万能铣床,包括:
一旋转支承在高刚性的床身(2)上的圆形工作台(3),用于放置笨重大型的工件(4);
一个用于圆形工作台(3)的有效的旋转传动装置,为了进行车削加工,该旋转传动装置能使被夹紧的该工件(4)以几百转/分的速度旋转,
一个机架(6),它具有在前侧的可沿两个坐标轴通过电动机被驱动移动的滑座(7,10),
一个根据以上权利要求之一所述的、在该前侧的滑座(10)上通过电动机绕水平的旋转轴线(13)回转的主轴头(11)。
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