WO2019096252A1 - Mechanics simulation test system of roadway support under combined dynamic and static loads and method therefor - Google Patents

Mechanics simulation test system of roadway support under combined dynamic and static loads and method therefor Download PDF

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WO2019096252A1
WO2019096252A1 PCT/CN2018/115920 CN2018115920W WO2019096252A1 WO 2019096252 A1 WO2019096252 A1 WO 2019096252A1 CN 2018115920 W CN2018115920 W CN 2018115920W WO 2019096252 A1 WO2019096252 A1 WO 2019096252A1
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plate
clamping plate
rock
anchor
coal
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PCT/CN2018/115920
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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刘学生
谭云亮
徐强
宁建国
范德源
顾清恒
王军
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山东科技大学
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Priority to CN201711144603.9 priority Critical
Priority to CN201711144603.9A priority patent/CN108007781B/en
Application filed by 山东科技大学 filed Critical 山东科技大学
Publication of WO2019096252A1 publication Critical patent/WO2019096252A1/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure

Abstract

A mechanics simulation test system of a roadway support under combined dynamic and static loads and a method therefor, the system comprising a similar material laying system (1), a hydraulic loading system (2), a power system (3), a monitoring system (4) and a control system (5); the similar material laying system (1) comprises a connection frame, a laying platform (12) and a reserved anchor bolt model (13); the laying platform (12) is placed at the interior of the connection frame, and the laying platform (12) is provided thereon with a coal and rock-like layer (14); the coal and rock-like layer (14) is composed of coal and rock-like materials that are laid in sequence in separate layers, and the reserved anchor bolt model (13) is disposed at a middle position of the coal and rock-like layer (14). The test system simultaneously applies a static load and dynamic load having an adjustable size to the coal and rock-like layer (14) such that the stress on rock surrounding the roadway and a support is consistent with actual on-site stress conditions, thereby enabling test results to be more accurate. Meanwhile, operation is simple, stable and reliable, and the test system has great significance in the supportive design of deep mines, tunnels and the like.

Description

动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统及其方法Mechanical simulation test system and method for roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及巷道支护体力学试验系统技术领域,尤其涉及一种动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学试验系统及其使用方法。The invention relates to the technical field of a mechanical test system for roadway support bodies, in particular to a mechanical test system for roadway support bodies under dynamic and static combined loads and a method for using the same.
背景技术Background technique
我国煤炭资源埋深在1000 m以下的储量为2.95 万亿t,约占煤炭资源总量的53%,深部煤层必将成为我国煤炭开采的主战场。据不完全统计,我国已有超过50对矿井进入千米以下开采,在采掘过程中,尽管采用了更大的支护强度,但片帮、冒顶等事故以及冲击地压等动力灾害仍明显增多,严重制约着深部煤炭资源安全高效开采。实践表明,进入深部开采后,井下动载扰动现象增多、动载荷明显增大,巷道中各支护结构实际处于初始静载荷和动载扰动的耦合作用下(即动静组合加载),导致其表现出与浅部明显不同的力学特性。因此,有必要开展动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学响应研究,为深部矿山工程支护设计及评价等提供科学依据。China's coal resources with a depth of less than 1000 m are 2.95 trillion tons, accounting for 53% of the total coal resources. Deep coal seams will become the main battlefield for coal mining in China. According to incomplete statistics, more than 50 pairs of mines in China have been mined below the kilometer. In the process of mining, despite the use of greater support strength, the power hazards such as gangs, roof-top accidents and impact pressures have increased significantly. It severely restricts the safe and efficient mining of deep coal resources. Practice shows that after entering deep mining, the dynamic disturbance of underground wells increases and the dynamic load increases obviously. The supporting structures in the roadway are actually under the coupling of initial static load and dynamic load disturbance (ie, dynamic and static combined loading), resulting in its performance. Significantly different mechanical properties from the shallow part. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out research on the mechanical response of roadway support under dynamic and static combined loads, and provide scientific basis for the design and evaluation of deep mine engineering support.
技术问题technical problem
现有的巷道支护体力学特性测试技术多是对锚杆(索)及其它支护体在受纯静载或纯动载作用下力学响应的测试,无法同时对支护体施加静载荷和动载荷,不能获得其在动静组合载荷作用下的力学响应,而现场工程中,巷道支护体在受到动载扰动前已承受一定静载荷,因此现有测试结果难以为现场提供准确依据。The existing testing techniques for the mechanical properties of roadway support bodies are mostly tests on the mechanical response of anchors (cables) and other support bodies under pure static load or pure dynamic load. It is impossible to apply static load to the support body at the same time. The dynamic load can not obtain the mechanical response under the dynamic and static combined load. In the field engineering, the roadway support body has been subjected to a certain static load before being subjected to the dynamic load disturbance. Therefore, the existing test results are difficult to provide an accurate basis for the site.
而且,现有的巷道支护相似材料模拟试验架多是对铺设模型施加单一的垂直载荷或在垂直载荷的基础上加以等值侧向载荷,模拟巷道所处围岩状态,难以实现水平应力随开采深度增加而变大的应力分布规律,而在现场工程中,水平应力对巷道(特别是深埋巷道)围岩稳定性影响较大,因此现有相似材料试验结果存在明显的局限性。另外,现有相似材料模拟试验中对巷道及其锚杆(索)支护体系的模拟,主要是待铺设材料凝固后在开挖(或提前预留)的巷道内布设锚杆(索)。由于模拟巷道空间窄,锚杆(索)布设困难,费时费力,针对这个问题,发明专利CN103527231B公开了一种巷道支护试验用相似模拟模型的制备方法,通过带有巷道形状的钢模板得到带有巷道形状及锚杆(索)相似材料件的块体,并将块体放在相似材料模拟架上,完成相似材料铺设工作,解决了相似材料模拟巷道中铺设锚杆(索)困难的问题,但由于干燥后得到的带有巷道的块体不能与后期铺设的相似材料完全均匀凝固在一起,提前破坏了巷道围岩的完整性,导致试验结果与实际有偏差。Moreover, the existing roadway support similar material simulation test frame mostly applies a single vertical load to the laying model or equipotential lateral load on the basis of the vertical load, simulating the surrounding rock state of the roadway, and it is difficult to achieve the horizontal stress In the field engineering, the horizontal stress has a great influence on the stability of the surrounding rock of the roadway (especially the deep buried roadway). Therefore, the existing similar material test results have obvious limitations. In addition, in the existing similar material simulation test, the simulation of the roadway and its anchor (cable) support system is mainly to lay anchors (cables) in the roadway after excavation (or reserved in advance) after the material to be laid is solidified. Due to the narrow space of the simulated roadway, the bolt (cable) is difficult to arrange, which is time-consuming and laborious. For this problem, the invention patent CN103527231B discloses a preparation method of a similar simulation model for the roadway support test, which is obtained by a steel template with a tunnel shape. The block has the shape of the roadway and the block of similar material of the anchor (cable), and the block is placed on the similar material simulation frame to complete the similar material laying work, which solves the problem that the similar material is difficult to lay the anchor (cable) in the roadway. However, the block with the roadway obtained after drying cannot be completely uniformly solidified with the similar materials laid later, and the integrity of the surrounding rock of the roadway is damaged in advance, resulting in deviation of the test results from the actual.
因此,有必要对现有试验装备和技术进行改进和发展,以实现巷道支护体在动静组合载荷下力学响应的准确试验测试,从而为现场工程提供准确依据。Therefore, it is necessary to improve and develop the existing test equipment and technology to achieve accurate test test of the mechanical response of the roadway support under dynamic and static combined loads, thus providing an accurate basis for field engineering.
技术解决方案Technical solution
本发明主要是解决现有技术中所存在的技术问题,从而提供一种实验结果准确可靠、且动静载荷可调的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学试验系统及其使用方法。The invention mainly solves the technical problems existing in the prior art, thereby providing a mechanical test system for tunnel support body under dynamic and static combined load with accurate and reliable experimental results and adjustable dynamic and static loads and a using method thereof.
为达到上述目的,本发明采取以下技术方案:In order to achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
一种动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其包括相似材料铺设系统、液压加载系统、动力系统、监测系统和控制系统,A mechanical simulation test system for roadway support body under dynamic and static combined loads, which comprises a similar material laying system, a hydraulic loading system, a power system, a monitoring system and a control system,
所述相似材料铺设系统包括一个至少由底板和两立板组成的试验槽,试验槽内部放置有铺设台,铺设台上设置有煤岩类似层,煤岩类似层由依次分层铺放的煤岩类似材料构成,在煤岩类似层的中部位置处设有预留锚杆模型;在试验槽两立板上方焊接有顶梁,液压加载系统固定在顶梁上; The similar material laying system comprises a test trough composed of at least a bottom plate and two vertical plates, a laying platform is arranged inside the test trough, a coal rock similar layer is arranged on the laying platform, and the coal rock similar layer is layered by successively layered coal. The rock is composed of similar materials, and a reserved anchor model is arranged at a middle position of the coal rock similar layer; a top beam is welded above the two vertical plates of the test slot, and a hydraulic loading system is fixed on the top beam;
所述预留锚杆模型包括一个由底板、顶板和两个立板组成的作为模拟巷道的模型支架;模型支架的左立板、右立板和顶板上均设有多组退位槽,退位槽的一端开口;顶板上间隔设有多组锚杆或锚索组,左立板和右立板上间隔设有多排锚杆,锚杆或锚索穿透左立板、右立板和顶板以及相应的退位槽后用锁具固紧;在模型支架的左右内侧面以及顶部下表面分别通过插接式设有左夹紧板、右夹紧板和顶夹紧板,锚杆或锚索固紧以后的露出端伸进夹紧板中;露出端伸进夹紧板中是为了防止锚索或锚杆在退位槽中移动。The reserved anchor model includes a model bracket composed of a bottom plate, a top plate and two vertical plates as a simulated roadway; the left vertical plate, the right vertical plate and the top plate of the model support are provided with a plurality of sets of retreating slots, and the retreating slots One end is open; a plurality of sets of anchors or anchor cables are arranged at intervals on the top plate, and a plurality of rows of anchors are arranged at intervals on the left vertical plate and the right vertical plate, and the anchor or anchor cable penetrates the left vertical plate, the right vertical plate and the top plate And the corresponding retreat slot is fastened with a lock; the left and right inner side surfaces and the top lower surface of the model bracket are respectively provided with a left clamping plate, a right clamping plate and a top clamping plate, and the anchor or anchor cable is fixed by plugging. The exposed end is inserted into the clamping plate; the exposed end extends into the clamping plate to prevent the anchor or anchor from moving in the positioning groove.
所述液压加载系统包括静载液压油缸、动载冲击油缸和侧向压力机构,静载液压油缸和动载冲击油缸交错固定顶梁的下表面;侧向压力机构设置在煤岩类似层的左右两侧,且用于对所述煤岩类似层的左右两侧施加载荷;The hydraulic loading system comprises a static load hydraulic cylinder, a dynamic impact cylinder and a lateral pressure mechanism, wherein the static load hydraulic cylinder and the dynamic impact cylinder are alternately fixed to the lower surface of the top beam; the lateral pressure mechanism is disposed on the similar layer of the coal rock Both sides, and used to apply loads to the left and right sides of the similar layer of coal rock;
所述动力系统与所述液压加载系统相连接,且用于为所述液压加载系统提供动力;The power system is coupled to the hydraulic loading system and is configured to provide power to the hydraulic loading system;
所述监测系统用于对所述模拟巷道受力及变形进行监测;The monitoring system is configured to monitor the force and deformation of the simulated roadway;
所述控制系统分别与所述液压加载系统、动力系统和监测系统相连接。The control system is coupled to the hydraulic loading system, the power system, and the monitoring system, respectively.
为了便于顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板与模型支架的固定,顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板分别用多组夹紧螺柱和多组夹紧螺纹销顶紧在顶板、左立板和右立板上。In order to facilitate the fixing of the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate to the model bracket, the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate respectively use multiple sets of clamping studs and multiple sets of clamping threads. The pin top is tight on the top plate, left vertical plate and right vertical plate.
为了更好地对煤岩类似层的左右两侧施加载荷,所述侧向压力机构包括推进液压油缸、加力板、推进板、反力弹簧和压力板,所述推进液压油缸的两端分别与加力板和一侧试验槽的立板相连接,加力板的内侧自上而下设有多个滑槽,每个滑槽内设有推进板,压力板对称设置在所述煤岩类似层的左右两侧,反力弹簧外面套上弹簧套筒后连接在推进板和压力板之间,要求反力弹簧的刚度随着所述加力板的高度下降而依次递增,在压力板的外侧还设有反力板。In order to better apply a load to the left and right sides of the similar layer of coal rock, the lateral pressure mechanism includes a propulsion hydraulic cylinder, an afterburning plate, a propulsion plate, a reaction force spring and a pressure plate, and the two ends of the propulsion hydraulic cylinder are respectively The utility model is connected with the force plate and the vertical plate of the one test slot, and the inner side of the force plate is provided with a plurality of sliding grooves from top to bottom, and each sliding groove is provided with a propulsion plate, and the pressure plate is symmetrically disposed on the coal rock On the left and right sides of the similar layer, the reaction spring is sleeved on the outer side of the spring sleeve and connected between the pusher plate and the pressure plate. The stiffness of the reaction force spring is required to increase in sequence as the height of the force plate decreases. There is also a reaction plate on the outside.
进一步地,所述监测系统包括相互连接的信号处理器和信号采集器,所述信号采集器分别经信号传输线与锚杆锚索测力传感器、应变片、围岩应力计和顶板离层仪相连接,所述锚杆锚索测力传感器用于监测锚杆锚索组的压力变化;所述应变片用于监测所述模拟巷道顶板受力下沉;所述围岩应力计用于监测所述模拟巷道左右两侧的煤岩类似层应力变化;所述顶板离层仪用于监测所述模拟巷道顶部的煤岩类似层离层变化。Further, the monitoring system comprises an interconnected signal processor and a signal collector, wherein the signal collector is respectively connected to the anchor cable load force sensor, the strain gauge, the surrounding rock stress meter and the top plate separator by the signal transmission line. Connecting, the anchor cable load cell sensor is used for monitoring the pressure change of the anchor cable group; the strain gauge is used for monitoring the roof of the simulated roadway; the surrounding rock stress meter is used for monitoring The similar stress changes of coal and rock layers on the left and right sides of the simulated roadway are described; the roof separation layer is used to monitor the similar layer-separation changes of coal and rock at the top of the simulated roadway.
进一步地,所述控制系统包括电脑主机、伺服控制器和显示器,所述液压油泵与所述伺服控制器相连接,所述伺服控制器与电脑主机相连接,所述电脑主机还分别与所述显示器和所述信号处理器相连接。Further, the control system includes a computer host, a servo controller, and a display, the hydraulic oil pump is connected to the servo controller, the servo controller is connected to a computer host, and the computer host is also respectively associated with the A display is coupled to the signal processor.
上述左夹紧板、右夹紧板和顶夹紧板与模型支架插接的优选结构是:模型支架的内侧壁上部对称地设有两个第一凹形限位槽,模型支架的底壁设有第二凹形限位槽,顶夹紧板的下表面设有第三凹形限位槽,顶夹紧板的左右两端分别卡设在两个第一凹形限位槽中,左夹紧板的上端卡设在第三凹形限位槽的一侧侧壁处,其下端卡设在第二凹形限位槽的一侧侧壁处,右夹紧板的上端卡设在第三凹形限位槽的另一侧侧壁处,其下端卡设在第二凹形限位槽的另一侧侧壁处。Preferably, the left clamping plate, the right clamping plate and the top clamping plate are inserted into the model bracket: the upper portion of the inner side wall of the model bracket is symmetrically provided with two first concave limiting slots, and the bottom wall of the model bracket The second concave limiting slot is provided, and the lower surface of the top clamping plate is provided with a third concave limiting slot, and the left and right ends of the top clamping plate are respectively locked in the two first concave limiting slots, The upper end of the left clamping plate is disposed at one side wall of the third concave limiting groove, the lower end of the left clamping plate is disposed at one side wall of the second concave limiting groove, and the upper end of the right clamping plate is clamped At the other side wall of the third concave limiting groove, the lower end thereof is clamped at the other side wall of the second concave limiting groove.
为了试验过程中对煤岩类似层起到保护作用,试验槽前后均设有挡板,前挡板为透明材质。In order to protect the similar layers of coal and rock during the test, the test tank is provided with baffles before and after the test tank, and the front baffle is made of transparent material.
本发明提供的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学试验系统的使用方法,其包括以下步骤:The method for using the mechanical test system of the roadway support body under the dynamic and static combined load provided by the invention comprises the following steps:
第一步、设计预留锚杆模型,具体包括:按照相似比支护参数,将锚杆锚索组插入退位槽,并旋入锁具,然后,利用夹紧螺柱和夹紧螺纹销的配合,使顶夹紧板、左夹紧板、右夹紧板和模型支架发生挤压,并压紧锁具;The first step is to design a reserved anchor model, which specifically includes: inserting the anchor cable group into the decoupling groove according to the similarity support parameter, and screwing into the lock, and then using the clamping stud and the clamping of the threaded pin , the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate, the right clamping plate and the model bracket are squeezed, and the lock is pressed;
第二步、将煤岩类似层铺设在铺设台上;具体包括:The second step is to lay a similar layer of coal rock on the laying platform;
将煤岩类似材料按照巷道具体地质情况分层布置在铺设台上,当煤岩类似材料铺设到预设巷道底板时,将根据相似比缩小的预留锚杆模型放入,然后继续完成煤岩类似材料铺设;The similar materials of coal and rock are layered on the laying platform according to the specific geological conditions of the roadway. When the similar materials of coal and rock are laid to the bottom plate of the preset roadway, the reserved anchor model reduced according to the similarity ratio is put in, and then the coal rock is continuously completed. Laying similar materials;
第三步、待煤岩类似层干燥后,分别拆下模型支架、顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板,并安装前后挡板和监测系统;具体包括:In the third step, after the similar layer of coal rock is dried, the model bracket, the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate are respectively removed, and the front and rear baffles and the monitoring system are installed; the specifics include:
第3.1步、退下左右两侧的夹紧螺纹销,将左夹紧板和右夹紧板向中间挪动从锚杆固紧露出端脱落,再利用顶夹紧板的第三凹形限位槽和模型支架的第二凹形限位槽向前退出左夹紧板和右夹紧板;Step 3.1, retract the clamping thread pins on the left and right sides, and move the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate to the middle to be detached from the anchor exposed end, and then use the third concave limit of the top clamping plate. The second concave limiting groove of the groove and the model bracket exits the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate forward;
第3.2步、退下顶夹紧板处的夹紧螺纹销,将顶夹紧板向下挪动从锚杆或锚索固紧露出端脱落,再利用模型支架的第一凹形限位槽向前退出顶夹紧板;接着,利用退位槽向前退出模型支架整体;Step 3.2, retreat the clamping thread pin at the top clamping plate, move the top clamping plate downwards from the anchor or anchor cable to close the exposed end, and then use the first concave limit groove of the model bracket Before exiting the top clamping plate; then, using the positioning groove to exit the model bracket as a whole;
第3.3步:等拆除模型支架、顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板后,在试验槽上装上前后挡板,防止煤岩类似层加载过程中垮塌,最后给锁具施加预紧力,同时安装刚性支护体和监测系统;Step 3.3: After removing the model bracket, the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate, the front and rear baffles are installed on the test slot to prevent the coal rock from collapsing during the loading process, and finally the preload is applied to the lock. Force, install rigid support and monitoring system at the same time;
第四步、设定静载输出值,通过伺服控制器控制静载液压油缸和推进液压油缸对铺设的煤岩类似层施加垂直压力和侧向压力,要求侧向压力分布按式(1)计算:
Figure 381817dest_path_image001
(1)式中,σh为侧向压力;K为侧压系数;σv为垂直压力;
The fourth step is to set the static load output value. The servo controller controls the static load hydraulic cylinder and the propulsion hydraulic cylinder to apply vertical pressure and lateral pressure to the similar layer of coal rock. The lateral pressure distribution is required to be calculated according to formula (1). :
Figure 381817dest_path_image001
In the formula (1), σh is a lateral pressure; K is a lateral pressure coefficient; σv is a vertical pressure;
第五步、设定动载荷输出值,通过伺服控制器控制动载荷液压油缸对铺设的煤岩类似层施加动载载荷,并对预留锚杆模型的力学性能进行监测和记录。The fifth step is to set the dynamic load output value, and the dynamic load cylinder is used to control the dynamic load hydraulic cylinder to apply dynamic load to the similar layer of coal rock, and the mechanical properties of the reserved anchor model are monitored and recorded.
有益效果Beneficial effect
本发明的有益效果在于:The beneficial effects of the invention are:
 1、本发明通过对静载液压加载系统和动力系统的电液伺服控制设计,实现了对相似材料巷道模型同时施加静载荷和动载荷,且静载荷和动载荷大小均可人为控制,并能实时调节,使得巷道围岩和支护体受力与现场实际受力情况一致,试验结果更加准确,从而为现场工程设计及评价提供可靠依据。1. The invention realizes the simultaneous application of static load and dynamic load to the similar material roadway model through the electro-hydraulic servo control design of the static load hydraulic loading system and the power system, and the static load and the dynamic load can be artificially controlled, and can The real-time adjustment makes the surrounding rock and support body of the roadway consistent with the actual force on the site, and the test results are more accurate, thus providing a reliable basis for on-site engineering design and evaluation.
2、本发明通过在相似材料模型侧向,由上而下设置刚度不同的反力弹簧,并通过推进板对反力弹簧压缩相同位移量,实现铺设模型侧向应力梯度分布,克服了无侧向应力及等侧向应力与现场不符的缺陷,巷道围岩应力更贴近现场,保证实验结果的准确性。2. The present invention overcomes the sideless stress gradient distribution by laying the reaction force springs with different stiffnesses from top to bottom in the lateral direction of the similar material model and compressing the same displacement by the thrust plate to the reaction force spring. The stresses and the lateral stresses are inconsistent with the site, and the surrounding rock stress of the roadway is closer to the site to ensure the accuracy of the experimental results.
3、本发明通过将锚杆(索)提前布设到预留锚杆模型中,不仅实现锚杆(索)在相似材料模型中的铺设,也可实现模拟巷道的提前预留,在克服模拟巷道中锚杆(索)布设困难的同时还保证了巷道围岩的完整性,减小了相似材料模拟试验劳动强度。同时,模拟巷道中锚杆(索)支护参数可以通过锚杆(索)在预留锚杆模型的不同布置参数来改变,实现不同支护参数下,锚杆(索)力学响应试验。3. The invention deploys the anchor rod (cable) in advance to the reserved anchor model, not only realizes the laying of the anchor rod (cable) in the similar material model, but also realizes the advance reservation of the simulated roadway, and overcomes the simulated roadway. The difficulty of laying the middle anchor (cable) also ensures the integrity of the surrounding rock of the roadway and reduces the labor intensity of similar materials simulation test. At the same time, the bolt (cable) support parameters in the simulated roadway can be changed by the different arrangement parameters of the anchor bolt model in the anchor bolt model, and the mechanical response test of the bolt (cable) under different support parameters is realized.
4、本发明操作简单、稳定、可靠,施加静载荷和动载荷可以实时调节,施加载荷大小和巷道围岩变形破坏及支护体受力均可实时监测,符合现场巷道支护体系真实受力情况,试验结果准确、可靠,对深部矿山、隧道等的支护设计等具有重大意义。4. The operation of the invention is simple, stable and reliable, and the static load and dynamic load can be adjusted in real time. The magnitude of the applied load and the surrounding rock deformation and damage of the roadway can be monitored in real time, which is in line with the real force of the roadway support system. The test results are accurate and reliable, and have great significance for the support design of deep mines and tunnels.
总之,本发明通过在铺设台上设置有煤岩类似层,在煤岩类似层的中部位置处设有预留锚杆模型;再分别利用液压加载系统对煤岩类似层施加动载荷和静载荷;动力系统为液压加载系统提供动力;监测系统对模拟巷道受力及变形进行监测,其实现了对煤岩类似层同时施加大小可调的静载荷和动载荷,使得巷道围岩和支护体受力与现场实际受力情况一致,从而使试验结果更加准确。同时,本发明操作简单、稳定可靠,对深部矿山、隧道等的支护设计等具有重大意义。In summary, the present invention is provided with a similar layer of coal rock on the laying table, and a reserved anchor model is arranged at the middle position of the similar layer of the coal rock; and then the hydraulic loading system is used to apply dynamic load and static load to the similar layer of coal rock. The power system provides power to the hydraulic loading system; the monitoring system monitors the force and deformation of the simulated roadway, and realizes simultaneous application of adjustable static and dynamic loads to similar layers of coal and rock, so that the surrounding rock and support body of the roadway The force is consistent with the actual force on the site, which makes the test results more accurate. At the same time, the invention is simple, stable and reliable, and has great significance for the support design of deep mines and tunnels.
附图说明DRAWINGS
为了更清楚地说明本发明实施例或现有技术中的技术方案,下面将对实施例或现有技术描述中所需要使用的附图作简单地介绍。In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the embodiments or the prior art description will be briefly described below.
图1是本发明的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学试验模拟系统的结构示意图;1 is a schematic structural view of a mechanical test simulation system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined loads of the present invention;
图2是图1的A处的局部放大图;Figure 2 is a partial enlarged view of A of Figure 1;
图3是图1的A处的局部放大主视图;Figure 3 is a partially enlarged front elevational view of the portion A of Figure 1;
图4是本发明的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统的预留锚杆模型的结构示意图;4 is a schematic structural view of a reserved anchor model of a mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined loads of the present invention;
图5是本发明的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统的预留锚杆模型的主视图;5 is a front view of a reserved anchor model of a mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined loads of the present invention;
图6是图4的B处的局部放大图;Figure 6 is a partial enlarged view of B of Figure 4;
图7是本发明的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统的监测系统的分布示意图。Fig. 7 is a schematic view showing the distribution of the monitoring system of the mechanical simulation test system for the roadway support body under the dynamic and static combined load of the present invention.
图中:In the picture:
1-相似材料铺设系统,11-试验槽,111-底板,112-顶梁,113-前挡板,114-立板,115-预留巷道孔,116-定位螺纹孔,117-固定螺纹孔,12-铺设台,13-预留锚杆模型,131-模型支架,1310-夹紧螺柱,1311-夹紧螺纹销,1312-第一凹形限位槽,1313-第二凹形限位槽,1314-第三凹形限位槽,132-顶夹紧板,133-左夹紧板,134-右夹紧板,135-锚杆锁具,136-锚索锁具,137-锚杆,138-锚索,139-退位槽,14-煤岩类似层;1-similar material laying system, 11-test tank, 111-floor, 112-top beam, 113-front baffle, 114-verting plate, 115-reserved roadway hole, 116-positioning threaded hole, 117-fixed threaded hole , 12-laying table, 13-reserved anchor model, 131-model bracket, 1310-clamping stud, 1311-clamping thread pin, 1312-first concave limit groove, 1313-second concave limit Positioning groove, 1314-third concave limit groove, 132-top clamping plate, 133-left clamping plate, 134-right clamping plate, 135-bolt lock, 136-anchor lock, 137-bolt , 138-anchor, 139-rejection trough, 14-coal rock similar layer;
2-液压加载系统,21-静载液压油缸,22-动载冲击油缸,23-侧向压力机构,231-推进液压油缸,232-加力板,233-推进板,234-反力弹簧,235-压力板,236-滑槽,237-前弹簧套筒,238-后弹簧套筒,239-反力板,2310-套筒通孔;2-Hydraulic loading system, 21-static hydraulic cylinder, 22-dynamic impact cylinder, 23-lateral pressure mechanism, 231-propulsion hydraulic cylinder, 232-force plate, 233-propulsion plate, 234-reaction spring, 235-pressure plate, 236-slot, 237- front spring sleeve, 238-rear spring sleeve, 239-reverse force plate, 2310-sleeve through hole;
3-动力系统,31-液压油管,32-液压油泵,33-液压油箱;3-power system, 31-hydraulic tubing, 32-hydraulic oil pump, 33-hydraulic tank;
4-监测系统,41-信号处理器,42-信号采集器,43-信号传输线,44-测力传感器,45-应变片,46-围岩应力计,47-顶板离层仪;4-monitoring system, 41-signal processor, 42-signal collector, 43-signal transmission line, 44-load cell, 45-strain gauge, 46-surrounding rock stress meter, 47-top plate separator
5-控制系统,51-电脑主机,52-伺服控制器,53-显示器。5-control system, 51-computer host, 52-servo controller, 53-display.
本发明的最佳实施方式BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
下面结合附图对本发明的优选实施例进行详细阐述,以使本发明的优点和特征能更易于被本领域技术人员理解,从而对本发明的保护范围做出更为清楚明确的界定。The preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which the advantages and features of the invention can be more readily understood by those skilled in the art.
参阅图1所示,本发明的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学试验系统,其包括相似材料铺设系统1、液压加载系统2、动力系统3、监测系统4和控制系统5,Referring to FIG. 1 , a mechanical test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load of the present invention includes a similar material laying system 1, a hydraulic loading system 2, a power system 3, a monitoring system 4, and a control system 5,
相似材料铺设系统1包括试验槽11、铺设台12和预留锚杆模型13,试验槽11内部放置有铺设台12,铺设台12上设置有煤岩类似层14,煤岩类似层14由依次分层铺放的煤岩类似材料构成,煤岩类似层14的中部位置处设有预留锚杆模型13; The similar material laying system 1 comprises a test tank 11, a laying platform 12 and a reserved anchor model 13, a laying platform 12 is arranged inside the testing tank 11, a coal rock similar layer 14 is arranged on the laying platform 12, and the coal rock similar layer 14 is sequentially Layeredly laid coal-rock similar material composition, the central portion of the coal-rock similar layer 14 is provided with a reserved anchor model 13;
液压加载系统2与煤岩类似层14相接触,且用于对煤岩类似层14施加大小可调的动载荷和静载荷;The hydraulic loading system 2 is in contact with a similar layer 14 of coal rock and is used to apply an adjustable dynamic load and static load to the similar layer 14 of the coal rock;
动力系统3与液压加载系统2相连接,且用于为液压加载系统2提供动力;The power system 3 is coupled to the hydraulic loading system 2 and is used to power the hydraulic loading system 2;
监测系统4用于对模拟巷道受力及变形进行监测;The monitoring system 4 is used for monitoring the force and deformation of the simulated roadway;
控制系统5分别与液压加载系统2、动力系统3和监测系统4相连接。The control system 5 is connected to the hydraulic loading system 2, the power system 3 and the monitoring system 4, respectively.
具体地,试验槽11包括底板111、顶梁112、前挡板113和两个立板114,两个立板114对称设置在底板111的上表面两侧,顶梁112设置在两个立板114的顶部,前挡板113连接在两个立板114的前侧面,且前挡板113上设有一预留巷道孔115,预留巷道孔115的大小和位置与预留锚杆模型13的大小和位置相对应。本发明中,前挡板113主要用于试验过程中对煤岩类似层14起到保护作用,而预留巷道孔115主要为了方便监测系统的安装。Specifically, the test slot 11 includes a bottom plate 111, a top beam 112, a front baffle 113, and two vertical plates 114. The two vertical plates 114 are symmetrically disposed on both sides of the upper surface of the bottom plate 111, and the top beam 112 is disposed on the two vertical plates. At the top of the 114, the front baffle 113 is connected to the front side of the two vertical plates 114, and the front baffle 113 is provided with a reserved roadway hole 115, and the size and position of the roadway hole 115 are reserved and the anchor model 13 is reserved. Size and location correspond. In the present invention, the front baffle 113 is mainly used to protect the coal rock similar layer 14 during the test, and the reserved tunnel hole 115 is mainly for facilitating the installation of the monitoring system.
具体地,为了方便前挡板113的安装和拆卸,前挡板113上两侧设有定位螺纹孔116,两个立板114的前侧面设有固定螺纹孔117,定位螺纹孔116与两个立板114上的固定螺纹孔117分别对应,前挡板113通过螺栓依次穿过定位螺纹孔116和固定螺纹孔117与两个立板114相连接。Specifically, in order to facilitate the mounting and dismounting of the front baffle 113, the front baffle 113 is provided with positioning threaded holes 116 on both sides thereof, and the front side faces of the two vertical plates 114 are provided with fixing threaded holes 117, and the positioning screw holes 116 and two The fixed threaded holes 117 on the vertical plate 114 respectively correspond to the two front plates 114 which are sequentially connected by bolts through the positioning threaded holes 116 and the fixed threaded holes 117.
优选地,为了能使前挡板113在安装和拆卸过程更加方便、省力,同时保证前挡板113和煤岩类似层14贴附的位置精度,铺设台12设置在底板111的上表面,且铺设台12的前侧伸出至底板111的外部,铺设台12的前侧上表面设有滑道(图中未示出),滑道与前挡板113的底面相配合。Preferably, in order to make the front baffle 113 more convenient and labor-saving during the installation and disassembly process, and at the same time ensure the positional accuracy of the front baffle 113 and the coal rock-like layer 14 attached, the laying table 12 is disposed on the upper surface of the bottom plate 111, and The front side of the laying table 12 projects to the outside of the bottom plate 111, and the front surface of the front side of the laying table 12 is provided with a slide (not shown) which cooperates with the bottom surface of the front bezel 113.
本发明的实施方式Embodiments of the invention
参阅图4-6所示,预留锚杆模型13包括模型支架131、顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134,模型支架131由钢板围合成模拟巷道状,顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134设置在模型支架131的内部上方、内部左侧和内部右侧,模型支架131的左立板、右立板和顶板上均设有多组退位槽139,退位槽139的一端开口,在需要拆卸模型支架131时,只需要顺着退位槽139的开口方向移动模型支架131即可取出;在顶板上退位槽位置处均设有锚杆137或锚索138,左立板和右立板退位槽位置处均设有锚杆137,左右立板上的锚杆137穿透左右立板以及退位槽后用锚杆锁具135固紧,顶板上的锚杆137或138穿透顶板以及退位槽后用锚杆锁具135或锚索锁具136固紧,左右立板上的锚杆137固紧以后的露出端分别伸进左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134中,顶板上的锚杆137或138固紧以后的露出端伸进顶夹紧板132中,露出端伸进夹紧板中是为了防止锚索138或锚杆137在退位槽139中移动。Referring to FIGS. 4-6, the reserved anchor model 13 includes a model bracket 131, a top clamping plate 132, a left clamping plate 133, and a right clamping plate 134. The model bracket 131 is formed by a steel plate to simulate a roadway shape, and the top clamp The tight plate 132, the left clamping plate 133, and the right clamping plate 134 are disposed above the interior of the model bracket 131, the inner left side, and the inner right side, and the model support 131 has a plurality of left vertical plates, right vertical plates, and top plates. The set of the retreating groove 139 is open at one end of the retreating groove 139. When the model bracket 131 needs to be disassembled, the model bracket 131 only needs to be moved along the opening direction of the retreating groove 139 to be taken out; and the anchor bar is provided at the position of the retreating slot on the top plate. 137 or anchor cable 138, anchor plate 137 is provided at the position of the left vertical plate and the right vertical plate retreating groove, and the anchor rod 137 on the left and right vertical plates penetrates the left and right vertical plates and the retreat groove, and is fastened by the anchor lock 135, the top plate The upper anchor 137 or 138 penetrates the top plate and the retreat slot and is fastened by the anchor lock 135 or the anchor lock 136. The exposed ends of the anchors 137 on the left and right vertical plates are respectively extended into the left clamping plate 133 and In the right clamping plate 134, the exposed end of the anchor 137 or 138 on the top plate is extended into the top clamp Plate 132, the exposed end extends into the clamping plate 138 is to prevent the anchor bolt 137 or step down movement in the groove 139.
本发明中,为了方便顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134与模型支架131的固定,模型支架131的内部设有多组夹紧螺柱1310和多组夹紧螺纹销1311,夹紧螺柱1310分别穿过顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134后与夹紧螺纹销1311螺纹连接。通过旋转夹紧螺纹销1311即可调节顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134与模型支架131之间的间距,从而方便锚杆锁具135和锚索锁具136的固定。In the present invention, in order to facilitate the fixing of the top clamping plate 132, the left clamping plate 133 and the right clamping plate 134 and the model bracket 131, the model bracket 131 is internally provided with a plurality of sets of clamping studs 1310 and sets of clamping threads. The pin 1311, the clamping stud 1310 is threadedly coupled to the clamping thread pin 1311 through the top clamping plate 132, the left clamping plate 133 and the right clamping plate 134, respectively. The distance between the top clamping plate 132, the left clamping plate 133, and the right clamping plate 134 and the model bracket 131 can be adjusted by rotating the clamping screw pin 1311, thereby facilitating the fixing of the anchor lock 135 and the anchor lock 136.
具体地,模型支架131的内侧壁上部对称地设有两个第一凹形限位槽1312,模型支架131的底壁设有第二凹形限位槽1313,顶夹紧板132的下表面设有第三凹形限位槽1314,顶夹紧板132的左右两端分别卡设在两个第一凹形限位槽1312中,左夹紧板133的上端卡设在第三凹形限位槽1314的一侧侧壁处,其下端卡设在第二凹形限位槽1313的一侧侧壁处,右夹紧板134的上端卡设在第三凹形限位槽1314的另一侧侧壁处,其下端卡设在第二凹形限位槽1313的另一侧侧壁处。本发明设置中的第一凹形限位槽1312、第二凹形限位槽1313和第三凹形限位槽1314的作用如下:1)、对顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134的安装位置进行限位,提高安装精度,进而提高实验精度。2)、依次拆除左夹紧板133、右夹紧板134和顶夹紧板132时预留活动空间,使拆卸更加方便快捷。Specifically, the upper portion of the inner side wall of the model bracket 131 is symmetrically provided with two first concave limiting slots 1312, and the bottom wall of the model bracket 131 is provided with a second concave limiting slot 1313, the lower surface of the top clamping plate 132. The third concave limiting slot 1314 is disposed. The left and right ends of the top clamping plate 132 are respectively disposed in the two first concave limiting slots 1312, and the upper end of the left clamping plate 133 is locked in the third concave shape. The lower end of the limiting slot 1314 is disposed at one side wall of the second concave limiting slot 1313, and the upper end of the right clamping plate 134 is latched at the third concave limiting slot 1314. The other side wall has a lower end that is disposed at the other side wall of the second concave limiting groove 1313. The first concave limiting groove 1312, the second concave limiting groove 1313 and the third concave limiting groove 1314 of the present invention function as follows: 1), the top clamping plate 132, the left clamping plate 133 The mounting position of the right clamping plate 134 is limited to improve the mounting accuracy, thereby improving the experimental precision. 2) When the left clamping plate 133, the right clamping plate 134 and the top clamping plate 132 are removed in sequence, the movable space is reserved, which makes the disassembly more convenient and quick.
本发明中,液压加载系统2包括静载液压油缸21、动载冲击油缸22和侧向压力机构23,静载液压油缸21和动载冲击油缸22交错固定在顶梁112的下表面,静载液压油缸21的活塞杆和动载冲击油缸22的活塞杆与煤岩类似层14的上表面相接触,侧向压力机构23设置在煤岩类似层14的左右两侧,且用于对煤岩类似层14的左右两侧施加载荷,侧向压力机构23可以模拟实际环境中,煤岩类似层14的受力情况,从而使试验结果更加准确。In the present invention, the hydraulic loading system 2 includes a static load hydraulic cylinder 21, a dynamic load impingement cylinder 22 and a lateral pressure mechanism 23, and the static load hydraulic cylinder 21 and the dynamic load impingement cylinder 22 are alternately fixed to the lower surface of the top beam 112, and the static load The piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder 21 and the piston rod of the dynamic impact cylinder 22 are in contact with the upper surface of the coal rock-like layer 14, and the lateral pressure mechanism 23 is disposed on the left and right sides of the coal-rock similar layer 14, and is used for the coal rock. A load is applied to the left and right sides of the similar layer 14, and the lateral pressure mechanism 23 can simulate the force of the similar layer 14 of the coal rock in the actual environment, thereby making the test result more accurate.
具体地,侧向压力机构23包括推进液压油缸231、加力板232、推进板233、反力弹簧234和压力板235,推进液压油缸231的两端分别与加力板232和一侧立板114相连接,加力板232的内侧自上而下设有多个滑槽236,每个滑槽236内设有推进板233,压力板235对称设置在煤岩类似层14的左右两侧,反力弹簧234弹性连接在推进板233和压力板235之间。本发明中,通过推进液压油缸231动作,带动加力板232左右移动,从而带动推进板233和压力板235对煤岩类似层14的左右两侧进行加压或释压,而反力弹簧234则实现左右两侧载荷的梯形分布,也就是由上到下逐渐增大。Specifically, the lateral pressure mechanism 23 includes a propulsion hydraulic cylinder 231, an urging plate 232, a propulsion plate 233, a reaction force spring 234, and a pressure plate 235. The two ends of the propulsion hydraulic cylinder 231 are respectively coupled with the urging plate 232 and the side plate. The 114 is connected, and the inner side of the afterburning plate 232 is provided with a plurality of sliding slots 236 from top to bottom. Each sliding slot 236 is provided with a pushing plate 233, and the pressure plate 235 is symmetrically disposed on the left and right sides of the similar layer 14 of the coal rock. The reaction spring 234 is elastically coupled between the pusher plate 233 and the pressure plate 235. In the present invention, by pushing the hydraulic cylinder 231 to move, the force plate 232 is moved to the left and right, thereby driving the pusher plate 233 and the pressure plate 235 to pressurize or release the left and right sides of the coal rock similar layer 14, and the reaction force spring 234 The trapezoidal distribution of the load on the left and right sides is realized, that is, gradually increases from top to bottom.
参阅图2-3所示,每个推进板233上设有一前弹簧套筒237,压力板235上设有多个后弹簧套筒238,前弹簧套筒237和后弹簧套筒238一一对应设置,且反力弹簧234安装在前弹簧套筒237和后弹簧套筒238中,压力板235的外侧还设有反力板239,反力板239的上下两端分别与顶梁112和铺设台12固定连接,且反力板239上间隔地设有多个套筒通孔2310,后弹簧套筒238一一对应地穿设在套筒通孔2310中。本发明中,将反力弹簧234安装在前弹簧套筒237和后弹簧套筒238中是为了使反力弹簧234的弹力变形方向保持稳定,防止反力弹簧234形变方向变化造成实验精度下降。而反力板239的设置是为了后弹簧套筒238左右移动过程中起到支撑和导向作用。Referring to FIG. 2-3, each of the pusher plates 233 is provided with a front spring sleeve 237. The pressure plate 235 is provided with a plurality of rear spring sleeves 238, and the front spring sleeve 237 and the rear spring sleeve 238 are corresponding to each other. The reaction spring 234 is disposed in the front spring sleeve 237 and the rear spring sleeve 238. The reaction plate 235 is further provided with a reaction plate 239 on the outer side of the pressure plate 235, and the upper and lower ends of the reaction plate 239 are respectively disposed with the top beam 112 and The table 12 is fixedly connected, and the reaction plate 239 is spaced apart from the plurality of sleeve through holes 2310. The rear spring sleeves 238 are respectively disposed in the sleeve through holes 2310. In the present invention, the reaction force spring 234 is mounted in the front spring sleeve 237 and the rear spring sleeve 238 in order to stabilize the direction of the elastic deformation of the reaction force spring 234, and to prevent the deformation of the reaction force spring 234 from changing direction, resulting in a decrease in the experimental precision. The reaction plate 239 is arranged to support and guide the rear spring sleeve 238 during the left and right movement.
本发明中,反力弹簧234的刚度随着加力板232的高度下降而依次递增,当推进板233对反力弹簧234压缩相同位移量,就可以实现煤岩类似层14侧向应力梯度分布,其克服了无侧向应力及等侧向应力与现场不符的缺陷,使煤岩类似层14应力更贴近现场,保证实验结果的准确性。In the present invention, the stiffness of the reaction force spring 234 is sequentially increased as the height of the force plate 232 is decreased. When the thrust plate 233 compresses the reaction force 234 by the same displacement amount, the lateral stress gradient distribution of the coal rock similar layer 14 can be realized. It overcomes the defects that no lateral stress and equal lateral stress are inconsistent with the site, so that the similar stress of the coal rock similar layer 14 is closer to the scene, and the accuracy of the experimental results is guaranteed.
本发明中,动力系统3包括液压油管31、液压油泵32、液压油箱33,液压油泵32通过液压油管31分别与静载液压油缸21、动载冲击油缸22、推进液压油缸231及液压油箱33相连接。In the present invention, the power system 3 includes a hydraulic oil pipe 31, a hydraulic oil pump 32, and a hydraulic oil tank 33. The hydraulic oil pump 32 is respectively connected to the static load hydraulic cylinder 21, the dynamic load shock cylinder 22, the propulsion hydraulic cylinder 231, and the hydraulic oil tank 33 through the hydraulic oil pipe 31. connection.
参阅图7所示,监测系统4包括相互连接的信号处理器41和信号采集器42,信号采集器42分别经信号传输线43与锚杆锚索测力传感器44、应变片45、围岩应力计46和顶板离层仪47相连接,锚杆锚索测力传感器44用于监测锚杆锚索组的压力变化;应变片45用于监测模拟巷道顶板受力下沉;围岩应力计46用于监测模拟巷道左右两侧的煤岩类似层14应力变化;顶板离层仪47用于监测模拟巷道顶部的煤岩类似层14离层变化。Referring to FIG. 7, the monitoring system 4 includes a signal processor 41 and a signal collector 42 connected to each other. The signal collector 42 is connected to the anchor cable load sensor 44, the strain gauge 45, and the surrounding rock stress meter via the signal transmission line 43 and the anchor cable, respectively. 46 is connected with the top plate isolating device 47, the anchor cable measuring force sensor 44 is used for monitoring the pressure change of the anchor cable group; the strain piece 45 is used for monitoring the simulated roofing of the roadway; the surrounding rock stress meter 46 is used The stress variation of the coal-rock similar layer 14 on the left and right sides of the simulated roadway is monitored; the roof separation meter 47 is used to monitor the variation of the coal-rock similar layer 14 at the top of the simulated roadway.
控制系统5包括电脑主机51、伺服控制器52和显示器53,液压油泵32与伺服控制器52相连接,伺服控制器52与电脑主机51相连接,电脑主机51还分别与显示器53和信号处理器41相连接。 The control system 5 includes a computer host 51, a servo controller 52 and a display 53, the hydraulic oil pump 32 is connected to the servo controller 52, the servo controller 52 is connected to the computer host 51, and the computer host 51 is also respectively connected to the display 53 and the signal processor. 41 connected.
参阅图8所示,一种动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学试验系统的使用方法,其包括以下步骤:Referring to Figure 8, a method of using a mechanical test system for a roadway support under dynamic and static combined loads includes the following steps:
第一步、设计预留锚杆模型13;The first step is to design a reserved anchor model 13;
按照相似比支护参数,将锚杆锚索组插入退位槽139,并旋入锁具,然后,利用夹紧螺柱1310和夹紧螺纹销1311的配合,使顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133、右夹紧板134和模型支架131发生挤压,并压紧锁具。According to the similar ratio support parameter, the anchor cable group is inserted into the decoupling groove 139, and screwed into the lock, and then the top clamping plate 132 is clamped to the left by the cooperation of the clamping stud 1310 and the clamping thread pin 1311. The plate 133, the right clamping plate 134, and the model bracket 131 are squeezed and the lock is pressed.
第二步、将煤岩类似层14铺设在铺设台12上;In the second step, a similar layer 14 of coal rock is laid on the laying table 12;
将煤岩类似材料按照巷道具体地质情况分层布置在铺设台12上,当煤岩类似材料铺设到预设巷道底板时,将根据相似比缩小的预留锚杆模型13放入,然后继续完成煤岩类似材料铺设。The similar materials of coal rock are layered on the laying platform 12 according to the specific geological conditions of the roadway. When the similar materials of coal rock are laid to the bottom of the preset roadway, the reserved anchor model 13 which is reduced according to the similarity ratio is put in, and then continues to be completed. Coal and rock similar materials are laid.
第三步、待煤岩类似层干燥后,分别拆下模型支架、顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板,并安装前后挡板和监测系统;具体包括:In the third step, after the similar layer of coal rock is dried, the model bracket, the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate are respectively removed, and the front and rear baffles and the monitoring system are installed; the specifics include:
第3.1步、退下左右两侧的夹紧螺纹销1311,将左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134向中间挪动从锚杆137固紧露出端脱落,再利用顶夹紧板132的第三凹形限位槽1314和模型支架131的第二凹形限位槽1313向前退出左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134;In step 3.1, the clamping screw pins 1311 on the left and right sides are retracted, and the left clamping plate 133 and the right clamping plate 134 are moved in the middle to be detached from the anchor 137 and the exposed end is detached, and then the top clamping plate 132 is used. The three concave limiting groove 1314 and the second concave limiting groove 1313 of the model bracket 131 are forwardly exited from the left clamping plate 133 and the right clamping plate 134;
第3.2步、退下顶夹紧板132处的夹紧螺纹销1311,将顶夹紧板132向下挪动从锚杆137或锚索138固紧露出端脱落,再利用模型支架131的第一凹形限位槽1312向前退出顶夹紧板132;接着,最后利用退位槽139向前退出模型支架131整体;In step 3.2, the clamping screw pin 1311 at the top clamping plate 132 is retracted, and the top clamping plate 132 is moved downward from the anchor 137 or the anchor cable 138 to secure the exposed end, and then the first of the model bracket 131 is utilized. The concave limiting groove 1312 is forwardly exited from the top clamping plate 132; then, finally, the whole of the model bracket 131 is withdrawn by using the positioning groove 139;
第3.3步:等拆除模型支架131、顶夹紧板132、左夹紧板133和右夹紧板134后,在试验槽11上装上前后挡板,防止煤岩类似层加载过程中垮塌,最后给锁具施加预紧力,同时安装刚性支护体和监测系统4;Step 3.3: After removing the model bracket 131, the top clamping plate 132, the left clamping plate 133 and the right clamping plate 134, the front and rear baffles are mounted on the test slot 11 to prevent collapse of the similar layers of the coal rock during loading. Applying a preload to the lock while installing the rigid support and monitoring system 4;
第四步、设定静载输出值,通过伺服控制器52控制静载液压油缸21和推进液压油缸231对铺设的煤岩类似层14施加垂直压力和侧向压力;要求侧向压力分布按式(1)计算:
Figure 204017dest_path_image001
(1)
The fourth step is to set the static load output value, and the static pressure hydraulic cylinder 21 and the propulsion hydraulic cylinder 231 are controlled by the servo controller 52 to apply vertical pressure and lateral pressure to the laid coal rock similar layer 14; lateral pressure distribution is required. (1) Calculation:
Figure 204017dest_path_image001
(1)
式中,σh为侧向压力;K为侧压系数;σv为垂直压力。Where σh is the lateral pressure; K is the lateral pressure coefficient; σv is the vertical pressure.
第五步、设定动载荷输出值,通过伺服控制器52控制动载荷液压油缸22对铺设的煤岩类似层14施加动载载荷,并对预留锚杆模型13的力学性能进行监测和记录。In the fifth step, the dynamic load output value is set, and the dynamic load hydraulic cylinder 22 is controlled by the servo controller 52 to apply a dynamic load to the laid coal rock similar layer 14, and the mechanical properties of the reserved anchor model 13 are monitored and recorded. .
以上所述,仅为本发明的具体实施方式,但本发明的保护范围并不局限于此,任何不经过创造性劳动想到的变化或替换,都应涵盖在本发明的保护范围之内。因此,本发明的保护范围应该以权利要求书所限定的保护范围为准。The above is only the specific embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions that are not thought of by the creative work are included in the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the scope of the invention should be determined by the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (8)

  1. 一种动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其特征在于,它包括相似材料铺设系统、液压加载系统、动力系统、监测系统和控制系统,A mechanical simulation test system for roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load, characterized in that it comprises a similar material laying system, a hydraulic loading system, a power system, a monitoring system and a control system,
    所述相似材料铺设系统包括一个至少由底板和两立板组成的试验槽,试验槽内部放置有铺设台,铺设台上设置有煤岩类似层,煤岩类似层由依次分层铺放的煤岩类似材料构成,在煤岩类似层的中部位置处设有预留锚杆模型;在试验槽两立板上方焊接有顶梁,液压加载系统固定在顶梁上; The similar material laying system comprises a test trough composed of at least a bottom plate and two vertical plates, a laying platform is arranged inside the test trough, a coal rock similar layer is arranged on the laying platform, and the coal rock similar layer is layered by successively layered coal. The rock is composed of similar materials, and a reserved anchor model is arranged at a middle position of the coal rock similar layer; a top beam is welded above the two vertical plates of the test slot, and a hydraulic loading system is fixed on the top beam;
    所述预留锚杆模型包括一个由底板、顶板和两个立板组成的作为模拟巷道的模型支架;模型支架的左立板、右立板和顶板上均设有多组退位槽,退位槽的一端开口;顶板上间隔设有多组锚杆或锚索组,左立板和右立板上间隔设有多排锚杆,锚杆或锚索穿透左立板、右立板和顶板以及相应的退位槽后用锁具固紧;在模型支架的左右内侧面以及顶部下表面分别通过插接式设有左夹紧板、右夹紧板和顶夹紧板,锚杆或锚索固紧以后的露出端伸进夹紧板中;露出端伸进夹紧板中是为了防止锚索或锚杆在退位槽中移动;The reserved anchor model includes a model bracket composed of a bottom plate, a top plate and two vertical plates as a simulated roadway; the left vertical plate, the right vertical plate and the top plate of the model support are provided with a plurality of sets of retreating slots, and the retreating slots One end is open; a plurality of sets of anchors or anchor cables are arranged at intervals on the top plate, and a plurality of rows of anchors are arranged at intervals on the left vertical plate and the right vertical plate, and the anchor or anchor cable penetrates the left vertical plate, the right vertical plate and the top plate And the corresponding retreat slot is fastened with a lock; the left and right inner side surfaces and the top lower surface of the model bracket are respectively provided with a left clamping plate, a right clamping plate and a top clamping plate, and the anchor or anchor cable is fixed by plugging. The exposed end of the tightness extends into the clamping plate; the exposed end extends into the clamping plate to prevent the anchor cable or the anchor from moving in the positioning groove;
    所述液压加载系统包括静载液压油缸、动载冲击油缸和侧向压力机构,静载液压油缸和动载冲击油缸交错固定顶梁的下表面;侧向压力机构设置在煤岩类似层的左右两侧,且用于对所述煤岩类似层的左右两侧施加载荷;The hydraulic loading system comprises a static load hydraulic cylinder, a dynamic impact cylinder and a lateral pressure mechanism, wherein the static load hydraulic cylinder and the dynamic impact cylinder are alternately fixed to the lower surface of the top beam; the lateral pressure mechanism is disposed on the similar layer of the coal rock Both sides, and used to apply loads to the left and right sides of the similar layer of coal rock;
    所述动力系统与所述液压加载系统相连接,且用于为所述液压加载系统提供动力;The power system is coupled to the hydraulic loading system and is configured to provide power to the hydraulic loading system;
    所述监测系统用于对所述模拟巷道受力及变形进行监测;The monitoring system is configured to monitor the force and deformation of the simulated roadway;
    所述控制系统分别与所述液压加载系统、动力系统和监测系统相连接。The control system is coupled to the hydraulic loading system, the power system, and the monitoring system, respectively.
  2. 如权利要求1所述的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其特征在于,所述的顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板分别用多组夹紧螺柱和多组夹紧螺纹销顶紧在顶板、左立板和右立板上。A mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load according to claim 1, wherein said top clamping plate, left clamping plate and right clamping plate respectively use a plurality of sets of clamping studs and Multiple sets of clamping threaded pins are placed against the top plate, left vertical plate and right vertical plate.
  3. 如权利要求1所述的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其特征在于,所述侧向压力机构包括推进液压油缸、加力板、推进板、反力弹簧和压力板,所述推进液压油缸的两端分别与加力板和一侧试验槽的立板相连接,加力板的内侧自上而下设有多个滑槽,每个滑槽内设有推进板,压力板对称设置在所述煤岩类似层的左右两侧,反力弹簧外面套上弹簧套筒后连接在推进板和压力板之间,要求反力弹簧的刚度随着所述加力板的高度下降而依次递增,在压力板的外侧还设有反力板。The mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load according to claim 1, wherein the lateral pressure mechanism comprises a propulsion hydraulic cylinder, an afterburning plate, a propulsion plate, a reaction force spring and a pressure plate. The two ends of the propulsion hydraulic cylinder are respectively connected with the force plate and the vertical plate of one test slot, and the inner side of the force plate is provided with a plurality of chutes from top to bottom, and each chute is provided with a propulsion plate, and the pressure is The plates are symmetrically disposed on the left and right sides of the similar layer of coal rock, and the reaction spring is sleeved on the outer side of the spring sleeve and connected between the push plate and the pressure plate, and the rigidity of the reaction force spring is required to be the height of the force plate Decreasing and increasing in turn, there is also a reaction plate on the outside of the pressure plate.
  4. 如权利要求1所述的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其特征在于,所述监测系统包括相互连接的信号处理器和信号采集器,所述信号采集器分别经信号传输线与锚杆锚索测力传感器、应变片、围岩应力计和顶板离层仪相连接,所述锚杆锚索测力传感器用于监测锚杆锚索组的压力变化;所述应变片用于监测所述模拟巷道顶板受力下沉;所述围岩应力计用于监测所述模拟巷道左右两侧的煤岩类似层应力变化;所述顶板离层仪用于监测所述模拟巷道顶部的煤岩类似层离层变化。The mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load according to claim 1, wherein the monitoring system comprises a signal processor and a signal collector connected to each other, and the signal collector is respectively connected to the signal transmission line. The anchor cable load force sensor, the strain gauge, the surrounding rock stress meter and the roof separator are connected, and the anchor cable load force sensor is used for monitoring the pressure change of the anchor cable group; the strain gauge is used for Monitoring the roof of the simulated roadway to be subjected to force sinking; the surrounding rock stress meter is used for monitoring the stress change of the coal-rock similar layer on the left and right sides of the simulated roadway; the roof separating layer instrument is used for monitoring the top of the simulated roadway Coal rocks resemble delamination changes.
  5. 如权利要求1所述的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其特征在于,所述控制系统包括电脑主机、伺服控制器和显示器,所述液压油泵与所述伺服控制器相连接,所述伺服控制器与电脑主机相连接,所述电脑主机还分别与所述显示器和所述信号处理器相连接。The mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load according to claim 1, wherein the control system comprises a computer main body, a servo controller and a display, and the hydraulic oil pump is connected to the servo controller. The servo controller is connected to a computer host, and the computer host is also respectively connected to the display and the signal processor.
  6. 如权利要求1所述的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其特征在于,在模型支架的内侧壁上部对称地设有两个第一凹形限位槽,模型支架的底壁设有第二凹形限位槽,顶夹紧板的下表面设有第三凹形限位槽,顶夹紧板的左右两端分别卡设在两个第一凹形限位槽中,左夹紧板的上端卡设在第三凹形限位槽的一侧侧壁处,其下端卡设在第二凹形限位槽的一侧侧壁处,右夹紧板的上端卡设在第三凹形限位槽的另一侧侧壁处,其下端卡设在第二凹形限位槽的另一侧侧壁处。The mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined load according to claim 1, wherein two first concave limit grooves are symmetrically disposed on an upper portion of the inner side wall of the model support, and the bottom wall of the model support is provided. The second concave limiting slot is provided, and the lower surface of the top clamping plate is provided with a third concave limiting slot, and the left and right ends of the top clamping plate are respectively locked in the two first concave limiting slots, The upper end of the left clamping plate is disposed at one side wall of the third concave limiting groove, the lower end of the left clamping plate is disposed at one side wall of the second concave limiting groove, and the upper end of the right clamping plate is clamped At the other side wall of the third concave limiting groove, the lower end thereof is clamped at the other side wall of the second concave limiting groove.
  7. 如权利要求1所述的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统,其特征在于,试验槽前后均设有挡板,前挡板为透明材质。The mechanical simulation test system for the roadway support body under the dynamic and static combined load according to claim 1, wherein the test slot is provided with a baffle before and after, and the front baffle is made of a transparent material.
  8. 一种如权利要求1-7任一所述的动静组合载荷下巷道支护体力学模拟试验系统的试验方法,其特征在于,其包括以下步骤:A test method for a mechanical simulation test system for a roadway support body under dynamic and static combined loads according to any one of claims 1-7, characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
    第一步、设计预留锚杆模型,具体包括:按照相似比支护参数,将锚杆锚索组插入退位槽,并旋入锁具,然后,利用夹紧螺柱和夹紧螺纹销的配合,使顶夹紧板、左夹紧板、右夹紧板和模型支架发生挤压,并压紧锁具;The first step is to design a reserved anchor model, which specifically includes: inserting the anchor cable group into the decoupling groove according to the similarity support parameter, and screwing into the lock, and then using the clamping stud and the clamping of the threaded pin , the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate, the right clamping plate and the model bracket are squeezed, and the lock is pressed;
    第二步、将煤岩类似层铺设在铺设台上;具体包括:The second step is to lay a similar layer of coal rock on the laying platform;
    将煤岩类似材料按照巷道具体地质情况分层布置在铺设台上,当煤岩类似材料铺设到预设巷道底板时,将根据相似比缩小的预留锚杆模型放入,然后继续完成煤岩类似材料铺设;The similar materials of coal and rock are layered on the laying platform according to the specific geological conditions of the roadway. When the similar materials of coal and rock are laid to the bottom plate of the preset roadway, the reserved anchor model reduced according to the similarity ratio is put in, and then the coal rock is continuously completed. Laying similar materials;
    第三步、待煤岩类似层干燥后,分别拆下模型支架、顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板,并安装前后挡板和监测系统;具体包括:In the third step, after the similar layer of coal rock is dried, the model bracket, the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate are respectively removed, and the front and rear baffles and the monitoring system are installed; the specifics include:
    第3.1步、退下左右两侧的夹紧螺纹销,将左夹紧板和右夹紧板向中间挪动从锚杆固紧露出端脱落,再利用顶夹紧板的第三凹形限位槽和模型支架的第二凹形限位槽向前退出左夹紧板和右夹紧板;Step 3.1, retract the clamping thread pins on the left and right sides, and move the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate to the middle to be detached from the anchor exposed end, and then use the third concave limit of the top clamping plate. The second concave limiting groove of the groove and the model bracket exits the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate forward;
    第3.2步、退下顶夹紧板处的夹紧螺纹销,将顶夹紧板向下挪动从锚杆或锚索固紧露出端脱落,再利用模型支架的第一凹形限位槽向前退出顶夹紧板;接着,利用退位槽向前退出模型支架整体;Step 3.2, retreat the clamping thread pin at the top clamping plate, move the top clamping plate downwards from the anchor or anchor cable to close the exposed end, and then use the first concave limit groove of the model bracket Before exiting the top clamping plate; then, using the positioning groove to exit the model bracket as a whole;
    第3.3步:等拆除模型支架、顶夹紧板、左夹紧板和右夹紧板后,在试验槽上装上前后挡板,防止煤岩类似层加载过程中垮塌,最后给锁具施加预紧力,同时安装刚性支护体和监测系统;Step 3.3: After removing the model bracket, the top clamping plate, the left clamping plate and the right clamping plate, the front and rear baffles are installed on the test slot to prevent the coal rock from collapsing during the loading process, and finally the preload is applied to the lock. Force, install rigid support and monitoring system at the same time;
    第四步、设定静载输出值,通过伺服控制器控制静载液压油缸和推进液压油缸对铺设的煤岩类似层施加垂直压力和侧向压力,要求侧向压力分布按式(1)计算:
    Figure 26525dest_path_image001
    (1)式中,σh为侧向压力;K为侧压系数;σv为垂直压力;
    The fourth step is to set the static load output value. The servo controller controls the static load hydraulic cylinder and the propulsion hydraulic cylinder to apply vertical pressure and lateral pressure to the similar layer of coal rock. The lateral pressure distribution is required to be calculated according to formula (1). :
    Figure 26525dest_path_image001
    In the formula (1), σh is a lateral pressure; K is a lateral pressure coefficient; σv is a vertical pressure;
    第五步、设定动载荷输出值,通过伺服控制器控制动载荷液压油缸对铺设的煤岩类似层施加动载载荷,并对预留锚杆模型的力学性能进行监测和记录。The fifth step is to set the dynamic load output value, and the dynamic load cylinder is used to control the dynamic load hydraulic cylinder to apply dynamic load to the similar layer of coal rock, and the mechanical properties of the reserved anchor model are monitored and recorded.
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