WO2020068372A1 - Multi-modal inputs for voice commands - Google Patents

Multi-modal inputs for voice commands Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2020068372A1
WO2020068372A1 PCT/US2019/049183 US2019049183W WO2020068372A1 WO 2020068372 A1 WO2020068372 A1 WO 2020068372A1 US 2019049183 W US2019049183 W US 2019049183W WO 2020068372 A1 WO2020068372 A1 WO 2020068372A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
input
affordance
user
text
accordance
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2019/049183
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Philippe P. Piernot
Garrett L. Weinberg
Original Assignee
Apple Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority claimed from US201862739020P external-priority
Application filed by Apple Inc. filed Critical Apple Inc.
Priority to CN201980053858.5A priority Critical patent/CN112567332A/en
Priority to EP19769661.0A priority patent/EP3857351A1/en
Publication of WO2020068372A1 publication Critical patent/WO2020068372A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/048Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI]
    • G06F3/0487Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser
    • G06F3/0488Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures
    • G06F3/04886Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures by partitioning the display area of the touch-screen or the surface of the digitising tablet into independently controllable areas, e.g. virtual keyboards or menus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/011Arrangements for interaction with the human body, e.g. for user immersion in virtual reality
    • G06F3/013Eye tracking input arrangements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/048Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI]
    • G06F3/0487Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser
    • G06F3/0488Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures
    • G06F3/04883Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures for inputting data by handwriting, e.g. gesture or text
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/16Sound input; Sound output
    • G06F3/167Audio in a user interface, e.g. using voice commands for navigating, audio feedback
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10LSPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
    • G10L15/00Speech recognition
    • G10L15/08Speech classification or search
    • G10L15/18Speech classification or search using natural language modelling
    • G10L15/1815Semantic context, e.g. disambiguation of the recognition hypotheses based on word meaning
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10LSPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
    • G10L15/00Speech recognition
    • G10L15/22Procedures used during a speech recognition process, e.g. man-machine dialogue
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10LSPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
    • G10L15/00Speech recognition
    • G10L15/22Procedures used during a speech recognition process, e.g. man-machine dialogue
    • G10L2015/223Execution procedure of a spoken command

Abstract

Systems and processes for operating an intelligent automated assistant are provided. In one example process, a first input including activation of an affordance is received. A domain associated with the affordance is determined. A second input including user speech is received, where a user intent is determined based on the domain and the user speech. A determination is made whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance. In accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance, a task in furtherance of the command is performed.

Description

MULTI-MODAL INPUTS FOR VOICE COMMANDS
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/739,020 filed September 28, 2018 and entitled“Multi-Modal Inputs for Voice Commands,” and U.S. Application No. 16/232,855 filed December 26, 2018 and entitled“Multi-Modal Inputs for Voice Commands,” the disclosures of each of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes.
FIELD
[0002] This application relates generally to intelligent automated assistants and, more specifically, to multi-modal inputs for voice commands.
BACKGROUND
[0003] Intelligent automated assistants, or digital assistants, provide beneficial interfaces between human users and electronic devices. Conventional digital assistants may receive speech commands from a user and process the commands to perform one or more tasks. However, conventional digital assistants present difficulties in ultimately performing a desired task. Certain tasks may be inherently difficult to perform based on speech input alone, such as tasks that require specifying a precise set of parameters or keywords.
Furthermore, natural language speech input commonly includes ambiguous terms, and conventional digital assistants may be unable to determine the meaning of one or more of these terms. Performing desired tasks based on non-speech inputs can prove cumbersome and inefficient, such as using finger gestures on a display screen or interacting with physical controls. Such problems are intensified given the increasing complexity of smart devices and a diverse experience level among users. For example, digital assistants may be especially overwhelming for beginner users. Accordingly, a system including multi-modal inputs for voice commands is desired.
SUMMARY
[0004] Systems and processes including multi-modal inputs for voice commands are provided. In one example process, at an electronic device, a first input including activation of an affordance is received. A domain associated with the affordance is determined. A second input including user speech is received. A user intent is determined based on the domain and the user speech. A determination is made whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance. In accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance, a task in furtherance of the command is performed.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0005] FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system and environment for implementing a digital assistant, according to various examples.
[0006] FIG. 2A is a block diagram illustrating a portable multifunction device implementing the client-side portion of a digital assistant, according to various examples.
[0007] FIG. 2B is a block diagram illustrating exemplary components for event handling, according to various examples.
[0008] FIG. 3 illustrates a portable multifunction device implementing the client-side portion of a digital assistant, according to various examples.
[0009] FIG. 4 is a block diagram of an exemplary multifunction device with a display and a touch-sensitive surface, according to various examples.
[0010] FIG. 5A illustrates an exemplary user interface for a menu of applications on a portable multifunction device, according to various examples.
[0011] FIG. 5B illustrates an exemplary user interface for a multifunction device with a touch-sensitive surface that is separate from the display, according to various examples.
[0012] FIG. 6A illustrates a personal electronic device, according to various examples.
[0013] FIG. 6B is a block diagram illustrating a personal electronic device, according to various examples.
[0014] FIG. 7A is a block diagram illustrating a digital assistant system or a server portion thereof, according to various examples. [0015] FIG. 7B illustrates the functions of the digital assistant shown in FIG. 7A, according to various examples.
[0016] FIG. 7C illustrates a portion of an ontology, according to various examples.
[0017] FIGS. 8A-D illustrate an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0018] FIG. 9 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0019] FIG. 10 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0020] FIG. 11 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0021] FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0022] FIG. 13 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0023] FIGS. 14A-B illustrate an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0024] FIGS. 15A-B illustrate an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0025] FIG. 16 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0026] FIG. 17 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
[0027] FIG. 18 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
[0028] In the following description of examples, reference is made to the accompanying drawings in which are shown by way of illustration specific examples that can be practiced.
It is to be understood that other examples can be used and structural changes can be made without departing from the scope of the various examples.
[0029] Conventional devices generally present difficulties in performing desired tasks. Such problems are complicated when tasks become more complex. Performing certain tasks may require many precise steps, and completing these steps through conventional means is typically a challenging process. For example, a task for changing the date and time of a meeting within a calendar application may require many individual steps, such as opening the calendar application, selecting the appropriate day, finding the event, etc. These steps may be time consuming and confusing, especially for inexperienced users. Completing such a task based on voice commands may be equally challenging. For example, many users may be unfamiliar with voice interfaces, and seasoned users may still experience problems when a digital assistant is unable to determine user intent based on ambiguous natural langue input. Accordingly, the inability of a device to perform desired tasks results in a poor user experience.
[0030] In accordance with some systems, computer-readable media, and processes described herein, task performance is improved by providing multi-modal inputs for voice commands. In one example process, a first input is received, including activation of an affordance displayed on a device. For example, a user may activate an application on a home screen of the device via a touch input. A domain associated with the affordance is determined, such as a geographical domain in the case of a maps application. A second input including user speech is received, and a user intent is determined based on the speech and the determined domain. The speech input may include a command associated with the affordance, such as the input“find nearest Italian restaurants.” In accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the activated affordance, a task in furtherance of the command is performed.
[0031] Although the following description uses terms“first,”“second,” etc. to describe various elements, these elements should not be limited by the terms. These terms are only used to distinguish one element from another. For example, a first input could be termed a second input, and, similarly, a second input could be termed a first input, without departing from the scope of the various described examples. The first input and the second input are both inputs and, in some cases, are separate and different inputs.
[0032] The terminology used in the description of the various described examples herein is for the purpose of describing particular examples only and is not intended to be limiting.
As used in the description of the various described examples and the appended claims, the singular forms“a,”“an,” and“the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will also be understood that the term“and/or” as used herein refers to and encompasses any and all possible combinations of one or more of the associated listed items. It will be further understood that the terms“includes,”“including,” “comprises,” and/or“comprising,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.
[0033] The term“if’ may be construed to mean“when” or“upon” or“in response to determining” or“in response to detecting,” depending on the context. Similarly, the phrase “if it is determined” or“if [a stated condition or event] is detected” may be construed to mean “upon determining” or“in response to determining” or“upon detecting [the stated condition or event]” or“in response to detecting [the stated condition or event],” depending on the context.
1. System and Environment
[0034] FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of system 100 according to various examples.
In some examples, system 100 implements a digital assistant. The terms“digital assistant,” “virtual assistant,”“intelligent automated assistant,” or“automatic digital assistant” refer to any information processing system that interprets natural language input in spoken and/or textual form to infer user intent, and performs actions based on the inferred user intent. For example, to act on an inferred user intent, the system performs one or more of the following: identifying a task flow with steps and parameters designed to accomplish the inferred user intent, inputting specific requirements from the inferred user intent into the task flow;
executing the task flow by invoking programs, methods, services, APIs, or the like; and generating output responses to the user in an audible (e.g., speech) and/or visual form.
[0035] Specifically, a digital assistant is capable of accepting a user request at least partially in the form of a natural language command, request, statement, narrative, and/or inquiry. Typically, the user request seeks either an informational answer or performance of a task by the digital assistant. A satisfactory response to the user request includes a provision of the requested informational answer, a performance of the requested task, or a combination of the two. For example, a user asks the digital assistant a question, such as“Where am I right now?” Based on the user’s current location, the digital assistant answers,“You are in Central Park near the west gate.” The user also requests the performance of a task, for example,“Please invite my friends to my girlfriend’s birthday party next week.” In response, the digital assistant can acknowledge the request by saying“Yes, right away,” and then send a suitable calendar invite on behalf of the user to each of the user’s friends listed in the user’s electronic address book. During performance of a requested task, the digital assistant sometimes interacts with the user in a continuous dialogue involving multiple exchanges of information over an extended period of time. There are numerous other ways of interacting with a digital assistant to request information or performance of various tasks. In addition to providing verbal responses and taking programmed actions, the digital assistant also provides responses in other visual or audio forms, e.g., as text, alerts, music, videos, animations, etc.
[0036] As shown in FIG. 1, in some examples, a digital assistant is implemented according to a client-server model. The digital assistant includes client-side portion 102 (hereafter“DA client 102”) executed on user device 104 and server-side portion 106 (hereafter“DA server 106”) executed on server system 108. DA client 102 communicates with DA server 106 through one or more networks 110. DA client 102 provides client-side functionalities such as user-facing input and output processing and communication with DA server 106. DA server 106 provides server-side functionalities for any number of DA clients 102 each residing on a respective user device 104.
[0037] In some examples, DA server 106 includes client-facing I/O interface 112, one or more processing modules 114, data and models 116, and I/O interface to external services 118. The client-facing I/O interface 112 facilitates the client-facing input and output processing for DA server 106. One or more processing modules 114 utilize data and models 116 to process speech input and determine the user’s intent based on natural language input. Further, one or more processing modules 114 perform task execution based on inferred user intent. In some examples, DA server 106 communicates with external services 120 through network(s) 110 for task completion or information acquisition. I/O interface to external services 118 facilitates such communications.
[0038] User device 104 can be any suitable electronic device. In some examples, user device 104 is a portable multifunctional device (e.g., device 200, described below with reference to FIG. 2 A), a multifunctional device (e.g., device 400, described below with reference to FIG. 4), or a personal electronic device (e.g., device 600, described below with reference to FIGS. 6A-6B.) A portable multifunctional device is, for example, a mobile telephone that also contains other functions, such as PDA and/or music player functions. Specific examples of portable multifunction devices include the Apple Watch®, iPhone®, iPod Touch®, and iPad® devices from Apple Inc. of Cupertino, California. Other examples of portable multifunction devices include, without limitation, earphones/headphones, speakers, and laptop or tablet computers. Further, in some examples, user device 104 is a non-portable multifunctional device. In particular, user device 104 is a desktop computer, a game console, a speaker, a television, or a television set-top box. In some examples, user device 104 includes a touch-sensitive surface (e.g., touch screen displays and/or touchpads). Further, user device 104 optionally includes one or more other physical user-interface devices, such as a physical keyboard, a mouse, and/or a joystick. Various examples of electronic devices, such as multifunctional devices, are described below in greater detail.
[0039] Examples of communication network(s) 110 include local area networks (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN), e.g., the Internet. Communication network(s) 110 is implemented using any known network protocol, including various wired or wireless protocols, such as, for example, Ethernet, Universal Serial Bus (USB), FIREWIRE, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), code division multiple access (CDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA), Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Wi-MAX, or any other suitable communication protocol.
[0040] Server system 108 is implemented on one or more standalone data processing apparatus or a distributed network of computers. In some examples, server system 108 also employs various virtual devices and/or services of third-party service providers (e.g., third- party cloud service providers) to provide the underlying computing resources and/or infrastructure resources of server system 108.
[0041] In some examples, user device 104 communicates with DA server 106 via second user device 122. Second user device 122 is similar or identical to user device 104. For example, second user device 122 is similar to devices 200, 400, or 600 described below with reference to FIGS. 2A, 4, and 6A-6B. User device 104 is configured to communicatively couple to second user device 122 via a direct communication connection, such as Bluetooth, NFC, BTLE, or the like, or via a wired or wireless network, such as a local Wi-Fi network.
In some examples, second user device 122 is configured to act as a proxy between user device 104 and DA server 106. For example, DA client 102 of user device 104 is configured to transmit information (e.g., a user request received at user device 104) to DA server 106 via second user device 122. DA server 106 processes the information and returns relevant data (e.g., data content responsive to the user request) to user device 104 via second user device 122 [0042] In some examples, user device 104 is configured to communicate abbreviated requests for data to second user device 122 to reduce the amount of information transmitted from user device 104. Second user device 122 is configured to determine supplemental information to add to the abbreviated request to generate a complete request to transmit to DA server 106. This system architecture can advantageously allow user device 104 having limited communication capabilities and/or limited battery power (e.g., a watch or a similar compact electronic device) to access services provided by DA server 106 by using second user device 122, having greater communication capabilities and/or battery power (e.g., a mobile phone, laptop computer, tablet computer, or the like), as a proxy to DA server 106. While only two user devices 104 and 122 are shown in FIG. 1, it should be appreciated that system 100, in some examples, includes any number and type of user devices configured in this proxy configuration to communicate with DA server system 106.
[0043] Although the digital assistant shown in FIG. 1 includes both a client-side portion (e.g., DA client 102) and a server-side portion (e.g., DA server 106), in some examples, the functions of a digital assistant are implemented as a standalone application installed on a user device. In addition, the divisions of functionalities between the client and server portions of the digital assistant can vary in different implementations. For instance, in some examples, the DA client is a thin-client that provides only user-facing input and output processing functions, and delegates all other functionalities of the digital assistant to a backend server.
2. Electronic Devices
[0044] Ahention is now directed toward embodiments of electronic devices for implementing the client-side portion of a digital assistant. FIG. 2A is a block diagram illustrating portable multifunction device 200 with touch-sensitive display system 212 in accordance with some embodiments. Touch-sensitive display 212 is sometimes called a “touch screen” for convenience and is sometimes known as or called a“touch-sensitive display system.” Device 200 includes memory 202 (which optionally includes one or more computer-readable storage mediums), memory controller 222, one or more processing units (CPUs) 220, peripherals interface 218, RF circuitry 208, audio circuitry 210, speaker 211, microphone 213, input/output (I/O) subsystem 206, other input control devices 216, and external port 224. Device 200 optionally includes one or more optical sensors 264. Device 200 optionally includes one or more contact intensity sensors 265 for detecting intensity of contacts on device 200 (e.g., a touch-sensitive surface such as touch-sensitive display system 212 of device 200). Device 200 optionally includes one or more tactile output generators 267 for generating tactile outputs on device 200 (e.g., generating tactile outputs on a touch- sensitive surface such as touch-sensitive display system 212 of device 200 or touchpad 455 of device 400). These components optionally communicate over one or more communication buses or signal lines 203.
[0045] As used in the specification and claims, the term“intensity” of a contact on a touch-sensitive surface refers to the force or pressure (force per unit area) of a contact (e.g., a finger contact) on the touch-sensitive surface, or to a substitute (proxy) for the force or pressure of a contact on the touch-sensitive surface. The intensity of a contact has a range of values that includes at least four distinct values and more typically includes hundreds of distinct values (e.g., at least 256). Intensity of a contact is, optionally, determined (or measured) using various approaches and various sensors or combinations of sensors. For example, one or more force sensors underneath or adjacent to the touch-sensitive surface are, optionally, used to measure force at various points on the touch-sensitive surface. In some implementations, force measurements from multiple force sensors are combined (e.g., a weighted average) to determine an estimated force of a contact. Similarly, a pressure- sensitive tip of a stylus is, optionally, used to determine a pressure of the stylus on the touch- sensitive surface. Alternatively, the size of the contact area detected on the touch-sensitive surface and/or changes thereto, the capacitance of the touch-sensitive surface proximate to the contact and/or changes thereto, and/or the resistance of the touch-sensitive surface proximate to the contact and/or changes thereto are, optionally, used as a substitute for the force or pressure of the contact on the touch-sensitive surface. In some implementations, the substitute measurements for contact force or pressure are used directly to determine whether an intensity threshold has been exceeded (e.g., the intensity threshold is described in units corresponding to the substitute measurements). In some implementations, the substitute measurements for contact force or pressure are converted to an estimated force or pressure, and the estimated force or pressure is used to determine whether an intensity threshold has been exceeded (e.g., the intensity threshold is a pressure threshold measured in units of pressure). Using the intensity of a contact as an attribute of a user input allows for user access to additional device functionality that may otherwise not be accessible by the user on a reduced-size device with limited real estate for displaying affordances (e.g., on a touch- sensitive display) and/or receiving user input (e.g., via a touch-sensitive display, a touch- sensitive surface, or a physical/mechanical control such as a knob or a button). [0046] As used in the specification and claims, the term“tactile output” refers to physical displacement of a device relative to a previous position of the device, physical displacement of a component (e.g., a touch-sensitive surface) of a device relative to another component (e.g., housing) of the device, or displacement of the component relative to a center of mass of the device that will be detected by a user with the user’s sense of touch. For example, in situations where the device or the component of the device is in contact with a surface of a user that is sensitive to touch (e.g., a finger, palm, or other part of a user’s hand), the tactile output generated by the physical displacement will be interpreted by the user as a tactile sensation corresponding to a perceived change in physical characteristics of the device or the component of the device. For example, movement of a touch-sensitive surface (e.g., a touch- sensitive display or trackpad) is, optionally, interpreted by the user as a“down click” or“up click” of a physical actuator button. In some cases, a user will feel a tactile sensation such as an“down click” or“up click” even when there is no movement of a physical actuator button associated with the touch-sensitive surface that is physically pressed (e.g., displaced) by the user’s movements. As another example, movement of the touch-sensitive surface is, optionally, interpreted or sensed by the user as“roughness” of the touch-sensitive surface, even when there is no change in smoothness of the touch-sensitive surface. While such interpretations of touch by a user will be subject to the individualized sensory perceptions of the user, there are many sensory perceptions of touch that are common to a large majority of users. Thus, when a tactile output is described as corresponding to a particular sensory perception of a user (e.g., an“up click,” a“down click,”“roughness”), unless otherwise stated, the generated tactile output corresponds to physical displacement of the device or a component thereof that will generate the described sensory perception for a typical (or average) user.
[0047] It should be appreciated that device 200 is only one example of a portable multifunction device, and that device 200 optionally has more or fewer components than shown, optionally combines two or more components, or optionally has a different configuration or arrangement of the components. The various components shown in FIG. 2A are implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both hardware and software, including one or more signal processing and/or application-specific integrated circuits.
[0048] Memory 202 includes one or more computer-readable storage mediums. The computer-readable storage mediums are, for example, tangible and non-transitory. Memory 202 includes high-speed random access memory and also includes non-volatile memory, such as one or more magnetic disk storage devices, flash memory devices, or other non-volatile solid-state memory devices. Memory controller 222 controls access to memory 202 by other components of device 200.
[0049] In some examples, a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium of memory 202 is used to store instructions (e.g., for performing aspects of processes described below) for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device, such as a computer-based system, processor-containing system, or other system that can fetch the instructions from the instruction execution system, apparatus, or device and execute the instructions. In other examples, the instructions (e.g., for performing aspects of the processes described below) are stored on a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium (not shown) of the server system 108 or are divided between the non-transitory computer-readable storage medium of memory 202 and the non-transitory computer-readable storage medium of server system 108.
[0050] Peripherals interface 218 is used to couple input and output peripherals of the device to CPU 220 and memory 202. The one or more processors 220 run or execute various software programs and/or sets of instructions stored in memory 202 to perform various functions for device 200 and to process data. In some embodiments, peripherals interface 218, CPU 220, and memory controller 222 are implemented on a single chip, such as chip 204. In some other embodiments, they are implemented on separate chips.
[0051] RF (radio frequency) circuitry 208 receives and sends RF signals, also called electromagnetic signals. RF circuitry 208 converts electrical signals to/from electromagnetic signals and communicates with communications networks and other communications devices via the electromagnetic signals. RF circuitry 208 optionally includes well-known circuitry for performing these functions, including but not limited to an antenna system, an RF transceiver, one or more amplifiers, a tuner, one or more oscillators, a digital signal processor, a CODEC chipset, a subscriber identity module (SIM) card, memory, and so forth. RF circuitry 208 optionally communicates with networks, such as the Internet, also referred to as the World Wide Web (WWW), an intranet and/or a wireless network, such as a cellular telephone network, a wireless local area network (LAN) and/or a metropolitan area network (MAN), and other devices by wireless communication. The RF circuitry 208 optionally includes well-known circuitry for detecting near field communication (NFC) fields, such as by a short-range communication radio. The wireless communication optionally uses any of a plurality of communications standards, protocols, and technologies, including but not limited to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), high-speed uplink packet access (HSUPA), Evolution, Data-Only (EV-DO), HSPA, HSPA+, Dual-Cell HSPA (DC-HSPDA), long term evolution (LTE), near field communication (NFC), wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA), code division multiple access (CDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA), Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy (BTLE), Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) (e.g., IEEE 802.1 la, IEEE 802.1 lb, IEEE 802.1 lg, IEEE 802.1 ln, and/or IEEE 802.1 lac), voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Wi-MAX, a protocol for e mail (e.g., Internet message access protocol (IMAP) and/or post office protocol (POP)), instant messaging (e.g., extensible messaging and presence protocol (XMPP), Session Initiation Protocol for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions (SIMPLE), Instant Messaging and Presence Service (IMPS)), and/or Short Message Service (SMS), or any other suitable communication protocol, including communication protocols not yet developed as of the filing date of this document.
[0052] Audio circuitry 210, speaker 211, and microphone 213 provide an audio interface between a user and device 200. Audio circuitry 210 receives audio data from peripherals interface 218, converts the audio data to an electrical signal, and transmits the electrical signal to speaker 211. Speaker 211 converts the electrical signal to human-audible sound waves. Audio circuitry 210 also receives electrical signals converted by microphone 213 from sound waves. Audio circuitry 210 converts the electrical signal to audio data and transmits the audio data to peripherals interface 218 for processing. Audio data are retrieved from and/or transmitted to memory 202 and/or RF circuitry 208 by peripherals interface 218. In some embodiments, audio circuitry 210 also includes a headset jack (e.g., 312, FIG. 3). The headset jack provides an interface between audio circuitry 210 and removable audio input/output peripherals, such as output-only headphones or a headset with both output (e.g., a headphone for one or both ears) and input (e.g., a microphone).
[0053] I/O subsystem 206 couples input/output peripherals on device 200, such as touch screen 212 and other input control devices 216, to peripherals interface 218. I/O subsystem 206 optionally includes display controller 256, optical sensor controller 258, intensity sensor controller 259, haptic feedback controller 261, and one or more input controllers 260 for other input or control devices. The one or more input controllers 260 receive/send electrical signals from/to other input control devices 216. The other input control devices 216 optionally include physical buttons (e.g., push buttons, rocker buttons, etc.), dials, slider switches, joysticks, click wheels, and so forth. In some alternate embodiments, input controller(s) 260 are, optionally, coupled to any (or none) of the following: a keyboard, an infrared port, a USB port, and a pointer device such as a mouse. The one or more buttons (e.g., 308, FIG. 3) optionally include an up/down button for volume control of speaker 211 and/or microphone 213. The one or more buttons optionally include a push button (e.g., 306, FIG. 3).
[0054] A quick press of the push button disengages a lock of touch screen 212 or begin a process that uses gestures on the touch screen to unlock the device, as described in U.S. Patent Application 11/322,549,“Unlocking a Device by Performing Gestures on an Unlock Image,” filed December 23, 2005, U.S. Pat. No. 7,657,849, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. A longer press of the push button (e.g., 306) turns power to device 200 on or off. The user is able to customize a functionality of one or more of the buttons. Touch screen 212 is used to implement virtual or soft buttons and one or more soft keyboards.
[0055] Touch-sensitive display 212 provides an input interface and an output interface between the device and a user. Display controller 256 receives and/or sends electrical signals from/to touch screen 212. Touch screen 212 displays visual output to the user. The visual output includes graphics, text, icons, video, and any combination thereof (collectively termed “graphics”). In some embodiments, some or all of the visual output correspond to user- interface objects.
[0056] Touch screen 212 has a touch-sensitive surface, sensor, or set of sensors that accepts input from the user based on haptic and/or tactile contact. Touch screen 212 and display controller 256 (along with any associated modules and/or sets of instructions in memory 202) detect contact (and any movement or breaking of the contact) on touch screen 212 and convert the detected contact into interaction with user-interface objects (e.g., one or more soft keys, icons, web pages, or images) that are displayed on touch screen 212. In an exemplary embodiment, a point of contact between touch screen 212 and the user corresponds to a finger of the user. [0057] Touch screen 212 uses LCD (liquid crystal display) technology, LPD (light emitting polymer display) technology, or LED (light emitting diode) technology, although other display technologies may be used in other embodiments. Touch screen 212 and display controller 256 detect contact and any movement or breaking thereof using any of a plurality of touch sensing technologies now known or later developed, including but not limited to capacitive, resistive, infrared, and surface acoustic wave technologies, as well as other proximity sensor arrays or other elements for determining one or more points of contact with touch screen 212. In an exemplary embodiment, projected mutual capacitance sensing technology is used, such as that found in the iPhone® and iPod Touch® from Apple Inc. of Cupertino, California.
[0058] A touch-sensitive display in some embodiments of touch screen 212 is analogous to the multi-touch sensitive touchpads described in the following U.S. Patents: 6,323,846 (Westerman et al), 6,570,557 (Westerman et al.), and/or 6,677,932 (Westerman), and/or U.S. Patent Publication 2002/0015024A1, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. However, touch screen 212 displays visual output from device 200, whereas touch- sensitive touchpads do not provide visual output.
[0059] A touch-sensitive display in some embodiments of touch screen 212 is as described in the following applications: (1) U.S. Patent Application No. 11/381,313, “Multipoint Touch Surface Controller,” filed May 2, 2006; (2) U.S. Patent Application No. 10/840,862,“Multipoint Touchscreen,” filed May 6, 2004; (3) U.S. Patent Application No. 10/903,964,“Gestures For Touch Sensitive Input Devices,” filed July 30, 2004; (4) U.S. Patent Application No. 11/048,264,“Gestures For Touch Sensitive Input Devices,” filed January 31, 2005; (5) U.S. Patent Application No. 11/038,590,“Mode-Based Graphical User Interfaces For Touch Sensitive Input Devices,” filed January 18, 2005; (6) U.S. Patent Application No. 11/228,758,“Virtual Input Device Placement On A Touch Screen User Interface,” filed September 16, 2005; (7) U.S. Patent Application No. 11/228,700,“Operation Of A Computer With A Touch Screen Interface,” filed September 16, 2005; (8) U.S. Patent Application No. 11/228,737,“Activating Virtual Keys Of A Touch-Screen Virtual
Keyboard,” filed September 16, 2005; and (9) U.S. Patent Application No. 11/367,749, “Multi-Functional Hand-Held Device,” filed March 3, 2006. All of these applications are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. [0060] Touch screen 212 has, for example, a video resolution in excess of 100 dpi. In some embodiments, the touch screen has a video resolution of approximately 160 dpi. The user makes contact with touch screen 212 using any suitable object or appendage, such as a stylus, a finger, and so forth. In some embodiments, the user interface is designed to work primarily with finger-based contacts and gestures, which can be less precise than stylus-based input due to the larger area of contact of a finger on the touch screen. In some embodiments, the device translates the rough finger-based input into a precise pointer/cursor position or command for performing the actions desired by the user.
[0061] In some embodiments, in addition to the touch screen, device 200 includes a touchpad (not shown) for activating or deactivating particular functions. In some
embodiments, the touchpad is a touch-sensitive area of the device that, unlike the touch screen, does not display visual output. The touchpad is a touch-sensitive surface that is separate from touch screen 212 or an extension of the touch-sensitive surface formed by the touch screen.
[0062] Device 200 also includes power system 262 for powering the various components. Power system 262 includes a power management system, one or more power sources (e.g., battery, alternating current (AC)), a recharging system, a power failure detection circuit, a power converter or inverter, a power status indicator (e.g., a light-emitting diode (LED)) and any other components associated with the generation, management and distribution of power in portable devices.
[0063] Device 200 also includes one or more optical sensors 264. FIG. 2A shows an optical sensor coupled to optical sensor controller 258 in I/O subsystem 206. Optical sensor 264 includes charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) phototransistors. Optical sensor 264 receives light from the environment, projected through one or more lenses, and converts the light to data representing an image. In conjunction with imaging module 243 (also called a camera module), optical sensor 264 captures still images or video. In some embodiments, an optical sensor is located on the back of device 200, opposite touch screen display 212 on the front of the device so that the touch screen display is used as a viewfinder for still and/or video image acquisition. In some embodiments, an optical sensor is located on the front of the device so that the user’s image is obtained for video conferencing while the user views the other video conference participants on the touch screen display. In some embodiments, the position of optical sensor 264 can be changed by the user (e.g., by rotating the lens and the sensor in the device housing) so that a single optical sensor 264 is used along with the touch screen display for both video conferencing and still and/or video image acquisition.
[0064] Device 200 optionally also includes one or more contact intensity sensors 265. FIG. 2A shows a contact intensity sensor coupled to intensity sensor controller 259 in I/O subsystem 206. Contact intensity sensor 265 optionally includes one or more piezoresistive strain gauges, capacitive force sensors, electric force sensors, piezoelectric force sensors, optical force sensors, capacitive touch-sensitive surfaces, or other intensity sensors (e.g., sensors used to measure the force (or pressure) of a contact on a touch-sensitive surface). Contact intensity sensor 265 receives contact intensity information (e.g., pressure information or a proxy for pressure information) from the environment. In some embodiments, at least one contact intensity sensor is collocated with, or proximate to, a touch-sensitive surface (e.g., touch-sensitive display system 212). In some embodiments, at least one contact intensity sensor is located on the back of device 200, opposite touch screen display 212, which is located on the front of device 200.
[0065] Device 200 also includes one or more proximity sensors 266. FIG. 2A shows proximity sensor 266 coupled to peripherals interface 218. Alternately, proximity sensor 266 is coupled to input controller 260 in I/O subsystem 206. Proximity sensor 266 is performed as described in U.S. Patent Application Nos. 11/241,839,“Proximity Detector In Handheld Device”; 11/240,788,“Proximity Detector In Handheld Device”; 11/620,702,“Using Ambient Light Sensor To Augment Proximity Sensor Output”; 11/586,862,“Automated Response To And Sensing Of User Activity In Portable Devices”; and 11/638,251,“Methods And Systems For Automatic Configuration Of Peripherals,” which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. In some embodiments, the proximity sensor turns off and disables touch screen 212 when the multifunction device is placed near the user’s ear (e.g., when the user is making a phone call).
[0066] Device 200 optionally also includes one or more tactile output generators 267.
FIG. 2A shows a tactile output generator coupled to haptic feedback controller 261 in I/O subsystem 206. Tactile output generator 267 optionally includes one or more electroacoustic devices such as speakers or other audio components and/or electromechanical devices that convert energy into linear motion such as a motor, solenoid, electroactive polymer, piezoelectric actuator, electrostatic actuator, or other tactile output generating component (e.g., a component that converts electrical signals into tactile outputs on the device). Contact intensity sensor 265 receives tactile feedback generation instructions from haptic feedback module 233 and generates tactile outputs on device 200 that are capable of being sensed by a user of device 200. In some embodiments, at least one tactile output generator is collocated with, or proximate to, a touch-sensitive surface (e.g., touch-sensitive display system 212) and, optionally, generates a tactile output by moving the touch-sensitive surface vertically (e.g., in/out of a surface of device 200) or laterally (e.g., back and forth in the same plane as a surface of device 200). In some embodiments, at least one tactile output generator sensor is located on the back of device 200, opposite touch screen display 212, which is located on the front of device 200.
[0067] Device 200 also includes one or more accelerometers 268. FIG. 2A shows accelerometer 268 coupled to peripherals interface 218. Alternately, accelerometer 268 is coupled to an input controller 260 in I/O subsystem 206. Accelerometer 268 performs, for example, as described in U.S. Patent Publication No. 20050190059,“Acceleration-based Theft Detection System for Portable Electronic Devices,” and U.S. Patent Publication No. 20060017692,“Methods And Apparatuses For Operating A Portable Device Based On An Accelerometer,” both of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. In some embodiments, information is displayed on the touch screen display in a portrait view or a landscape view based on an analysis of data received from the one or more accelerometers. Device 200 optionally includes, in addition to accelerometer(s) 268, a magnetometer (not shown) and a GPS (or GLONASS or other global navigation system) receiver (not shown) for obtaining information concerning the location and orientation (e.g., portrait or landscape) of device 200.
[0068] In some embodiments, the software components stored in memory 202 include operating system 226, communication module (or set of instructions) 228, contact/motion module (or set of instructions) 230, graphics module (or set of instructions) 232, text input module (or set of instructions) 234, Global Positioning System (GPS) module (or set of instructions) 235, Digital Assistant Client Module 229, and applications (or sets of instructions) 236. Further, memory 202 stores data and models, such as user data and models 231. Furthermore, in some embodiments, memory 202 (FIG. 2A) or 470 (FIG. 4) stores device/global internal state 257, as shown in FIGS. 2A and 4. Device/global internal state 257 includes one or more of: active application state, indicating which applications, if any, are currently active; display state, indicating what applications, views or other information occupy various regions of touch screen display 212; sensor state, including information obtained from the device’s various sensors and input control devices 216; and location information concerning the device’s location and/or attitude.
[0069] Operating system 226 (e g., Darwin, RTXC, LINUX, UNIX, OS X, iOS, WINDOWS, or an embedded operating system such as VxWorks) includes various software components and/or drivers for controlling and managing general system tasks (e.g., memory management, storage device control, power management, etc.) and facilitates communication between various hardware and software components.
[0070] Communication module 228 facilitates communication with other devices over one or more external ports 224 and also includes various software components for handling data received by RF circuitry 208 and/or external port 224. External port 224 (e.g., Universal Serial Bus (USB), FIREWIRE, etc.) is adapted for coupling directly to other devices or indirectly over a network (e.g., the Internet, wireless LAN, etc.). In some embodiments, the external port is a multi-pin (e.g., 30-pin) connector that is the same as, or similar to and/or compatible with, the 30-pin connector used on iPod® (trademark of Apple Inc.) devices.
[0071] Contact/motion module 230 optionally detects contact with touch screen 212 (in conjunction with display controller 256) and other touch-sensitive devices (e.g., a touchpad or physical click wheel). Contact/motion module 230 includes various software components for performing various operations related to detection of contact, such as determining if contact has occurred (e.g., detecting a finger-down event), determining an intensity of the contact (e.g., the force or pressure of the contact or a substitute for the force or pressure of the contact), determining if there is movement of the contact and tracking the movement across the touch-sensitive surface (e.g., detecting one or more finger-dragging events), and determining if the contact has ceased (e.g., detecting a finger-up event or a break in contact). Contact/motion module 230 receives contact data from the touch-sensitive surface.
Determining movement of the point of contact, which is represented by a series of contact data, optionally includes determining speed (magnitude), velocity (magnitude and direction), and/or an acceleration (a change in magnitude and/or direction) of the point of contact. These operations are, optionally, applied to single contacts (e.g., one finger contacts) or to multiple simultaneous contacts (e.g.,“multitouch’Vmultiple finger contacts). In some embodiments, contact/motion module 230 and display controller 256 detect contact on a touchpad. [0072] In some embodiments, contact/motion module 230 uses a set of one or more intensity thresholds to determine whether an operation has been performed by a user (e.g., to determine whether a user has“clicked” on an icon). In some embodiments, at least a subset of the intensity thresholds are determined in accordance with software parameters (e.g., the intensity thresholds are not determined by the activation thresholds of particular physical actuators and can be adjusted without changing the physical hardware of device 200). For example, a mouse“click” threshold of a trackpad or touch screen display can be set to any of a large range of predefined threshold values without changing the trackpad or touch screen display hardware. Additionally, in some implementations, a user of the device is provided with software settings for adjusting one or more of the set of intensity thresholds (e.g., by adjusting individual intensity thresholds and/or by adjusting a plurality of intensity thresholds at once with a system-level click“intensity” parameter).
[0073] Contact/motion module 230 optionally detects a gesture input by a user. Different gestures on the touch-sensitive surface have different contact patterns (e.g., different motions, timings, and/or intensities of detected contacts). Thus, a gesture is, optionally, detected by detecting a particular contact pattern. For example, detecting a finger tap gesture includes detecting a finger-down event followed by detecting a finger-up (liftoff) event at the same position (or substantially the same position) as the finger-down event (e.g., at the position of an icon). As another example, detecting a finger swipe gesture on the touch-sensitive surface includes detecting a finger-down event followed by detecting one or more finger-dragging events, and subsequently followed by detecting a finger-up (liftoff) event.
[0074] Graphics module 232 includes various known software components for rendering and displaying graphics on touch screen 212 or other display, including components for changing the visual impact (e.g., brightness, transparency, saturation, contrast, or other visual property) of graphics that are displayed. As used herein, the term“graphics” includes any object that can be displayed to a user, including , without limitation, text, web pages, icons (such as user-interface objects including soft keys), digital images, videos, animations, and the like.
[0075] In some embodiments, graphics module 232 stores data representing graphics to be used. Each graphic is, optionally, assigned a corresponding code. Graphics module 232 receives, from applications etc., one or more codes specifying graphics to be displayed along with, if necessary, coordinate data and other graphic property data, and then generates screen image data to output to display controller 256.
[0076] Haptic feedback module 233 includes various software components for generating instructions used by tactile output generator(s) 267 to produce tactile outputs at one or more locations on device 200 in response to user interactions with device 200.
[0077] Text input module 234, which is, in some examples, a component of graphics module 232, provides soft keyboards for entering text in various applications (e.g., contacts 237, email 240, IM 241, browser 247, and any other application that needs text input).
[0078] GPS module 235 determines the location of the device and provides this information for use in various applications (e.g., to telephone 238 for use in location-based dialing; to camera 243 as picture/video metadata; and to applications that provide location- based services such as weather widgets, local yellow page widgets, and map/navigation widgets).
[0079] Digital assistant client module 229 includes various client-side digital assistant instructions to provide the client-side functionalities of the digital assistant. For example, digital assistant client module 229 is capable of accepting voice input (e.g., speech input), text input, touch input, and/or gestural input through various user interfaces (e.g., microphone 213, accelerometer(s) 268, touch-sensitive display system 212, optical sensor(s) 229, other input control devices 216, etc.) of portable multifunction device 200. Digital assistant client module 229 is also capable of providing output in audio (e.g., speech output), visual, and/or tactile forms through various output interfaces (e.g., speaker 211, touch-sensitive display system 212, tactile output generator(s) 267, etc.) of portable multifunction device 200. For example, output is provided as voice, sound, alerts, text messages, menus, graphics, videos, animations, vibrations, and/or combinations of two or more of the above. During operation, digital assistant client module 229 communicates with DA server 106 using RF circuitry 208.
[0080] User data and models 231 include various data associated with the user (e.g., user- specific vocabulary data, user preference data, user-specified name pronunciations, data from the user’s electronic address book, to-do lists, shopping lists, etc.) to provide the client-side functionalities of the digital assistant. Further, user data and models 231 include various models (e.g., speech recognition models, statistical language models, natural language processing models, ontology, task flow models, service models, etc.) for processing user input and determining user intent.
[0081] In some examples, digital assistant client module 229 utilizes the various sensors, subsystems, and peripheral devices of portable multifunction device 200 to gather additional information from the surrounding environment of the portable multifunction device 200 to establish a context associated with a user, the current user interaction, and/or the current user input. In some examples, digital assistant client module 229 provides the contextual information or a subset thereof with the user input to DA server 106 to help infer the user’s intent. In some examples, the digital assistant also uses the contextual information to determine how to prepare and deliver outputs to the user. Contextual information is referred to as context data.
[0082] In some examples, the contextual information that accompanies the user input includes sensor information, e.g., lighting, ambient noise, ambient temperature, images or videos of the surrounding environment, etc. In some examples, the contextual information can also include the physical state of the device, e.g., device orientation, device location, device temperature, power level, speed, acceleration, motion patterns, cellular signals strength, etc. In some examples, information related to the software state of DA server 106, e.g., running processes, installed programs, past and present network activities, background services, error logs, resources usage, etc., and of portable multifunction device 200 is provided to DA server 106 as contextual information associated with a user input.
[0083] In some examples, the digital assistant client module 229 selectively provides information (e.g., user data 231) stored on the portable multifunction device 200 in response to requests from DA server 106. In some examples, digital assistant client module 229 also elicits additional input from the user via a natural language dialogue or other user interfaces upon request by DA server 106. Digital assistant client module 229 passes the additional input to DA server 106 to help DA server 106 in intent deduction and/or fulfillment of the user’s intent expressed in the user request.
[0084] A more detailed description of a digital assistant is described below with reference to FIGS. 7A-7C. It should be recognized that digital assistant client module 229 can include any number of the sub-modules of digital assistant module 726 described below. [0085] Applications 236 include the following modules (or sets of instructions), or a subset or superset thereof:
• Contacts module 237 (sometimes called an address book or contact list);
• Telephone module 238;
• Video conference module 239;
• E-mail client module 240;
• Instant messaging (IM) module 241 ;
• Workout support module 242;
• Camera module 243 for still and/or video images;
• Image management module 244;
• Video player module;
• Music player module;
• Browser module 247;
• Calendar module 248;
• Widget modules 249, which includes, in some examples, one or more of: weather widget 249-1, stocks widget 249-2, calculator widget 249-3, alarm clock widget 249- 4, dictionary widget 249-5, and other widgets obtained by the user, as well as user- created widgets 249-6;
• Widget creator module 250 for making user-created widgets 249-6;
• Search module 251 ;
• Video and music player module 252, which merges video player module and music player module;
• Notes module 253; Map module 254; and/or
• Online video module 255.
[0086] Examples of other applications 236 that are stored in memory 202 include other word processing applications, other image editing applications, drawing applications, presentation applications, JAVA-enabled applications, encryption, digital rights management, voice recognition, and voice replication.
[0087] In conjunction with touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and text input module 234, contacts module 237 are used to manage an address book or contact list (e.g., stored in application internal state 292 of contacts module 237 in memory 202 or memory 470), including: adding name(s) to the address book; deleting name(s) from the address book; associating telephone number(s), e- mail address(es), physical address(es) or other information with a name; associating an image with a name; categorizing and sorting names; providing telephone numbers or e-mail addresses to initiate and/or facilitate communications by telephone 238, video conference module 239, e-mail 240, or IM 241; and so forth.
[0088] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, audio circuitry 210, speaker 211, microphone 213, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and text input module 234, telephone module 238 are used to enter a sequence of characters corresponding to a telephone number, access one or more telephone numbers in contacts module 237, modify a telephone number that has been entered, dial a respective telephone number, conduct a conversation, and disconnect or hang up when the conversation is completed. As noted above, the wireless communication uses any of a plurality of communications standards, protocols, and technologies.
[0089] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, audio circuitry 210, speaker 211, microphone 213, touch screen 212, display controller 256, optical sensor 264, optical sensor controller 258, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, text input module 234, contacts module 237, and telephone module 238, video conference module 239 includes executable instructions to initiate, conduct, and terminate a video conference between a user and one or more other participants in accordance with user instructions. [0090] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and text input module 234, e-mail client module 240 includes executable instructions to create, send, receive, and manage e-mail in response to user instructions. In conjunction with image management module 244, e-mail client module 240 makes it very easy to create and send e-mails with still or video images taken with camera module 243.
[0091] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and text input module 234, the instant messaging module 241 includes executable instructions to enter a sequence of characters corresponding to an instant message, to modify previously entered characters, to transmit a respective instant message (for example, using a Short Message Service (SMS) or
Multimedia Message Service (MMS) protocol for telephony-based instant messages or using XMPP, SIMPLE, or IMPS for Internet-based instant messages), to receive instant messages, and to view received instant messages. In some embodiments, transmitted and/or received instant messages include graphics, photos, audio files, video files and/or other attachments as are supported in an MMS and/or an Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS). As used herein, “instant messaging” refers to both telephony-based messages (e.g., messages sent using SMS or MMS) and Internet-based messages (e.g., messages sent using XMPP, SIMPLE, or IMPS).
[0092] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, text input module 234, GPS module 235, map module 254, and music player module, workout support module 242 includes executable instructions to create workouts (e.g., with time, distance, and/or calorie burning goals);
communicate with workout sensors (sports devices); receive workout sensor data; calibrate sensors used to monitor a workout; select and play music for a workout; and display, store, and transmit workout data.
[0093] In conjunction with touch screen 212, display controller 256, optical sensor(s)
264, optical sensor controller 258, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and image management module 244, camera module 243 includes executable instructions to capture still images or video (including a video stream) and store them into memory 202, modify characteristics of a still image or video, or delete a still image or video from memory 202. [0094] In conjunction with touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, text input module 234, and camera module 243, image management module 244 includes executable instructions to arrange, modify (e.g., edit), or otherwise manipulate, label, delete, present (e.g., in a digital slide show or album), and store still and/or video images.
[0095] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and text input module 234, browser module 247 includes executable instructions to browse the Internet in accordance with user instructions, including searching, linking to, receiving, and displaying web pages or portions thereof, as well as attachments and other files linked to web pages.
[0096] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, text input module 234, e-mail client module 240, and browser module 247, calendar module 248 includes executable instructions to create, display, modify, and store calendars and data associated with calendars (e.g., calendar entries, to-do lists, etc.) in accordance with user instructions.
[0097] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, text input module 234, and browser module 247, widget modules 249 are mini-applications that can be downloaded and used by a user (e.g., weather widget 249-1, stocks widget 249-2, calculator widget 249-3, alarm clock widget 249-4, and dictionary widget 249-5) or created by the user (e.g., user-created widget 249-6). In some embodiments, a widget includes an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) file, a CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) file, and a JavaScript file. In some embodiments, a widget includes an XML (Extensible Markup Language) file and a JavaScript file (e.g., Yahoo! Widgets).
[0098] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, text input module 234, and browser module 247, the widget creator module 250 are used by a user to create widgets (e.g., turning a user-specified portion of a web page into a widget).
[0099] In conjunction with touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and text input module 234, search module 251 includes executable instructions to search for text, music, sound, image, video, and/or other files in memory 202 that match one or more search criteria (e.g., one or more user-specified search terms) in accordance with user instructions.
[0100] In conjunction with touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, audio circuitry 210, speaker 211, RF circuitry 208, and browser module 247, video and music player module 252 includes executable instructions that allow the user to download and play back recorded music and other sound files stored in one or more file formats, such as MP3 or AAC files, and executable instructions to display, present, or otherwise play back videos (e.g., on touch screen 212 or on an external, connected display via external port 224). In some embodiments, device 200 optionally includes the functionality of an MP3 player, such as an iPod (trademark of Apple Inc.).
[0101] In conjunction with touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, and text input module 234, notes module 253 includes executable instructions to create and manage notes, to-do lists, and the like in accordance with user instructions.
[0102] In conjunction with RF circuitry 208, touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, text input module 234, GPS module 235, and browser module 247, map module 254 are used to receive, display, modify, and store maps and data associated with maps (e.g., driving directions, data on stores and other points of interest at or near a particular location, and other location-based data) in accordance with user instructions.
[0103] In conjunction with touch screen 212, display controller 256, contact/motion module 230, graphics module 232, audio circuitry 210, speaker 211, RF circuitry 208, text input module 234, e-mail client module 240, and browser module 247, online video module 255 includes instructions that allow the user to access, browse, receive (e.g., by streaming and/or download), play back (e.g., on the touch screen or on an external, connected display via external port 224), send an e-mail with a link to a particular online video, and otherwise manage online videos in one or more file formats, such as H.264. In some embodiments, instant messaging module 241, rather than e-mail client module 240, is used to send a link to a particular online video. Additional description of the online video application can be found in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/936,562,“Portable Multifunction Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Playing Online Videos,” filed June 20, 2007, and U.S. Patent Application No. 11/968,067,“Portable Multifunction Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Playing Online Videos,” filed December 31, 2007, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.
[0104] Each of the above-identified modules and applications corresponds to a set of executable instructions for performing one or more functions described above and the methods described in this application (e.g., the computer-implemented methods and other information processing methods described herein). These modules (e.g., sets of instructions) need not be implemented as separate software programs, procedures, or modules, and thus various subsets of these modules can be combined or otherwise rearranged in various embodiments. For example, video player module can be combined with music player module into a single module (e.g., video and music player module 252, FIG. 2A). In some embodiments, memory 202 stores a subset of the modules and data structures identified above. Furthermore, memory 202 stores additional modules and data structures not described above.
[0105] In some embodiments, device 200 is a device where operation of a predefined set of functions on the device is performed exclusively through a touch screen and/or a touchpad. By using a touch screen and/or a touchpad as the primary input control device for operation of device 200, the number of physical input control devices (such as push buttons, dials, and the like) on device 200 is reduced.
[0106] The predefined set of functions that are performed exclusively through a touch screen and/or a touchpad optionally include navigation between user interfaces. In some embodiments, the touchpad, when touched by the user, navigates device 200 to a main, home, or root menu from any user interface that is displayed on device 200. In such embodiments, a “menu button” is implemented using a touchpad. In some other embodiments, the menu button is a physical push button or other physical input control device instead of a touchpad.
[0107] FIG. 2B is a block diagram illustrating exemplary components for event handling in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, memory 202 (FIG. 2A) or 470 (FIG. 4) includes event sorter 270 (e.g., in operating system 226) and a respective application 236-1 (e.g., any of the aforementioned applications 237-251, 255, 480-490).
[0108] Event sorter 270 receives event information and determines the application 236-1 and application view 291 of application 236-1 to which to deliver the event information. Event sorter 270 includes event monitor 271 and event dispatcher module 274. In some embodiments, application 236-1 includes application internal state 292, which indicates the current application view(s) displayed on touch-sensitive display 212 when the application is active or executing. In some embodiments, device/global internal state 257 is used by event sorter 270 to determine which application(s) is (are) currently active, and application internal state 292 is used by event sorter 270 to determine application views 291 to which to deliver event information.
[0109] In some embodiments, application internal state 292 includes additional information, such as one or more of: resume information to be used when application 236-1 resumes execution, user interface state information that indicates information being displayed or that is ready for display by application 236-1, a state queue for enabling the user to go back to a prior state or view of application 236-1, and a redo/undo queue of previous actions taken by the user.
[0110] Event monitor 271 receives event information from peripherals interface 218. Event information includes information about a sub-event (e.g., a user touch on touch- sensitive display 212, as part of a multi-touch gesture). Peripherals interface 218 transmits information it receives from I/O subsystem 206 or a sensor, such as proximity sensor 266, accelerometer(s) 268, and/or microphone 213 (through audio circuitry 210). Information that peripherals interface 218 receives from I/O subsystem 206 includes information from touch- sensitive display 212 or a touch-sensitive surface.
[0111] In some embodiments, event monitor 271 sends requests to the peripherals interface 218 at predetermined intervals. In response, peripherals interface 218 transmits event information. In other embodiments, peripherals interface 218 transmits event information only when there is a significant event (e.g., receiving an input above a predetermined noise threshold and/or for more than a predetermined duration).
[0112] In some embodiments, event sorter 270 also includes a hit view determination module 272 and/or an active event recognizer determination module 273.
[0113] Hit view determination module 272 provides software procedures for determining where a sub-event has taken place within one or more views when touch-sensitive display 212 displays more than one view. Views are made up of controls and other elements that a user can see on the display. [0114] Another aspect of the user interface associated with an application is a set of views, sometimes herein called application views or user interface windows, in which information is displayed and touch-based gestures occur. The application views (of a respective application) in which a touch is detected correspond to programmatic levels within a programmatic or view hierarchy of the application. For example, the lowest level view in which a touch is detected is called the hit view, and the set of events that are recognized as proper inputs is determined based, at least in part, on the hit view of the initial touch that begins a touch-based gesture.
[0115] Hit view determination module 272 receives information related to sub events of a touch-based gesture. When an application has multiple views organized in a hierarchy, hit view determination module 272 identifies a hit view as the lowest view in the hierarchy which should handle the sub-event. In most circumstances, the hit view is the lowest level view in which an initiating sub-event occurs (e.g., the first sub-event in the sequence of sub events that form an event or potential event). Once the hit view is identified by the hit view determination module 272, the hit view typically receives all sub-events related to the same touch or input source for which it was identified as the hit view.
[0116] Active event recognizer determination module 273 determines which view or views within a view hierarchy should receive a particular sequence of sub-events. In some embodiments, active event recognizer determination module 273 determines that only the hit view should receive a particular sequence of sub-events. In other embodiments, active event recognizer determination module 273 determines that all views that include the physical location of a sub-event are actively involved views, and therefore determines that all actively involved views should receive a particular sequence of sub-events. In other embodiments, even if touch sub-events were entirely confined to the area associated with one particular view, views higher in the hierarchy would still remain as actively involved views.
[0117] Event dispatcher module 274 dispatches the event information to an event recognizer (e.g., event recognizer 280). In embodiments including active event recognizer determination module 273, event dispatcher module 274 delivers the event information to an event recognizer determined by active event recognizer determination module 273. In some embodiments, event dispatcher module 274 stores in an event queue the event information, which is retrieved by a respective event receiver 282. [0118] In some embodiments, operating system 226 includes event sorter 270.
Alternatively, application 236-1 includes event sorter 270. In yet other embodiments, event sorter 270 is a stand-alone module, or a part of another module stored in memory 202, such as contact/motion module 230.
[0119] In some embodiments, application 236-1 includes a plurality of event handlers 290 and one or more application views 291, each of which includes instructions for handling touch events that occur within a respective view of the application’s user interface. Each application view 291 of the application 236-1 includes one or more event recognizers 280. Typically, a respective application view 291 includes a plurality of event recognizers 280. In other embodiments, one or more of event recognizers 280 are part of a separate module, such as a user interface kit (not shown) or a higher level object from which application 236-1 inherits methods and other properties. In some embodiments, a respective event handler 290 includes one or more of: data updater 276, object updater 277, GUI updater 278, and/or event data 279 received from event sorter 270. Event handler 290 utilizes or calls data updater 276, object updater 277, or GUI updater 278 to update the application internal state 292.
Alternatively, one or more of the application views 291 include one or more respective event handlers 290. Also, in some embodiments, one or more of data updater 276, object updater 277, and GUI updater 278 are included in a respective application view 291.
[0120] A respective event recognizer 280 receives event information (e.g., event data 279) from event sorter 270 and identifies an event from the event information. Event recognizer 280 includes event receiver 282 and event comparator 284. In some
embodiments, event recognizer 280 also includes at least a subset of: metadata 283, and event delivery instructions 288 (which include sub-event delivery instructions).
[0121] Event receiver 282 receives event information from event sorter 270. The event information includes information about a sub-event, for example, a touch or a touch movement. Depending on the sub-event, the event information also includes additional information, such as location of the sub-event. When the sub-event concerns motion of a touch, the event information also includes speed and direction of the sub-event. In some embodiments, events include rotation of the device from one orientation to another (e.g., from a portrait orientation to a landscape orientation, or vice versa), and the event information includes corresponding information about the current orientation (also called device attitude) of the device. [0122] Event comparator 284 compares the event information to predefined event or sub event definitions and, based on the comparison, determines an event or sub event, or determines or updates the state of an event or sub-event. In some embodiments, event comparator 284 includes event definitions 286. Event definitions 286 contain definitions of events (e.g., predefined sequences of sub-events), for example, event 1 (287-1), event 2 (287- 2), and others. In some embodiments, sub-events in an event (287) include, for example, touch begin, touch end, touch movement, touch cancellation, and multiple touching. In one example, the definition for event 1 (287-1) is a double tap on a displayed object. The double tap, for example, comprises a first touch (touch begin) on the displayed object for a predetermined phase, a first liftoff (touch end) for a predetermined phase, a second touch (touch begin) on the displayed object for a predetermined phase, and a second liftoff (touch end) for a predetermined phase. In another example, the definition for event 2 (287-2) is a dragging on a displayed object. The dragging, for example, comprises a touch (or contact) on the displayed object for a predetermined phase, a movement of the touch across touch- sensitive display 212, and liftoff of the touch (touch end). In some embodiments, the event also includes information for one or more associated event handlers 290.
[0123] In some embodiments, event definition 287 includes a definition of an event for a respective user-interface object. In some embodiments, event comparator 284 performs a hit test to determine which user-interface object is associated with a sub-event. For example, in an application view in which three user-interface objects are displayed on touch-sensitive display 212, when a touch is detected on touch-sensitive display 212, event comparator 284 performs a hit test to determine which of the three user-interface objects is associated with the touch (sub-event). If each displayed object is associated with a respective event handler 290, the event comparator uses the result of the hit test to determine which event handler 290 should be activated. For example, event comparator 284 selects an event handler associated with the sub-event and the object triggering the hit test.
[0124] In some embodiments, the definition for a respective event (287) also includes delayed actions that delay delivery of the event information until after it has been determined whether the sequence of sub-events does or does not correspond to the event recognizer’s event type.
[0125] When a respective event recognizer 280 determines that the series of sub-events do not match any of the events in event definitions 286, the respective event recognizer 280 enters an event impossible, event failed, or event ended state, after which it disregards subsequent sub-events of the touch-based gesture. In this situation, other event recognizers, if any, that remain active for the hit view continue to track and process sub-events of an ongoing touch-based gesture.
[0126] In some embodiments, a respective event recognizer 280 includes metadata 283 with configurable properties, flags, and/or lists that indicate how the event delivery system should perform sub-event delivery to actively involved event recognizers. In some embodiments, metadata 283 includes configurable properties, flags, and/or lists that indicate how event recognizers interact, or are enabled to interact, with one another. In some embodiments, metadata 283 includes configurable properties, flags, and/or lists that indicate whether sub-events are delivered to varying levels in the view or programmatic hierarchy.
[0127] In some embodiments, a respective event recognizer 280 activates event handler 290 associated with an event when one or more particular sub-events of an event are recognized. In some embodiments, a respective event recognizer 280 delivers event information associated with the event to event handler 290. Activating an event handler 290 is distinct from sending (and deferred sending) sub-events to a respective hit view. In some embodiments, event recognizer 280 throws a flag associated with the recognized event, and event handler 290 associated with the flag catches the flag and performs a predefined process.
[0128] In some embodiments, event delivery instructions 288 include sub-event delivery instructions that deliver event information about a sub-event without activating an event handler. Instead, the sub-event delivery instructions deliver event information to event handlers associated with the series of sub-events or to actively involved views. Event handlers associated with the series of sub-events or with actively involved views receive the event information and perform a predetermined process.
[0129] In some embodiments, data updater 276 creates and updates data used in application 236-1. For example, data updater 276 updates the telephone number used in contacts module 237, or stores a video file used in video player module. In some
embodiments, object updater 277 creates and updates objects used in application 236-1. For example, object updater 277 creates a new user-interface object or updates the position of a user-interface object. GUI updater 278 updates the GUI. For example, GUI updater 278 prepares display information and sends it to graphics module 232 for display on a touch- sensitive display. [0130] In some embodiments, event handler(s) 290 includes or has access to data updater 276, object updater 277, and GUI updater 278. In some embodiments, data updater 276, object updater 277, and GUI updater 278 are included in a single module of a respective application 236-1 or application view 291. In other embodiments, they are included in two or more software modules.
[0131] It shall be understood that the foregoing discussion regarding event handling of user touches on touch-sensitive displays also applies to other forms of user inputs to operate multifunction devices 200 with input devices, not all of which are initiated on touch screens. For example, mouse movement and mouse button presses, optionally coordinated with single or multiple keyboard presses or holds; contact movements such as taps, drags, scrolls, etc. on touchpads; pen stylus inputs; movement of the device; oral instructions; detected eye movements; biometric inputs; and/or any combination thereof are optionally utilized as inputs corresponding to sub-events which define an event to be recognized.
[0132] FIG. 3 illustrates a portable multifunction device 200 having a touch screen 212 in accordance with some embodiments. The touch screen optionally displays one or more graphics within user interface (UI) 300. In this embodiment, as well as others described below, a user is enabled to select one or more of the graphics by making a gesture on the graphics, for example, with one or more fingers 302 (not drawn to scale in the figure) or one or more styluses 303 (not drawn to scale in the figure). In some embodiments, selection of one or more graphics occurs when the user breaks contact with the one or more graphics. In some embodiments, the gesture optionally includes one or more taps, one or more swipes (from left to right, right to left, upward and/or downward), and/or a rolling of a finger (from right to left, left to right, upward and/or downward) that has made contact with device 200.
In some implementations or circumstances, inadvertent contact with a graphic does not select the graphic. For example, a swipe gesture that sweeps over an application icon optionally does not select the corresponding application when the gesture corresponding to selection is a tap.
[0133] Device 200 also includes one or more physical buttons, such as“home” or menu button 304. As described previously, menu button 304 is used to navigate to any application 236 in a set of applications that is executed on device 200. Alternatively, in some embodiments, the menu button is implemented as a soft key in a GUI displayed on touch screen 212. [0134] In one embodiment, device 200 includes touch screen 212, menu button 304, push button 306 for powering the device on/off and locking the device, volume adjustment button(s) 308, subscriber identity module (SIM) card slot 310, headset jack 312, and docking/charging external port 224. Push button 306 is, optionally, used to turn the power on/off on the device by depressing the button and holding the button in the depressed state for a predefined time interval; to lock the device by depressing the button and releasing the button before the predefined time interval has elapsed; and/or to unlock the device or initiate an unlock process. In an alternative embodiment, device 200 also accepts verbal input for activation or deactivation of some functions through microphone 213. Device 200 also, optionally, includes one or more contact intensity sensors 265 for detecting intensity of contacts on touch screen 212 and/or one or more tactile output generators 267 for generating tactile outputs for a user of device 200.
[0135] FIG. 4 is a block diagram of an exemplary multifunction device with a display and a touch-sensitive surface in accordance with some embodiments. Device 400 need not be portable. In some embodiments, device 400 is a laptop computer, a desktop computer, a tablet computer, a multimedia player device, a navigation device, an educational device (such as a child’s learning toy), a gaming system, or a control device (e.g., a home or industrial controller). Device 400 typically includes one or more processing units (CPUs) 410, one or more network or other communications interfaces 460, memory 470, and one or more communication buses 420 for interconnecting these components. Communication buses 420 optionally include circuitry (sometimes called a chipset) that interconnects and controls communications between system components. Device 400 includes input/output (I/O) interface 430 comprising display 440, which is typically a touch screen display. I/O interface 430 also optionally includes a keyboard and/or mouse (or other pointing device) 450 and touchpad 455, tactile output generator 457 for generating tactile outputs on device 400 (e.g., similar to tactile output generator(s) 267 described above with reference to FIG. 2A), sensors 459 (e.g., optical, acceleration, proximity, touch-sensitive, and/or contact intensity sensors similar to contact intensity sensor(s) 265 described above with reference to FIG. 2A).
Memory 470 includes high-speed random access memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, DDR RAM, or other random access solid state memory devices; and optionally includes non volatile memory, such as one or more magnetic disk storage devices, optical disk storage devices, flash memory devices, or other non-volatile solid state storage devices. Memory 470 optionally includes one or more storage devices remotely located from CPU(s) 410. In some embodiments, memory 470 stores programs, modules, and data structures analogous to the programs, modules, and data structures stored in memory 202 of portable multifunction device 200 (FIG. 2A), or a subset thereof. Furthermore, memory 470 optionally stores additional programs, modules, and data structures not present in memory 202 of portable multifunction device 200. For example, memory 470 of device 400 optionally stores drawing module 480, presentation module 482, word processing module 484, website creation module 486, disk authoring module 488, and/or spreadsheet module 490, while memory 202 of portable multifunction device 200 (FIG. 2A) optionally does not store these modules.
[0136] Each of the above-identified elements in FIG. 4 is, in some examples, stored in one or more of the previously mentioned memory devices. Each of the above-identified modules corresponds to a set of instructions for performing a function described above. The above-identified modules or programs (e.g., sets of instructions) need not be implemented as separate software programs, procedures, or modules, and thus various subsets of these modules are combined or otherwise rearranged in various embodiments. In some embodiments, memory 470 stores a subset of the modules and data structures identified above. Furthermore, memory 470 stores additional modules and data structures not described above.
[0137] Attention is now directed towards embodiments of user interfaces that can be implemented on, for example, portable multifunction device 200.
[0138] FIG. 5A illustrates an exemplary user interface for a menu of applications on portable multifunction device 200 in accordance with some embodiments. Similar user interfaces are implemented on device 400. In some embodiments, user interface 500 includes the following elements, or a subset or superset thereof:
[0139] Signal strength indicator(s) 502 for wireless communication(s), such as cellular and Wi-Fi signals;
• Time 504;
• Bluetooth indicator 505;
• Battery status indicator 506;
• Tray 508 with icons for frequently used applications, such as: o Icon 516 for telephone module 238, labeled“Phone,” which optionally includes an indicator 514 of the number of missed calls or voicemail messages;
o Icon 518 for e-mail client module 240, labeled“Mail,” which optionally
includes an indicator 510 of the number of unread e-mails;
o Icon 520 for browser module 247, labeled“Browser;” and
o Icon 522 for video and music player module 252, also referred to as iPod
(trademark of Apple Inc.) module 252, labeled“iPod;” and
• Icons for other applications, such as:
o Icon 524 for IM module 241, labeled“Messages;”
o Icon 526 for calendar module 248, labeled“Calendar;”
o Icon 528 for image management module 244, labeled“Photos;”
o Icon 530 for camera module 243, labeled“Camera;”
o Icon 532 for online video module 255, labeled“Online Video;”
o Icon 534 for stocks widget 249-2, labeled“Stocks;”
o Icon 536 for map module 254, labeled“Maps;”
o Icon 538 for weather widget 249-1, labeled“Weather;”
o Icon 540 for alarm clock widget 249-4, labeled“Clock;”
o Icon 542 for workout support module 242, labeled“Workout Support;” o Icon 544 for notes module 253, labeled“Notes;” and
o Icon 546 for a setings application or module, labeled“Setings,” which
provides access to setings for device 200 and its various applications 236.
[0140] It should be noted that the icon labels illustrated in FIG. 5 A are merely exemplary. For example, icon 522 for video and music player module 252 is optionally labeled“Music” or“Music Player.” Other labels are, optionally, used for various application icons. In some embodiments, a label for a respective application icon includes a name of an application corresponding to the respective application icon. In some embodiments, a label for a particular application icon is distinct from a name of an application corresponding to the particular application icon. [0141] FIG. 5B illustrates an exemplary user interface on a device (e.g., device 400, FIG. 4) with a touch-sensitive surface 551 (e.g., a tablet or touchpad 455, FIG. 4) that is separate from the display 550 (e.g., touch screen display 212). Device 400 also, optionally, includes one or more contact intensity sensors (e.g., one or more of sensors 457) for detecting intensity of contacts on touch-sensitive surface 551 and/or one or more tactile output generators 459 for generating tactile outputs for a user of device 400.
[0142] Although some of the examples which follow will be given with reference to inputs on touch screen display 212 (where the touch-sensitive surface and the display are combined), in some embodiments, the device detects inputs on a touch-sensitive surface that is separate from the display, as shown in FIG. 5B. In some embodiments, the touch-sensitive surface (e.g., 551 in FIG. 5B) has a primary axis (e.g., 552 in FIG. 5B) that corresponds to a primary axis (e.g., 553 in FIG. 5B) on the display (e.g., 550). In accordance with these embodiments, the device detects contacts (e.g., 560 and 562 in FIG. 5B) with the touch- sensitive surface 551 at locations that correspond to respective locations on the display (e.g., in FIG. 5B, 560 corresponds to 568 and 562 corresponds to 570). In this way, user inputs (e.g., contacts 560 and 562, and movements thereof) detected by the device on the touch- sensitive surface (e.g., 551 in FIG. 5B) are used by the device to manipulate the user interface on the display (e.g., 550 in FIG. 5B) of the multifunction device when the touch-sensitive surface is separate from the display. It should be understood that similar methods are, optionally, used for other user interfaces described herein.
[0143] Additionally, while the following examples are given primarily with reference to finger inputs (e.g., finger contacts, finger tap gestures, finger swipe gestures), it should be understood that, in some embodiments, one or more of the finger inputs are replaced with input from another input device (e.g., a mouse-based input or stylus input). For example, a swipe gesture is, optionally, replaced with a mouse click (e.g., instead of a contact) followed by movement of the cursor along the path of the swipe (e.g., instead of movement of the contact). As another example, a tap gesture is, optionally, replaced with a mouse click while the cursor is located over the location of the tap gesture (e.g., instead of detection of the contact followed by ceasing to detect the contact). Similarly, when multiple user inputs are simultaneously detected, it should be understood that multiple computer mice are, optionally, used simultaneously, or a mouse and finger contacts are, optionally, used simultaneously.
[0144] FIG. 6A illustrates exemplary personal electronic device 600. Device 600 includes body 602. In some embodiments, device 600 includes some or all of the features described with respect to devices 200 and 400 (e.g., FIGS. 2A-4). In some embodiments, device 600 has touch-sensitive display screen 604, hereafter touch screen 604. Alternatively, or in addition to touch screen 604, device 600 has a display and a touch-sensitive surface. As with devices 200 and 400, in some embodiments, touch screen 604 (or the touch-sensitive surface) has one or more intensity sensors for detecting intensity of contacts (e.g., touches) being applied. The one or more intensity sensors of touch screen 604 (or the touch-sensitive surface) provide output data that represents the intensity of touches. The user interface of device 600 responds to touches based on their intensity, meaning that touches of different intensities can invoke different user interface operations on device 600.
[0145] Techniques for detecting and processing touch intensity are found, for example, in related applications: International Patent Application Serial No. PCT/US2013/040061, titled “Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Displaying User Interface Objects Corresponding to an Application,” filed May 8, 2013, and International Patent Application Serial No. PCT/US2013/069483, titled“Device, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Transitioning Between Touch Input to Display Output Relationships,” filed November 11, 2013, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.
[0146] In some embodiments, device 600 has one or more input mechanisms 606 and 608. Input mechanisms 606 and 608, if included, are physical. Examples of physical input mechanisms include push buttons and rotatable mechanisms. In some embodiments, device 600 has one or more attachment mechanisms. Such attachment mechanisms, if included, can permit attachment of device 600 with, for example, hats, eyewear, earrings, necklaces, shirts, jackets, bracelets, watch straps, chains, trousers, belts, shoes, purses, backpacks, and so forth. These attachment mechanisms permit device 600 to be worn by a user.
[0147] FIG. 6B depicts exemplary personal electronic device 600. In some embodiments, device 600 includes some or all of the components described with respect to FIGS. 2A, 2B, and 4. Device 600 has bus 612 that operatively couples I/O section 614 with one or more computer processors 616 and memory 618. I/O section 614 is connected to display 604, which can have touch-sensitive component 622 and, optionally, touch-intensity sensitive component 624. In addition, I/O section 614 is connected with communication unit 630 for receiving application and operating system data, using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, near field communication (NFC), cellular, and/or other wireless communication techniques. Device 600 includes input mechanisms 606 and/or 608. Input mechanism 606 is a rotatable input device or a depressible and rotatable input device, for example. Input mechanism 608 is a button, in some examples.
[0148] Input mechanism 608 is a microphone, in some examples. Personal electronic device 600 includes, for example, various sensors, such as GPS sensor 632, accelerometer 634, directional sensor 640 (e.g., compass), gyroscope 636, motion sensor 638, and/or a combination thereof, all of which are operatively connected to I/O section 614.
[0149] Memory 618 of personal electronic device 600 is a non-transitory computer- readable storage medium, for storing computer-executable instructions, which, when executed by one or more computer processors 616, for example, cause the computer processors to perform the techniques and processes described below. The computer- executable instructions, for example, are also stored and/or transported within any non- transitory computer-readable storage medium for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device, such as a computer-based system, processor- containing system, or other system that can fetch the instructions from the instruction execution system, apparatus, or device and execute the instructions. Personal electronic device 600 is not limited to the components and configuration of FIG. 6B, but can include other or additional components in multiple configurations.
[0150] As used here, the term“affordance” refers to a user-interactive graphical user interface object that is, for example, displayed on the display screen of devices 200, 400, and/or 600 (FIGS. 2 A, 4, and 6A-6B). For example, an image (e.g., icon), a button, and text (e.g., hyperlink) each constitutes an affordance.
[0151] As used herein, the term“focus selector” refers to an input element that indicates a current part of a user interface with which a user is interacting. In some implementations that include a cursor or other location marker, the cursor acts as a“focus selector” so that when an input (e.g., a press input) is detected on a touch-sensitive surface (e.g., touchpad 455 in FIG. 4 or touch-sensitive surface 551 in FIG. 5B) while the cursor is over a particular user interface element (e.g., a button, window, slider or other user interface element), the particular user interface element is adjusted in accordance with the detected input. In some implementations that include a touch screen display (e.g., touch-sensitive display system 212 in FIG. 2A or touch screen 212 in FIG. 5A) that enables direct interaction with user interface elements on the touch screen display, a detected contact on the touch screen acts as a“focus selector” so that when an input (e.g., a press input by the contact) is detected on the touch screen display at a location of a particular user interface element (e.g., a button, window, slider, or other user interface element), the particular user interface element is adjusted in accordance with the detected input. In some implementations, focus is moved from one region of a user interface to another region of the user interface without corresponding movement of a cursor or movement of a contact on a touch screen display (e.g., by using a tab key or arrow keys to move focus from one button to another button); in these
implementations, the focus selector moves in accordance with movement of focus between different regions of the user interface. Without regard to the specific form taken by the focus selector, the focus selector is generally the user interface element (or contact on a touch screen display) that is controlled by the user so as to communicate the user’s intended interaction with the user interface (e.g., by indicating, to the device, the element of the user interface with which the user is intending to interact). For example, the location of a focus selector (e.g., a cursor, a contact, or a selection box) over a respective button while a press input is detected on the touch-sensitive surface (e.g., a touchpad or touch screen) will indicate that the user is intending to activate the respective button (as opposed to other user interface elements shown on a display of the device).
[0152] As used in the specification and claims, the term“characteristic intensity” of a contact refers to a characteristic of the contact based on one or more intensities of the contact. In some embodiments, the characteristic intensity is based on multiple intensity samples. The characteristic intensity is, optionally, based on a predefined number of intensity samples, or a set of intensity samples collected during a predetermined time period (e.g., 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 seconds) relative to a predefined event (e.g., after detecting the contact, prior to detecting liftoff of the contact, before or after detecting a start of movement of the contact, prior to detecting an end of the contact, before or after detecting an increase in intensity of the contact, and/or before or after detecting a decrease in intensity of the contact). A
characteristic intensity of a contact is, optionally based on one or more of: a maximum value of the intensities of the contact, a mean value of the intensities of the contact, an average value of the intensities of the contact, a top 10 percentile value of the intensities of the contact, a value at the half maximum of the intensities of the contact, a value at the 90 percent maximum of the intensities of the contact, or the like. In some embodiments, the duration of the contact is used in determining the characteristic intensity (e.g., when the characteristic intensity is an average of the intensity of the contact over time). In some embodiments, the characteristic intensity is compared to a set of one or more intensity thresholds to determine whether an operation has been performed by a user. For example, the set of one or more intensity thresholds includes a first intensity threshold and a second intensity threshold. In this example, a contact with a characteristic intensity that does not exceed the first threshold results in a first operation, a contact with a characteristic intensity that exceeds the first intensity threshold and does not exceed the second intensity threshold results in a second operation, and a contact with a characteristic intensity that exceeds the second threshold results in a third operation. In some embodiments, a comparison between the characteristic intensity and one or more thresholds is used to determine whether or not to perform one or more operations (e.g., whether to perform a respective operation or forgo performing the respective operation) rather than being used to determine whether to perform a first operation or a second operation.
[0153] In some embodiments, a portion of a gesture is identified for purposes of determining a characteristic intensity. For example, a touch-sensitive surface receives a continuous swipe contact transitioning from a start location and reaching an end location, at which point the intensity of the contact increases. In this example, the characteristic intensity of the contact at the end location is based on only a portion of the continuous swipe contact, and not the entire swipe contact (e.g., only the portion of the swipe contact at the end location). In some embodiments, a smoothing algorithm is applied to the intensities of the swipe contact prior to determining the characteristic intensity of the contact. For example, the smoothing algorithm optionally includes one or more of: an unweighted sliding-average smoothing algorithm, a triangular smoothing algorithm, a median filter smoothing algorithm, and/or an exponential smoothing algorithm. In some circumstances, these smoothing algorithms eliminate narrow spikes or dips in the intensities of the swipe contact for purposes of determining a characteristic intensity.
[0154] The intensity of a contact on the touch-sensitive surface is characterized relative to one or more intensity thresholds, such as a contact-detection intensity threshold, a light press intensity threshold, a deep press intensity threshold, and/or one or more other intensity thresholds. In some embodiments, the light press intensity threshold corresponds to an intensity at which the device will perform operations typically associated with clicking a button of a physical mouse or a trackpad. In some embodiments, the deep press intensity threshold corresponds to an intensity at which the device will perform operations that are different from operations typically associated with clicking a button of a physical mouse or a trackpad. In some embodiments, when a contact is detected with a characteristic intensity below the light press intensity threshold (e.g., and above a nominal contact-detection intensity threshold below which the contact is no longer detected), the device will move a focus selector in accordance with movement of the contact on the touch-sensitive surface without performing an operation associated with the light press intensity threshold or the deep press intensity threshold. Generally, unless otherwise stated, these intensity thresholds are consistent between different sets of user interface figures.
[0155] An increase of characteristic intensity of the contact from an intensity below the light press intensity threshold to an intensity between the light press intensity threshold and the deep press intensity threshold is sometimes referred to as a“light press” input. An increase of characteristic intensity of the contact from an intensity below the deep press intensity threshold to an intensity above the deep press intensity threshold is sometimes referred to as a“deep press” input. An increase of characteristic intensity of the contact from an intensity below the contact-detection intensity threshold to an intensity between the contact-detection intensity threshold and the light press intensity threshold is sometimes referred to as detecting the contact on the touch-surface. A decrease of characteristic intensity of the contact from an intensity above the contact-detection intensity threshold to an intensity below the contact-detection intensity threshold is sometimes referred to as detecting liftoff of the contact from the touch-surface. In some embodiments, the contact-detection intensity threshold is zero. In some embodiments, the contact-detection intensity threshold is greater than zero.
[0156] In some embodiments described herein, one or more operations are performed in response to detecting a gesture that includes a respective press input or in response to detecting the respective press input performed with a respective contact (or a plurality of contacts), where the respective press input is detected based at least in part on detecting an increase in intensity of the contact (or plurality of contacts) above a press-input intensity threshold. In some embodiments, the respective operation is performed in response to detecting the increase in intensity of the respective contact above the press-input intensity threshold (e.g., a“down stroke” of the respective press input). In some embodiments, the press input includes an increase in intensity of the respective contact above the press-input intensity threshold and a subsequent decrease in intensity of the contact below the press-input intensity threshold, and the respective operation is performed in response to detecting the subsequent decrease in intensity of the respective contact below the press-input threshold (e.g., an“up stroke” of the respective press input). [0157] In some embodiments, the device employs intensity hysteresis to avoid accidental inputs sometimes termed“jitter,” where the device defines or selects a hysteresis intensity threshold with a predefined relationship to the press-input intensity threshold (e.g., the hysteresis intensity threshold is X intensity units lower than the press-input intensity threshold or the hysteresis intensity threshold is 75%, 90%, or some reasonable proportion of the press-input intensity threshold). Thus, in some embodiments, the press input includes an increase in intensity of the respective contact above the press-input intensity threshold and a subsequent decrease in intensity of the contact below the hysteresis intensity threshold that corresponds to the press-input intensity threshold, and the respective operation is performed in response to detecting the subsequent decrease in intensity of the respective contact below the hysteresis intensity threshold (e.g., an“up stroke” of the respective press input).
Similarly, in some embodiments, the press input is detected only when the device detects an increase in intensity of the contact from an intensity at or below the hysteresis intensity threshold to an intensity at or above the press-input intensity threshold and, optionally, a subsequent decrease in intensity of the contact to an intensity at or below the hysteresis intensity, and the respective operation is performed in response to detecting the press input (e.g., the increase in intensity of the contact or the decrease in intensity of the contact, depending on the circumstances).
[0158] For ease of explanation, the descriptions of operations performed in response to a press input associated with a press-input intensity threshold or in response to a gesture including the press input are, optionally, triggered in response to detecting either: an increase in intensity of a contact above the press-input intensity threshold, an increase in intensity of a contact from an intensity below the hysteresis intensity threshold to an intensity above the press-input intensity threshold, a decrease in intensity of the contact below the press-input intensity threshold, and/or a decrease in intensity of the contact below the hysteresis intensity threshold corresponding to the press-input intensity threshold. Additionally, in examples where an operation is described as being performed in response to detecting a decrease in intensity of a contact below the press-input intensity threshold, the operation is, optionally, performed in response to detecting a decrease in intensity of the contact below a hysteresis intensity threshold corresponding to, and lower than, the press-input intensity threshold.
3. Digital Assistant System [0159] FIG. 7A illustrates a block diagram of digital assistant system 700 in accordance with various examples. In some examples, digital assistant system 700 is implemented on a standalone computer system. In some examples, digital assistant system 700 is distributed across multiple computers. In some examples, some of the modules and functions of the digital assistant are divided into a server portion and a client portion, where the client portion resides on one or more user devices (e.g., devices 104, 122, 200, 400, or 600) and communicates with the server portion (e.g., server system 108) through one or more networks, e.g., as shown in FIG. 1. In some examples, digital assistant system 700 is an implementation of server system 108 (and/or DA server 106) shown in FIG. 1. It should be noted that digital assistant system 700 is only one example of a digital assistant system, and that digital assistant system 700 can have more or fewer components than shown, can combine two or more components, or can have a different configuration or arrangement of the components. The various components shown in FIG. 7A are implemented in hardware, software instructions for execution by one or more processors, firmware, including one or more signal processing and/or application specific integrated circuits, or a combination thereof.
[0160] Digital assistant system 700 includes memory 702, one or more processors 704, input/output (I/O) interface 706, and network communications interface 708. These components can communicate with one another over one or more communication buses or signal lines 710.
[0161] In some examples, memory 702 includes a non-transitory computer-readable medium, such as high-speed random access memory and/or a non-volatile computer-readable storage medium (e.g., one or more magnetic disk storage devices, flash memory devices, or other non-volatile solid-state memory devices).
[0162] In some examples, I/O interface 706 couples input/output devices 716 of digital assistant system 700, such as displays, keyboards, touch screens, and microphones, to user interface module 722. I/O interface 706, in conjunction with user interface module 722, receives user inputs (e.g., voice input, keyboard inputs, touch inputs, etc.) and processes them accordingly. In some examples, e.g., when the digital assistant is implemented on a standalone user device, digital assistant system 700 includes any of the components and I/O communication interfaces described with respect to devices 200, 400, or 600 in FIGS. 2A, 4, 6A-6B, respectively. In some examples, digital assistant system 700 represents the server portion of a digital assistant implementation, and can interact with the user through a client- side portion residing on a user device (e.g., devices 104, 200, 400, or 600).
[0163] In some examples, the network communications interface 708 includes wired communication port(s) 712 and/or wireless transmission and reception circuitry 714. The wired communication port(s) receives and send communication signals via one or more wired interfaces, e.g., Ethernet, Universal Serial Bus (USB), FIREWIRE, etc. The wireless circuitry 714 receives and sends RF signals and/or optical signals from/to communications networks and other communications devices. The wireless communications use any of a plurality of communications standards, protocols, and technologies, such as GSM, EDGE, CDMA, TDMA, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, VoIP, Wi-MAX, or any other suitable communication protocol. Network communications interface 708 enables communication between digital assistant system 700 with networks, such as the Internet, an intranet, and/or a wireless network, such as a cellular telephone network, a wireless local area network (LAN), and/or a metropolitan area network (MAN), and other devices.
[0164] In some examples, memory 702, or the computer-readable storage media of memory 702, stores programs, modules, instructions, and data structures including all or a subset of: operating system 718, communications module 720, user interface module 722, one or more applications 724, and digital assistant module 726. In particular, memory 702, or the computer-readable storage media of memory 702, stores instructions for performing the processes described below. One or more processors 704 execute these programs, modules, and instructions, and reads/writes from/to the data structures.
[0165] Operating system 718 (e.g., Darwin, RTXC, LINUX, UNIX, iOS, OS X, WINDOWS, or an embedded operating system such as VxWorks) includes various software components and/or drivers for controlling and managing general system tasks (e.g., memory management, storage device control, power management, etc.) and facilitates
communications between various hardware, firmware, and software components.
[0166] Communications module 720 facilitates communications between digital assistant system 700 with other devices over network communications interface 708. For example, communications module 720 communicates with RF circuitry 208 of electronic devices such as devices 200, 400, and 600 shown in FIGS. 2A, 4, 6A-6B, respectively. Communications module 720 also includes various components for handling data received by wireless circuitry 714 and/or wired communications port 712. [0167] User interface module 722 receives commands and/or inputs from a user via I/O interface 706 (e.g., from a keyboard, touch screen, pointing device, controller, and/or microphone), and generate user interface objects on a display. User interface module 722 also prepares and delivers outputs (e.g., speech, sound, animation, text, icons, vibrations, haptic feedback, light, etc.) to the user via the I/O interface 706 (e.g., through displays, audio channels, speakers, touch-pads, etc.).
[0168] Applications 724 include programs and/or modules that are configured to be executed by one or more processors 704. For example, if the digital assistant system is implemented on a standalone user device, applications 724 include user applications, such as games, a calendar application, a navigation application, or an email application. If digital assistant system 700 is implemented on a server, applications 724 include resource management applications, diagnostic applications, or scheduling applications, for example.
[0169] Memory 702 also stores digital assistant module 726 (or the server portion of a digital assistant). In some examples, digital assistant module 726 includes the following sub- modules, or a subset or superset thereof: input/output processing module 728, speech-to-text (STT) processing module 730, natural language processing module 732, dialogue flow processing module 734, task flow processing module 736, service processing module 738, and speech synthesis processing module 740. Each of these modules has access to one or more of the following systems or data and models of the digital assistant module 726, or a subset or superset thereof: ontology 760, vocabulary index 744, user data 748, task flow models 754, service models 756, and ASR systems 758.
[0170] In some examples, using the processing modules, data, and models implemented in digital assistant module 726, the digital assistant can perform at least some of the following: converting speech input into text; identifying a user’s intent expressed in a natural language input received from the user; actively eliciting and obtaining information needed to fully infer the user’s intent (e.g., by disambiguating words, games, intentions, etc.);
determining the task flow for fulfilling the inferred intent; and executing the task flow to fulfill the inferred intent.
[0171] In some examples, as shown in FIG. 7B, I/O processing module 728 interacts with the user through I/O devices 716 in FIG. 7A or with a user device (e.g., devices 104, 200,
400, or 600) through network communications interface 708 in FIG. 7A to obtain user input (e.g., a speech input) and to provide responses (e.g., as speech outputs) to the user input. I/O processing module 728 optionally obtains contextual information associated with the user input from the user device, along with or shortly after the receipt of the user input. The contextual information includes user-specific data, vocabulary, and/or preferences relevant to the user input. In some examples, the contextual information also includes software and hardware states of the user device at the time the user request is received, and/or information related to the surrounding environment of the user at the time that the user request was received. In some examples, I/O processing module 728 also sends follow-up questions to, and receive answers from, the user regarding the user request. When a user request is received by I/O processing module 728 and the user request includes speech input, I/O processing module 728 forwards the speech input to STT processing module 730 (or speech recognizer) for speech-to-text conversions.
[0172] STT processing module 730 includes one or more ASR systems 758. The one or more ASR systems 758 can process the speech input that is received through I/O processing module 728 to produce a recognition result. Each ASR system 758 includes a front-end speech pre-processor. The front-end speech pre-processor extracts representative features from the speech input. For example, the front-end speech pre-processor performs a Fourier transform on the speech input to extract spectral features that characterize the speech input as a sequence of representative multi-dimensional vectors. Further, each ASR system 758 includes one or more speech recognition models (e.g., acoustic models and/or language models) and implements one or more speech recognition engines. Examples of speech recognition models include Hidden Markov Models, Gaussian-Mixture Models, Deep Neural Network Models, n-gram language models, and other statistical models. Examples of speech recognition engines include the dynamic time warping based engines and weighted finite- state transducers (WFST) based engines. The one or more speech recognition models and the one or more speech recognition engines are used to process the extracted representative features of the front-end speech pre-processor to produce intermediate recognitions results (e.g., phonemes, phonemic strings, and sub-words), and ultimately, text recognition results (e.g., words, word strings, or sequence of tokens). In some examples, the speech input is processed at least partially by a third-party service or on the user’s device (e.g., device 104, 200, 400, or 600) to produce the recognition result. Once STT processing module 730 produces recognition results containing a text string (e.g., words, or sequence of words, or sequence of tokens), the recognition result is passed to natural language processing module 732 for intent deduction. In some examples, STT processing module 730 produces multiple candidate text representations of the speech input. Each candidate text representation is a sequence of words or tokens corresponding to the speech input. In some examples, each candidate text representation is associated with a speech recognition confidence score. Based on the speech recognition confidence scores, STT processing module 730 ranks the candidate text representations and provides the n-best (e.g., n highest ranked) candidate text representation(s) to natural language processing module 732 for intent deduction, where n is a predetermined integer greater than zero. For example, in one example, only the highest ranked (n=l) candidate text representation is passed to natural language processing module 732 for intent deduction. In another example, the five highest ranked (n=5) candidate text representations are passed to natural language processing module 732 for intent deduction.
[0173] More details on the speech-to-text processing are described in U.S. Utility Application Serial No. 13/236,942 for“Consolidating Speech Recognition Results,” filed on September 20, 2011, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
[0174] In some examples, STT processing module 730 includes and/or accesses a vocabulary of recognizable words via phonetic alphabet conversion module 731. Each vocabulary word is associated with one or more candidate pronunciations of the word represented in a speech recognition phonetic alphabet. In particular, the vocabulary of recognizable words includes a word that is associated with a plurality of candidate pronunciations. For example, the vocabulary includes the word“tomato” that is associated with the candidate pronunciations of /to'meirou/ and /to'matou/. Further, vocabulary words are associated with custom candidate pronunciations that are based on previous speech inputs from the user. Such custom candidate pronunciations are stored in STT processing module 730 and are associated with a particular user via the user’s profile on the device. In some examples, the candidate pronunciations for words are determined based on the spelling of the word and one or more linguistic and/or phonetic rules. In some examples, the candidate pronunciations are manually generated, e.g., based on known canonical pronunciations.
[0175] In some examples, the candidate pronunciations are ranked based on the commonness of the candidate pronunciation. For example, the candidate pronunciation /to'meirou/ is ranked higher than /to'matou/. because the former is a more commonly used pronunciation (e.g., among all users, for users in a particular geographical region, or for any other appropriate subset of users). In some examples, candidate pronunciations are ranked based on whether the candidate pronunciation is a custom candidate pronunciation associated with the user. For example, custom candidate pronunciations are ranked higher than canonical candidate pronunciations. This can be useful for recognizing proper nouns having a unique pronunciation that deviates from canonical pronunciation. In some examples, candidate pronunciations are associated with one or more speech characteristics, such as geographic origin, nationality, or ethnicity. For example, the candidate pronunciation /to'meirou/ is associated with the United States, whereas the candidate pronunciation
/to'matou/ is associated with Great Britain. Further, the rank of the candidate pronunciation is based on one or more characteristics (e.g., geographic origin, nationality, ethnicity, etc.) of the user stored in the user’s profile on the device. For example, it can be determined from the user’s profile that the user is associated with the United States. Based on the user being associated with the United States, the candidate pronunciation /to'meirou/ (associated with the United States) is ranked higher than the candidate pronunciation /to'matou/ (associated with Great Britain). In some examples, one of the ranked candidate pronunciations is selected as a predicted pronunciation (e.g., the most likely pronunciation).
[0176] When a speech input is received, STT processing module 730 is used to determine the phonemes corresponding to the speech input (e.g., using an acoustic model), and then attempt to determine words that match the phonemes (e.g., using a language model). For example, if STT processing module 730 first identifies the sequence of phonemes /to'meirou/ corresponding to a portion of the speech input, it can then determine, based on vocabulary index 744, that this sequence corresponds to the word“tomato.”
[0177] In some examples, STT processing module 730 uses approximate matching techniques to determine words in an utterance. Thus, for example, the STT processing module 730 determines that the sequence of phonemes /to'meirou/ corresponds to the word “tomato,” even if that particular sequence of phonemes is not one of the candidate sequence of phonemes for that word.
[0178] Natural language processing module 732 (“natural language processor”) of the digital assistant takes the n-best candidate text representation(s) (“word sequence(s)” or “token sequence(s)”) generated by STT processing module 730, and attempts to associate each of the candidate text representations with one or more“actionable intents” recognized by the digital assistant. An“actionable intent” (or“user intent”) represents a task that can be performed by the digital assistant, and can have an associated task flow implemented in task flow models 754. The associated task flow is a series of programmed actions and steps that the digital assistant takes in order to perform the task. The scope of a digital assistant’s capabilities is dependent on the number and variety of task flows that have been implemented and stored in task flow models 754, or in other words, on the number and variety of “actionable intents” that the digital assistant recognizes. The effectiveness of the digital assistant, however, also dependents on the assistant’s ability to infer the correct“actionable intent(s)” from the user request expressed in natural language.
[0179] In some examples, in addition to the sequence of words or tokens obtained from STT processing module 730, natural language processing module 732 also receives contextual information associated with the user request, e.g., from I/O processing module 728. The natural language processing module 732 optionally uses the contextual information to clarify, supplement, and/or further define the information contained in the candidate text representations received from STT processing module 730. The contextual information includes, for example, user preferences, hardware, and/or software states of the user device, sensor information collected before, during, or shortly after the user request, prior interactions (e.g., dialogue) between the digital assistant and the user, and the like. As described herein, contextual information is, in some examples, dynamic, and changes with time, location, content of the dialogue, and other factors.
[0180] In some examples, the natural language processing is based on, e.g., ontology 760. Ontology 760 is a hierarchical structure containing many nodes, each node representing either an“actionable intent” or a“property” relevant to one or more of the“actionable intents” or other“properties.” As noted above, an“actionable intent” represents a task that the digital assistant is capable of performing, i.e., it is“actionable” or can be acted on. A “property” represents a parameter associated with an actionable intent or a sub-aspect of another property. A linkage between an actionable intent node and a property node in ontology 760 defines how a parameter represented by the property node pertains to the task represented by the actionable intent node.
[0181] In some examples, ontology 760 is made up of actionable intent nodes and property nodes. Within ontology 760, each actionable intent node is linked to one or more property nodes either directly or through one or more intermediate property nodes. Similarly, each property node is linked to one or more actionable intent nodes either directly or through one or more intermediate property nodes. For example, as shown in FIG. 7C, ontology 760 includes a“restaurant reservation” node (i.e., an actionable intent node). Property nodes “restaurant,”“date/time” (for the reservation), and“party size” are each directly linked to the actionable intent node (i.e., the“restaurant reservation” node). [0182] In addition, property nodes“cuisine,”“price range,”“phone number,” and “location” are sub-nodes of the property node“restaurant,” and are each linked to the “restaurant reservation” node (i.e., the actionable intent node) through the intermediate property node“restaurant.” For another example, as shown in FIG. 7C, ontology 760 also includes a“set reminder” node (i.e., another actionable intent node). Property nodes “date/time” (for setting the reminder) and“subject” (for the reminder) are each linked to the “set reminder” node. Since the property“date/time” is relevant to both the task of making a restaurant reservation and the task of setting a reminder, the property node“date/time” is linked to both the“restaurant reservation” node and the“set reminder” node in ontology 760.
[0183] An actionable intent node, along with its linked property nodes, is described as a “domain.” In the present discussion, each domain is associated with a respective actionable intent, and refers to the group of nodes (and the relationships there between) associated with the particular actionable intent. For example, ontology 760 shown in FIG. 7C includes an example of restaurant reservation domain 762 and an example of reminder domain 764 within ontology 760. The restaurant reservation domain includes the actionable intent node “restaurant reservation,” property nodes“restaurant,”“date/time,” and“party size,” and sub property nodes“cuisine,”“price range,”“phone number,” and“location.” Reminder domain 764 includes the actionable intent node“set reminder,” and property nodes“subject” and “date/time.” In some examples, ontology 760 is made up of many domains. Each domain shares one or more property nodes with one or more other domains. For example, the “date/time” property node is associated with many different domains (e.g., a scheduling domain, a travel reservation domain, a movie ticket domain, etc.), in addition to restaurant reservation domain 762 and reminder domain 764.
[0184] While FIG. 7C illustrates two example domains within ontology 760, other domains include, for example,“find a movie,”“initiate a phone call,”“find directions,” “schedule a meeting,”“send a message,” and“provide an answer to a question,”“read a list,” “providing navigation instructions,”“provide instructions for a task” and so on. A“send a message” domain is associated with a“send a message” actionable intent node, and further includes property nodes such as“recipient(s),”“message type,” and“message body.” The property node“recipient” is further defined, for example, by the sub-property nodes such as “recipient name” and“message address.”
[0185] In some examples, ontology 760 includes all the domains (and hence actionable intents) that the digital assistant is capable of understanding and acting upon. In some examples, ontology 760 is modified, such as by adding or removing entire domains or nodes, or by modifying relationships between the nodes within the ontology 760.
[0186] In some examples, nodes associated with multiple related actionable intents are clustered under a“super domain” in ontology 760. For example, a“travel” super-domain includes a cluster of property nodes and actionable intent nodes related to travel. The actionable intent nodes related to travel includes“airline reservation,”“hotel reservation,” “car rental,”“get directions,”“find points of interest,” and so on. The actionable intent nodes under the same super domain (e.g., the“travel” super domain) have many property nodes in common. For example, the actionable intent nodes for“airline reservation,”“hotel reservation,”“car rental,”“get directions,” and“find points of interest” share one or more of the property nodes“start location,”“destination,”“departure date/time,”“arrival date/time,” and“party size.”
[0187] In some examples, each node in ontology 760 is associated with a set of words and/or phrases that are relevant to the property or actionable intent represented by the node. The respective set of words and/or phrases associated with each node are the so-called “vocabulary” associated with the node. The respective set of words and/or phrases associated with each node are stored in vocabulary index 744 in association with the property or actionable intent represented by the node. For example, returning to FIG. 7B, the vocabulary associated with the node for the property of“restaurant” includes words such as“food,” “drinks,”“cuisine,”“hungry,”“eat,”“pizza,”“fast food,”“meal,” and so on. For another example, the vocabulary associated with the node for the actionable intent of“initiate a phone call” includes words and phrases such as“call,”“phone,”“dial,”“ring,”“call this number,” “make a call to,” and so on. The vocabulary index 744 optionally includes words and phrases in different languages.
[0188] Natural language processing module 732 receives the candidate text
representations (e.g., text string(s) or token sequence(s)) from STT processing module 730, and for each candidate representation, determines what nodes are implicated by the words in the candidate text representation. In some examples, if a word or phrase in the candidate text representation is found to be associated with one or more nodes in ontology 760 (via vocabulary index 744), the word or phrase“triggers” or“activates” those nodes. Based on the quantity and/or relative importance of the activated nodes, natural language processing module 732 selects one of the actionable intents as the task that the user intended the digital assistant to perform. In some examples, the domain that has the most“triggered” nodes is selected. In some examples, the domain having the highest confidence value (e.g., based on the relative importance of its various triggered nodes) is selected. In some examples, the domain is selected based on a combination of the number and the importance of the triggered nodes. In some examples, additional factors are considered in selecting the node as well, such as whether the digital assistant has previously correctly interpreted a similar request from a user.
[0189] User data 748 includes user-specific information, such as user-specific vocabulary, user preferences, user address, user’s default and secondary languages, user’s contact list, and other short-term or long-term information for each user. In some examples, natural language processing module 732 uses the user-specific information to supplement the information contained in the user input to further define the user intent. For example, for a user request“invite my friends to my birthday party,” natural language processing module 732 is able to access user data 748 to determine who the“friends” are and when and where the“birthday party” would be held, rather than requiring the user to provide such information explicitly in his/her request.
[0190] It should be recognized that in some examples, natural language processing module 732 is implemented using one or more machine learning mechanisms (e.g., neural networks). In particular, the one or more machine learning mechanisms are configured to receive a candidate text representation and contextual information associated with the candidate text representation. Based on the candidate text representation and the associated contextual information, the one or more machine learning mechanisms are configured to determine intent confidence scores over a set of candidate actionable intents. Natural language processing module 732 can select one or more candidate actionable intents from the set of candidate actionable intents based on the determined intent confidence scores. In some examples, an ontology (e.g., ontology 760) is also used to select the one or more candidate actionable intents from the set of candidate actionable intents.
[0191] Other details of searching an ontology based on a token string are described in U.S. Utility Application Serial No. 12/341,743 for“Method and Apparatus for Searching Using An Active Ontology,” filed December 22, 2008, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
[0192] In some examples, once natural language processing module 732 identifies an actionable intent (or domain) based on the user request, natural language processing module 732 generates a structured query to represent the identified actionable intent. In some examples, the structured query includes parameters for one or more nodes within the domain for the actionable intent, and at least some of the parameters are populated with the specific information and requirements specified in the user request. For example, the user says “Make me a dinner reservation at a sushi place at 7.” In this case, natural language processing module 732 is able to correctly identify the actionable intent to be“restaurant reservation” based on the user input. According to the ontology, a structured query for a “restaurant reservation” domain includes parameters such as {Cuisine}, {Time}, {Date}, {Party Size}, and the like. In some examples, based on the speech input and the text derived from the speech input using STT processing module 730, natural language processing module 732 generates a partial structured query for the restaurant reservation domain, where the partial structured query includes the parameters {Cuisine =“Sushi”} and {Time =“7pm”}. However, in this example, the user’s utterance contains insufficient information to complete the structured query associated with the domain. Therefore, other necessary parameters such as {Party Size} and {Date} are not specified in the structured query based on the information currently available. In some examples, natural language processing module 732 populates some parameters of the structured query with received contextual information. For example, in some examples, if the user requested a sushi restaurant“near me,” natural language processing module 732 populates a {location} parameter in the structured query with GPS coordinates from the user device.
[0193] In some examples, natural language processing module 732 identifies multiple candidate actionable intents for each candidate text representation received from STT processing module 730. Further, in some examples, a respective structured query (partial or complete) is generated for each identified candidate actionable intent. Natural language processing module 732 determines an intent confidence score for each candidate actionable intent and ranks the candidate actionable intents based on the intent confidence scores. In some examples, natural language processing module 732 passes the generated structured query (or queries), including any completed parameters, to task flow processing module 736 (“task flow processor”). In some examples, the structured query (or queries) for the m-best (e.g., m highest ranked) candidate actionable intents are provided to task flow processing module 736, where m is a predetermined integer greater than zero. In some examples, the structured query (or queries) for the m-best candidate actionable intents are provided to task flow processing module 736 with the corresponding candidate text representation(s). [0194] Other details of inferring a user intent based on multiple candidate actionable intents determined from multiple candidate text representations of a speech input are described in U.S. Utility Application Serial No. 14/298,725 for“System and Method for Inferring User Intent From Speech Inputs,” filed June 6, 2014, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
[0195] Task flow processing module 736 is configured to receive the structured query (or queries) from natural language processing module 732, complete the structured query, if necessary, and perform the actions required to“complete” the user’s ultimate request. In some examples, the various procedures necessary to complete these tasks are provided in task flow models 754. In some examples, task flow models 754 include procedures for obtaining additional information from the user and task flows for performing actions associated with the actionable intent.
[0196] As described above, in order to complete a structured query, task flow processing module 736 needs to initiate additional dialogue with the user in order to obtain additional information, and/or disambiguate potentially ambiguous utterances. When such interactions are necessary, task flow processing module 736 invokes dialogue flow processing module 734 to engage in a dialogue with the user. In some examples, dialogue flow processing module 734 determines how (and/or when) to ask the user for the additional information and receives and processes the user responses. The questions are provided to and answers are received from the users through I/O processing module 728. In some examples, dialogue flow processing module 734 presents dialogue output to the user via audio and/or visual output, and receives input from the user via spoken or physical (e.g., clicking) responses. Continuing with the example above, when task flow processing module 736 invokes dialogue flow processing module 734 to determine the“party size” and“date” information for the structured query associated with the domain“restaurant reservation,” dialogue flow processing module 734 generates questions such as“For how many people?” and“On which day?” to pass to the user. Once answers are received from the user, dialogue flow processing module 734 then populates the structured query with the missing information, or pass the information to task flow processing module 736 to complete the missing information from the structured query.
[0197] Once task flow processing module 736 has completed the structured query for an actionable intent, task flow processing module 736 proceeds to perform the ultimate task associated with the actionable intent. Accordingly, task flow processing module 736 executes the steps and instructions in the task flow model according to the specific parameters contained in the structured query. For example, the task flow model for the actionable intent of“restaurant reservation” includes steps and instructions for contacting a restaurant and actually requesting a reservation for a particular party size at a particular time. For example, using a structured query such as: {restaurant reservation, restaurant = ABC Cafe, date = 3/12/2012, time = 7pm, party size = 5}, task flow processing module 736 performs the steps of: (1) logging onto a server of the ABC Cafe or a restaurant reservation system such as OPENTABLE®, (2) entering the date, time, and party size information in a form on the website, (3) submitting the form, and (4) making a calendar entry for the reservation in the user’s calendar.
[0198] In some examples, task flow processing module 736 employs the assistance of service processing module 738 (“service processing module”) to complete a task requested in the user input or to provide an informational answer requested in the user input. For example, service processing module 738 acts on behalf of task flow processing module 736 to make a phone call, set a calendar entry, invoke a map search, invoke or interact with other user applications installed on the user device, and invoke or interact with third-party services (e.g., a restaurant reservation portal, a social networking website, a banking portal, etc.). In some examples, the protocols and application programming interfaces (API) required by each service are specified by a respective service model among service models 756. Service processing module 738 accesses the appropriate service model for a service and generates requests for the service in accordance with the protocols and APIs required by the service according to the service model.
[0199] For example, if a restaurant has enabled an online reservation service, the restaurant submits a service model specifying the necessary parameters for making a reservation and the APIs for communicating the values of the necessary parameter to the online reservation service. When requested by task flow processing module 736, service processing module 738 establishes a network connection with the online reservation service using the web address stored in the service model, and sends the necessary parameters of the reservation (e.g., time, date, party size) to the online reservation interface in a format according to the API of the online reservation service.
[0200] In some examples, natural language processing module 732, dialogue flow processing module 734, and task flow processing module 736 are used collectively and iteratively to infer and define the user’s intent, obtain information to further clarify and refine the user intent, and finally generate a response (i.e., an output to the user, or the completion of a task) to fulfill the user’s intent. The generated response is a dialogue response to the speech input that at least partially fulfills the user’s intent. Further, in some examples, the generated response is output as a speech output. In these examples, the generated response is sent to speech synthesis processing module 740 (e.g., speech synthesizer) where it can be processed to synthesize the dialogue response in speech form. In yet other examples, the generated response is data content relevant to satisfying a user request in the speech input.
[0201] In examples where task flow processing module 736 receives multiple structured queries from natural language processing module 732, task flow processing module 736 initially processes the first structured query of the received structured queries to attempt to complete the first structured query and/or execute one or more tasks or actions represented by the first structured query. In some examples, the first structured query corresponds to the highest ranked actionable intent. In other examples, the first structured query is selected from the received structured queries based on a combination of the corresponding speech recognition confidence scores and the corresponding intent confidence scores. In some examples, if task flow processing module 736 encounters an error during processing of the first structured query (e.g., due to an inability to determine a necessary parameter), the task flow processing module 736 can proceed to select and process a second structured query of the received structured queries that corresponds to a lower ranked actionable intent. The second structured query is selected, for example, based on the speech recognition confidence score of the corresponding candidate text representation, the intent confidence score of the corresponding candidate actionable intent, a missing necessary parameter in the first structured query, or any combination thereof.
[0202] Speech synthesis processing module 740 is configured to synthesize speech outputs for presentation to the user. Speech synthesis processing module 740 synthesizes speech outputs based on text provided by the digital assistant. For example, the generated dialogue response is in the form of a text string. Speech synthesis processing module 740 converts the text string to an audible speech output. Speech synthesis processing module 740 uses any appropriate speech synthesis technique in order to generate speech outputs from text, including, but not limited, to concatenative synthesis, unit selection synthesis, diphone synthesis, domain-specific synthesis, formant synthesis, articulatory synthesis, hidden Markov model (HMM) based synthesis, and sinewave synthesis. In some examples, speech synthesis processing module 740 is configured to synthesize individual words based on phonemic strings corresponding to the words. For example, a phonemic string is associated with a word in the generated dialogue response. The phonemic string is stored in metadata associated with the word. Speech synthesis processing module 740 is configured to directly process the phonemic string in the metadata to synthesize the word in speech form.
[0203] In some examples, instead of (or in addition to) using speech synthesis processing module 740, speech synthesis is performed on a remote device (e.g., the server system 108), and the synthesized speech is sent to the user device for output to the user. For example, this can occur in some implementations where outputs for a digital assistant are generated at a server system. And because server systems generally have more processing power or resources than a user device, it is possible to obtain higher quality speech outputs than would be practical with client-side synthesis.
[0204] Additional details on digital assistants can be found in the U.S. Utility Application No. 12/987,982, entitled“Intelligent Automated Assistant,” filed January 10, 2011, and U.S. Utility Application No. 13/251,088, entitled“Generating and Processing Task Items That Represent Tasks to Perform,” filed September 30, 2011, the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.
4. Multi-modal inputs for voice commands
[0205] FIGS. 8-15 illustrate an electronic device. For example, as shown in FIG. 8 A, electronic device 800 may be any device described herein, including but not limited to devices 104, 200, 400, and 600 (FIGS. 1, 2A, 4, and 6A-B). Thus, while the electronic devices depicted in FIGS. 8-15 may be depicted as mobile devices, it will be appreciated that the electronic devices may be a device of any type, such as a phone, laptop computer, desktop computer, tablet, wearable device (e.g., smart watch), set-top box, television, home automation device (e.g., thermostat), or any combination or subcombination thereof.
Furthermore, the processes described herein may be performed by a server with information delivered to and from the device, performed on the device, or a combination thereof.
[0206] FIGS. 8A-D illustrate an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, a user 802 may interact with electronic device 800 in order to perform an internet search based on both touch inputs and speech inputs. In operation, electronic device 800 may receive a first input including activation of an affordance. For example, a user 802 may contact a touch-sensitive screen of device 800 to activate affordance 804. An affordance may be associated with one or more functions of the device. For example, an affordance may be associated with an application of the device, or a function corresponding to an application of the device. Applications of the device may include applications for calendars, sending and receiving messages (e.g., e-mail and/or text messages), initiating and receiving phone calls, browsing the internet, capturing and viewing photos, viewing a map, listening to music, and the like. In some examples, the affordance is associated with a function corresponding to an application of the device. In some examples, the affordance may be a predefined graphical object on the screen. For example, an affordance may include a selectable element displayed on the screen, such as a selectable image (e.g., an icon corresponding to an application), selectable button (e.g., a function within an application), selectable text (e.g., one or more displayed words). For example, the affordance may be a thumbnail of a photo, a link or other element on a webpage, a song or album within a music application, a calendar event, an e- mail or text message, a location or area of a map, a location or area of a virtual or other 3D environment, an element within a game or other simulation, or a location or area associated with any application or other element on the screen.
[0207] In some examples, the affordance may correspond to a general area of displayed content based on user input. For instance, the affordance may be associated with one or more photos, such as a portion of a photo. For example, as user may open a photo within a photos application and touch a specific area of the displayed photo, such as a dark area in the comer of the photo. The portion of the photo may correspond to a predetermined area around the photo, such as a circle or rectangle having a predetermined area with a center situated at the location of the user input, for example. The affordance may thus correspond to the predetermined area of the photo based on the user input.
[0208] In some examples, receiving the first input including activation of affordance 804 may include detecting different types of inputs. For example, user inputs may be associated with different pressures, such that the affordance is activated by an input associated with a pressure greater than a predetermined threshold. In some examples, when a user presses an affordance with a pressure greater than a predetermined threshold, the affordance is activated. In some examples, when a user presses an affordance with a pressure less than a
predetermined threshold, the affordance is not activated. The predetermined threshold may further be adjusted by the user or otherwise adjusted in order optimize the detection of user inputs for affordance activation. In some examples, multiple user inputs may be detecting in order to activate the affordance. For example, a user may“tap” on the affordance multiple times, and such taps may have different durations. In some examples, a first tap may have a shorter duration, and a second tap at a same location as the first tap may have a longer duration. In some examples, one or more other gestures on the screen of the device may cause activation of an affordance. For example, a user may tap on a location of the screen and perform a gesture in order to draw a circle or other shape around a specific portion of the screen. In a maps application, for example, the user may draw a circle around a specific area of a city or state displayed on a map. In a photo, the user may draw a rectangle around a specific portion of the photo, for example. In some examples, the affordance may be activated by other means, such as eye tracking based on user gaze.
[0209] In some examples, an affordance may be activated via a second device. For example, the affordance may be displayed on a device such as a television by way of a set-top box, and activation of the affordance may include receiving an input from a secondary device, such as a remote controller or a smartphone. In some examples, the smartphone or remote controller may communicate with the set-top box to interact with different affordances displayed on the associated television. For example, a user may interact with the smartphone to focus on different affordances displayed on the television, and may activate a displayed affordance by any means discussed herein, such as by varying pressures levels, different taps, swipe gestures, and the like. One or more media items (e.g., movies or shows) may be displayed on the television, for example, and the user may activate a media item by holding down on an input on the secondary device while focused on the media item displayed on the television.
[0210] In some examples, activation of an affordance may cause one or more outputs to be displayed on the screen. For example, referring to FIG. 8B, in response to user 802 activating affordance 804, an output 806 is displayed proximate to activated affordance 804. In some examples, output 806 may include a temporary enlargement of the activated affordance, a“glow” around the activated affordance, or a visual vibration of the activated affordance. In some examples, the output may be displayed on another location on the screen of the device, such as in a comer of the screen, and/or at the top or bottom of the screen. In some examples, the output may include one or more haptic or audible outputs, instead of or in addition to a visual output. The output displayed in response to activation of an affordance may signal to a user that the user may begin speech input associated with the activated affordance. For example, an audible, visual, and/or haptic output that also corresponds to a speech recognition function of the device may be provided to the user, in order to indicate to the user that speech recognition has begun, or will begin soon. [0211] In some examples, electronic device 800 determines a domain associated with the affordance. For example, when the user 802 activates affordance 804, a domain associated with affordance 804 is determined. A domain associated with an affordance may, for example, represent the general functionality corresponding to the affordance. The domain associated with the affordance may further be associated with a respective actionable intent and one or more property nodes, as described herein. For example, an affordance corresponding to a restaurant reservation application may be associated with the actionable intent node“restaurant reservation,” and may further correspond to property nodes “restaurant,”“date/time,” and“party size,” and sub-property nodes“cuisine,”“price range,” “phone number,” and“location.” A domain associated with an affordance may further include multiple domains, or may include all domains that the digital assistant is capable of understanding or acting upon, for example.
[0212] In some examples, determining a domain associated with the affordance includes determining at least one attribute associated with the activated affordance. For example, affordance 804 may correspond to a web browser application, where the web browser application is associated with an internet search attribute. In some examples, attributes associated with affordances may be weighted, prioritized, or otherwise sorted based on past user interactions, device history, device location, and the like. For example, if user 802 frequently visits websites related to cooking or food, the web browser application may be associated with an internet search attribute, with prioritization towards a food attribute. In some examples, at least one actionable intent node corresponding to at least one determined attribute is identified. For example, in response to determining that affordance 804 is associated with an internet search attribute, an actionable intent node corresponding to an internet search is identified. In some examples, an attribute associated with an activate affordance includes a verb or phrase commonly used to trigger functionality corresponding to the activated affordance. Affordance 804, corresponding to a web browser, may be associated with verbs or phrases such as“find,”“go to,”“search for,”“what is,” where such verbs or phrases are then typically followed by content the user wishes to perform an internet search for, or a website the user wishes to visit, for example. As discussed further herein, the domain may be determined based on the at least one attribute including a common verb or phrase, such that user intent may be determined without the need for a user to speak such verbs or phrases when activating the affordance and providing speech to the device. [0213] In some examples, electronic device 800 receives a second input including user speech. For example, upon activating affordance 804 corresponding to a web browser, user 802 may provide speech 808 include the phrase“Best restaurants in Cupertino,” with the goal of opening the web browser to perform an internet search for restaurants in the city of Cupertino, CA. The input including speech 808 may be received directly from user 802 at device 800, or may be received from a secondary device. For example, in the case where the activated affordance corresponds to an affordance on a television, the user may provide the speech via a secondary device, such as a remote controller, smartphone, watch, Bluetooth headset, speaker, and the like.
[0214] In some examples, audio input is sampled in order to receive the second input including user speech. For example, audio input may be sampled prior to the first input which activates an affordance, or the audio input may be sampled upon activation of affordance. In some examples, a predetermined duration of audio data is continuously stored, such as a most recent duration of audio. In accordance with receiving the first input, the predetermined duration of the received audio data is obtained and at least a portion of the second input including user speech is received from the predetermined duration of the received audio data. For example, if a user begins providing speech input 808, although has not yet activated affordance 804, the full speech input“Best restaurants in Cupertino” is still captured, based on the stored predetermined duration of audio when the user activates affordance 804 shortly after beginning to speak.
[0215] In some examples, audio input is sampled based on whether the first input is maintained. User 802 may activate affordance 804 by pressing and holding on affordance 804, for example, and audio input may be sampled in response to a detection that user 802 has maintained the input on the affordance 804 for a predetermined duration or by use of a predetermined amount of pressure. In some examples, audio input is sampled in response to the detection, and the sampling is continued until a determination is made that user 802 is no longer maintaining input on affordance 804. In some examples, the sampling is continued until a determination is made that the user is no longer speaking. For example, sampling of the audio input may be triggered by one or more user inputs on affordance 804, and the audio sampling may continue regardless of whether the user maintains contact with the affordance. A determination is then made whether a predetermined duration of audio, such as a most recent duration includes user speech, for example. In accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio does not include user speech, sampling of the audio input is discontinued.
[0216] In some examples, electronic device 800 determines a user intent based on the domain and the user speech. For example, STT processing module 730 may produce multiple candidate text representations of the speech input, and the candidate text representations are passed to natural language processing module 732 for intent deduction based on the identified domain, as described herein. For example, based on determining affordance 804 is associated an internet search attribute, an actionable intent node for internet search is used as a basis for intent determination. In some examples, the candidate text interpretations may be weighted or prioritized based on activated affordance 804 or at least one attribute associated with activated affordance 804. For example, a candidate text representation for“call Bob Mills” may be weighted higher than a candidate text
representation for“call Nob Hill,” in the case where the user activates a contacts application and the user has a contact named“Bob Mills” (as opposed to a store named“Nob Hill”). In some examples, activated affordance 804 or at least one attribute associated with activated affordance 804 may invalidate a candidate text representation. In some examples, natural language processing module 732 associates each of the candidate text representations with one or more actionable intents associated with the actionable intent node for internet search. The actionable intent node for the internet search may be linked to property nodes related to internet searches, such as property nodes related to types of search queries, location constraints, user preferences, saved websites, and the like. In some examples, as discussed herein, the domain may be determined based on at least one attribute including verbs or phrases associated with an activated affordance (e.g.,“find,”“go to,”“search for,” and/or “what is,” associated with affordance 804 including a web browser application). For example, device 800 may determine user intent without the user referring to such verbs or phrases. For instance, based on the domain corresponding to a web browser application and the user speech“Best restaurants in Cupertino,” device 800 may determine that the user intends to search for restaurants in Cupertino, such that a full search query may be represented as“find best restaurants in Cupertino.”
[0217] In some examples, in response to receiving the second input including speech, one or more outputs are provided. For example, referring to FIG. 8C, a transcription 810 of user speech 808 may be provided. In some examples, transcription 810 may be provided in response to the user providing speech. In some examples, transcription 810 is provided as the user is providing speech to the device, such that different characters or words are displayed sequentially as the user speaks. Transcription 810 may occupy a predetermined area of the screen, such as the top, middle, or bottom of the screen, for example. In some examples, transcription 810 is provided by displaying the transcription proximate to activated affordance 804, such as above, below, left of, right of, or proximate to a comer of the activated affordance 804. In some examples, a transcription output area associated with the transcription 810 is provided prior to receiving the second speech input (e.g., an“empty” transcription), such that the transcription output area is provided in response to receiving the input including activation of affordance 804. For example, a user may activate affordance 804, and in response, a transcription output area is displayed including an empty transcription to indicate that the device is sampling audio data. In response to receiving the second input including speech, the output including transcription 810 is provided in the transcription output area. In some examples, display of the transcription 810 or the transcription output area causes background content to become dimmed and/or blurred, such that focus on the output and/or the activated affordance is enhanced. In some examples, transcription 810 may occupy the entire screen and disappear after a predetermined amount of time. In some examples, transcription 810 may be associated with a predetermined opacity, and such opacity may further be dynamically adjusted based on displayed content, user preferences, or other context information.
[0218] In some examples, electronic device 800 determines whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance. In some examples, a command may be determined based at least in part on the user speech, the activated affordance, displayed content, or other context information. For example, in accordance with a determination that the user intent corresponds to an internet search, the user intent is determined to include a command to invoke a web browser to perform an internet search based on the user speech input, such as based on speech input 808 for“Best restaurants in Cupertino.”
[0219] In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance, electronic device 800 performs a task in furtherance of the command. For example, referring to FIG. 8D, in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command to perform an internet search, device 800 determines whether an internet search corresponds to activated affordance 804, associated with a web browser. Device 800 may determine that a web browser includes functionality for performing an internet search, and thus determines that the user intent includes a command associated with affordance 804. In response to the determination, a task is performed, such as opening web browser 812. The task may further include auto populating a search field 814 including the transcription of the user speech 802, such as“best restaurants in Cupertino,” for example. In some examples, with respect to a command to perform an internet search, the task may further include performing the internet search based on the transcription of the user speech, and displaying results 816 based on the performed search.
[0220] In some examples, as disclosed herein, affordance 804 may correspond to a web browser application, where activation of the affordance and subsequent speech input facilitate performance of corresponding tasks by invoking the application. In some examples, affordance 804 may correspond to other applications, such as applications for maps, restaurant reviews, weather, music, activity monitoring, health, videos (e.g., stored videos or live streams), social media, sports, navigation, online shopping, gaming, finance, driving services, and the like. For example, a user may activate an affordance for a maps application and provide speech input including“route home,” causing the maps application to be invoked with a destination auto-populated to the user’s home based on user profile information. As another example, a user may activate an affordance for a restaurant review application and provide speech input including“how is John’s Restaurant,” causing the restaurant review application to be invoked with a review page for“John’s Restaurant” displayed. As yet another example, a user may activate an affordance for a music application and provide speech input including“play classic rock songs,” causing the music application to be invoked and further causing songs corresponding to a“classic rock” playlist to be played through one or more speakers of the device.
[0221] FIG. 9 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, a user 902 may interact with electronic device 900 in order to perform one or more actions within a calendar application 904. In some examples, a first input including activation of an affordance is received, such as activation of affordance 904. Affordance 904 may be associated with a calendar entry within calendar application 904, for example. Other affordances within calendar application may be activated, such affordances for a search, affordances for moving to a different view, or affordances for selecting specific dates and/or times, such as specific hours of a day, days of a month, months of a year, or a specific year(s). In some examples, a domain associated with affordance 904 is determined. For example, a domain associated with one or more of“events,”“scheduling,”“meetings,” “planning,” and the like may be determined based on the activation of a calendar entry. In some examples, domains may be associated with property nodes for general properties such as“share,”“delete,”“search,” and the like. In some examples, a second input including user speech, such as user speech 908, is received. User speech 908 may include the phrase“Move this to 2pm tomorrow,” for example.
[0222] In some examples, a user intent is determined based on the determined domain and the received user speech. In some examples, determining user intent includes disambiguating user speech based on context information. For example, an ambiguous term, such as“this,” in user speech 908“Move this to 2pm tomorrow” may be disambiguated based on information associated with calendar application 904. In some examples, a reference to “this,”“that,”“those,”“these,” and the like, may be disambiguated based on a currently activated affordance. For example, the ambiguous term“this” in the speech“Move this to 2pm tomorrow” may correspond to activated affordance 904. Activated affordance 904 may correspond to a calendar entry for a“Conference with John,” for example. A determination is then made that the ambiguous term“this” refers to the calendar entry for a“Conference with John.”
[0223] In some examples, a determined domain of“events” may be associated with property nodes for“event name,”“date/time,”“participants,”“create event,”“change event,” and the like. The node for“change event” may be activated based on the text“Move” generated from user speech 908, for example. The node for“event name” may be activated based on the disambiguated text“this,” meaning“Conference with John,” for example. The node for“date/time” may be activated based on text“2pm tomorrow.” Based on the activation of actionable intent nodes using the determined domain, device 900 may determine that the user intent corresponds to a command to change the timing of calendar entry 904 to the following day at 2PM.
[0224] In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with affordance 904, a task is performed in furtherance of the command. For example, in response to determining that the user intent corresponds to a command to change timing of calendar entry 904, device 900 may change timing information associated with calendar entry 904, such as changing the date of the entry to the following day, and changing the time to 2PM. Device 900 may further display one or more interfaces, such as a visual depiction within calendar application 906, including the following day and calendar event 904 scheduled on the following day (not depicted). In some examples, other commands associated with affordances within a calendar application 906 may include commands for creating a new calendar entry, moving to a different date on the calendar, sending a message or reminder to participants of a calendar event, setting a reminder for a calendar event, and the like.
[0225] FIG. 10 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, a user 1002 may interact with electronic device 1000 in order to perform one or more actions within an e-mail application 1006. In some examples, a first input including activation of an affordance is received, such as activation of affordance 1004. Affordance 1004 may correspond to an e-mail within a plurality of emails. In some examples, additional affordances within e-mail application 1006 application may be activated, such affordances for creating a new e-mail, changing mailboxes, deleting an e-mail, archiving or changing a folder of an e-mail, opening an e-mail attachment, editing multiple e-mails, and the like. In some examples, a domain associated with affordance 1004 is determined. For example, a domain associated with one or more of“messaging” or“e-mails” may be determined based on the activation of a calendar entry. In some examples, a domain for one of“business,”“personal,” and the like is determined based on a specific type of e-mail account associated with the e- mail application 1004. In some examples, a second input including user speech, such as user speech 1008, is received. User speech 1008 may include the phrase“Create a meeting with everyone on this e-mail,” for example.
[0226] In some examples, a user intent is determined based on the determined domain and the received user speech 1008. To determine user intent, the user speech may be disambiguated based on context information, for example. An ambiguous phrase such as “everyone on this e-mail,” in user speech 1008 may be disambiguated based on information associated with e-mail application 1006. For example, the ambiguous phrase may be determined to correspond to activated affordance 1004, which is associated with an e-mail to one or more recipients, such as“CJ Olson.” A determination is then made that the ambiguous phrase“everyone on this e-mail” refers to all recipients on the e-mail associated with activated affordance 1004.
[0227] In some examples, a determined domain of“messaging” or“e-mails” may be associated with property nodes for“participants,”“reply,”“reply all,”“forward,”“add recipient,”“new event,”“delete e-mail” and the like. The node for“new event” may be activated based on the text“Create a meeting” generated from user speech 1008, for example. The node for“recipients” may be activated based on the disambiguated text“everyone,” meaning recipients of e-mail associated with activated affordance 1004, for example. Based on the activation of actionable intent nodes using the determined domain, device 1000 may determine that the user intent corresponds to a command to create a new event with participants corresponding to recipients of e-mail associated with activated affordance 1004.
[0228] In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance 1004, a task is performed in furtherance of the command. For example, in response to determining that the user intent corresponds to a command to create a new meeting with participants corresponding to recipients of e-mail 1004, device 1000 may initiate one or more interfaces to create a new meeting. For example, calendar application may be invoked and a new event created (not depicted). The new event may be auto-populated with participant names including the recipients of e-mail 1004. In some examples, if additional information is required in order to perform a task in furtherance of a command, the user may be prompted for additional input. For example, the user speech 1008 including“Create a meeting with everyone on this e-mail” does not include information for a date or time of the new meeting. In response to a determination that additional information is required to create a new meeting, such as a date and time of the meeting, device 1000 may output a prompt to the user, such as“When would you like to schedule the meeting?” Upon receiving additional input from the user that satisfies the request for additional information, the task may be completed by, for example, auto populating the new meeting entry with additional information provided by the user. Device 1000 may further display one or more interfaces, such as a visual depiction of a scheduled meeting including the participants. In some examples, other commands associated with affordances within e- mail application 1006 may include commands for creating a new e-mail, deleting or moving an e-mail, printing an e-mail, forwarding or replying to an e-mail, displaying unread messages, moving to a new e-mail folder, creating a new e-mail folder, and the like.
[0229] FIG. 11 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, a user 1102 may interact with electronic device 1100 in order to perform one or more actions within a maps application 1106. In some examples, a first input including activation of an affordance is received, such as activation of affordance 1104. Affordance 1104 may be associated with a location of a displayed map, such as a business location, home, street, park, and the like. In some examples, affordance 1104 may be associated with a general area of the map. For example, user 1102 may perform one or more swipe gestures resulting in the creation of a shape (e.g., circle, rectangle, custom shape, etc.) on the displayed map. The content of the displayed map included within the user-created shape may correspond to the activated affordance 1104, for example.
[0230] In some examples, a domain associated with affordance 1104 is determined. For example, a domain associated with a geographical domain may be determined. In some examples, contents within the affordance 1104 may be used to determine a domain. For example, if affordance 1104 includes the city of Cupertino, CA, a domain for“Cupertino” and/or“California” may be determined. In some examples, a second input including user speech, such as user speech 1108, is received. User speech 1108 may include the phrase “Any good Italian around here?” for example.
[0231] In some examples, a user intent is determined based on the determined domain and the received user speech 1108. In some examples, in order to determine user intent, the user speech is disambiguated based on context information. An ambiguous term in the user speech, such as“around here,” may be disambiguated based on displayed content, for example. In some examples, an affordance type may be determined, and if the affordance type corresponds to a predetermined type, an attribute associated with displayed content is determined. The attribute is then used to determine the user intent, for example. In some examples, affordance 1104 may be associated with a location type. In turn, attributes associated with displayed contents within the maps application 1106 are used to disambiguate the user speech. For example, affordance 1104 may include a specific area contained within a shape drawn by user 1102 within the maps application 1106. For example, the user may draw a circle, square, rectangle, or any other freeform shape around a specific area within the maps application 1106. Attributes associated with locations within the specific area may be used to disambiguate user speech. For example, the text for“around here” generated from user speech 1108 may be resolved to a meaning of any location within the circle drawn by the user. As another example, affordance 1104 may correspond to a specific location, such as a business location. In this case, the text for“around here” generated from user speech 1108 may be resolved to a meaning of any location within a predetermined distance from the business location (e.g., within 5 miles of the location).
[0232] In some examples, the determined geographical domain may be associated with property nodes for“find location,”“route planning,”“traffic information,”“business information,”“restaurant information,” and the like. The node for“find location” may be activated based on the text“Any” or“Any good,” generated from user speech 1108, for example. The node for“restaurant information” may be activated based on the text“Italian.” A sub-node of“find location,” such as for“location,” for the disambiguated text“around here” may be activated. Based on the activation of actionable intent nodes using the determined domain, device 1100 may determine that the user intent corresponds to a command to find Italian restaurants within 5 miles of the location corresponding to activated affor dance 1104.
[0233] In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance 1104, a task is performed in furtherance of the command. For example, in response to determining that the user intent corresponds to finding Italian restaurants, device 1100 may display an interface (not depicted) including all restaurants that serve Italian within 5 miles of the activated location. In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the user intent does not include a command associated with the affordance, at least one command associated with the affordance is provided. For example, while interacting with maps application 1106, the user may activate affordance 1104 and provide speech input including“Send a new e-mail to these people.” Device 1000 may determine that the speech input corresponds to a command to send a new e-mail, although may further determine that the commands associated with affordance 1104 within maps application 1106 do not include a command for sending a new e-mail. In response to the determination, at least one command associated with affordance 1104 is provided. For example, device 1100 may provide exemplary commands which are associated with affordance 1104, such as“You can say‘find movie showtimes around here’” or“Try saying ‘how long is traffic between here and San Francisco.’” In some examples, other commands associated with affordances within a maps application 1106 may include commands for finding alternative routes, locating open businesses, finding concerts or other activities, searching for public transit, and the like.
[0234] FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, a user 1202 may interact with electronic device 1200 in order to perform one or more actions within a media application 1206. In some examples, a first input including activation of an affordance is received, such as activation of affordance 1204. Affordances within a media application 1206 may be associated with a one or more media items, such as photos, videos, or a collection of one or more photos and videos, for example. Affordance 1204 may correspond to a photo of a plurality of photos. Other affordances within media application may be activated, such as affordances for moving to a different set of media items (e.g., moving to media from a different day, month, or year) or selecting multiple media items. In some examples, a domain associated with affordance 1204 is determined. For example, a domain associated with one or more of“media” or“photos” may be determined based on the activation of a photo, such as affordance 1204. In some examples, a second input including user speech, such as user speech 1208, is received. User speech 1208 may include the phrase “Send this one to John,” for example.
[0235] In some examples, a user intent is determined based on the determined domain and the received user speech. In some examples, an ambiguous term, such as“this,” in user speech 1208“Send this one to John” may be disambiguated based on information associated with photos application 1206. In some examples, a reference to“this,”“that,”“those,” “these,” and the like, may be disambiguated based on the currently activated affordance 1204, which corresponds to a specific photo. A determination is then made that the ambiguous term“this” refers to the specific photo activated by the user input.
[0236] In some examples, a determined domain of“media” or“photos” may be associated with property nodes for media or photo related properties such as“enhance,” “contrast,”“brightness,”“crop,” or other universal properties such as“share,”“delete,” and the like. The node for“share” may be activated based on the text“Send this” generated from user speech 1208, for example. The node for“photos” may be activated based on the disambiguated text meaning the specific photo corresponding to activated affordance 1204, for example. A sub-node for“Share” corresponding to“recipient” may be activated based on the text“John.” Based on the activation of actionable intent nodes using the determined domain, device 1200 may determine that the user intent corresponds to a command to send the specific photo to a contact in the user’s address book named John.
[0237] In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with affordance 1204, a task is performed in furtherance of the command. For example, in response to determining that the user intent corresponds to a command to send the specific photo to a contact in the user’s address book named John, device 900 may display an interface such as a messaging or e-mail interface. The displayed interface may further be auto-populated with the recipient as the user’s contact“John,” and with an attachment including the specific photo activated via affordance 1204. In some examples, other commands associated with affordances within a photos application 1206 may include commands for editing media, rearranging media, deleting media, creating a media album, and the like. [0238] FIG. 13 illustrates an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, a user 1302 may interact with electronic device 1300 in order to perform one or more actions on a main screen of device 1300. In some examples, a main screen of device 1300 includes one or more displayed notifications 1306. In some examples, a first input including activation of an affordance is received, such as activation of affordance 1304 associated with a notification 1306. Notifications 1306 may correspond to alerts or other indications regarding events received at the device, such notifications regarding received messages, news alerts, voicemails, missed calls, application updates, sports scores, and the like. In some examples, in accordance with receiving a first input including activation of an affordance, a second affordance is displayed proximate to the affordance. For example, in response to user 1302 activating affordance 1304, corresponding to notification 1306, additional affordances 1310 and 1312 may be displayed. Activation of affordances 1310 may cause one or more tasks to be performed, such as marking a notification as completed or reminding the user about the notification at a later time. Affordance 1312 may also be displayed, and activation of affordance 1312 may cause audio input to be sampled. For example, in response to user 1302 activating affordance 1312, audio input may be sampled in order to receive additional user speech input. The additional speech input may be processed as discussed herein, in order to perform a command associated with activated affordance 1304.
[0239] FIGS. 14A-B illustrate an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, with reference to FIG. 14A, a user 1402 may interact with electronic device 1400 in order to perform dictation. In some examples, an input 1404 including activation of a text input area 1406 is received. A text input area 1406 may be included within an application in which a user may enter text, for example, a text input area for an instant messaging application, an e-mail application, a web browser, a social media application, a notes application, and the like. In some examples, the input is received from a secondary device, such as a remote controller or smartphone. For example, the text input area may be associated with a media application displayed on a television, such as a search bar for searching media items. The secondary device may be in communication with the television via a set-top box, such that a user may activate text input area on the television from the secondary device.
[0240] In some examples, a determination is made whether activation of text input area 1406 is associated with a predetermined input type. For example, user inputs may be associated with different pressures or durations. In some examples, determination is made whether the input is associated with a contact of a predetermined duration. A predetermined input type may correspond to any inputs of a duration greater than a threshold duration, such as three seconds, for example. In some examples, determination is made whether the input includes a first contact of a first duration and a second contact of a different duration. For example, the predetermined input type may correspond to a short press following by a long press, or a long press followed by a short press. In some examples, determination is made whether the input including activation of the text input area is associated with a pressure greater than a predetermined threshold pressure. For example, if a user only lightly taps the text input area, the text input area is not activated. In some examples, when activation of the text input area is not associated with the predetermined input type, the activation may be associated with other input types. For example, an input having a duration shorter than a threshold duration, and/or less than a predetermined threshold pressure, may cause one or more functions to be performed. Such functions may include, for example, activation of a menu 1410 including functions for cut, copy, paste, and the like.
[0241] In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, audio input is sampled. For example, audio input may be sampled prior to the activation of text input area 1406, or the audio input may be sampled upon activation of text input area 1406. In some examples, a predetermined duration of audio data is continuously stored, such as a most recent duration of audio. In accordance with determining activation of text input area 1406 is associated with a predetermined input type, the predetermined duration of the received audio data is obtained, where audio data is sampled based on the predetermined duration of received audio.
Optionally, menu 1410 may further include an affordance for activating speech recognition. For example, when determination is made that the input corresponds to a predetermined input type, an affordance for activating speech recognition is displayed within menu 1410. In some examples, audio input may be sampled when a user input activates the affordance for speech recognition. For example, when a user does not activate the affordance for activating speech recognition, audio sampling does not occur.
[0242] In some examples, audio input may be sampled from a secondary device, such as a remote controller, smartphone, watch, or Bluetooth headset. For example, when a text input area is associated with an application displayed on a television, a user may both activate text input area on the television from the secondary device, and provide audio input through the secondary device. In some examples, an output is provided upon activation of the text input area, such as a visual, audible, or haptic output. For example, a device being held by the user, such as electronic device 1400 or a secondary device, may vibrate in response to the audio input being sampled. The output may indicate to a user that audio input is being sampled for speech recognition, for example, in order to dictate user speech into the text input area.
[0243] In some examples, the audio input is sampled based on different conditions. For example, while sampling the audio data, a determination is made whether the input including activation of the text input area 1406 is maintained. A user may, for example, activate the text input area 1406 by providing input 1404 and continuing to contact the device screen. In accordance with a determination that the input including activation of the text input area 1406 is maintained, sampling of the audio data is continued, for example. In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the input including activation of the text input area 1406 is not maintained, sampling of the audio data is discontinued. For example, after contacting screen for ten seconds and providing speech input, the user may release input 1404, and sampling of audio data is then discontinued. In some examples, upon sampling audio data, determination is made whether a predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, such as a most recent duration of audio. In accordance with a determination that the
predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, sampling of the audio data continues. For example, so long as the user continues to provide speech input to the device 1400, audio data will continue to be sampled. In accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio does not include user speech, sampling of the audio data is discontinued.
For example, once the user stops providing audio input to device 1400, audio sampling stops.
[0244] In some examples, a text representation is determined based on the sampled audio data. For example, text may be determined as audio data containing user speech is sampled. In some examples, the text representation is determined based on a predetermined duration of audio data, such as a most recent duration of received audio data. For example, audio data is continuously received, and a predetermined duration of the audio data is stored. In accordance with receiving a user input 1404 including activation of the text input area 1406, the stored duration of audio data is sampled, where at least a portions of the text
representation is determined based on the sampled duration. For example, with reference to FIG. 14B, if a user begins providing speech input 1408 including“How about Italian,” although has not yet activated text input area 1406, the full speech input“How about Italian” is still captured based on the predetermined duration of audio when the user activates text input area 1406 shortly after beginning to speak. At least a portion of the generated text is then based on the stored duration.
[0245] In some examples, an output including the representation is provided within the text input area. For example, transcription 1412 may be displayed within text input area 1406. In some examples, the text representation may be displayed while the text
representation is determined based on the sampled audio data. For example, the transcription 1412 of the speech input 1408 is provided in real-time as the user speaks the input 1408.
[0246] FIGS. 15A-B illustrate an exemplary process for multi-modal inputs. For example, a user 1502 may interact with electronic device 1500 in order to determine whether displayed affordances are associated with one or more voice commands. Device 1500 may display one or more affordances, such as affordance 1504. In some examples, a user input 1502 is received, corresponding to one or more affordances, such as affordance 1504. For example, a user input may correspond to a contact on the display of the device. In some examples, receiving an input includes detecting an object, such as a finger of the user, in proximity of the display. For example, one or more proximity sensors may detect that a finger of the user 1502 is positioned close to affordance 1504, such as within a predetermined threshold distance of the display screen at a location corresponding to the affordance 1504.
In some examples, receiving an input includes detecting a cursor positioned over an affordance. For example, when the device corresponds to a personal computer, such as a laptop, a user may interact with affordances using a mouse or trackpad to control a cursor. Receiving the input may include, for example, detecting that the cursor controlled by the user is positioned over a displayed affordance. In some examples, user preferences may determine when to detect such inputs, such as only detecting direct inputs on an affordance (e.g., tap or touch), or permitting detection of more passive inputs related to an affordance (e.g., a“mouse-over” gesture). In some examples, the input is received from a secondary device, such as a remote controller or smartphone. For example, the affordances may be displayed on a television communicatively coupled to the secondary device via a set-top box, where the user provides an input corresponding to a displayed affordance through a secondary device.
[0247] In some examples, determination is made whether the affordance corresponding to the input is associated with one or more voice commands. For example, one or more voice commands may be compatible with an application associated with the affordance 1504, which may correspond to an e-mail application. The command“create new e-mail” may be associated with the e-mail application, for example. In some examples, certain commands, such as default commands, may be compatible with all or nearly all affordances. For example, a share command, a help command, a delete command, or a search command may be compatible with all or nearly all affordances. A share command may cause an application or element associated with an application to be shared with another user (e.g., through text message or e-mail), for example. A help command may, for example, cause additional information regarding an affordance to be provided to the user. A delete command may delete an application, or element associated with the affordance (e.g., a photo in a photos application), from the device, for example. In some examples, a search command may initiate a search function associated with an application or element (e.g., a search within an e- mail inbox).
[0248] In some examples, determining whether affordance 1504 is associated with one or more voice commands includes determining whether the affordance 1504 is associated with one or more voice commands not included in a plurality of default voice commands. For example, an affordance may only be associated with the default voice commands, and not associated with additional voice commands. Additional voice commands may be associated with an affordance by providing updates to an application or an element associated with the application, for example, by a vendor of an application.
[0249] In some examples, in accordance with a determination that affordance 1504 is associated with one or more voice commands, an output 1506 is provided to indicate that the affordance 1504 is associated with one or more voice commands. For example, output 1506 may be displayed proximate to affordance 1504. The output 1506 may indicate to user 1502 that affordance 1504 can be interacted with via a voice command, for example. In some examples, the output is displayed for a predetermined duration (e.g., three seconds). The output may include one or more indications regarding voice command compatibility, such as a plurality of dots within a circle. In some examples, the output may include a visual effect around the affordance, such as a glow or visual vibration. In some examples, the output may include an audible and/or haptic output in addition to or instead of a visual output. In some examples, the output is provided at a secondary device in addition to or instead of at the device at which the affordance is displayed. For example, a user may provide the input via a secondary device, such as a remote controller or smartphone. The output, such as a haptic output, may be provided at the secondary device to indicate that the affordance corresponding to the user input is associated with one or more voice commands. The output may further be provided at an additional device, such as a smartwatch or Bluetooth headset communicatively coupled to the device at which the affordance is displayed and/or the secondary device.
[0250] In some examples, providing output 1506 includes determining whether the input is maintained. For example, output 1506 may continue to be provided in accordance with a determination that the first input is maintained. The user 1502 may provide an input by momentarily contacting or hovering a finger over affordance 1504, for example. While the user provides the input, output 1506 may continue to be displayed. In accordance with a determination that the first input is not maintained (e.g., the user releases contact or moves the finger away from affordance 1504), display of output 1506 is discontinued.
[0251] FIG. 16 illustrates process 1600 for providing multi-modal inputs, according to various examples. Process 1600 is performed, for example, using one or more electronic devices implementing a digital assistant. In some examples, process 1600 is performed using a client-server system (e.g., system 100), and the blocks of process 1600 are divided up in any manner between the server (e.g., DA server 106) and a client device. In other examples, the blocks of process 1600 are divided up between the server and multiple client devices (e.g., a mobile phone and a smart watch). Thus, while portions of process 1600 are described herein as being performed by particular devices of a client-server system, it will be appreciated that process 1600 is not so limited. In other examples, process 1600 is performed using only a client device (e.g., user device 104) or only multiple client devices. In process 1600, some blocks are, optionally, combined, the order of some blocks is, optionally, changed, and some blocks are, optionally, omitted. In some examples, additional steps may be performed in combination with the process 1600.
[0252] At block 1602, the electronic device receives a first input including activation of an affordance. In some examples, receiving the first input including activation of the affordance includes determining whether the first input is associated with a pressure greater than a predetermined threshold, and in accordance with a determination that the first input is associated with a pressure greater than the predetermined threshold, determining that the first input is received. In some examples, receiving the first input including activation of the affordance includes receiving, at a position on a display of the electronic device, a first contact associated with a first duration, and receiving, at the position on the display, a second contact associated with a second duration, wherein the second duration is longer than the first duration. In some examples, receiving the first input including activation of the affordance includes receiving, at a first position on a display of the electronic device, a first contact, detecting a swipe gesture on the display, detecting, at a second position on the display, a release of the contact, and determining the affordance based on an area associated with the first position, the swipe gesture, and the second position. These features improve digital assistants by maintaining existing functionality on the device based on specific input types (e.g., a short press for an existing function), and extending functionality to multi-modal inputs for voice commands based on a variety of additional input types (e.g., pressure-based inputs or gesture-based inputs). In other words, the system maximizes different input types in order to achieve multi-modal functionality without decreasing usability with respect to existing features.
[0253] In some examples, receiving the first input including activation of the affordance includes detecting a user gaze corresponding to the affordance, wherein the gaze is associated with a predefined duration. In some examples, in accordance with receiving the first input including activation of the affordance, a second affordance is displayed proximate to the affordance, a third input including activation of the second affordance is received, and in accordance with receiving the third input, audio input is sampled to receive the second input. In some examples, the first input is received from a secondary device. By activating the affordance based on additional inputs such as eye gaze or inputs from secondary devices, the multi-modal input system is leveraged across a variety of different device types using different techniques. In turn, the multi-modal system can be extended to interactions involving televisions, smart watches, personal computers, virtual reality systems, home stereos systems, and the like.
[0254] At block 1604, a domain associated with the affordance is determined. In some examples, determining a domain associated with the affordance includes determining at least one attribute associated with the activated affordance, identifying at least one actionable intent node corresponding to the at least one attribute, and determining user intent based on the at least one identified actionable intent node. Determining a domain associated with an affordance is advantageous in improving accuracy for user intent determination. For example, by determining a specific domain associated with an affordance, such as a geographical domain (e.g., corresponding to a maps application) or a media domain (e.g., corresponding to an entertainment application), the system may narrow the possible domains from which a user intent is determined. In other words, by performing domain determination, the system obtains knowledge that a speech input will likely be related to the domain corresponding to an activated affordance. In turn, the system maximizes resource utilization by avoiding intent determination based on irrelevant domains.
[0255] At block 1606, a second input including user speech is received. In some examples, the second input is received from a secondary device. In some examples, audio data is received, where a predetermined duration of the received audio data is stored, and in accordance with receiving the first input, the predetermined duration of the received audio data is obtained, wherein at least a portion of the second input including user speech is received from the predetermined duration of the received audio data. In some examples, the predetermined duration of audio includes a most recent duration of audio. In some examples, in accordance with receiving the first input, audio input is sampled to receive the second input, a determination is made whether the first input is maintained, where in accordance with a determination that the first input is maintained, sampling the audio input is continued, and in accordance with a determination that the first input is not maintained, sampling the audio input is discontinued. In some examples, in response to receiving the first input, audio input is sampled to receive the second input, where based on the sampling, a determination is made whether a predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, and in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, sampling the audio input is continued, and in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio does not include user speech, sampling the audio input is discontinued. In some examples, the predetermined duration of audio includes a most recent duration of audio. By sampling audio based on various different conditions, the system provides a user with multiple ways with which to provide voice commands after an affordance is activated. For example, the user can press and hold an affordance, and provide speech while the affordance is continuously held by the user. Alternatively, if the user does not wish or is unable to continuously press the affordance, the user can provide speech, and audio sampling will be discontinued automatically once the user stops speaking. Furthermore, the user can provide speech via a secondary device if more convenient. Each of these methods improves user experience by maximizing options available to the user.
[0256] At block 1608, a user intent is determined based on the domain and the user speech. In some examples, an affordance type is determined, where in accordance with a determination that the affordance type corresponds to a predetermined type, at least one attribute associated with displayed content is determined, and the user intent is further determined based on the at least one attribute. In some examples, the affordance type corresponds to at least one of a mail type, a photo type, a map type, a calendar type, or a notification type. By refining user intent determination based on displayed content, the system further optimizes the multi-modal input system. For example, while user intent determination is first enhanced based on domain determination, user speech which remains ambiguous can be disambiguated based on displayed content. For example, if the device has determined a media domain associated with a displayed picture, and the user speech input includes“put this song second,” the device leverages displayed content to satisfy the user request. That is, in the case where a song playlist is displayed, the device may determine that “second” refers to a second position within the displayed playlist, based on attributes associated with the playlist, for example. Intent determination is thus further improved.
[0257] At block 1610, a determination is made whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance. In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the user intent does not include a command associated with the affordance, at least one command associated with the affordance is provided at block 1612. In some examples, the at least one command associated with the affordance includes at least one of a share command, a help command, a delete command, or a search command. By providing a command in this manner, the multi-modal input system provides additional information to a user in the case where a user command is not associated with an activated affordance. For example, a user may routinely utilize a command for“send message” with an instant message or e-mail application. If the user attempts to utilize the command with a newly downloaded application that does not yet perform such functionality, the device will inform the user of currently available commands for the new application, such as default commands available to all applications, or application-specific commands. These features further improve user experience by providing valuable training to the user.
[0255] At block 1614, in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance, a task in furtherance of the command is performed. By performing a task based on multi-modal inputs, the system leverages the strengths of physical“touch” inputs (or other non-speech inputs) together with the strengths of speech inputs to provide an enhanced user experience. Specifically, non-speech inputs such as touch or tap provide the user with the ability to precisely and accurately identify and activate different objects on a displayed screen, while avoiding requiring a user to make many different touch inputs and screen gestures to perform a task. The system further leverages the ease by which a user can complete a request by providing additional instructions via speech input, especially where such instructions would be difficult to perform via touch. User intent determination is further enhanced based on domain determination, resulting in a system that improves upon conventional digital assistants and associated difficulties.
[0256] The operations described above with reference to FIG. 16 are optionally implemented by components depicted in FIGS. 1-4, 6A-6B, and 7A-7C. For example, the operations of process 1600 may be implemented by one or more of operating system 718, applications module 724, I/O processing module 728, STT processing module 730, natural language processing module 732, vocabulary index 744, task flow processing module 736, service processing module 738, media service(s) 120-1, or processor(s) 220, 410, 704. It would be clear to a person having ordinary skill in the art how other processes are implemented based on the components depicted in FIGS. 1-4, 6A-6B, and 7A-7C.
[0257] FIG. 17 illustrates process 1700 for providing multi-modal inputs, according to various examples. Process 1700 is performed, for example, using one or more electronic devices implementing a digital assistant. In some examples, process 1700 is performed using a client-server system (e.g., system 100), and the blocks of process 1700 are divided up in any manner between the server (e.g., DA server 106) and a client device. In other examples, the blocks of process 1700 are divided up between the server and multiple client devices (e.g., a mobile phone and a smart watch). Thus, while portions of process 1700 are described herein as being performed by particular devices of a client-server system, it will be appreciated that process 1700 is not so limited. In other examples, process 1700 is performed using only a client device (e.g., user device 104) or only multiple client devices. In process 1700, some blocks are, optionally, combined, the order of some blocks is, optionally, changed, and some blocks are, optionally, omitted. In some examples, additional steps may be performed in combination with the process 1700.
[0258] At block 1702, the electronic device receives an input including activation of a text input area. In some examples, the input is received from a secondary device. In some examples, the text input area corresponds to at least one of an instant messaging text field, an e-mail text field, a calendar event text field, a notes field, a social media text field, or a search text field. By activating a text input area based on inputs at the device or from a secondary device, the system provides a user with different options to activate text fields that are prevalent in many different application and settings. For example, the user can activate a text input area to compose an e-mail on the device, or can alternatively activate a text input area on a television to compose an e-mail from a secondary device, such as a smartphone. These varied inputs improve user experience by allowing activation of text input areas across a plurality of devices.
[0259] At block 1704, a determination is made whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type. In some examples, determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type includes determining whether the input including activation of the text input area is associated with a contact of a predetermined duration. In some examples, determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type includes determining whether the input including activation of the text input area is associated with a pressure greater than a predetermined threshold pressure. In some examples, determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type includes receiving, within the text input area, a first contact associated with a first duration, and receiving, within the text input area, a second contact associated with a second duration, wherein the second duration is longer than the first duration. By determining whether activation is associated with a predetermined input type, the system maintains existing functionality on the device, such as a quick tap for an existing function, and extends functionality to multi-modal inputs for voice commands based on additional input types, such as inputs based on pressure or timing. In turn, the system maximizes different input types in order to achieve multi-modal functionality without decreasing usability of existing features.
[0260] At block 1706, in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, audio data is sampled. In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, audio data is received from a secondary device, and sampling audio data includes sampling the audio data received from the secondary device. In some examples, in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, an output is provided to indicate an initiation of speech recognition, wherein the output includes at least one of an audible output, a visual output, or a haptic output. In some examples, while sampling the audio data, a determination is made whether the input including activation of the text input area is maintained, where in accordance with a determination that the input including activation of the text input area is maintained, sampling the audio data is continued, and in accordance with a determination that the input including activation of the text input area is not maintained, sampling the audio data is discontinued. In some examples, a determination is made whether a predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, where in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, sampling the audio data is continued, and in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio does not include user speech, sampling the audio data is discontinued. In some examples, the predetermined duration of audio includes a most recent duration of audio. By sampling audio based on various different conditions, the system provides a user with multiple ways with which to provide input text after a text input area is activated. For example, the user can press and hold the text input area, and provide speech while the area is continuously held by the user. Alternatively, if the user does not wish or is unable to continuously press the text input area, the user can provide speech, and audio sampling will be discontinued automatically once the user stops speaking. Furthermore, the user can provide speech via a secondary device if more convenient or necessary. Each of these methods improves user experience by maximizing options available to the user.
[0261] At block 1708, a text representation is determined based on the sampled audio data. In some examples, audio data is received, where a predetermined duration of the received audio data is stored, and in accordance with receiving the input including activation of the text input area, the predetermined duration of audio data sampled, where at least a portion of the text representation is determined based on the sampled predetermined duration of audio data. In some examples, the predetermined duration of received audio data includes a most recent duration of audio. By sampling a stored duration of audio, the system ensures that any speech received prior to user activation of the text input area will be captured and included in a generated text representation. For example, a user may momentarily begin dictating to the device before activating the text input area. The system thus avoids the case where such audio would not be included in the dictated text, by accounting for a
predetermined duration of audio received prior to activation of the text input area. These features improve user experience by eliminating the strict sequence of user inputs (e.g., touch then speak) that would be required without such features.
[0262] At block 1710, an output including the text representation is provided within the text input area. In some examples, providing, within the text input area, an output including the text representation includes, while determining the text representation based on the sampled audio data, displaying text within the text input area, wherein the displayed text corresponds to a determined portion of the text representation. By providing the text representation within the text input area, and while the text representation is being determined, the user is able to view generated results as the user speaks, allowing the user to revise the dictated text if necessary. Such features improve user experience by providing enhanced feedback and real-time dictation.
[0263] The operations described above with reference to FIG. 17 are optionally implemented by components depicted in FIGS. 1-4, 6A-6B, and 7A-7C. For example, the operations of process 1700 may be implemented by one or more of operating system 718, applications module 724, I/O processing module 728, STT processing module 730, natural language processing module 732, vocabulary index 744, task flow processing module 736, service processing module 738, media service(s) 120-1, or processor(s) 220, 410, 704. It would be clear to a person having ordinary skill in the art how other processes are implemented based on the components depicted in FIGS. 1-4, 6A-6B, and 7A-7C.
[0264] FIG. 18 illustrates process 1800 for providing multi-modal inputs, according to various examples. Process 1800 is performed, for example, using one or more electronic devices implementing a digital assistant. In some examples, process 1800 is performed using a client-server system (e.g., system 100), and the blocks of process 1800 are divided up in any manner between the server (e.g., DA server 106) and a client device. In other examples, the blocks of process 1800 are divided up between the server and multiple client devices (e.g., a mobile phone and a smart watch). Thus, while portions of process 1800 are described herein as being performed by particular devices of a client-server system, it will be appreciated that process 1800 is not so limited. In other examples, process 1800 is performed using only a client device (e.g., user device 104) or only multiple client devices. In process 1800, some blocks are, optionally, combined, the order of some blocks is, optionally, changed, and some blocks are, optionally, omitted. In some examples, additional steps may be performed in combination with the process 1800.
[0265] At block 1802, one or more affordances are displayed.
[0266] At block 1804, an input corresponding to an affordance of the one or more affordances is received. In some examples, the input includes a user contact on a display of the electronic device. In some examples, receiving an input includes detecting an object in proximity of the affordance. In some examples, receiving an input includes detecting a cursor positioned over the affordance. In some examples, the input is received from a secondary device. By detecting a variety of different input types, the system leverages varying levels of user interaction with the device. For example, inputs may be detected based on a direct user input, such as a touch or tap on the screen, and inputs may further be detected by more passive inputs such as a“mouse-over” or“hover” over an affordance. Detecting varying levels of user interaction facilitates varying levels of intrusiveness for discovering useful features of the device.
[0267] At block 1806, a determination is made whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands. In some examples, determining whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands includes determining a plurality of default voice commands, and determining whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands not included in the plurality of default voice commands. By distinguishing between default commands and additional commands, the device enhances discoverability by only providing notifications when an affordance is associated with unique commands. For example, all affordances may be associated with a default set of voice commands, such that discoverability does not apply to such commands (e.g., doing so would cause display an output for all affordances).
[0268] At block 1808, in accordance with a determination that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands, an output is provided to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands. In some examples, providing an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands includes displaying an output for a predetermined duration. In some examples, providing an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands includes determining whether the input is maintained, where in accordance with a determination that the first input is maintained, providing the output is continued, and in accordance with a determination that the first input is not maintained, providing the output is discontinued. In some examples, the output is provided at a secondary device. In some examples, the output includes at least one of an audible output, a visual output, or a haptic output. By providing outputs based on different conditions or at different devices, the system enhances function discoverability by varying the level of intrusiveness when providing outputs. For example, outputs may only appear for a predetermined duration, or only while a user input is detected. By further providing haptic or audible outputs, the device may provide a more subtle way of informing the user that an affordance is associated with one or more voice commands. Each of these features improves user experience by providing valuable training to the user regarding features that the user may have previously been unaware of. As a result, device functionality and user productivity is maximized.
[0269] The operations described above with reference to FIG. 18 are optionally implemented by components depicted in FIGS. 1-4, 6A-6B, and 7A-7C. For example, the operations of process 1800 may be implemented by one or more of operating system 718, applications module 724, I/O processing module 728, STT processing module 730, natural language processing module 732, vocabulary index 744, task flow processing module 736, service processing module 738, media service(s) 120-1, or processor(s) 220, 410, 704. It would be clear to a person having ordinary skill in the art how other processes are implemented based on the components depicted in FIGS. 1-4, 6A-6B, and 7A-7C.
[0270] In accordance with some implementations, a computer-readable storage medium (e.g., a non-transitory computer readable storage medium) is provided, the computer-readable storage medium storing one or more programs for execution by one or more processors of an electronic device, the one or more programs including instructions for performing any of the methods or processes described herein.
[0271] In accordance with some implementations, an electronic device (e.g., a portable electronic device) is provided that comprises means for performing any of the methods or processes described herein.
[0272] In accordance with some implementations, an electronic device (e.g., a portable electronic device) is provided that comprises a processing unit configured to perform any of the methods or processes described herein.
[0273] In accordance with some implementations, an electronic device (e.g., a portable electronic device) is provided that comprises one or more processors and memory storing one or more programs for execution by the one or more processors, the one or more programs including instructions for performing any of the methods or processes described herein.
[0274] The foregoing description, for purpose of explanation, has been described with reference to specific embodiments. However, the illustrative discussions above are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in view of the above teachings. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the techniques and their practical applications. Others skilled in the art are thereby enabled to best utilize the techniques and various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.
[0275] Although the disclosure and examples have been fully described with reference to the accompanying drawings, it is to be noted that various changes and modifications will become apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications are to be understood as being included within the scope of the disclosure and examples as defined by the claims.
[0276] As described above, one aspect of the present technology is the gathering and use of data available from various sources to improve multi-modal inputs for voice commands. The present disclosure contemplates that in some instances, this gathered data may include personal information data that uniquely identifies or can be used to contact or locate a specific person. Such personal information data can include demographic data, location- based data, telephone numbers, email addresses, twiher IDs, home addresses, data or records relating to a user’s health or level of fitness (e.g., vital signs measurements, medication information, exercise information), date of birth, or any other identifying or personal information.
[0277] The present disclosure recognizes that the use of such personal information data, in the present technology, can be used to the benefit of users. For example, the personal information data can be used to beher understand user utterances, for example, for user intent determination. Accordingly, use of such personal information data may enable user intent determination based on user preferences, for example. Further, other uses for personal information data that benefit the user are also contemplated by the present disclosure. For instance, health and fitness data may be used to provide insights into a user’s general wellness, or may be used as positive feedback to individuals using technology to pursue wellness goals.
[0278] The present disclosure contemplates that the entities responsible for the collection, analysis, disclosure, transfer, storage, or other use of such personal information data will comply with well-established privacy policies and/or privacy practices. In particular, such entities should implement and consistently use privacy policies and practices that are generally recognized as meeting or exceeding industry or governmental requirements for maintaining personal information data private and secure. Such policies should be easily accessible by users, and should be updated as the collection and/or use of data changes. Personal information from users should be collected for legitimate and reasonable uses of the entity and not shared or sold outside of those legitimate uses. Further, such collection/sharing should occur after receiving the informed consent of the users. Additionally, such entities should consider taking any needed steps for safeguarding and securing access to such personal information data and ensuring that others with access to the personal information data adhere to their privacy policies and procedures. Further, such entities can subject themselves to evaluation by third parties to certify their adherence to widely accepted privacy policies and practices. In addition, policies and practices should be adapted for the particular types of personal information data being collected and/or accessed and adapted to applicable laws and standards, including jurisdiction-specific considerations. For instance, in the US, collection of or access to certain health data may be governed by federal and/or state laws, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); whereas health data in other countries may be subject to other regulations and policies and should be handled accordingly. Hence different privacy practices should be maintained for different personal data types in each country.
[0279] Despite the foregoing, the present disclosure also contemplates embodiments in which users selectively block the use of, or access to, personal information data. That is, the present disclosure contemplates that hardware and/or software elements can be provided to prevent or block access to such personal information data. For example, in the case of a user enrollment process for speech recognition, the present technology can be configured to allow users to select to“opt in” or“opt out” of the enrollment process, which may utilize personal information from the user such as voice characteristics. In another example, users can select to“opt in” or“opt out” of a process that automatically listens for a spoken trigger. In yet another example, users can select to“opt in” or“opt out” of a process that automatically listens for a spoken trigger. In addition to providing“opt in” and“opt out” options, the present disclosure contemplates providing notifications relating to the access or use of personal information. For instance, a user may be notified upon downloading an app that their personal information data will be accessed and then reminded again just before personal information data is accessed by the app.
[0280] Moreover, it is the intent of the present disclosure that personal information data should be managed and handled in a way to minimize risks of unintentional or unauthorized access or use. Risk can be minimized by limiting the collection of data and deleting data once it is no longer needed. In addition, and when applicable, including in certain health related applications, data de-identification can be used to protect a user’s privacy. De- identification may be facilitated, when appropriate, by removing specific identifiers (e.g., date of birth, etc.), controlling the amount or specificity of data stored (e.g., collecting location data at a city level rather than at an address level), controlling how data is stored (e.g., aggregating data across users), and/or other methods.
[0281] Therefore, although the present disclosure broadly covers use of personal information data to implement one or more various disclosed embodiments, the present disclosure also contemplates that the various embodiments can also be implemented without the need for accessing such personal information data. That is, the various embodiments of the present technology are not rendered inoperable due to the lack of all or a portion of such personal information data. For example, multi-modal input methods for voice commands can be performed based on non-personal information data or a bare minimum amount of personal information, such as the content being requested by the device associated with a user, other non-personal information available to the intelligent automated assistant, or publicly available information.

Claims

What is claimed is:
1 A method, comprising:
at an electronic device with one or more processors and memory:
receiving a first input including activation of an affordance;
determining a domain associated with the affordance;
receiving a second input including user speech;
determining a user intent based on the domain and the user speech;
determining whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance; and
in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance, performing a task in furtherance of the command.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein receiving the first input including activation of the affordance comprises:
determining whether the first input is associated with a pressure greater than a predetermined threshold; and
in accordance with a determination that the first input is associated with a pressure greater than the predetermined threshold, determining that the first input is received.
3. The method of any of claims 1-2, wherein receiving the first input including activation of the affordance comprises:
receiving, at a position on a display of the electronic device, a first contact associated with a first duration; and
receiving, at the position on the display, a second contact associated with a second duration, wherein the second duration is longer than the first duration.
4. The method of any of claims 1-3, wherein receiving the first input including activation of the affordance comprises:
receiving, at a first position on a display of the electronic device, a first contact; detecting a swipe gesture on the display;
detecting, at a second position on the display, a release of the contact; and determining the affordance based on an area associated with the first position, the swipe gesture, and the second position.
5. The method of any of claims 1-4, wherein receiving the first input including activation of the affordance comprises:
detecting a user gaze corresponding to the affordance, wherein the gaze is associated with a predefined duration.
6. The method of any of claims 1-5, comprising:
in accordance with receiving the first input including activation of the affordance, displaying a second affordance proximate to the affordance;
receiving a third input including activation of the second affordance; and
in accordance with receiving the third input, sampling audio input to receive the second input.
7. The method of any of claims 1-4 and 6, wherein the first input is received from a secondary device.
8. The method of any of claims 1-4 and 6-7, wherein the second input is received from a secondary device.
9. The method of any of claims 1-8, wherein determining a domain associated with the affordance comprises: determining at least one attribute associated with the activated affordance;
identifying at least one actionable intent node corresponding to the at least one attribute; and
determining the user intent based on the at least one identified actionable intent node.
10. The method of any of claims 1-9, comprising:
determining an affordance type;
in accordance with a determination that the affordance type corresponds to a predetermined type, determining at least one attribute associated with displayed content; and determining the user intent based on the at least one attribute.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein the affordance type corresponds to at least one of a mail type, a photo type, a map type, a calendar type, or a notification type.
12. The method of any of claims 1-11, comprising:
in accordance with a determination that the user intent does not include a command associated with the affordance, providing at least one command associated with the affordance.
13. The method of any of claims 1-12, wherein the at least one command associated with the affordance includes at least one of a share command, a help command, a delete command, or a search command.
14. The method of any of claims 1-13, comprising:
receiving audio data;
storing a predetermined duration of the received audio data;
in accordance with receiving the first input, obtaining the predetermined duration of the received audio data, wherein at least a portion of the second input including user speech is received from the predetermined duration of the received audio data.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein the predetermined duration of audio includes a most recent duration of audio.
16. The method of any of claims 1-13, comprising:
in accordance with receiving the first input, sampling audio input to receive the second input;
determining whether the first input is maintained; and
in accordance with a determination that the first input is maintained, continue sampling the audio input; and
in accordance with a determination that the first input is not maintained, discontinue sampling the audio input.
17. The method of any of claims 1-13, comprising:
in response to receiving the first input, sampling audio input to receive the second input;
determining, based on the sampling, whether a predetermined duration of audio includes user speech;
in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, continue sampling the audio input; and
in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio does not include user speech, discontinue sampling the audio input.
18. The method of claim 16, wherein the predetermined duration of audio includes a most recent duration of audio.
19. A method, comprising:
at an electronic device with one or more processors and memory: receiving an input including activation of a text input area;
determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type;
in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, sampling audio data;
determining a text representation based on the sampled audio data; and
providing, within the text input area, an output including the text representation.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type comprises:
determining whether the input including activation of the text input area is associated with a contact of a predetermined duration.
21. The method of any of claims 19-20, wherein determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type comprises:
determining whether the input including activation of the text input area is associated with a pressure greater than a predetermined threshold pressure.
22. The method of any of claims 19-21, wherein determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type comprises:
receiving, within the text input area, a first contact associated with a first duration; and
receiving, within the text input area, a second contact associated with a second duration, wherein the second duration is longer than the first duration.
23. The method of any of claims 19-22, wherein the input is received from a secondary device.
24. The method of claim 23, further comprising: in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, receiving audio data from a secondary device, wherein sampling audio data includes sampling the audio data received from the secondary device.
25. The method of any of claims 19-24, wherein the text input area corresponds to at least one of an instant messaging text field, an e-mail text field, a calendar event text field, a notes field, a social media text field, or a search text field.
26. The method of any of claims 19-25, further comprising:
in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, providing an output to indicate an initiation of speech recognition, wherein the output includes at least one of an audible output, a visual output, or a haptic output.
27. The method of any of claims 19-26, wherein providing, within the text input area, an output including the text representation comprises:
while determining the text representation based on the sampled audio data, displaying text within the text input area, wherein the displayed text corresponds to a determined portion of the text representation.
28. The method of any of claims 19-27, comprising:
receiving audio data;
storing a predetermined duration of the received audio data;
in accordance with receiving the input including activation of the text input area, sampling the predetermined duration of audio data; and
determining at least a portion of the text representation based on the sampled predetermined duration of audio data.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein the predetermined duration of received audio data includes a most recent duration of audio.
30. The method of any of claims 19-29, comprising:
while sampling the audio data, determining whether the input including activation of the text input area is maintained; and
in accordance with a determination that the input including activation of the text input area is maintained, continue sampling the audio data;
in accordance with a determination that the input including activation of the text input area is not maintained, discontinue sampling the audio data.
31. The method of any of claims 19-29, comprising:
determining whether a predetermined duration of audio includes user speech;
in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio includes user speech, continue sampling the audio data; and
in accordance with a determination that the predetermined duration of audio does not include user speech, discontinue sampling the audio data.
32. The method of claim 31, wherein the predetermined duration of audio includes a most recent duration of audio.
33. A method, comprising:
at an electronic device with one or more processors and memory:
displaying one or more affordances;
receiving an input corresponding to an affordance of the one or more affordances; determining whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands; and in accordance with a determination that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands, providing an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands.
34. The method of claim 33, wherein the input includes a user contact on a display of the electronic device.
35. The method of claim 33, wherein receiving an input comprises:
detecting an object in proximity of the affordance.
36. The method of claim 33, wherein receiving an input comprises:
detecting a cursor positioned over the affordance.
37. The method of any of claims 33-36, wherein determining whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands comprises:
determining a plurality of default voice commands; and
determining whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands not included in the plurality of default voice commands.
38. The method of any of claims 33-37, wherein providing an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands comprises:
displaying an output for a predetermined duration.
39. The method of any of claims 33-37, wherein providing an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands comprises:
determining whether the input is maintained; and
in accordance with a determination that the first input is maintained, continue providing the output; and in accordance with a determination that the first input is not maintained, discontinue providing the output.
40. The method of any of claims 33-39, wherein the input is received from a secondary device.
41. The method of claim 40, wherein the output is provided at the secondary device.
42. The method of any of claims 33-41, wherein the output includes at least one of an audible output, a visual output, or a haptic output.
43. An electronic device, comprising:
one or more processors;
a memory; and
one or more programs, wherein the one or more programs are stored in the memory and configured to be executed by the one or more processors, the one or more programs including instructions for:
receiving a first input including activation of an affordance;
determining a domain associated with the affordance;
receiving a second input including user speech;
determining a user intent based on the domain and the user speech;
determining whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance; and
in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance, performing a task in furtherance of the command.
44. An electronic device, comprising: one or more processors;
a memory; and
one or more programs, wherein the one or more programs are stored in the memory and configured to be executed by the one or more processors, the one or more programs including instructions for:
receiving an input including activation of a text input area;
determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type;
in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, sampling audio data;
determining a text representation based on the sampled audio data; and
providing, within the text input area, an output including the text representation.
45. An electronic device, comprising:
one or more processors;
a memory; and
one or more programs, wherein the one or more programs are stored in the memory and configured to be executed by the one or more processors, the one or more programs including instructions for:
displaying one or more affordances;
receiving an input corresponding to an affordance of the one or more affordances; determining whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands; and
in accordance with a determination that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands, providing an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands.
46. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium storing one or more programs, the one or more programs comprising instructions, which when executed by one or more processors of an electronic device, cause the electronic device to:
receive a first input including activation of an affordance;
determine a domain associated with the affordance;
receive a second input including user speech;
determine a user intent based on the domain and the user speech;
determine whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance; and
in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance, perform a task in furtherance of the command.
47. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium storing one or more programs, the one or more programs comprising instructions, which when executed by one or more processors of an electronic device, cause the electronic device to:
receive an input including activation of a text input area;
determine whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type;
in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type, sample audio data;
determine a text representation based on the sampled audio data; and
provide, within the text input area, an output including the text representation.
48. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium storing one or more programs, the one or more programs comprising instructions, which when executed by one or more processors of an electronic device, cause the electronic device to:
display one or more affordances;
receive an input corresponding to an affordance of the one or more affordances; determine whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands; and
in accordance with a determination that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands, provide an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands.
49. An electronic device, comprising:
means for receiving a first input including activation of an affordance;
means for determining a domain associated with the affordance;
means for receiving a second input including user speech;
means for determining a user intent based on the domain and the user speech;
means for determining whether the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance; and
means for performing a task in furtherance of the command, wherein the task is performed in accordance with a determination that the user intent includes a command associated with the affordance.
50. An electronic device, comprising:
means for receiving an input including activation of a text input area;
means for determining whether the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type;
means for sampling audio data, wherein the audio data is sampled in accordance with a determination that the activation of the text input area is associated with a predetermined input type;
means for determining a text representation based on the sampled audio data; and means for providing, within the text input area, an output including the text representation.
51. An electronic device, comprising:
means for displaying one or more affordances;
means for receiving an input corresponding to an affordance of the one or more affordances;
means for determining whether the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands; and
means for providing an output to indicate that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands, wherein the output is provided in accordance with a determination that the affordance is associated with one or more voice commands.
52. An electronic device, comprising:
one or more processors;
a memory; and
one or more programs, wherein the one or more programs are stored in the memory and configured to be executed by the one or more processors, the one or more programs including instructions for performing the methods of any one of claims 1-18.
53. An electronic device, comprising:
one or more processors;
a memory; and
one or more programs, wherein the one or more programs are stored in the memory and configured to be executed by the one or more processors, the one or more programs including instructions for performing the methods of any one of claims 19-32.
54. An electronic device, comprising:
one or more processors;
a memory; and one or more programs, wherein the one or more programs are stored in the memory and configured to be executed by the one or more processors, the one or more programs including instructions for performing the methods of any one of claims 33-42.
55. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium storing one or more programs, the one or more programs comprising instructions, which when executed by one or more processors of an electronic device, cause the electronic device to perform the methods of any one of claims 1-18.
56. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium storing one or more programs, the one or more programs comprising instructions, which when executed by one or more processors of an electronic device, cause the electronic device to perform the methods of any one of claims 19-32.
57. A non-transitory computer-readable storage medium storing one or more programs, the one or more programs comprising instructions, which when executed by one or more processors of an electronic device, cause the electronic device to perform the methods of any one of claims 33-42.
58. An electronic device, comprising:
means for performing the methods of any one of claims 1-18.
59. An electronic device, comprising:
means for performing the methods of any one of claims 19-32.
60. An electronic device, comprising:
means for performing the methods of any one of claims 33-42.
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