WO2010076305A1 - Process for cell-free production of chemicals - Google Patents

Process for cell-free production of chemicals Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2010076305A1
WO2010076305A1 PCT/EP2009/067954 EP2009067954W WO2010076305A1 WO 2010076305 A1 WO2010076305 A1 WO 2010076305A1 EP 2009067954 W EP2009067954 W EP 2009067954W WO 2010076305 A1 WO2010076305 A1 WO 2010076305A1
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Prior art keywords
glucose
enzymes
pyruvate
enzyme
production
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PCT/EP2009/067954
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
Andre Koltermann
Ulrich Kettling
Volker Sieber
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Süd-Chemie AG
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Application filed by Süd-Chemie AG filed Critical Süd-Chemie AG
Priority to US13/143,019 priority Critical patent/US8859247B2/en
Priority to JP2011544040A priority patent/JP5461582B2/ja
Priority to KR1020117017289A priority patent/KR101328382B1/ko
Priority to CN200980153487.4A priority patent/CN102272314B/zh
Priority to BRPI0923822-0A priority patent/BRPI0923822A2/pt
Priority to EP09798943.8A priority patent/EP2798070A1/en
Priority to MX2011006745A priority patent/MX2011006745A/es
Priority to CA2746861A priority patent/CA2746861C/en
Publication of WO2010076305A1 publication Critical patent/WO2010076305A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12PFERMENTATION OR ENZYME-USING PROCESSES TO SYNTHESISE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION OR TO SEPARATE OPTICAL ISOMERS FROM A RACEMIC MIXTURE
    • C12P7/00Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds
    • C12P7/02Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds containing a hydroxy group
    • C12P7/04Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds containing a hydroxy group acyclic
    • C12P7/06Ethanol, i.e. non-beverage
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12PFERMENTATION OR ENZYME-USING PROCESSES TO SYNTHESISE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION OR TO SEPARATE OPTICAL ISOMERS FROM A RACEMIC MIXTURE
    • C12P7/00Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds
    • C12P7/02Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds containing a hydroxy group
    • C12P7/04Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds containing a hydroxy group acyclic
    • C12P7/16Butanols
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel

Definitions

  • An enzymatic process is described for the production of chemicals from carbon sources
  • a process for the production of a target organic compound from a carbon source by a cell-free enzyme system is disclosed
  • the invention is directed to a process for the bioconversion of a carbon source, which is preferably a carbohydrate or another carbon containing compound into a target organic compound by an enzymatic process, preferably in the absence of productive living ceils
  • a carbon source which is preferably a carbohydrate or another carbon containing compound into a target organic compound by an enzymatic process, preferably in the absence of productive living ceils
  • the target organic compound is preferably a hydrophobic, a hydrophilic or an intermediate chemical compound
  • Hydrophobic chemicals according to the invention comprise, without limitation C4 alcohols such as n-buta ⁇ ol, 2-butanol, and isobutanol, and other chemicals that have a limited mi ⁇ cibility with water Limited miscibility means that at room temperature not more than 20% (w/w) can be rmxed with water without phase separation
  • Hydrophilic and intermediate chemicals according to the invention comprise, without limitation ethanol and other chemicals
  • n-Butanol is a colorless, neutral liquid of medium volatility with restricted mi ⁇ cibility (about 7- 8% at RT) in water
  • n-Butanol is used as an intermediate in the production of chemicals, as a solvent and as an ingredient in formulated products such as cosmetics
  • n-Butano! is used in the synthesis of acrylate/methacrylate esters glycol ethers n-butyl acetate ammo resins and n-butylamines
  • n-Butanol can also be used as a fuel in combustion engines due to low vapor pressure high energy content and the possibility to be blended with gasoline at high concentrations
  • 2-Butano! is a colorless, neutrai liquid of medium volatility with restricted mis ⁇ bihty (about 12 % at RT) in water 2 ⁇ Butanol is used as solvent for paints and coatings as weli as food ingredients or in the production of 1-buten isobutanol is a colorless, neutral liquid of medium volatility with restricted miscibility (about 9- 10 % at RT) in water.
  • Isobutanol is used as solvent or as plasticizer. It is also used in the production of isobuten which is a precursor for the production of MTBE or ETBE.
  • n-Butanol can be produced using solventogenic Clostridia, such as C, acetobuylicum or C. beijerinckii, typically producing a mixture of n-butanoi, acetone and ethanol.
  • Butanoi production using solventogenic Clostridia has several drawbacks: (i) Product isolation from dilute aqueous solution is very expensive as it is either elaborate (e.g. using membrane processes) or energy consuming (e.g. using distiilation). (ii) The yield is Sow as significant parts of the substrate go into the formation of byproducts such as acetone, ethanol, hydrogen and biomass.
  • WO2008/052596 describes recombinant modification of Clostridia for improved yield. Selection or engineering of variants for higher Butanoi resistance is, for example, described in WO 2008/006038.
  • Zhang et a!., 2008 describe the idea for cell free enzymatic conversion of glucose to n- butanol.
  • the concept includes a minimum of 18 enzymes, several different cofactors and coenzymes (e.g. ATP, ADP, NADH, NAD 1 ferredoxin and coenzyme A).
  • ATP ATP
  • ADP adenosine
  • NADH adenosine
  • NAD 1 ferredoxin e.g. ATP, NAD 1 ferredoxin
  • coenzyme A coactivated ase enzyme
  • the postulated process results in a net-production of ATP so that it requires in addition an ATPase enzyme to remove the ATP.
  • control of ATPase addition while maintaining a balanced ATP level is very difficult to achieve.
  • the described process would be expensive, technicaliy instable and would give only low butanol yields.
  • the present invention addresses this need through a cell free enzymatic system, using only a limited number of enzymes and a limited set of cofactors.
  • the inventive process does not lead to net ATP production, and/or does not use phosphorylative enzyme reactions, and/or uses only enzymes that withstand the inactivating presence of the produced chemicals.
  • a hydrophobic chemical is a chemical which is only partially soluble in water and which resides in the solid or liquid state at ambient pressure and temperature. Hydrophobic chemicals have a limited miscibiSiy with water of not more than 20% (w/w) without phase separation. Particular examples of hydrophobic chemicals according to the present invention include n-butanol, 2-butan ⁇ l and isobutanoi.
  • Carbon source can be any material which can be utilized by microorganisms for growth or production of chemicals. These include carbohydrates and derivatives: polyoses such as cellulose, hemicellulose, starch; bioses such as sucrose, maltose, lactose; hexoses such as glucose, mannose, galactose; pentoses such as xylose, arabinose; uronic acids, glucosamines etc.; polyols such as sorbitol, glycerol; lipids and derivatives, lignin and derivatives. Particularly preferred carbon sources are glucose, a glucose-containing oligomer or polymer, a non-glucose monomeric hexose, or a polymeric sugar derivative, or mixtures thereof.
  • the present invention is directed to a cell-free process for the biotechnological production of chemicals from carbon sources, in particular of hydrophobic chemicais such as C4 alcohols including n-buta ⁇ ol, isobutanol or 2-butanol, and of hydrophiiic and intermediate chemicals such as ethanoi.
  • hydrophobic chemicais such as C4 alcohols including n-buta ⁇ ol, isobutanol or 2-butanol
  • hydrophiiic and intermediate chemicals such as ethanoi.
  • the invention discloses and claims a process for the production of a target organic compound from a carbon source by a cell-free enzyme system, comprising the conversion of glucose to pyruvate as an intermediate product wherein no net production of ATP occurs.
  • no net production of ATP occurs in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate as an intermediate product.
  • no net production of ATP occurs in the overall conversion of the carbon source to the target organic compound.
  • the carbon source compound is glucose, a glucose- containing oligomer or polymer, a non-glucose monomeric hexose, or a polymeric sugar derivative.
  • the target organic compound is ethanol, a four- carbon mono-alcohol, in particular n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-butanol, or another organic compound derivable from pyruvate, preferably by an enzymatic pathway.
  • the conversion of giucose to pyruvate as an intermediate product works completely without ATP and/or ADP as cofactors. More preferably, the overall conversion of the carbon source to the target organic compound (the reaction pathway) works completely without ATP and/or ADP as cofactors.
  • the production process is performed in a ⁇ quid system comprising two separate phases, and the target organic compound is mainly present in or forms one of the separate phases, and the target organic compound is collected from the separate phase.
  • an organic solvent is added to establish the two separate phases.
  • the carbon source compound is continuously fed to the process and the target organic compound is continuously removed.
  • the enzyme system comprises the following enzymes or enzyme activities, preferably for the conversion from glucose to pyruvate:
  • glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47), gluconolactonase ⁇ EC 3.1.1.17), gluconate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.39),
  • the enzyme system comprises the following enzymes or enzyme activities, preferably for the conversion from glucose to pyruvate:
  • gluconolactonase EC 3.1.1 .17
  • gluconat dehydratase EC 4.2.1.3
  • 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase EC 4.1.2.14
  • aldehyde dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.3
  • giycerate dehydratase EC 4.2.1.
  • ethanol is produced from glucose by an enzyme system comprising 1 1 , 10, 9, 8, 7 or less enzymes.
  • n-butanol is produced from glucose by an enzyme system comprising 17, 16, 15 or less enzymes.
  • iso-butanoS is produced by an enzyme system comprising 14, 13 or less enzymes.
  • 2-butanol is produced by an enzyme system comprising 13 or less enzymes.
  • the inventive production process comprises the following 4 steps:
  • target enzymes for the conversion of a carbon source into a chemical (also herein referred to as the "target chemical” or “target organic compound”) using microbial cells;
  • step I 1 Release of the target enzymes from the microbial cells used in step I 1 preferably combined with release of cofactors and with inactivation of further, non-target enzyme activities; MI. Bringing the target enzymes of step il in contact with the carbon source under conditions suitable for the conversion of the carbon source into the target chemical; iV. Separating the target chemical from the reaction mixture.
  • Figure 1 further illustrates a possible implementation of the concept of the invention according to a preferred embodiment.
  • step I the target enzymes are produced using microbial cells.
  • enzyme production is done in two or more different microbial cell lines, such that the entire production route or major parts of it are not reconstituted in one microorganism. This avoids the unwanted initiation of substrate conversion towards the chemical and leads to a more efficient enzyme production.
  • Enzyme production can be intracellular or extracellular, recombinant or non-recombinant. if enzyme production is recombinant it can be homologous or heterologous.
  • the target enzymes are selective for one substrate and one reaction.
  • the target enzymes have a substrate selectivity (kcat/kM) of at least 10 fold compared to any other naturally present substance and a reaction selectivity of at least 90%. More preferably, the target enzymes have a substrate selectivity of at least 20 fold and a reaction selectivity of at least 95%. Even more preferably, the target enzymes have a substrate selectivity of at least 100 fold and a reaction selectivity of at ieast 99%.
  • the target enzymes show no or low inhibition by the substrate or the product or other intermediates of the multistep reaction (no or low feedback inhibition)
  • the inhibition constants (K 1 ) for any substrate, product or intermediate of the multtstep reaction are at least 10 fold higher than the K M value for the respective enzyme and substrate More preferably, such inhibition constants are 100 fold higher than the respective K M
  • the target enzymes still have 50% of their maximum activity at concentrations of any substrate, intermediate or product of the multistep reaction of 100 mM or more
  • the target enzymes have k cat and K M vaiues that are adjusted to the multistep nature of the enzymatic route
  • the target enzymes tolerate elevated levels of the target chemical and, optionally, other organic solvents that are optionally added to support segregation of the target chemical into a separate phase
  • the target enzymes tolerate concentrations of the target chemical of more than 2 wt%, more preferably more than 6 wt%, and most preferably more than 12 wt%
  • the target enzymes tolerate concentrations of the target chemicals up to the maximum solubility in water
  • the target enzymes tolerate elevated levels of chaotropic substances and elevated temperatures
  • the target enzymes tolerate concentrations of guanidinium chloride of more than 1 M, more preferably more than 3 M, and most preferably more than 6 M
  • the target enzymes tolerate preferably temperatures of more than 50 0 C, more preferably more than 70 °C, and most preferably more than 90 °C
  • target enzyme production is done m a host organism whose endogenous enzyme activities are mostly inactivated at elevated levels of chaotropic substances and/or at elevated temperatures
  • target enzyme production is done using of the following microbial species Escherichia coll, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastons, Hansenuia polymorpha, Klyuveromyces iacti ⁇ , Trichoderma ree ⁇ es, Aspergillus niger More preferably target enzyme production is
  • the target enzymes tolerate elevated levels of oxygen
  • the target enzymes tolerate oxygen concentrations of more than 1 ppm, more preferably more than 7 ppm
  • the target enzymes are active and stable under aerobic conditions
  • the muitistep reaction does not require oxygen and is not inhibited by oxygen Thereby, no special precautions for oxygen exclusion have to be taken, making the process more stable with less effort on the production environment and/or equipment.
  • enzyme production and cell growth are separated into separate phases. Thereby, no substrate is used for general metabolic activity.
  • step II the target enzymes are released from the cells.
  • the target enzymes tolerate high temperatures and chaotropic conditions, whereas the background enzymes from the producing microorganism do not tolerate these conditions.
  • the target enzymes are produced intracellular ⁇ in microbial cells, the cells are lysed using high temperature and/or chaotropic conditions, thereby releasing the target enzymes in active form, optionally together with cofactors, while unwanted background enzyme activities are inactivated.
  • enzyme production is extracetiular, the target enzymes tolerate high temperatures and chaotropic conditions, and background enzyme activities (non-target enzymes) do not tolerate these conditions.
  • the supernatant from extracellular production is treated under conditions such as high temperatures and/or chaotropic conditions. This leads to inactivation of unwanted background enzyme activities (non-target enzymes) while the target enyzmes remain active.
  • cofactors are required for one or more of the multiple enzymatic conversion steps.
  • such cofactors are added to the enzyme mixture.
  • cofactors are also produced by the microbial cells intracellular ⁇ and are released by the same treatment as to release the target enzymes.
  • the microbial cells are engineered in order to optimize the level of cofactors produced.
  • the microbial cells are inactivated during step II. Thereby, cell growth and enzyme activity are separated in the process, and no carbon source is consumed by undesirable cell growth. Step [It
  • step II! the carbon source is converted by a mixture of enzymes in a multistep enzymatic reaction to the target chermcal
  • the enzymes are active under the denaturing activity of the target chemical
  • the microbial cells used in step I are inactive and/or are inactivated under the reaction conditions of step IM
  • the concentration of each enzyme in the target enzyme mixture is adjusted to the optimal level under process conditions, in a particularly preferred embodiment one or more enzyme concentrations are increased above typical intracellular concentrations in order to improve the yield of the process (no limit by the maximal density of the microorganisms as in classical processes) in another particularly preferred embodiment, one or more enzymes are engineered for maximal catalytic efficiency (leading to lower reactor size and running costs compared to classical processes)
  • the target chemical is added to the reaction mixture in step III at a concentration just above the maximum level that can be mixed in a single phase with water under process conditions
  • the target chemical continuously segregates into the second phase during the process
  • a water soluble substance is added to the reaction mixture that leads to a phase separation of the target chemical at lower concentration than without the added substance
  • salts are salts and are known to the person skilled in the art
  • sodium chloride is added to lower the solubility of the target chemical in the water phase
  • an additional organic solvent is added to the process that forms its own phase and extracts the produced hydrophobic chemical from the water phase
  • additional solvents comprise n-hexane, cyclohexane, octanol, ethylacetate, methylbutylketone, or combinations thereof
  • the yield is improved because the formation of side products is decreased by using target enzymes that are specific for the desired reactions in another preferred embodiment, host enzymes that would catalyse stde reactions are inactivated during step I! and/or are inactive under the reaction conditions of step 111 in yet another preferred embodiment of the invention, contamination of the process by microorganisms is avoided by adjusting reaction conditions in step Hl that are toxic for typical microbial contaminants Such conditions comprise elevated temperature, extreme pH, addition of organic chemicals
  • the target chemical itself is toxic at the concentration achieved in the process (more stable process with less effort on production enviro ⁇ maent and/or equipment)
  • no additional cofactors are added to the reaction mixture except for those cofactors that are produced by the microorganisms used in step ! and that are included in the cell lysate produced in step Il
  • cofactors are NAD/NADH, NADP/NADPH, ATP/ADP
  • the cofactors that are required are produced by the microbial cells in step 1 and are regenerated during the process (NADH to NAD and vice versa, NADPH to NADP and vice versa, ADP to ATP and vice versa)
  • excess reduction equivalents (NADH, NADPH) or energy equivalents (ATP) are regenerated by additional enzymes (NADH oxidase for NADH, NADPH oxidase for NADPH, ATPase for ATP)
  • neither ATP nor ADP ss involved as a cofactor in at least a substantial part of the multistep reaction process comprises preferably at least 20 % of the enzyme activities, and more preferably at least 50 % of the enzyme activities.
  • none of the enzyme activties of the target enzyme mixture comprises a phosphorylation step (non-phos ⁇ horylat ⁇ ve reaction pathway)
  • the reaction pathway involves the conversion from glucose to pyruvate and none of the target enzymes involved in this conversion comprises a phosphorylation step (non-phosphorylative pyruvate production)
  • step IV the one or more target chemicals are separated from the reaction mixture
  • the one or more target chemicals are hydrophobic and form a separate phase which preferably contains at least a substantial fraction of the produced chemicals In a particularly preferred embodiment the one or more target chemicals are continuousiy removed from the reaction mixture
  • the carbon source is conttnuously fed to the reaction mixture to be converted into the target chemical
  • the target chemical is preferably continuously removed as a separate phase and further purified by methods known in the art Thereby, product isolation is simplified as the product is collected in a separate phase from which it can be purified further Thereby, the yield is improved and product purification is simplified
  • the inventive cell-free process converts a carbon source such as glucose and its polymers to a target chemical such as ethanoi, butanol and/or isobutanol without net production of ATP and without using an ATPase
  • the inventive process does not require ADP or ATP as cofactors
  • Other processes (Welch and Scopes, 1985, Algar and Scopes, 1985) require cofactors such as ADP/ATP and NAD7NADH
  • cofactors such as ADP/ATP and NAD7NADH
  • the postulated conversion of glucose to Butanol (Zhang et al, 2008 ⁇ requires the cofactors ADP/ATP, NAD7NADH, Ferredoxin and Coenzyme A
  • enzyme encompasses also term 'enzyme activity" and may be used interchangeably
  • the target chemical is n-butanol and the target enzyme mixture to produce n-butanol comprises less than 19 different enzyme activities.
  • the target enzyme mixture comprises 17 or less different enzyme activities, more preferably 16 or less enzyme activities, even more preferably 15 or less enzyme activities, and most preferably only 12 different enzyme activities. Because production of enzymes is a major cost factor in the process this gives a major advantage over other processes.
  • n-butanol is produced from glucose via the intermediates pyruvate and acetyl CoA.
  • the production of n-butanol from glucose can be arbitrarily subdivided into three steps: (A) Conversion of one molecule giucose to two molecules of pyruvate. (B) Conversion of two molecules pyruvate to two moiecuies acetyl CoA. (C) Conversion of two molecules acetyl CoA to one molecule n-butanol. Step (A): Conversion of giucose to pyruvate.
  • step (A) uses enzymes from the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas way, comprising the 10 enzyme activities as listed in Tab. 1 (enzyme combination A.1)..
  • the reaction pathway catalysed by this enzyme combination includes phosphorylating enzymes and leads to net ATP production (2 molecules ATP are generated per molecule glucose).
  • step (A) uses enzyme activities of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.
  • enzymes from the non- phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway known from archaea are used in step (A). This comprises the 8 enzyme activities listed in Tab. 2 (enzyme combination A.2).
  • This enzyme combination comprises phosphoryiating enzymes and, therefore, requires ATP and/or ADP as cofactors, but the conversion of glucose to pyruvate does not lead to net production of ATP.
  • step (A) uses an enzyme combination that neither leads to net production of ATP nor does it require ATP or ADP as cofactors.
  • the respective enzyme combination comprises the 9 different enzyme activities as listed in Tab. 3 (enzyme combination A.3).
  • a further, particularly preferred variant of step (A) uses another enzyme combination that also neither leads to net production of ATP nor does it require ATP or ADP as cofactors.
  • the respective enzyme combination comprises the 5 different enzyme activities as listed in Tab. 4 (enzyme combination A.4).
  • one or more of the following enzymes is used for the conversion: (i) pyruvate oxidoreductase using ferredoxin as cofactor; (ii) pyruvate dehydrogenase using NAD(P)H as cofactor; ( ⁇ i) pyruvate formate lyase; (iv) pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex.
  • pyruvate dehydrogenase is used as the enzyme for this conversion, using NADH as cofactor (as fisted in Tab. 5).
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenases are usually part of a multi enzyme complex (Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, PDC) which consists of three enzymatic activities and has a molecular weight of ca. 1 Mio Da.
  • PDC polyruvate dehydrogenase complex
  • the pyruvate dehydrogenase from Euglena gracilis can be used in the enzyme mixture B.1.
  • This enzyme is singular and complex-free.
  • NADH as cofactor which is compared to NADPH the more suitable cofactor (available in higher quantities; easier to regenerate).
  • pyruvate formate lyase can be combined with a formate dehydrogenase using NADH as cofactor.
  • step (C) the enzymes as listed in Tab. 6 are used for the conversion. Depending on the enzymes (source organisms) different cofactors are used.
  • reaction pathway from the intermediate Butyryi CoA to Butanoi does not involve butyrate but butyryl phosphate.
  • the listed pathways and the enzymes are not exclusive. Alternative enzymes and routes known in the art can also be used.
  • enzyme combinations A.4, B.1 and C.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises only 12 different enzyme activities, does not require ADP/ATP as cofactor and, consequently, does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.3, B.1 and C.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 16 different enzyme activities, does not require ADP/ ATP as cofactor and, consequently, does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.2, B.1 and C.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 15 different enzyme activities, requires ADP/ATP as cofactors, but does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • the target chemical is isobutanol.
  • isobutanol is produced from glucose via the intermediate pyruvate.
  • the production of isobutanol from glucose can be arbitrarily subdivided in two steps: (A) Conversion of one molecule glucose to two molecules pyruvate; and (D) Conversion of two molecules pyruvate to one molecule iso-butanoi.
  • This step is equivalent to step (A) in the production of n-butanol (see above).
  • the enzyme activities as listed in Table 7 are used in Step (D) for the cell free production of isobutanol.
  • Enzyme combination D.1 comprising enzyme activities for the conversion from pyruvate to isobutanol
  • enzyme combinations A.1 , A.2, A.3 or A.4; plus enzyme combination D.1 a net conversion of one molecule glucose to two molecuies CO 2 , one molecule water and one molecule isobutanol is achieved. None of the enzyme combinations leads to a net production of reduction equivalents (4 molecules H 2 are formed in the formation of two molecules pyruvate and are subsequently used up in the formation of isobutanol).
  • none (A.2, A.3 or A.4) or up to 2 molecules of ATP (A.1 ) are generated from ADP and phosphate.
  • enzyme combinations A.4 and D.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises only 10 different enzyme activities, does not require ADP/ ATP as cofactor and, consequently, does not Sead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.3 and D.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 14 different enzyme activities, does not require ADP/ATP as cofactor and, consequently, does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.2 and D.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 13 different enzyme activities, requires ADP/ATP as cofactors, but does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • the target chemical is ethanol.
  • Ethanol is completely soluble in water at any ratio and does not allow easy purification by formation of a separate organic phase.
  • the inventive process for the cell-free production nevertheless provides a cost-efficient way to produce ethanol from renewable carbon sources.
  • ethanol is produced from glucose via the intermediate pyruvate.
  • the production of ethanol from glucose can be arbitrarily subdivided in two steps: (A) Conversion of one molecule glucose to two molecuies pyruvate; and (E) Conversion of two molecules pyruvate to two molecules ethanol.
  • the enzyme activities as listed in Table 8 are used for the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol.
  • enzyme combinations A.4 and E.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises only 7 different enzyme activities, does not require ADP/ATP as cofactor and, consequently, does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.3 and E.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 1 1 different enzyme activities, does not require ADP/ATP as cofactor and does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.2 and E.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 10 different enzyme activities, requires ADP/ATP as cofactors, but does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • the target chemical is 2-butanol.
  • 2-butanol is produced from giucose via the intermediate pyruvate.
  • the production of 2-butanol from glucose can be arbitrarily subdivided in two steps: (A) Conversion of one molecule glucose to two molecuies pyruvate; and (F) Conversion of two molecules pyruvate to one molecule 2-butanol. Step (A): Conversion of glucose to pyruvate
  • This step is equivalent to step (A) in the production of n-butanol (see above).
  • the enzyme activities as listed in Table 9 are used in Step (F) for the eel! free production of 2-butanol.
  • an aicohole dehydrogenase is used that uses acetoin as well as 2-butanon as substrate.
  • Enzyme combination F.1 comprising enzyme activities for the conversion from pyruvate to 2-butanol
  • enzyme combinations A.4 and F.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises only 9 different enzymes, does not require ADP/ATP as cofactor and, consequently, does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.3 and F.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 14 different enzyme activities, does not require ADP/ATP as cofactor and, consequently, does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • enzyme combinations A.2 and F.1 are combined.
  • This target enzyme mixture comprises 13 different enzyme activities, requires ADP/ ATP as cofactors, but does not lead to a net ATP production.
  • the described routes of the invention for the production of ethanoi, n-butanol, isobutanol, 2- butanol or other chemicals are not limited to the use of giucose as substrate.
  • giucose Depending on the selectivity of the glucose dehydrogenase applied in the process e.g. also other C6-sugars can be used as substrate, in addition starch can be used as substrate in combination with an amylase/glucoamylase activity.
  • Ceflulosic material can be used as substrate together with an endoceliulase/exoceiluiase/glucosidase activity.
  • lactose, sucrose and other oligomeric or poiymeric sugar derivatives can be used together with the corresponding enzymes that convert these to monomeric hexo ⁇ es.
  • lignoceiluiosic material is converted to ethanoi using only 10 enzymes in total (enzymes combinations A.4 and E.1 , endoceiluiase, exocellulase, beta-glucosidase).
  • Example 1 Conversion of glucose to n-butanol using enzyme mixtures from celi Ivsates of C. saccharobutylicum, S. cerevisae and Z, mobilis
  • S. cerevisae is grown anaerobically at 30 0 C on YPD-medium containing 12 % giucose.
  • the formation of ethanoi is monitored by sampling every hour and analysis by gas chromatography, in a phase of highest ethanoi productivity the cells are harvested and suspended with 4x volume of reaction buffer (20 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6.5; 5 mM mercaptoethanol, 10 mM NaCI 1 10 mM MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCi 2 ).
  • Ceils are then lysed by disruption in a French press, the cell supernatant is clarified by centrifugation and fiStersterilized to remove any remaining cells.
  • Z. mobilis (ATCC10998) is grown at 35 0 C on LB medium containing 12 % glucose. The formation of Ethanol is monitored by sampling every hour and analysis by gas chromatography. In a phase of highest ethanol productivity the cells are harvested and suspended with 4x volume of reaction buffer (20 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6,5; 5 mM mercaptoethanol, 10 mM NaCI 5 10 mM MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCS 2 ). Cells are then lysed by disruption in a French press and cell supernatant is clarified by centrifugation and filtersterilized to remove any remaining cells.
  • reaction buffer 20 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6,5; 5 mM mercaptoethanol, 10 mM NaCI 5 10 mM MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCS 2 .
  • Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSMZ 13864 is grown on TYA medium (6 g/i Tryptone peptone, 2 g/l Yeast extract, 3 g/l NH 4 CH 3 COO, 0,3 g/l MgSO 4 , 0,5 g/l KH 2 PO 4 , 1 mg/l Resazurin, 10 mg/l MnSO 4 , 1 mg/l p-aminobenzoic acid, 1 mg/l thiamine chloride hydrochloride, 0,2 mg/i biotin) with 6% glucose concentration at 35 0 C.
  • TYA medium 6 g/i Tryptone peptone, 2 g/l Yeast extract, 3 g/l NH 4 CH 3 COO, 0,3 g/l MgSO 4 , 0,5 g/l KH 2 PO 4 , 1 mg/l Resazurin, 10 mg/l MnSO 4 , 1 mg/l p-aminobenzoic acid, 1 mg
  • One millilitre of cell lysate from C. saccharobutylicum is incubated with 100 mM glucose with or without equal amount of the lysaie from S. cerevisae or Z. mobilis.
  • 10 mM ketomalonic acid (71740, Fluka) are added, which acts as inhibitor of pyruvate decarboxylase.
  • anaerobic incubation at 30 0 C the produced n-butanol is quantified in all reactions.
  • Example 2 Conversion of glucose to n-butanol using isolated enzymes and enzymes from ceNjysates of C. saccharobutylicum
  • the eel! lysate of C. saccharobutyiicum from example 1 is incubated with the following enzymes: hexokinase (20 u/ml), phosphohexoisomerase (15 u/ml), phosphofructokinase (4 u/ml), aldolase (16 u/ml), phosphotriose ⁇ somerase (300 u/ml), glycerinaldehyd-3-phosphat- dehydrogenase (60 u/ml), pho ⁇ phoglycerate kinase (120 u/ml), phosphoglycerate mutase (60 u/ml), enolase (11 u/ml), pyruvatkinase (15 u/ml), pyruvat dehydrogenase (20 u/ml), phosphotran ⁇ acetyiase (15 u/ml) (ail enzymes obtained from Sigma, see table below, only phospho
  • the enzymes Thioiase (EC 2 3 1 16, Clostridium acetobutylicum, NCBI-GenlD NP_349476 1 ), 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1 1 1 157, NPJ549314 1), Crotonase (EC 4 2 1 55, Clostridium acetobutylicum, NP__349318 1 ), Butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1 3 99 2, Clostridium acetobutylicum, NCBI-GenlD NP_349317 1 ) Coenzyme A acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1 2 1 57, Clostridium beijerinckii NCBI- GenlD AF132754J ) NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase B (BDH N) (EC 1 1 1 -, Clostridium acetobutylicum, NCBl-GeniD NPJ3498
  • reaction is performed under continuous addition of glucose at a rate of 120 mg/h (manual addition of 60 mg in 30 minutes intervals, beginning 2 h after start of reaction) After total reaction time of 20 hrs the produced n-butanol is quantified
  • T maritima is grown at 80 0 C on 5 % glucose Before complete utilisation of glucose the cells are harvested, resuspended in 4x volume of reaction buffer (20 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6,5, 5 mM mercaptoethanol, 10 mM NaCI, 10 mM MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCI 2 ) and lysed by disruption in a French press The cell supernatant is clarified by ce ⁇ tnfugation and sterilized by filtration.
  • the genes ilvlCD for valine biosynthesis are cloned from Thermotoga maritima and recombinant ⁇ expressed in E coil by standard methods ⁇ -keto ⁇ sovalerate decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis (EC 4 1 1 -, NCBI-GenelD CAG34226 1 ) is cloned and recombinantiy expressed in E coll by standard methods Alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1 1 1 ) from S cerevisiae is purchased from Stgma-A ⁇ d ⁇ ch (A3263)
  • glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47, S. soifataricus, NCBI Gen ID: NP_344316.1 ⁇ , gluconoiactonase (EC 3.1.1 .17, Picrophilus torridus, NCBI Gen ID YPJ323685.1), gluconate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.39, Sulfolobus solfataricus, NCBl-Gene ID: NP__344505, Mutation I9L), 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.14, Sulflobus solfataricus, NCBI Gen ID NPJ344504.1 ), aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3, Fiavobacterium frigidimaris, NCBI Gen ID: BAB96577.1 ), glycerate kinase (EC 2.7.1.-, Sulfolobus solfataricus, NCBI Gen ID: NP
  • NP_342405.1 Gen ID: NP_342405.1
  • pyruvate kinase EC 2.7.1.40, Sulfoiobus solfataricus, NCBS Gen ID: NP_342465.1
  • pET3b pyruvate kinase
  • Ndel and BamHI for cloning.
  • Cell growth, protein expression and partial purification is done as described by Lamble et a!. (2003) but in addition supplying all buffers with 5 mM mercaptoethanol and using 80 0 C as general temperature for heat precipitation (for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 60 °C is used).
  • Protein production is usually between 5 and 50 mg/i.
  • Pyruvate decarboxylase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from S. cerevisiae are obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (P# 29163 and 82884).
  • All enzymes are combined (1 mg each of the recomb ⁇ nantly produced enzymes and 2 u of the purchased enzymes) in 5 ml of reaction solution (20 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6.5; 5 mM mercaptoethanol, 10 mM NaCI, 10 mM MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCI 2 , 4 mM ATP, 1 mM ADP, 1 mM NADH, 1 mM NAD) containing 250 mM glucose and incubated at 47 0 C. Every 30 min the two yeast enzymes are added to the solution to compensate for thermal inactivation. After 6 hrs the produced ethanoi is quantified. Ethanol is produced from glucose using only 10 enzymes. In addition no net ATP is produced.
  • the conversion of glycerate to pyruvate is achieved using the enzymes glycerate dehydrogenase (alias hydroxypyruvate reductase (EC 1.1.1.29 / 1.1.1.81 )), serine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.51), L-serine ammonia-iyase (EC 4 3 1 17) and alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1 4 1 1 )
  • the genes for the enzymes glycerate dehydrogenase/hydroxypyruvate reductase EC 1 1 29 / 1 1 1 81 , Picrophilus tor ⁇ dus, NCBI Gen iD YP_023894 1), serine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2 6 1 51 , Sulfolobus solfataricus, NCBI Gen ID NP_343929 1 ), L-se ⁇ ne ammonta-lyase (EC 4.3.1 17,
  • pyruvate from giycerate ss a critical step in the production of ethanol or other derivatives of pyruvate Dihydroxyacid dehydratase (EC 4 2 1 9) from S solfataricus has been shown to accept different substrates (Kim and Lee, 2006)
  • the gene for dihydroxyacid dehydratase (EC 4 2 1 9, S solfata ⁇ cus, NP_344419 1 ) is expressed as described by Kim and Lee (2006)
  • the enzyme is able to convert giycerate to pyruvate (though at lower activity in comparison to the natural substrate)
  • the enzyme is also active towards gluconate (though at lower activity in comparison to natural substrate ⁇
  • the enzymes glucose dehydrogenase, giuconoiactonase, 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from example 9 are combined with dihydroxyacid dehydratase (as described above) and pyruvate decarboxylase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from Sigma (see example 5) (1 mg each of the recombinantly produced enzymes and 2 u of the purchased enzymes) in 5 ml of reaction solution (20 mM potassium phosphate, 10 mM ammoniumsulfate, pH 6 5, 5 mM mercaptoethanol 10 mM NaCI, 10 mlVi MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCI 2 I mM NADH, 1 mM NAD) containing 250 mM glucose and incubated at 47 0 C Every 30 mm the two yeast enzymes are added again to the
  • Example 8 Conversion of glucose to n-butanol using isolated enzymes without net production of ATP
  • the genes of the 4 units of pyruvate synthase (EC 1.2.7, 1., Suifoiobus solfataric ⁇ s, NCBI- GeniD: NP_342664.1 , NP_342663.1 , NP_342666.1 , NP_343517.1 ) and the gene of NADH ferrodoxin reductase (EC 1.18.1.3, NCBl-GenlD NP_342682.1 ) are synthesized and cloned in pET3b using Ndel and BamHI sites. The genes are anaerobically expressed in E. coli and partially purified as described.
  • Glucose dehydrogenase, giuconoiacto ⁇ ase, gluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, glycerate kinase, enolase and pyruvate kinase are obtained as described in example 5.
  • Thiolase, ⁇ - hydroxybutyryiCoA dehydrogenase, butyrylCoA dehydrogenase, CoA acylating butanal dehydrogenase and butano! dehydrogenase with etfA and etfB are obtained as described in example 3.
  • Ail enzymes are combined (1 mg each) in 10 mi of reaction solution (20 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6,5; 5 mM mercaptoethanol, 10 mM NaCI, 10 mM MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCI 2 4 mM ATP, 1 mM ADP, 1 mM NADH, 1 mM NAD, 1mM Coenzyme A, 1 mM FAD, 1 mM FADH 2 ) containing 250 mM glucose.
  • the solution is incubated at 45 0 C. After 1 h the produced butanol is quantified.
  • Glucose dehydrogenase, gluconolactonase, 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are obtained as described in example 5.
  • Dihydroxyacid dehydratase is obtained as described in example 9.
  • NADH ferrodoxin reductase and pyruvate synthase are obtained as described in example 10.
  • Thiolase, ⁇ -hydroxybutyrylCoA dehydrogenase, butyrylCoA dehydrogenase, CoA acylating butanal dehydrogenase and butanol dehydrogenase with etfA and etfB are obtained as described in example 3.
  • reaction solution (20 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6,5; 5 mM mercaptoethanol, 10 mM NaCl, 10 mM MgSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M ZnSO 4 , 500 ⁇ M CoCI 2 , 200 ⁇ M MnCI 2 I mM NADH, 1 mM NAD, 1 mM Coenzyme A, 1 mM FAD 1 1 mM FADH 2 ) containing 250 mM glucose.
  • the solution is incubated at 45 0 C. After 1 h the produced n-butanol is quantified.
  • Example 10 Conversion of glucose to isobutanol using isolated enzymes without net production of ATP
  • the catalytic unit of acetoiactate synthase (EC 2.2.1.6, Sulfolobus soifataricus, NCBI-GenlD: NP_342102.1 ), ketol-acid reductoisomerase (EC 1.1.1.86, Sulfolobus solfataricu ⁇ , NCBI- GenlD: NP_342100.1 ), branched-chain-2-oxo acid decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.72, Lactococcus lactis, NCBI-GenlD:) and an alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1 .1.1.1 , Fiavobacterium frigidimaris, NCB!-Gen!D: BAB9141 1.1 ) are cloned in pET3b using Ndel and BamHi sites.
  • the genes are expressed in E. coli. Together with dihydroxyacid dehydratase (see example 7) these enzymes constitute the pathway from pyruvate to isobutanol.
  • Glucose dehydrogenase, gluconolactonase, gluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, glycerate kinase, enolase and pyruvate kinase are obtained as described in example 5.
  • Dihydroxyacid dehydratase is obtained as described in example 5.
  • Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (Thiolase) (2.3.1.16)
  • NADH ferrodoxin reductase (1.1 S, 1.3)

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