WO2017101246A1 - 一种平菇栽培系统和栽培方法 - Google Patents

一种平菇栽培系统和栽培方法 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017101246A1
WO2017101246A1 PCT/CN2016/080872 CN2016080872W WO2017101246A1 WO 2017101246 A1 WO2017101246 A1 WO 2017101246A1 CN 2016080872 W CN2016080872 W CN 2016080872W WO 2017101246 A1 WO2017101246 A1 WO 2017101246A1
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oyster mushroom
mushroom cultivation
water
ventilation
greenhouse
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PCT/CN2016/080872
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English (en)
French (fr)
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高光军
黎金龙
戴绍琴
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四川行之智汇知识产权运营有限公司
蓬溪昊宏菌业有限责任公司
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Publication of WO2017101246A1 publication Critical patent/WO2017101246A1/zh

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms
    • A01G18/60Cultivation rooms; Equipment therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, illuminating, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, illuminating, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • A01G9/247Watering arrangements

Definitions

  • the invention relates to the field of oyster mushroom cultivation, and more particularly to a oyster mushroom cultivation system and a cultivation method.
  • the invention provides a Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation system and a cultivation method thereof, which can provide good environmental conditions for the growth process of Pleurotus ostreatus, and the Pleurotus ostreatus prepared by the system has the advantages of thick fertilizer, large bacteria and high economic value.
  • the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
  • the oyster mushroom cultivation system comprises a parallel set of oyster mushroom cultivation frame group for placing the oyster mushroom culture medium bag; the shading system is arranged above the oyster mushroom cultivation frame for shading the oyster mushroom cultivation frame group; Warming and moisturizing system, including water curtain temperature control system, micro-spraying system and collecting tank; water curtain temperature control system: including water pumping device, water pipe connected with pumping device, water pumping device and water pipe connected to ground water through water pipe to high point spray to cover On the shade system; micro-spray system: including micro-spray pipe, a plurality of holes are arranged on the micro-spray pipe; the micro-spray pipe is distributed on the top of the oyster mushroom cultivation frame;
  • the collecting tank is used for collecting water sprayed to the underground or the surface after being sprayed by the water curtain temperature control system, and water sprayed by the sprinkling irrigation group of the surface micro-injection control system, and the pumping device is connected with the collecting tank;
  • the ventilation system includes a plurality of ventilation ducts parallel to the group of oyster mushroom cultivation racks, and a plurality of ventilation ducts are provided with vent holes.
  • the key point of the invention is that the groundwater in the natural environment is sprayed on the shading system through the water curtain temperature control system to form a water curtain to reduce the temperature in the shading system, and the micro-spray system is sprayed by the micro-spraying device.
  • it can provide humidity to the shading system, on the other hand, it can also cool the shading system, and the water that finally reaches the ground or underground is collected by the collecting trough for the next round of temperature-controlled moisturizing process, and the rational use of this device can
  • the formation of a large temperature difference stimulus can improve the quality of the oyster mushroom, and the system can ensure the oxygen required for the growth of the oyster mushroom on the basis of ensuring the excellent temperature and humidity environment required for the growth of the oyster mushroom.
  • the amount of Pleurotus ostreatus growth rate and growth quality is improved, and the Pleurotus ostreatus obtained by the cultivation method of the present invention has a thick meat, a large mushroom, and a high economic value.
  • the ventilation ducts are arranged on both sides of each of the oyster mushroom cultivation racks in the oyster mushroom cultivation rack group, the ventilation ducts are provided with ventilation points, the ventilating holes are arranged on the ventilation points, the ventilation points are plural and the adjacent ventilation points are arranged at appropriate intervals. On the ventilation ducts.
  • Ventilation holes are provided on the upper and lower sides of the ventilation point.
  • the collection tank can also be a pool or a pond, or a general water storage device. There are many greenhouses.
  • the greenhouse system also includes a top layer skeleton and an intermediate layer skeleton set from top to bottom.
  • the top layer skeleton and the middle layer skeleton are all arranged on the greenhouse layer, and the top layer skeleton is covered with a reflective shade net, and the middle layer skeleton is covered with a shade net.
  • the reflective shade net on the top frame and the shade net on the middle layer frame are completely covered. That is, the top layer skeleton and the middle layer skeleton are all full cover layers.
  • the reflective sunshade net reinforcement is completely covered on the top frame, and the sunshade layer is also carried by the steel bar.
  • the top layer skeleton is covered with a reflective sunshade net and the middle layer skeleton covers the sunshade net, which can further block the summer exposure and avoid excessive heat transfer to the greenhouse layer, causing the temperature of the greenhouse layer to exceed the suitable temperature for the growth of the mushroom. .
  • the comprehensive coverage of the reflective sunshade net and the sunshade net ensures that the size of the water curtain and the moisture in the greenhouse are affected when the greenhouse layer is completely in a shaded state.
  • the middle layer skeleton is 2-3 layers, one middle layer skeleton corresponds to one layer of shading net, and the distance between the two layers of the middle layer skeleton of 2-3 layers is 50 cm.
  • the multi-layer setting of the sunshade net can block more summer exposure, but the shading net does not increase the shading effect with the increase of the number of layers, so the number of shading net layers can be appropriate, too much will not bring The beneficial effect will increase the cost of cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus.
  • the distance between the top layer skeleton and the intermediate layer skeleton is 1.2-1.5 m, and the distance between the middle layer skeleton and the greenhouse layer is 50-80 cm. In practice, it was found that the aforementioned distance range has the highest utilization efficiency of the sunshade, so that the reflective sunshade net and the sunshade net can exert the maximum effect.
  • the sunshade net and the reflective sunshade net can each be 3 needles and 4 needles.
  • the micro-spray device is a drip tape.
  • the micro-spraying device is 20-30 cm away from the ground.
  • a method for cultivating oyster mushrooms which is cultivating oyster mushrooms using the aforementioned system.
  • the present invention utilizes natural groundwater, sprays it on a shading system through a curtain temperature control system to form a water curtain to reduce the temperature in the shading system, and the micro-spray system can provide a shading system by spraying the micro-spraying device.
  • Provides humidity on the other hand, it can cool the shading system, and the water that finally reaches the ground or underground is collected by the collection tank for the next round of temperature-controlled moisturizing process.
  • Reasonable use of this device can form a large temperature difference stimulus. Therefore, the quality of the oyster mushroom can be improved, and the ventilation system provided by the system can ensure the amount of oxygen required for the growth of the oyster mushroom and improve the growth of the oyster mushroom on the basis of ensuring the excellent temperature and humidity environment required for the growth of the oyster mushroom. Rate and quality of growth;
  • the oyster mushroom obtained by the cultivation method of the invention has thick meat, large bacteria and high economic value.
  • Figure 1 is a structural view of the present invention.
  • the figures are: 1, the greenhouse layer; 2, the water pipe; 3, the pumping device; 4, the micro-spray device; 5, the collecting trough; 6, the top layer skeleton; 7, the intermediate layer skeleton; 8, the shading system; Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation frame; 10, ventilation pipe; 11, ventilation point.
  • a oyster mushroom cultivation system comprises a parallel set of oyster mushroom cultivation frame group for placing a oyster mushroom culture medium bag; a shading system 8 is arranged above the oyster mushroom cultivation frame 9 for the oyster mushroom Cultivation frame group shading; temperature control moisturizing system, including water curtain temperature control system, micro spray system and collecting tank 5; water curtain temperature control system: including pumping device 3, water pipe 2 connected with pumping device 3, pumping device 3 and The water pipe 2 is connected to spray the groundwater to the shade system 8 through the water pipe 2; the micro-spray system includes a micro-spray pipe, and the micro-spray pipe is provided with a plurality of holes; the micro-spray pipe is distributed on the top of the oyster mushroom cultivation frame 9;
  • the collecting tank 5 is used for collecting water sprayed to the underground or the surface after being sprayed by the water curtain temperature control system, and water sprayed by the sprinkler group of the surface micro-spray control system, and the pumping device 3 is connected with the collecting tank 5;
  • the ventilation system includes A plurality of vent pipes are parallel to the oyster mushroom cultivation rack group, and a plurality of vent pipes are provided with vent holes.
  • the ventilating pipe 10 is arranged on both sides of each oyster mushroom cultivation frame 9 in the oyster mushroom cultivation frame group, and the ventilating pipe 10 is provided with a ventilation point 9, and the vent hole is arranged on the ventilation point 9, and the ventilation point 9 is plural and adjacent
  • the ventilation point 9 is suitably arranged at the distance of the air duct 10 channels.
  • the ventilating tube 10 of the present invention is disposed on both sides of each oyster mushroom cultivation frame 9, and can take care of the gas circulation of the oyster mushroom cultivation bag on each oyster mushroom cultivation frame 9, and the spacing is appropriate to maximize the utilization space and avoid Setting too many air ducts for 10 channels caused space congestion and waste.
  • the ventilation point 9 is provided with ventilation holes on both the upper and lower sides. Ventilation points are provided in the four directions of the ventilation point 9 to facilitate the circulation of gas. This arrangement can cause air circulation from all directions without missing any of the oyster mushroom cultivation frame 9, which effectively provides conditions for ventilation and ventilation of the oyster mushroom. You can also choose to have two adjacent The ventilating holes on the 10 channels of the two ventilation pipes of the flat mushroom cultivation frame 9 are arranged in a staggered manner, and the ventilation and ventilation of the oyster mushrooms can also be realized, and the opening of the ventilation holes can be further saved.
  • the shading system 8 is a greenhouse system, and the greenhouse system includes a greenhouse layer 1.
  • the greenhouse cover of the greenhouse layer 1 is covered with a plastic film of a greenhouse, and the plastic film of the greenhouse is covered with a sunshade net.
  • the greenhouse system also includes a top layer skeleton 6 and an intermediate layer skeleton 7 disposed from top to bottom.
  • the top layer skeleton 6 and the intermediate layer skeleton 7 are all disposed on the greenhouse layer 1.
  • the top layer skeleton 6 and the intermediate layer skeleton 7 are all covered layers, and the top layer is
  • the skeleton 6 is covered with a reflective sunshade net
  • the intermediate layer skeleton 7 is covered with a sunshade net.
  • the reflective sunshade net reinforcement is completely covered on the top frame 6, and the sunshade layer is also carried by the steel bars.
  • the top frame 6 is covered with a reflective sunshade net and the middle layer skeleton 7 is fully covered with a sunshade net, which can further block the summer exposure and avoid excessive heat transfer to the greenhouse layer 1 and cause the temperature of the greenhouse layer 1 to exceed the mushroom. The optimum temperature for growth.
  • the comprehensive coverage of the reflective sunshade net and the sunshade net ensures that the size of the water curtain and the moisture in the greenhouse are affected when the greenhouse layer 1 is completely in a shaded state.
  • the difference is that the intermediate layer skeleton 7 is 2-3 layers, one intermediate layer skeleton 7 corresponds to one layer of shading net, and the distance between the two layers of the intermediate layer skeleton 7 of 2-3 layers is 50 cm.
  • the multi-layer setting of the sunshade net can block more summer exposure, but the shading net does not increase the shading effect with the increase of the number of layers, so the number of shading net layers can be appropriate, too much will not bring The beneficial effect will increase the cost of cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus.
  • the distance between the top layer skeleton 6 and the intermediate layer skeleton 7 is 1.2-1.5 m, and the distance between the intermediate layer skeleton 7 and the greenhouse layer 1 is 50-80 cm. In practice, it was found that the aforementioned distance range has the highest utilization efficiency of the sunshade, so that the reflective sunshade net and the sunshade net can exert the maximum effect.
  • the sunshade net and the reflective sunshade net can each be 3 needles and 4 needles. Sunshade can also be achieved by using other shade nets.
  • the micro-injection device 4 is a drip irrigation belt.
  • the pumping device 3 can be a centrifugal pump, a piston pump or a screw pump, preferably a screw pump. Because the pressure of the screw pump is high, it is favorable for atomization of the outlet water, and is not sensitive to particles such as sediment in the water, and has a simple structure and is not easy to wear.
  • a method for cultivating oyster mushrooms which is cultivating oyster mushrooms using the aforementioned system.
  • the cultivation method of the oyster mushroom can be cultivated by using the currently known cultivation technique in combination with the system, and the oyster mushroom of excellent quality can be obtained.
  • the oyster mushroom culture medium is placed on the oyster mushroom cultivation frame 9, and the plurality of oyster mushroom cultivation frames 9 are arranged in parallel to obtain the oyster mushroom cultivation frame group, and then the pumping device 3 is used to pump the groundwater into the water pipe 2, the water pipe 2 Spraying groundwater onto the shading system, the groundwater flows down from the shading system to form a water curtain, and the water curtain cools the shading system to achieve shading of the entire cultivation system, and needs to be ventilated at least 3 times a day, at least in the morning, evening and evening.
  • the micro-spraying device 4 is turned on between 5-10 minutes between 10:00 am and 12:00 noon; every 20 minutes between 14:00 and 16:00, one time lasts 5 times. -10min, it is best to combine the water curtain temperature control system to provide sufficient temperature and humidity for the oyster mushroom medium. After the micro-spray is finished, you can choose to ventilate once; at night, open between 1-10 minutes and 10:00 pm. In order to increase the temperature difference, give a certain temperature difference stimulation to the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus. Conducive to the healthy growth of Pleurotus ostreatus.

Abstract

一种平菇栽培系统及应用该系统栽培平菇的方法,所述平菇栽培系统包括平行设置的平菇栽培架组,用于放置平菇培养基袋;遮荫系统(8),设置在平菇栽培架(9)上方,用于为平菇栽培架组遮荫;控温保湿系统包括水帘控温系统、微喷系统和收集槽(5);水帘控温系统包括抽水装置(3)、和抽水装置相连的水管(2),抽水装置和水管相连将地下水通过水管压至高处喷洒至遮荫系统上;微喷系统:包括微喷管道,微喷管道上设置有多个孔;微喷管道分布在平菇栽培架顶部;抽水装置和收集槽相连;通风系统包括平行于平菇栽培架组的多个通风管(10)道,多个所述的通风管道上均设置有通气孔。所述平菇栽培系统及方法能够为平菇生长过程提供良好的环境条件,用该系统制备得到的平菇肥厚、菌朵肥大,经济价值高。

Description

一种平菇栽培系统和栽培方法 技术领域
本发明涉及平菇栽培领域,更具体的说是涉及一种平菇栽培系统及栽培方法。
背景技术
由于高温平菇出菇期气温高,病害多,所以种植量相对偏少。但是高温期平菇的价格远秋冬期要高的多,因此近几年种高温平菇的菇农越来越多,但因栽培技术难度大,成功率很低。造成这种现象的原因在于,无法有效控制平菇栽种温湿度、通风不好。
发明内容
本发明提供一种平菇栽培系统及栽培方法,该系统能够为平菇生长过程提供良好的环境条件,用该系统制备得到的平菇肥厚、菌朵肥大,经济价值高。
为解决上述的技术问题,本发明采用以下技术方案:
一种平菇栽培系统,包括平行设置的平菇栽培架组,用于放置平菇培养基袋;遮荫系统,设置在平菇栽培架上方,用于为平菇栽培架组遮荫;控温保湿系统,包括水帘控温系统、微喷系统和收集槽;水帘控温系统:包括抽水装置、和抽水装置相连的水管,抽水装置和水管相连将地下水通过水管压至高处喷洒至遮荫系统上;微喷系统:包括微喷管道,微喷管道上设置有多个孔;微喷管道分布在平菇栽培架顶部;
收集槽用于收集经水帘控温系统喷洒后流至地下或地表的水、以及地表微喷控湿系统的经由喷灌组喷洒出的水,抽水装置和收集槽相连;
通风系统包括平行于平菇栽培架组的多个通风管道,多个所述的通风管道上均设置有通气孔。
本发明的关键点在于:利用自然界的地下水、通过水帘控温系统将其喷洒在遮荫系统上形成水帘以降低遮荫系统内温度,微喷系统通过微喷装置的喷洒 一方面能够给遮荫系统提供湿度,另一方面还能够给遮荫系统降温,而最终到达地面或地下的水被收集槽汇集用于下一轮的控温保湿过程,合理利用这一装置能够形成较大的温度差刺激,从而能够提高平菇的品质,另外本系统在确保平菇生长所需的优良的温湿度环境基础上,所设置的通风系统,能够保证平菇生长所需的氧气量,提高了平菇成长率以及成长质量,本发明的栽培方法得到的平菇菌肉肥厚、菌朵肥大,经济价值高。
通风管道设置在平菇栽培架组中各平菇栽培架的两侧,通风管道上设置有通风点,通风孔设置在通风点上,通风点为多个且相邻通风点间距合适的设置在通风管道上。
通风点上下左右均开设有通风孔。
收集槽也可以为水池或池塘,又或者为一般的蓄水槽装置。大棚为多个。
大棚系统还包括从上到下设置的顶层骨架、中间层骨架,顶层骨架、中间层骨架均设置在大棚层上,顶层骨架上覆盖有反光遮阳网,中间层骨架上覆盖有遮阳网。
顶层骨架上的反光遮阳网和中间层骨架均的遮阳网均为完全覆盖。即顶层骨架和中间层骨架均为全覆盖层。
反光遮阳网钢筋承载完全覆盖在顶层骨架上,遮阳网层同样用钢筋承载。顶层骨架上全面覆盖反光遮阳网、中间层骨架全面覆盖遮阳网,能够更进一步遮挡住夏日的暴晒,避免过多的热量传递到大棚层上而引起大棚层的温度超过平菇生长的适宜温度。另一方面,反光遮阳网和遮阳网的全面覆盖设置,在确保大棚层完全处于荫蔽状态下,对于水帘的形成规模、大棚内的湿气均有影响,地下水喷洒到大棚系统上时,首先经过顶层骨架的反光遮阳网,形成一股股水串、多股水串再经由全面覆盖的遮阳网进一步被分股流至大棚层盖顶的遮阳网上,最终到达防水的大棚塑料薄膜,这一过程让最终在大棚层形成的水帘状态更为缓和和连续,即使得水帘的持续时间更长,降温效果越持久,另外持久的水帘也利于水雾的产生,亦即能够增加大棚内的湿度,为大棚内平菇的生 长提供更加有利的条件。
中间层骨架为2-3层,一个中间层骨架对应一层遮阳网,2-3层的中间层骨架两两之间的距离为50cm。遮阳网的多层设置能够阻挡更多的夏日暴晒,但遮阳网随着层数的增加,遮阳效果并没有很大程度的提升,故遮阳网层数量合适即可,太多则不会带来有益效果,反而会提高平菇栽培的成本。
顶层骨架和中间层骨架之间的距离为1.2-1.5m,中间层骨架和大棚层之间的距离为50-80cm。实践过程中发现,前述距离范围对遮阳的利用效率最高,使得反光遮阳网和遮阳网能够发挥最大的功效。
所述遮阳网和反光遮阳网均可以为3针、4针。
所述微喷装置为滴灌带。
微喷装置距离地面20-30cm。
一种平菇栽培方法,用前述的系统进行平菇栽培。
与现有技术相比,本发明的有益效果是:
1、本发明利用自然界的地下水、通过水帘控温系统将其喷洒在遮荫系统上形成水帘以降低遮荫系统内温度,微喷系统通过微喷装置的喷洒一方面能够给遮荫系统提供湿度,另一方面还能够给遮荫系统降温,而最终到达地面或地下的水被收集槽汇集用于下一轮的控温保湿过程,合理利用这一装置能够形成较大的温度差刺激,从而能够提高平菇的品质,另外本系统在确保平菇生长所需的优良的温湿度环境基础上,所设置的通风系统,能够保证平菇生长所需的氧气量,提高了平菇成长率以及成长质量;
2、本发明的栽培方法得到的平菇菌肉肥厚、菌朵肥大,经济价值高。
附图说明
下面结合附图和具体实施方式对本发明作进一步详细说明。
图1为本发明的结构图。
图中的标号为:1、大棚层;2、水管;3、抽水装置;4、微喷装置;5、收集槽;6、顶层骨架;7、中间层骨架;8、遮荫系统;9、平菇栽培架;10、通风管;11、通风点。
具体实施方式
下面结合附图对本发明作进一步的说明。本发明的实施方式包括但不限于下列实施例。
实施例1
如图1所示一种平菇栽培系统,包括平行设置的平菇栽培架组,用于放置平菇培养基袋;遮荫系统8,设置在平菇栽培架9上方,用于为平菇栽培架组遮荫;控温保湿系统,包括水帘控温系统、微喷系统和收集槽5;水帘控温系统:包括抽水装置3、和抽水装置3相连的水管2,抽水装置3和水管2相连将地下水通过水管2压至高处喷洒至遮荫系统8上;微喷系统:包括微喷管道,微喷管道上设置有多个孔;微喷管道分布在平菇栽培架9顶部;
收集槽5用于收集经水帘控温系统喷洒后流至地下或地表的水、以及地表微喷控湿系统的经由喷灌组喷洒出的水,抽水装置3和收集槽5相连;通风系统包括平行于平菇栽培架组的多个通风管10道,多个所述的通风管10道上均设置有通气孔。
实施例2
通风管10道设置在平菇栽培架组中各平菇栽培架9的两侧,通风管10道上设置有通风点9,通风孔设置在通风点9上,通风点9为多个且相邻通风点9间距合适的设置在通风管10道上。本发明的通风管10道设置在各个平菇栽培架9的两侧,能够照顾到每一个平菇栽培架9上的平菇栽培袋的气体流通,间距合适能够将最大化的利用空间,避免设置过多通风管10道造成空间拥堵与浪费。
通风点9上下左右均开设有通风孔。通风点9四个方向上均开设有通风孔,便于气体的流通。这种设置能够从各个方向上造成空气流通,而不会遗漏任何一个平菇栽培架9,切实为平菇通风透气提供条件。还可选择将相邻两个 平菇栽培架9面对面的2个通风管10道上的通风孔交错相对设置,也能够实现平菇的通风透气,同时还能够进一步节省通风孔的开设。
实施例3
和实施例1类似,区别在于:遮荫系统8为大棚系统,大棚系统包括大棚层1,大棚层1的大棚盖顶上覆盖有大棚塑料薄膜,大棚塑料薄膜上还覆盖有遮阳网。
大棚系统还包括从上到下设置的顶层骨架6、中间层骨架7,顶层骨架6、中间层骨架7均设置在大棚层1上,顶层骨架6和中间层骨架7均为全覆盖层,顶层骨架6上覆盖有反光遮阳网,中间层骨架7上覆盖有遮阳网。
反光遮阳网钢筋承载完全覆盖在顶层骨架6上,遮阳网层同样用钢筋承载。顶层骨架6上全面覆盖反光遮阳网、中间层骨架7全面覆盖遮阳网,能够更进一步遮挡住夏日的暴晒,避免过多的热量传递到大棚层1上而引起大棚层1的温度超过平菇生长的适宜温度。另一方面,反光遮阳网和遮阳网的全面覆盖设置,在确保大棚层1完全处于荫蔽状态下,对于水帘的形成规模、大棚内的湿气均有影响,地下水喷洒到大棚系统上时,首先经过顶层骨架6的反光遮阳网,形成一股股水串、多股水串再经由全面覆盖的遮阳网进一步被分股流至大棚层1盖顶的遮阳网上,最终到达防水的大棚塑料薄膜,这一过程让最终在大棚层1形成的水帘状态更为缓和和连续,即使得水帘的持续时间更长,降温效果越持久,另外持久的水帘也利于水雾的产生,亦即能够增加大棚内的湿度,为大棚内平菇的生长提供更加有利的条件。
实施例4
与实施例1类似,区别在于:中间层骨架7为2-3层,一个中间层骨架7对应一层遮阳网,2-3层的中间层骨架7两两之间的距离为50cm。遮阳网的多层设置能够阻挡更多的夏日暴晒,但遮阳网随着层数的增加,遮阳效果并没有很大程度的提升,故遮阳网层数量合适即可,太多则不会带来有益效果,反而会提高平菇栽培的成本。
顶层骨架6和中间层骨架7之间的距离为1.2-1.5m,中间层骨架7和大棚层1之间的距离为50-80cm。实践过程中发现,前述距离范围对遮阳的利用效率最高,使得反光遮阳网和遮阳网能够发挥最大的功效。
所述遮阳网和反光遮阳网均可以为3针、4针。选用其他的遮阳网同样也可以实现遮阳效。
所述微喷装置4为滴灌带。抽水装置3可以为离心泵、活塞泵或者螺杆泵,优选螺杆泵,因为螺杆泵的压力高,利于出口水的雾化,同时对水中泥沙等颗粒不敏感,结构简单,不易磨损。
另外确切的温度湿度可用温湿度表查看。
实施例5
一种平菇栽培方法,用前述的系统进行平菇栽培。平菇栽培方法可采用现在已知的栽培技术结合本系统进行栽培,能够获得优良品质的平菇。
在高温实施时,将平菇培养基放置在平菇栽培架9上,多个平菇栽培架9平行设置即得平菇栽培架组,再用抽水装置3将地下水抽至水管2中,水管2将地下水喷洒到遮阴系统上,地下水由遮阴系统往下流,形成水帘,水帘给遮阴系统降温进而实现给整个栽培系统遮阴,每天还需要通风至少3次,早中晚至少一次,还可以下午一次,凌晨到早晨再一次,微喷装置4在早上10点-中午12点之间开启5-10min;下午14点至16点之间每隔20min开启一次,一次时间持续5-10min,此时最好再结合水帘控温系统,给平菇培养基提供足够的温湿度,微喷结束后,可选择通风一次;夜间晚10点至12点之间开启1-2min,以提升温度差,给予平菇生长一定的温度差刺激。利于平菇的健壮成长。
低温实施时也可。只是水帘控温系统可关闭,微喷装置4开启次数也需减少。
如上所述即为本发明的实施例。本发明不局限于上述实施方式,任何人应该得知在本发明的启示下做出的结构变化,凡是与本发明具有相同或相近的技术方案,均落入本发明的保护范围之内。

Claims (10)

  1. 一种平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:包括
    平行设置的平菇栽培架组,用于放置平菇培养基袋;
    遮荫系统(8),设置在平菇栽培架(9)上方,用于为平菇栽培架组遮荫;
    控温保湿系统,包括水帘控温系统、微喷系统和收集槽(5);
    水帘控温系统:包括抽水装置(3)、和抽水装置(3)相连的水管(2),抽水装置(3)和水管(2)相连将地下水通过水管(2)压至高处喷洒至遮荫系统(8)上;
    微喷系统:包括微喷管道,微喷管道上设置有多个孔;微喷管道分布在平菇栽培架(9)顶部;
    收集槽(5)用于收集经水帘控温系统喷洒后流至地下或地表的水、以及地表微喷控湿系统的经由喷灌组喷洒出的水,抽水装置(3)和收集槽(5)相连;
    通风系统包括平行于平菇栽培架组的多个通风管(10)道,多个所述的通风管(10)道上均设置有通气孔。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:通风管(10)道设置在平菇栽培架组中各平菇栽培架(9)的两侧,通风管(10)道上设置有通风点(9),通风孔设置在通风点(9)上,通风点(9)为多个且相邻通风点(9)间距合适的设置在通风管(10)道上。
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:通风点(9)上下左右均开设有通风孔。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:遮荫系统(8)为大棚系统,大棚系统包括大棚层(1),大棚层(1)的大棚盖顶上覆盖有大棚塑料薄膜,大棚塑料薄膜上还覆盖有遮阳网。
  5. 根据权利要求4所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:大棚层(1)还包括从上到下设置的顶层骨架(6)、中间层骨架(7),顶层骨架(6)、中间层骨架(7)均设置在大棚层(1)上,顶层骨架(6)上覆盖有反光遮阳网,中间层骨架(7)上覆盖有遮阳网。
  6. 根据权利要求5所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:中间层骨架(7)为2-3层,一个中间层骨架(7)对应一层遮阳网,2-3层的中间层骨架(7)两两之间的距离为50cm。
  7. 根据权利要求5所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:顶层骨架(6)和中间层骨架(7)之间的距离为1.2-1.5m,中间层骨架(7)和大棚层(1)之间的距离为50-80cm。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:抽水装置(3)可以为离心泵、活塞泵或者螺杆泵。
  9. 根据权利要求8所述的平菇栽培系统,其特征在于:抽水装置(3)为螺杆泵。
  10. 一种平菇栽培方法,其特征在于:用如权利要求1-9任一项所述的系统进行平菇栽培。
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