WO2011116656A1 - 生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺 - Google Patents

生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2011116656A1
WO2011116656A1 PCT/CN2011/071758 CN2011071758W WO2011116656A1 WO 2011116656 A1 WO2011116656 A1 WO 2011116656A1 CN 2011071758 W CN2011071758 W CN 2011071758W WO 2011116656 A1 WO2011116656 A1 WO 2011116656A1
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Prior art keywords
sewage
domestic garbage
treatment process
garbage
combined treatment
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PCT/CN2011/071758
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
陈鹰
Original Assignee
河北省建筑材料工业设计研究院
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Application filed by 河北省建筑材料工业设计研究院 filed Critical 河北省建筑材料工业设计研究院
Priority to JP2012546352A priority Critical patent/JP5685603B2/ja
Priority to DE201111101025 priority patent/DE112011101025B4/de
Priority to EP11758766.7A priority patent/EP2551025B1/en
Priority to US13/519,269 priority patent/US8739709B2/en
Publication of WO2011116656A1 publication Critical patent/WO2011116656A1/zh
Priority to ZA2012/04724A priority patent/ZA201204724B/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G7/00Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals
    • F23G7/001Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals for sludges or waste products from water treatment installations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B03SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03BSEPARATING SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS
    • B03B9/00General arrangement of separating plant, e.g. flow sheets
    • B03B9/06General arrangement of separating plant, e.g. flow sheets specially adapted for refuse
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F9/00Multistage treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/033Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment comminuting or crushing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/04Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment drying
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/10Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by pyrolysis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/12Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/12Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening
    • C02F11/13Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening by heating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/60Separating
    • F23G2201/601Separating different calorific values
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/60Separating
    • F23G2201/603Separating recyclable material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/70Blending
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for incinerators
    • F23G2900/50214Separating non combustible matters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/52Mechanical processing of waste for the recovery of materials, e.g. crushing, shredding, separation or disassembly

Definitions

  • the invention relates to the priority of the Chinese patent application submitted by the Chinese Patent Office on March 25, 2010, the application number is 201010132010.2, and the invention name is "the combined treatment process of domestic garbage and sewage", the entire contents thereof This is incorporated herein by reference.
  • the invention relates to the technical field of solid waste and sewage treatment, in particular to a process for joint treatment of domestic garbage and sewage.
  • the treatment of domestic garbage can be roughly divided into landfill, incineration, biogas fermentation, and sorting and recycling.
  • landfill has lower operating costs, less technology, and less investment, but the ideal landfill site is less and less, and its pollution to water, air, etc. cannot be completely solved.
  • Incineration is widely adopted in countries all over the world.
  • the high calorific value of the water content of the garbage leads to difficulty in incineration, extremely poor economy, and difficult treatment of exhaust gas.
  • the combustible gas produced by biogas fermentation can be used for power generation, heat supply, etc., which is beneficial to the harmlessness of garbage, but the process and equipment are complex, the operation and management level is high, and the climate is greatly affected. Or laying gas pipelines, the effect of reducing the amount of garbage is not obvious, and the landfill is still needed; the resource utilization of sorting and recycling is the highest, and it is good at recycling non-combustible resources such as metal and glass, but the dependence on equipment is high.
  • the difficulty of sorting is large, it is not suitable to ensure economic benefits, and it needs to be treated separately, with high equipment loss and operating expenses. Use high.
  • the above-mentioned several kinds of garbage disposal methods have their own limitations. Most of the practical treatment techniques are based on system engineering, and the above two or several methods are used to realize garbage disposal.
  • the Chinese patent with the publication number CN101289336 first pre-sorts the garbage into primary selection. After the garbage, plastic, fiber and masonry waste, the different types of garbage are separately treated by fermentation, composting, etc., wherein the pre-classification step of the garbage is cumbersome, the process is complicated, the cycle is long, and the garbage is processed. Waste water is generated in the process and a wastewater treatment process is still required.
  • the Chinese Patent Publication No. CN101537423 discloses a domestic garbage disposal method for first steaming and water selection. First, the domestic garbage is put into a cooking tank for cooking, and the perishable garbage is cooked into a slurry and discharged into a water selection tank.
  • the water is used to divide the garbage into three layers, the upper layer is light garbage, the middle layer is perishable garbage that has become mud, and the lower layer is heavy garbage, and then processed separately.
  • the method eliminates the complicated garbage sorting process, but the cooking step prolongs the garbage disposal cycle, increases the processing cost, is not conducive to large-scale garbage disposal, and is not likely to cause secondary pollution when the sewage after the water selection is not treated. Summary of the invention
  • the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to overcome the shortcomings of the prior art that the classification of domestic garbage is complicated, the treatment cost is relatively high, and the separation of domestic garbage treatment and sewage treatment is provided, and a domestic garbage and sewage combination without waste classification and low cost is provided. Processing process.
  • the broken domestic garbage is sent to the sewage treatment tank, water is added and air is blown in, and the domestic garbage is divided into three layers, which are floating objects, suspended matter and sediment;
  • step 6 adding a flocculating agent to the sewage from which the floating matter and the sediment are removed, the suspended matter is precipitated, and the precipitated suspended matter is treated according to step 5;
  • the floating matter described in the above step 4 and the calorific value described in the step 5 are greater than 4180 kJ/kg.
  • the sediment After the sediment is dried, it can be used as a fuel for incineration in cement plants, coal-fired power plants or in furnaces with a combustion temperature higher than 1200 °C.
  • the combustion temperature of cement plants and coal-fired power plants is higher than 1200 °C, and the treated floats and sediments are dried, the moisture content is low, and flammable, so the exhaust gas will not produce toxic and harmful dioxin. gas.
  • the sediment is dried by using a dispersing dryer or a rotary dryer.
  • the waste is dried by the waste heat of the cement kiln or the thermal power plant, which not only makes full use of the waste heat, but also solves the shortcomings of the garbage being incinerated directly, and the garbage has a large water content and a low calorific value, which causes difficulty in incineration.
  • the water used in the above step 3 is industrial sewage, domestic sewage or tap water.
  • the present invention sorts domestic garbage by sewage, and after the sorted sewage is treated, it continues to be used for industrial production and living, and then uses industrial production or domestically produced sewage for garbage sorting, and the sorted sewage. After treatment.
  • This cycle combined with waste treatment and water treatment, not only solves the problem of difficult domestic food sorting, but also makes full use of the process of inevitably requiring wastewater treatment in the waste treatment process, achieving a virtuous cycle.
  • the flocculant as described in the above step 6 is mainly composed of an inorganic or organic low molecular flocculant, such as the flocculant disclosed in Chinese Patent Publication No. CN10104149.
  • the above technical solution does not need to specifically classify domestic garbage, so no complicated garbage sorting equipment is needed, and the processing cost is reduced; the garbage is divided into three categories by water selection, respectively, and the treatment process and cement production are processed.
  • the combination of the processes, especially the sediment after the drying and drying can be used as a fuel, and can be used as a cement ingredient or brick instead of clay, which not only saves the production cost of cement, but also has a high degree of "reduction" of garbage;
  • the invention not only saves the cooking step, but also shortens the treatment cycle, and combines the garbage treatment with the sewage treatment process to complete the garbage disposal process. Sewage treatment, while solving two major problems.
  • the floating material or the dried precipitate is used in a cement kiln or a coal-fired power plant or a combustion furnace burning at a temperature higher than 1200 ° C, because the temperature is higher than the decomposition temperature of toxic gases such as dioxins Therefore, no toxic or harmful substances such as dioxins are produced, and the heat generated by the combustion is fully utilized.
  • FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a domestic garbage disposal process of the present invention. detailed description
  • Embodiment 1 A flow chart of the treatment of the domestic garbage of the present invention is shown in Fig. 1.
  • Electromagnets are used to sort out the discarded iron in domestic garbage, which is sent to the conveyor belt by the sorting conveyor or transported to the metal processing workshop by the transportation vehicle for recycling.
  • the above-mentioned iron-removed domestic garbage is sent to the crusher through the conveyor belt for crushing.
  • the broken particle size is not more than 10 mm.
  • the broken domestic garbage is sent to the sewage treatment tank, water is added and air is blown in.
  • the domestic garbage is divided into three layers, which are floating objects, suspended matter and sediment.
  • the water used is industrial sewage or domestic sewage or tap water.
  • the floating matter is mainly a paper material, a plastic product, a vegetable leaf, etc., and includes a baby diaper which is difficult to decompose, a feminine hygiene product, etc., and the above materials are flammable after being dried.
  • two sewage treatment tanks may be continuously provided, or a plurality of sewage treatment tanks may be continuously provided.
  • a scraper is arranged on one side of the sewage treatment tank, and the upper floating matter is collected by the scraper, centrifugally dehydrated after salvage, or dehydrated by pressure dehydration or plate frame.
  • the sewage generated by dehydration flows into the sewage treatment tank for centralized treatment; the dewatered floating matter is sent to the dryer by the conveyor belt for drying.
  • the dried float can be higher in the cement kiln, coal-fired power plant or other combustion temperatures Burned in a furnace at 1200 °C.
  • the combustion temperature of cement kiln or coal-fired power plant is relatively high, much higher than the decomposition temperature of toxic gas such as dioxins, and will not cause secondary pollution.
  • the sediment is collected by a mud pump. After the sediment is filtered through a plate and frame filter, the filter cake is sent to a dispersing dryer, and the filtrate, that is, the sewage, flows into the lagoon.
  • the dispersing dryer uses the waste heat of the cement kiln to break up the filtered precipitate.
  • the waste heat generated by the cement kiln is about 400 ° C ⁇ 600 ° C, and the above waste heat can be fully utilized by breaking the fan of the dryer. After the hot air passes through the sediment, the temperature drops to 120 ° C ⁇ 180 ° C, and then through the dehydrated float in step 4, it is dried.
  • the heat of the precipitate is then measured by an oxygen-nitrogen tester, wherein the precipitate having a calorific value greater than 4180 kJ/kg is sent to a cement kiln or a thermal power plant or a combustion furnace having a combustion temperature higher than 1200 °C for incineration.
  • the substance after incineration and the main component of the sediment with a calorific value of less than 4180kJ/kg are siliceous materials, which can replace the cement plant clay ingredients or be used for brick making, which not only improves the degree of waste reduction, but also realizes the comprehensive utilization of garbage. .
  • the suspension material adopts the novel flocculating agent disclosed in Chinese Patent Publication No. CN10104149, and the flocculating agent is used, and the sediment has low water content, and is convenient for drying and flammable.
  • the floating matter, sediment and suspended matter in the sewage are either salvaged or extracted with a sludge pump, which is equivalent to completing the primary treatment (ie physical treatment) of the sewage treatment.
  • the biological treatment equipment which can be activated sludge method or biofilm method, wherein the activated sludge method has an aeration tank and an oxidation ditch; the biofilm method includes a biological filter, a biological turntable, a biological contact oxidation method and a biological Fluidized bed.
  • the effluent from the biological treatment equipment enters the secondary sedimentation tank, and the effluent from the secondary sedimentation tank is disinfected and enters the tertiary treatment.
  • the tertiary treatment can be carried out by biological nitrogen removal or phosphorus removal method or coagulation sedimentation method or activated carbon adsorption method.
  • the sludge produced in the secondary sedimentation tank is treated as in step 5.
  • the invention combines the domestic garbage with the sewage, and uses the sewage to sort the domestic garbage into three layers, that is, floating matter, suspended matter and sediment, and then respectively salvage or add flocculating agent or extract by means of sludge pump to the floating object respectively.
  • the suspended matter and the sediment are collected and removed from the sewage, which is equivalent to the completion of the primary treatment of the sewage treatment, and then the secondary and tertiary treatment of the sorted sewage, that is, the present invention treats the domestic waste with Sewage treatment is organically combined and operated in conjunction with cement plants or coal-fired thermal power plants. At the same time, comprehensive utilization of waste and sewage treatment are realized.
  • the waste water treatment method of the patent can be used to treat garbage, and the daily processing capacity can reach hundreds of tons, which can be used not only for treating newly generated garbage, but also for treating landfilled garbage.

Description

生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺 本申请要求于 2010 年 3 月 25 日提交中国专利局、 申请号为 201010132010.2、发明名称为"生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺"的中国专利 申请的优先权, 其全部内容通过引用结合在本申请中。 技术领域
本发明涉及固体废弃物及污水处理的技术领域, 尤其是一种生活垃圾 与污水联合处理的工艺。
背景技术
随着经济发展、 城市化进程加快, 生活垃圾和水体污染正日渐成为困 扰人们日常生活的两大难题, 为了治理生活垃圾和水体污染, 做了大量的 工作。 不过, 目前两者的工作通常是分开进行的。
比如生活垃圾的处理, 大致可分为填埋、 焚烧、 沼气发酵、 分选回收。 其中, 垃圾填埋具有运行费用较低、 工艺筒单、 投资少, 但是理想的垃圾 填埋场地越来越少, 且其对水、 空气等的污染不能彻底解决; 焚烧是目前 世界各国普遍采用的技术, 焚烧的垃圾热值可以利用,地面无害化程度高, 占地小, 但投资大、 运转费用高, 垃圾含水量大热值低导致焚烧困难, 经 济性极差, 尾气处理难, 极易形成二次污染; 沼气发酵产生的可燃气体可 用于发电、 供热等, 利于垃圾无害化, 但是工艺、 设备较复杂, 运营管理 水平高, 受气候影响较大, 需要配套建设燃气热电厂或者铺设供气管道, 对垃圾的减量效果不明显, 仍需填埋场; 分选回收的资源利用率最高, 擅 长于金属、 玻璃等非可燃资源的回收, 但对设备的依赖性高, 在分选难度 较大时不宜保证经济效益, 需要另行无害化处理, 设备损耗大、 运营费用 高。 上述几种垃圾处理方法均有其自身的局限性, 较为实用的处理技术大 都建立在系统工程学的基础上、 综合采用上述两种或者几种方法来实现垃 圾处理。
如公开号为 CN101289336的中国专利,首先将垃圾进行预分选为初选 后垃圾、 塑料类、 纤维类和砖石类垃圾, 然后对不同类的垃圾分别进行发 酵、 堆肥等处理, 其中垃圾的预分类步骤操作比较繁瑣, 工艺比较复杂, 周期较长, 而且在处理垃圾过程中产生了废水, 仍然需要设置污水处理的 工艺。公开号为 CN101537423的中国专利公开了一种先蒸煮后水选的生活 垃圾处理方法, 首先将生活垃圾装入蒸煮罐中进行蒸煮, 将易腐烂的垃圾 蒸煮成泥浆后排入水选槽中,利用水选槽将垃圾分为三层,上层是轻垃圾, 中层是已经变为泥浆的易腐烂垃圾, 下层是重垃圾, 然后再分别进行处理。 该方法省去了繁杂的垃圾分类的工序,但是蒸煮步骤延长了垃圾处理周期, 增加了处理成本, 不利于大规模的垃圾处理, 而且对水选后的污水未加处 理易造成二次污染。 发明内容
本发明要解决的技术问题是克服现有技术中生活垃圾分类较繁杂、 处 理成本比较高以及生活垃圾处理与污水处理分立的缺点, 提供一种无需垃 圾分类、 成本较低的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺。
为解决上述技术问题,本发明所采取的技术方案是按照以下步骤处理:
①将生活垃圾中的铁分拣出来;
②将上述去除铁的生活垃圾破碎;
③将破碎后的生活垃圾送入污水处理池,加水并鼓入空气,生活垃圾 被分为三层, 分别为漂浮物、 悬浮物和沉淀物;
④将漂浮物打捞、 脱水、 烘干, 作为燃料焚烧;
⑤ 收集沉淀物, 过滤, 烘干, 其中热值大于 4180kJ/kg的沉淀物作为 燃料焚烧, 焚烧后的物质及热值小于 4180kJ/kg 的沉淀物替代水泥厂的粘 土配料或者制砖;
⑥在除去漂浮物和沉淀物的污水中加入絮凝剂, 悬浮物沉淀出来,沉 淀的悬浮物按照步骤⑤处理;
⑦对污水进行处理。
上述步骤④中所述的漂浮物和步骤⑤中所述的热值大于 4180kJ/kg 的 沉淀物经烘干后, 均可作为燃料用于水泥厂、 燃煤电厂或者燃烧温度高于 1200°C的燃烧炉进行焚烧。 水泥厂、 燃煤电厂的燃烧温度均高于 1200°C , 且处理后的漂浮物和沉淀物均被烘干, 水分含量较低, 易燃, 因此尾气不 会产生二噁英等有毒有害的气体。
上述步骤⑤中采用打散烘干机或者回转烘干机将沉淀物烘干。 利用水 泥窑或者热电厂的余热将垃圾烘干, 不仅充分利用了余热, 而且解决了直 接将垃圾焚烧时, 垃圾含水量大、 热值低导致焚烧困难的缺点。
上述步骤③中所用的水为工业污水、 生活污水或者自来水。 特别是, 本发明将生活垃圾用污水分选, 分选后的污水经处理后, 继续用于工业生 产、 生活, 然后再用工业生产或者生活产生的污水进行垃圾分选, 分选后 的污水再经处理。 如此循环, 将垃圾处理与水处理联合, 不仅解决了生活 垃圾分选难的问题, 而且充分利用了垃圾处理过程中不可避免地需要设置 废水处理的工艺, 实现了良性循环。
上述步骤⑥中所述的絮凝剂主要成分为无机或有机低分子絮凝剂, 如 公开号为 CN10104149的中国专利所公开的絮凝剂。
采用上述技术方案无需对生活垃圾进行具体分类, 因此不需要复杂的 垃圾分类设备, 降低了处理成本; 采用水选的方法将垃圾分为三大类, 分 别处理, 并将处理工艺与水泥的生产工艺相结合, 尤其是打散烘干后的沉 淀物既可作为燃料, 又可代替粘土作为水泥配料或者制砖, 不仅节约了水 泥的生产成本, 而且垃圾的"减量化 "程度高; 与现有的技术相比, 本发明 不仅仅只是省掉了蒸煮的步骤, 筒化了处理工艺, 缩短了处理周期, 而且 将垃圾处理与污水处理工艺有机结合, 在实现垃圾处理的过程中, 完成了 污水处理, 同时解决了两大难题。
在进一步的改进方案中, 漂浮物或者干燥后的沉淀物用于水泥窑或者 燃煤电厂或者燃烧温度高于 1200°C的燃烧炉燃烧处理, 由于温度高于二噁 英等有毒气体的分解温度, 因此不会产生二噁英等有毒有害物质, 而且燃 烧产生的热量被充分利用。 附图说明
下面结合附图和具体实施方式对本发明作进一步详细的说明。
图 1是本发明生活垃圾处理工艺流程图。 具体实施方式
实施例 1 本发明生活垃圾的处理流程图见图 1。
① 采用电磁铁将生活垃圾中废弃的铁分拣出来,由分选输送带送到或 者由运输工具运送到金属处理车间, 回收处理。
②将上述去除铁的生活垃圾通过输送带送到破碎机进行破碎, 为更好 地将垃圾进行分选, 破碎的粒径不大于 10mm。
③将破碎后的生活垃圾送入污水处理池,加水并鼓入空气,生活垃圾 被分为三层, 分别为漂浮物、 悬浮物和沉淀物。
所用的水为工业污水或者生活污水或者采用自来水。
所述的漂浮物主要是纸质材料、 塑料制品、 菜叶等, 还包括难以分解 的婴儿纸尿裤、 女性卫生用品等, 上述材料经干燥后易燃。
除上述材料外, 其他生活垃圾或者沉淀在污水处理池底, 或者悬浮在 水中。
为了将生活垃圾充分分离, 可连续设置两个污水处理池, 或者连续设 置多个。
④将漂浮物打捞、 脱水、 烘干, 作为燃料焚烧
在污水处理池的一侧设置刮板, 通过刮板将上层漂浮物收集在一起, 打捞后离心脱水, 或者采用压力脱水或者板框脱水。 脱水产生的污水流入 污水处理池, 进行集中处理; 脱水后的漂浮物由输送带送到烘干机进行干 燥。 干燥后的漂浮物可在水泥窑内、 燃煤发电厂或者其他燃烧温度高于 1200°C的燃烧炉焚烧。 水泥窑或者燃煤发电厂燃烧温度均较高, 远高于二 噁英有毒气体等的分解温度, 不会产生二次污染。
⑤ 用泥浆泵收集沉淀物,沉淀物经板框过滤机过滤后, 滤饼被输送至 打散烘干机, 滤液即污水流入污水池。
打散烘干机利用水泥窑的余热将过滤后的沉淀物打散烘干。 水泥窑产 生的余热温度约 400°C ~600°C , 通过打散烘干机的风机将上述余热得以充 分利用。 热风通过沉淀物后, 温度降至 120°C ~180°C , 然后再通过步骤④ 中经脱水后的漂浮物, 将其烘干。
然后用氧氮测试仪测定沉淀物的热量, 其中热值大于 4180kJ/kg 的沉 淀物输送到水泥窑或者热电厂或者燃烧温度高于 1200°C的燃烧炉用于焚 烧。
焚烧后的物质及热值小于 4180kJ/kg 的沉淀物主要成分为硅质材料, 可替代水泥厂粘土配料或者用于制砖, 不仅提高了垃圾的减量化程度, 而 且实现了垃圾的综合利用。
⑥在除去漂浮物和沉淀物的污水中加入絮凝剂, 悬浮物沉淀出来, 然 后按照上述步骤⑤处理; 污水流入污水池进行处理。
其中悬浮物采用公开号为 CN10104149的中国专利所公开的新型絮凝 剂, 采用该絮凝剂, 沉渣含水量低, 便于烘干、 易燃。
⑦对污水进行处理。
经过上述步骤③至⑥处理后, 污水中的漂浮物、 沉淀物和悬浮物或者 打捞或者用污泥泵提取后, 相当于完成了污水处理的一级处理 (即物理处 理)。 然后进入生物处理设备, 可采用活性污泥法或者生物膜法, 其中活性 污泥法的反应器有曝气池, 氧化沟; 生物膜法包括生物滤池、 生物转盘、 生物接触氧化法和生物流化床。 经生物处理设备的出水进入二次沉淀池, 二次沉淀池的出水经过消毒进入三级处理, 三级处理可采用生物脱氮除磷 法或者混凝沉淀法或者活性炭吸附法。 二次沉淀池产生的污泥按照步骤⑤ 进行处理。 综上, 在现有技术中, 以垃圾处理为目的与以污水处理为目的的设计 是分开进行的, 而垃圾处理中又难免产生污水, 于是又不得不引入污水处 理程序。 本发明将生活垃圾与污水联合处理, 用污水将生活垃圾分选为三 层, 即漂浮物、 悬浮物和沉淀物, 然后或者打捞或者加絮凝剂或者用污泥 泵提取的方式分别对漂浮物、 悬浮物和沉淀物进行收集, 并从污水中去除, 相当于完成了污水治理的一级处理, 然后再对分选后的污水进行二级、 三 级处理, 即本发明将生活垃圾处理与污水处理有机结合, 并与水泥厂或者 燃煤热电厂等联合运营, 同时实现了垃圾的综合利用和污水治理。
采用本专利的水选法对垃圾进行处理, 其日处理能力可达到上百吨, 不仅可用于处理新产生的垃圾, 而且还可用于处理已经填埋的垃圾。

Claims

权 利 要 求
1、 一种生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺, 其特征在于包括以下步骤:
①将生活垃圾中的铁分拣出来;
②将上述去除铁的生活垃圾破碎;
③将破碎后的生活垃圾送入污水处理池,加水并鼓入空气,生活垃圾 被分为三层, 分别为漂浮物、 悬浮物和沉淀物;
④将漂浮物打捞、 脱水、 烘干, 作为燃料焚烧;
⑤ 收集沉淀物, 过滤, 烘干, 其中热值大于 4180kJ/kg的沉淀物作为 燃料焚烧, 焚烧后的物质及热值小于 4180kJ/kg 的沉淀物替代水泥厂的粘 土配料或者制砖;
⑥在除去漂浮物和沉淀物的污水中加入絮凝剂, 悬浮物沉淀出来,沉 淀的悬浮物按照步骤⑤处理;
⑦对污水进行处理。
2、根据权利要求 1所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于 所述步骤①采用电磁技术将铁分拣出来。
3、根据权利要求 1所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于, 步骤④中所述的漂浮物和步骤⑤中所述的热值大于 4180kJ/kg 的沉淀物经 烘干后, 均可作为燃料用于水泥厂、 燃煤电厂或者燃烧温度高于 1200°C的 燃烧炉进行焚烧。
4、根据权利要求 1所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于 所述步骤③中设置至少一个污水处理池。
5、根据权利要求 1所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于, 步骤④中所述的脱水采用: 压力脱水、 板框脱水或者离心脱水。
6、根据权利要求 1所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于, 步骤⑤中所述的烘干采用:打散烘干机或者回转烘干机。
7、根据权利要求 6所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于, 打散烘干机或者回转烘干机利用水泥窑或者热电厂的余热进行烘干。
8、根据权利要求 1所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于 所述步骤③中所用的水为工业污水、 生活污水或者自来水。
9、根据权利要求 1所述的生活垃圾与污水联合处理工艺,其特征在于 所述步骤②中的生活垃圾破碎至粒径不大于 10mm。
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