US3693308A - Building construction - Google Patents

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US3693308A
US3693308A US3693308DA US3693308A US 3693308 A US3693308 A US 3693308A US 3693308D A US3693308D A US 3693308DA US 3693308 A US3693308 A US 3693308A
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panels
concrete
extending
building construction
pins
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Henri Louis Trezzini
Norbert Czaryski
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B C T I BUREAU DE COORDINATION
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B C T I BUREAU DE COORDINATION
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/0007Base structures; Cellars

Abstract

A building construction of the type using prefabricated reinforced concrete panels for the internal and external walls and the flooring is provided with a concrete foundation having a sole-piece on which are mounted a plurality of supporting blocks having recesses in which the first level of panel walls are mounted. The panels are positioned in the supporting blocks by pins extending between aligned holes in the recesses and the panels. At their other ends the panels are provisionally connected together by connecting means of various configurations depending on what combination of panels are connected together. Spaces are maintained between adjacent panels into which concrete is poured to make the connection permanent. Additional stories may be added by pins connected between the wall panels of wall panels of adjacent levels. Various seals may be provided between the panels for weather protection and for preventing the escape of concrete during pouring.

Description

United States Patent Trezzini et al.

[ 51 Sept. 26, 1972 [54] BUILDING CONSTRUCTION [73] Assignee: B.C.T.I. Bureau de Coordination de Travaux Industrialises, SARL, Paris, France 22 Filed: Feb. 2, 1970 21 Appl. No.: 7,692

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Feb. 18, 1969 France ..6903979 [52] US. Cl. ..52/293, 52/127, 52/259, 52/274, 52/396, 52/432, 52/437, 52/585 [51] Int. Cl. ..E02d 27/00, E04b 1/00, E04c H10 [58] Field of Search ..52/294, 293, 299, 234, 431, 52/432, 292, 274, 585

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,561,724 11/1925 Keltner ..52/299 1,740,011 12/1929 Evans ..52/234 1,764,001 6/1930 Blanchard ..52/294 2,129,211 9/1938 Hickl ..52/294 2,202,745 5/1940 Muse ..52/293 X 981,824 1/1911 Veres ..52/293 2,695,159 11/1954 Birdwell ..52/293 2,858,031 10/1958 Garmon ..52/432 3,538,654 11/1970 Gerola ..52/259 3,543,462 12/1970 Spratt et al. ..52/730 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 166,486 1/1956 Australia ..52/293 68,712 9/1951 Netherlands ..52/432 977,667 11/1950 France ..52/274 1,270,034 7/1961 France ..52/5 85 657,061 9/1951 Great Britain ..52/293 Primary Examiner-Henry C. Sutherland Attorney-Edwin E. Greigg [57] ABSTRACT A building construction of the type using prefabricated reinforced concrete panels for the internal and external walls and the flooring is provided with a concrete foundation having a sole-piece on which are mounted a plurality of supporting blocks having recesses in which the first level of panel walls are mounted. The panels are positioned in the supporting blocks by pins extending between aligned holes in the recesses and the panels. At their other ends the panels are provisionally connected together by connecting means of various configurations depending on what combination of panels are connected together. Spaces are maintained between adjacent panels into which concrete is poured to make the connection permanent. Additional stories may be added by pins connected between the wall panels of wall panels of adjacent levels. Various seals may be provided between the panels for weather protection and for preventing the escape of concrete during pouring.

4 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures assaoa PATENTED SEP 26 I972 SHEEY 1 [1F 5 FIGS PATENTEDSEPZS m2 SHEET 2 (IF 5 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates a building construction of the type formed of prefabricated concrete panels and a method for effecting such a building construction.

2. Description of the Prior Art In known constructions utilizing prefabricated concrete panels, serious problems have arisen in the positioning of the first level of the building above the foundation which is generally the basement of the substructure. More particularly in apartment house constructions the first level is put into position with relatively large tolerances which create a substantial disadvantage in the use of such constructions.

This lack of precision in the positioning of the first level is most critical in buildings of great length wherein the resultant buildingmay vary considerably from the specification owing to this large tolerances. Such a lack of precision may substantially increase the cost of the resultant building or render the building unsafe.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to overcome such disadvantages in the use of prefabricated concrete panel constructions. It is also an object of the present invention to provide a method of construction which is simple to execute and results in time savings.

An aspect of the invention consists of a method of construction for a building having at least one level formed of load-supporting prefabricated concrete panels comprising: providing a foundation of reinforced concrete having a sole-piece, disposing a plurality of supporting blocks on the sole-piece, providing means for guiding, centering and supporting the said panels, placing the said panels in position on the supporting blocks and connecting the panels thereto by pins, the said panels are then provisionally assembled and concrete poured into cavities disposed at the points of joncture of the panels forming vertical and horizontal joints to effect a permanent connection.

Another aspect of the invention includes construction elements for carrying out the method according to the invention comprising supporting blocks with tapering faces and a generally U-shaped recess, the distance between the legs thereof increasing slightly towards the free end, therein providing guiding means for the panels, the bottom of the recess providing a support for the panels and having holes therein for receiving pins which are adapted to be received in corresponding holes provided in the lower edges of the said panels.

It can thus be seen that the position of the panels on the supporting blocks is very important to the construction, as well as the position of the supporting blocks on the sole-pieces. To precisely achieve the latter positioning, the invention provides measuring-rods of different lengths to permit the precise positioning of each supporting block according to the building specifications.

Once the supporting blocks are positioned, and the panels of the first level secured thereto by pins, the panels are precisely in their required position.

According to a further aspect of the invention, connecting means are provided for provisionally connecting the panels to one another, i.e., the exterior facade and side panels and the interior panels. These connecting means include at least one connecting member having pins'fixed to its ends. Different connecting means serve different purposes, for example, one type connects the side panels to the facade panels, another type connects two facade panels to an interior panel, and a further type connects four interior panels which comprise L-shaped, T-shaped and cross-shaped connecting means respectively.

Another feature of the building construction according to the invention comprises holes in the upper edges of the panels for receiving pins which are adapted in turn to be received in corresponding holes in the lower edges of the panels of the second level.

A further feature of the building construction according to the invention comprises a seal disposed between adjacent exterior walls to allow for the expansion of the walls as wall as provide a weather-seal therebetween. The seal includes an almond-shaped hollow body formed of resilient material, lips disposed at the ends of the body and tongues extending outwardly from the mid-portion of each side of the body; grooves are disposed in the adjacent lateral edges of adjacent panels in which are fitted U-shaped members which include inwardly directed flanges disposed at the ends of the legs thereof, the tongues are adapted to receive and cooperate with the lips in order to provide an effective seal against rain, wind and the like. Seals at theinterstices between panels may be provide to seal the cavities from the loss of poured concrete.

The features of the building construction have various benefits including an improvement of insulation, reduction of building defects, and a resultant structure which provides a strong and permanent joint between the panels.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description which follows made by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a building constructions according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the foundation illustrating a step in the construction of the substructure;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a supporting block illustrating its positioning on the foundation;

FIG. 4 is a plan view of the supporting block shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a section of the seating taken along the line V-V of FIG. 4;

FIGS. 6-9 show plan views of various forms of supporting block used in the building construction according to the invention;

FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a prefabricated panel for use in present building construction;

FIG. 11 is a detail on an enlarged scale of the portion of the panel shown in FIG. 10 and included in the circle A;

FIG. 12 is a perspective view of panels supported on the supporting blocks in the present building construction;

FIG. 13 is a plan view, partly in section, illustrating papers supported on supporting blocks;

FIG. 14 is an elevation view, partly in section, of the panels and supporting blocks shown in FIG. 13;

FIG. is a perspective view of the walls illustrating provisional connection of adjacent panels and the positioning of the panel of the second level; a

FIGS. 16 and 17 show, different embodiments -o provisional connecting members in perspective; 7

FIG. 18 is a horizontal detail in section taken along the line XVIII-XVIII of FIG. 1 and illustrates a seal disposed between adjacent exterior panels; and

FIG. 19 is vertical detail in section showing the joiningof panels of adjacent levels.

FIG. 1 shows a multi-storey building according to the v invention including foundation 10, on which is supported substructure l1 and which in turn supports the several storeys 12. The uppermost storey has a roof 13 supported thereon. The multi-storey building comprises heavy prefabricated reinforced concrete panels. The principal supporting elements being the internal and external walls.

The foundation is best shown in FIG. 2 wherein a sole-piece 15 formed of coarse concrete supports supporting'blocks 16 which will be described in detail hereinafter are adapted to receive the vertical panels or walls of the substructure 17 indicated schematically in chaindotted lines.

The supporting blocks (see'FIGS. 3 5) are formed of concrete and have lateral faces 18 which taper upwardly towards one another in order to facilitate the removal of the form which defines the base 19 and the upper face 20. The upper face is constructed in order to provide guiding, centering, and provisional assembling means for the panels. Accordingly, suitable recesses and the likeare provided therein.

The block-l6 shown inFIGS. 3-5 is disposed at a corner of the building andis adapted to receive portions of two exterior panels of the basement as well as an interior panels perpendicular thereto; accordingly the recess in the upper face is T-shaped in plan view as seen in FIG. 4. As seen in FIG. 5, the recess is delimited by the upward extending surface 22 and the bottom surface 33. Four recessed holes 24-27 are shown in the bottom surface 33. The recesses are downward tapering towards the bottom surface 33 to provide guiding means for the panels to be received therein.

It is readily apparent that more than one type of block is necessaryin any given building construction in order to accomodate various combinations of interior and exterior walls, as well as variations which may arise in different types buildings. Accordingly, the embodiments of FIGS. 6-9 illustrate other types of blocks which are used in the building construction according to the invention illustrated in FIG. 1.

The embodiment shown in FIG. 6 is generally similar to that shown FIGS. 3-5 except that it is adapted to receive a fourth panel and therefore is formed as a cross. A pair of recesses 30 and 31 intersect at right angles at the middle of the die 16. The bottoms of the recesses have a width which corresponds to that of the panels P to be placed therein. Recessed holes 32 are again provided, the use of these holes will be described below.

FIG. 7 shows a die for receiving two exterior wall panels P, and two interior wall panels P The interior recess 33 containing'holes '35 is substantially twice as great as that of the recess 34 which contains holes 36.

FIG. 8 shows a block comprising two recesses 40 and 42 arranged perpendicular to one another and provided with holes 42 and 43 respectively. The width of the recess 40 is substantially twice as great as the recess 41.

FIG. 9 shows a block 16 generally analogous to the preceding arrangement having two recesses 44 and 45 disposed perpendicularto one another and wherein the recess 45 is substantially twice as wide as the recess 44. Recessed holes are again provided in both recesses.

In each one of the embodiments shown in FIGS. 6 9 hooks 46 are embedded into the blocks during casting. The hooks 46 are provide to facilitate the handling of the blocks by a lifting apparatus (not shown). Further, in each of the embodiments the upward extending surfaces narrow the blocks toward their upper surfaces. Moreover, reinforcement of the type shown in FIG. 3 and indicated by the reference 48 may be provided in the blocks of the embodiments shown in FIGS. 6-9.

The supporting blocks thus formed provide the seatings for receiving and supporting the interior and exterior wall panels.

The blocks must be positioned on the sole-piece with precision. To this result, a system for positioning the dies has been devised including members of a precise length adapted to position any block from a given starting point. The system comprises measuring-rods 50 including rods 51, and plates 52 with apertures 53 soldered to the ends of the rods. Needless to say the length of the rods are chosen to the requirements of the particular building.

In order to position the blocks on the sole-piece, a first block is positioned more or less arbitrarily providing a starting point from which the rest of the blocks can be positioned by means of a network of measuringrods. Each of the blocks is provided with a bore-hole which receives a pin 55, the apertured-plates 52 can then be positioned on the pins 55 between two blocks. Referring to ,FIG. 2, assuming the corner block as the starting point, the two adjacent blocks may be positioned simultaneously by means of the three measuring-rods 50 indicated in solid lines in FIG. 1. With the position of the first three blocks determined, the position of any additional adjacent block is determined by means of two measuring-rods 50. A limited number of measuring rods are required in that once a block is in position the measuring-rods which determined its positionv may be removed to determine the position of the following blo'ck.

By means of process thus described, a plurality of blocks can e rapidly put into position with precision 'owing to the simplicity of this mechanical arrangement.

Once all the blocks are in place, the pins 55 are removed from the bored holes so that the prefabricated concrete panels can be positioned in the recesses.

An exterior wall panel for the basement is shown in FIG. 10. This panel is generally rectangular in shape and includes'an exterior face 57 and an interior face 58 which has three recessed edges relative to the exterior face 57 which extends therebeyond. The top and bottom edges 59 and 60 are formed to support flooring panels. Accordingly, the upper edge 59 is provided with projecting supporting shoulders adjacent to the lateral edges, hadling hocks 62 and holes 63 located in the vacinity the said shoulders. The lower edge 60 is provided with bored holes which are adapted to be aligned with holes 63. With regard to the lateral edges 65 and 66, each is provided a plurality of hollowed-out portion 67, extending through these portions are reinforcing members 68 which extend beyond the lateral faces in order to assure the connections with adjacent pannels when the concrete is poured and hardened. This connection will be discussed in detail hereinbelow.

With regard to FIG. 11, one of the hollowed-out portion of the type provided in each of the lateral edges 65 and 66 is shown in detail. The hollowed-out portion 67 includes a raised linear portion 69 disposed at the middle of the recess which is connected to irregular pyramoidal recesses 70 and 71 including faces 72 and 73 at each side thereof. The faces 72 and 73 are intended to provide the support surfaces in the vertical plane between adjacent panels,

In order to assembly the panels on the blocks, the blocks along the periphery of the building are each provided with positioning pins 74 (see FIGS. 13 and 14). For the purpose of explanation, the assembly of the panels will be considered relative to the panels of the substructure which include facade panels 17 exterior side panels 17A and interior panel 178. The panels 17, 17A, 17B are disposed in the T-shaped recesses in the blocks, as described hereinabove relative to FIGS. 3-5. The pins to be received in the interior panel are disposed in holes 24, 26 and 27 and the pins to be received in the exterior side panel are disposed only in holes 26 and 27.

In order to facilitate the positioning of panels, the positioning of panels, the pins are of different lengths so that each panel is positioned relative to one pin and then another, in such a case the first pin acts as a pivot for aiding the positioning of the panel relative to'the second pin.

After the exterior side panel has been fixed to the blocks to the left in FIGS. 13 and 14 and after the interior panel 17 B has been fixed to the block to the right in FIGS. 13 and 14 the upper part of the panels 17, 17A and 178 can be provisionally assembled.

The provisional assembly of the panels isbest seen in FIG. 15. This assembly is effected by metal or molded connecting means indicated generally by references 75 and 76. The goemetry of these connecting means will be determined by the panels to be provisionally assembled. For the provisional connection of the exterior side panel 17A to the facade panel 17 and L-shaped member having pegs 78 at its ends adapted to extend into the recess holes 63 provided in the upper edge of the panels.

In a similar manner the facade panel 17 is provisionally connected to the interior panel 17B by a T- shaped member 75 formed of members 80 and 81 disposed at right angles to one another and pegs 82 at the ends of the T-shaped member adapted to extend into the recessed holes 63 in the panels.

Referring next to FIGS. 16 and 17 two further types of connecting means are shown, the embodiment shown in FIG. 16 shows a simple element 84 for connecting two panels together which are not a right angles to one another. The elements 84 includes a linear member 85 having pegs 84 and 86 fixed at its ends which are adapted to extend into corresponding holes in the panels. FIG. 17 on the other hand shows a connecting element for connecting four panels disposed at right angles to one another. In the embodiment the members 84 and 64A are at right angles to one another and pegs are provided at the ends of these members.

The use of the elements for provisionally connecting the panels described above can be readily seen by referring to FIG. 12. For example at the jointure of four interior panels 173 a connecting element 87 is used. To connect two facade panel to an interior panel the T- shaped connecting element is employed. And to connect a facade panel to an exterior side panel the L- shaped connecting element 76 is used.

At this stage of the construction, additional panels 90 for the substructure or superstructure are brought into alignment relative to the first level of panels. Referring to FIG. 15, the upper edges of the panels are provided with pins 91 and 92 disposed in the vertical bored holes in the shoulders 61. The pins 91 and 92 extends out of the shoulders difierent distances in order to facilitate assembling by pivoting the panel about on of the pins into alignment with the other of the pins, Once the second level of panels 90 are supported on the first level of panels, the panels 90 can be provisionally connected together by connecting elements in a manner as described hereinabove.

The top surface of the interior panels in cooperation with the interior surface of the stepped-upper edge of the external panels provide the supporting surfaces for the floor panels 94 and 95. The panels 94 and 95 are provided with a peripheral tapered flange 96 on which are disposed shoulders 97 at predetermined positions.

The floor panels include means for connection with the interior panels on which they are supported comprising connecting loops 98 which are adapted to looped over pins 99 which extend from the upper surface of the interior panels. It is noted that there connecting loops 98 serve a dual purpose in that they are also used for lifting and handling the floor panels.

Once the panels are positioned with precision and provisionally connected together, cavities between the panels can then be filled with concrete in order to permanently bind the panels in position. The present building construction includes three types of cavities to be filled with concrete. Cavity C is a vertical space disposed between exterior panels. Cavity C is defined by the space between two adjacent vertical panels at different levels and the floor panel adjacent to their connection. Cavity G is defined by the space between adjacent floor panels. The cavities are properly sealed off in order to provide permanent connections and prevent the escape of the concrete when it is poured. There are three types of means for sealing the cavities. A first type of means comprises adhesive tape 100 (see FIGS. 13-15 in particular) which cover the points of connection between adjacent panels. A second type of means for sealing comprises heavy-duty asphalt felt 101 disposed in the plane of the joint between adjacent vertical panels at different levels (see FIG. 19). A third type of means for sealing is disposed between the lateral edges of adjacent exterior panels 17 and 17A and comprising a seal which will be described in detail hereinbelow.

The concrete is poured into the various cavities at this stage, Owing to the reinforcing elements which extend out of the panels as described hereinabove a permanent secure connection results upon the pouring and hardening of the concrete. Moreover, the hollowed-out portions provided in the lateral edges 65 and 66 are also filled with concrete. When the concrete hardens the panels are immobilized therein. Further, the clearance between adjacent panels is quite to the minimum possible by means of the support surfaces 72 and 73 defining the pyramoidal recesses.

As can be seen in FIG. 13 the protruding reinforcing members extending into the cavities may include U- shaped rod members extending from the panel 17B and straight rods 68 extending from the ends of the panels 17. Preferably, vertically oriented reinforcing rods are disposed at the upper portion before-pouring.

Considering next FlG. 18, a horizontal section through a pair of adjacent exterior wall panels shows a vertically oriented seal therebetween. The faces 110 of the lateral edges 65 and 66 of the panels are provided with grooves l I 1 which extend along the total height of the panels. A substantially U-shaped element 112 formed of resilient plastics material having inward facing flanges 113 disposed at the ends of the legs thereof is embedded in each of the grooves 1 l l.

The space between the two panels 117 is adapted to receive a tubular seal 105 fonned of resilient plastics material and having a hollow central portion which is almond-shaped in crosssection. Lips 115 and 116 are provided at the ends of the almond-shaped central portion which engage each of the panels 17. A tongue 118 extends from the mid-portion of each side of the almond-shaped portion into the slot formed between the flanged-ends of the U-shaped members. The tongue 1 18 has enlarged end portion and is of a shape complimentary to that of the flanged-ends. The seal 105 is slid from top to bottom into position in the space between the panels 17. The seal 105 owing to its resiliency and hollow shape can withstand the forces due to the expansion of the panels which is likely to be produced as well as provide an effective weather seal.

Referring now to FIG. 19, the connection between a pair of vertically adjacent facade panels 17 is shown in section. The bottom portion of the upper panel is of substantially complimentary shape to that of the top portion of the lower panel. ,A lining 120 is provided alongpart of the upper surface of the lower panel and a sealing member 121 is disposed between the lining and the upper panel 90 which is the facade panel of one of the storeys. This construction is most desirable in that it prevents the entry of both water and wind between the panels and which cooperate with the layer 122 of insulating material to render the building effective against wind, rain and the like as well as helping to maintain the controlled temperatured within the building.

It is readily apparent that the invention is not limited to the building shown and described herein. The present invention finds application in all types of building construction in which prefabricated panels are employed even those of single storey construction. Any of the elementsshown or described can be replaced by its equivalent, for example, the blocks may be grouped in pairs and may be formed of metal as well as concrete.

We jg u l. A U] ding construction comprising prefabricated rectangular concrete panels juxtaposed in edge to edge relationship along theirvertical edges, spaced blocks, each block supporting a pair of said panels adjacent their vertical edges, each block having channels on its upper surface, each channel having a bottom and side walls and receiving a panel, vertically extending holes in the bottom of said channels, pins extending between said holes and the bottoms of said panels, vertically extending flange means on said panels forming recesses between adjacent panels to receive poured concrete, and horizontally extending flanges on the upper edges of said panels extending from one vertical edge to the other of each of said panels to form a horizontally extending recess for the reception of poured concrete, and tie members positioned in said horizontal recess to hold the upper portions of said panels in position, each tie member comprising vertically extending pins received in holes in the upper edges of said panels and a horizontal member joining said vertical pins and bridging the vertical joint between said panels.

2. A building construction as claimed in claim I, wherein horizontally extending reinforcing rods in each of said panels have end portions extending into said recesses and a pair of indentations in the vertical edges of each panel is adjacent the end of each reinforcing rod, one indentation being above a rod and the other below a rod, said reinforcing rods and indentations acting to rigidly key the panels to the poured concrete.

3. A building construction as claimed in claim 2, wherein each indentation is formed as an irregular pyramid,the faces of said pyramids forming supporting surfaces for the panels relative to the poured concrete.

4. A building construction as claimed in claim 1, wherein the horizontally extending flanges are on the exterior of said panels, the body portions of said panels form a ledge receiving the edges of floor panels and vertical pins extend between the horizontally extending flanges and other prefabricated concrete panels above said first mentioned panels.

I in: v

Claims (4)

1. A building construction comprising prefabricated rectangular concrete panels juxtaposed in edge to edge relationship along their vertical edges, spaced blocks, each block supporting a pair of said panels adjacent their vertical edges, each block having channels on its upper surface, each channel having a bottom and side walls and receiving a panel, vertically extending holes in the bottom of said channels, pins extending between said holes and the bottoms of said panels, vertically extending flange means on said panels forming recesses between adjacent panels to receive poured concrete, and horizontally extending flanges on the upper edges of said panels extending from one vertical edge to the other of each of said panels to form a horizontally extending recess for the reception of poured concrete, and tie members positioned in said horizontal recess to hold the upper portions of said panels in position, each tie member comprising vertically extending pins received in holes in the upper edges of said panels and a horizontal member joining said vertical pins and bridging the vertical joint between said panels.
2. A building construction as claimed in claim 1, wherein horizontally extending reinforcing rods in each of said panels have end portions extending into said recesses and a pair of indentations in the vertical edges of each panel is adjacent the end of each reinforcing rod, one indentation being above a rod and the other below a rod, said reinforcing rods and indentations acting to rigidly key the panels to the poured concrete.
3. A building construction as claimed in claim 2, wherein each indentation is formed as an irregular pyramid, the faces of said pyramids forming supporting surfaces for the panels relative to the poured concrete.
4. A building construction as claimed in claim 1, wherein the horizontally extending flanges are on the exterior of said panels, the body portions of said panels form a ledge receiving the edges of floor panels and vertical pins extend between the horizontally extending flanges and other prefabricated concrete panels above said first mentioned panels.
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US4123884A (en) * 1976-10-07 1978-11-07 Kubota Tekko Kabushiki Kaisha Modular construction for prefabricated house
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US20100162658A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US8132388B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2012-03-13 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US8397467B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-03-19 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Methods and apparatus for concrete panel connections
US8490363B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-07-23 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US8763317B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2014-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Concrete roof panel
US20170044754A1 (en) * 2011-10-19 2017-02-16 Eduardo Ricardo Aguila Precast modular living habitat
CZ305072B6 (en) * 2013-07-16 2015-04-22 České vysoké učení technické v Praze, Kloknerův ústav Kloknerův ústav System for constructing concrete floor on soil consolidated surface in ground level buildings

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FR2034179A1 (en) 1970-12-11

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