US20160319534A1 - Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings - Google Patents

Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20160319534A1
US20160319534A1 US15/105,524 US201415105524A US2016319534A1 US 20160319534 A1 US20160319534 A1 US 20160319534A1 US 201415105524 A US201415105524 A US 201415105524A US 2016319534 A1 US2016319534 A1 US 2016319534A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
central structure
nodes
panels
coordination system
beams
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US15/105,524
Inventor
Marcio BERNARDO
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Individual
Original Assignee
Individual
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority claimed from BR102013032297A external-priority patent/BR102013032297A2/en
Application filed by Individual filed Critical Individual
Priority claimed from BR102014031456-3A external-priority patent/BR102014031456B1/en
Publication of US20160319534A1 publication Critical patent/US20160319534A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34807Elements integrated in a skeleton
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • E04B1/3483Elements not integrated in a skeleton the supporting structure consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34869Elements for special technical purposes, e.g. with a sanitary equipment
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H1/00Buildings or groups of buildings for dwelling or office purposes; General layout, e.g. modular co-ordination or staggered storeys
    • E04H1/005Modulation co-ordination
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2406Connection nodes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2481Details of wall panels

Definitions

  • This invention belongs to the field of civil engineering, specifically to the field of modular, reversible, expandable, reducible, modifiable and multifunctional buildings that can be used in the construction of buildings.
  • provisional buildings comprises tents, stands and the like, and constructions that after the joining of the elements cannot be altered in its structure, as of prefabricated houses in general.
  • the prior art includes some innovations as the modular architectures.
  • the patent document MU 7900320-6 teaches a system comprising closure panels, which contains in its interior the vertical structure and the horizontal guide tube through which the fastening cable passes, the upper closure panel consists of a U profile giving the finishing, at the bottom is composed of staple with hole through which the lower attachment cable passes, the junction of the walls is done by fitting the property of stability is made through points located in the corners of the building, the assembly of the prefabricated house system with panels can be made by a specially designed device for this purpose which, after the assembly of the structure is removed from the location, leaving the house supporting base to be made last, or one makes a support base fixed in the ground and thereafter assembles the skeleton of the house and finally the panels.
  • the patent document MU 8302783-1 teaches an assembly system of prefabricated houses where the pillar is attached to a base and not buried. With less weight than a traditional system, it provides lower cost and greater agility in the execution of the work.
  • Said house consists of a pillar in reinforced concrete, containing channels height-wise that allow the perfect fit of the prefabricated concrete slabs. Some pillars are coupled with a light box, allowing the passage of electrical wires, facilitating the electric wiring. At the bottom of the pillar there is an iron pin to be used for fixing the pillar on the grade beam. At the top, there is a wire for fixing locking lines.
  • the patent document PI 9702476-7 teaches a set of elements for assembling a structure which can receive traditional elements of a construction, such as bricks, windows, and others.
  • a technical challenge to be supplanted is the creation of pre-built structures produced by the concept of modules with multiple central structures connectable independently to each other that enable the rapid and safe construction of buildings, provisional buildings, and resilient buildings that can be easily modified after the construction, merely by adding new modules or by the withdrawal of the modules that make up the construction without relying on another main structure, this being contained independently of each room.
  • the objective of this invention is to propose a modular coordination system, reversible for buildings that have standards and pre-arranged attributes contained within, although they are not fully utilized at the same time, but that allow the future needs and trends to be anticipate resulting in interventions with a high reduction of technical, functional, temporal and aesthetic impacts, these being considerably sustainable, designed, and ordered by independent rooms may have their morphology and state of use through reversible modified at any time and can be used for the construction of multifunctional permanent buildings, resilient buildings, and/or provisional buildings for emergency use.
  • the present invention is a complete system of reversible modular coordination for buildings that is equipped with multiple flexible central structures connectable and independent to each other, in which loose versatile ceiling plates with flags positioned in the upper beams of said central structure, loose versatile floor plates and positioned in the lower beams of said central structure, independent intermediate flexible side plates positioned on the adjacent edge lines or vertical frames of said central structure through frames, and multipliable connective and disconnective nodes, formulating the set of central structures that make up individual modules, and, wherein said central structure can be connected do other central structures in a way that they can mate and form a building; as well as, if necessary, the central structures can be disconnected without incurring in damage of any kind to the building.
  • the reversible modular coordination system of the invention forms a pre-constructed system, of multiple connective and reversible concept, and dynamic size, useful to be used in the construction of buildings of diversified present and future uses and/or emergency activities, and employs important and functional technological improvements, in accordance with the standards and technical specifications required for the construction industry, and further provides technical, practical and economic advantages.
  • modules of the present invention allows to incorporate different predispositions, versatility, mobility and recyclability to the construction, as well as providing improvements in the quality of life of individuals, social integration, ordered, planned, and sustainable growth development of cities and a reduction on the cost of the construction and a significant reduction in lead time.
  • modules enables the building to arrive at the location complete, but segregated to the location, and thus the modules are connected with each other to form a complete building.
  • FIG. 1 presents the spatial view of the reversible modular coordinate system for buildings.
  • FIG. 2 shows the view of the main components of reversible modular coordination system for buildings.
  • FIG. 3 shows the exploded view of the reversible modular coordinate system for buildings.
  • FIG. 4 shows a second exploded view of the object of the invention.
  • FIG. 5 shows some alternative embodiments of the invention.
  • FIG. 6 shows the plan of a building in a level; A: roof plan and B: Spatial plan of the lower level.
  • FIG. 7 shows a plan view of a construction of a level raised by the juxtaposition of multiple multifunctional modular systems.
  • FIG. 8 shows the plant another embodiment of an erected level by the juxtaposition of multiple multifunctional modular systems.
  • FIG. 9 is a representation of a multilevel building composed by juxtaposing multiple multifunctional modular systems.
  • FIG. 10 shows a set of buildings constructed on an emergency basis on a land.
  • FIG. 11 shows the reversibility and flexibility of the system with the increasing of units, wherein one can be that building set of FIG. 9 .
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an exploded view of the reversible modular coordination system 1 for the construction of buildings of the present invention, that comprises two multiple connectable and disconnectable central structures 2 , that are flexible and independent of each other; versatile floor plates 3 and positioned loose on the lower beams of the central structure; versatile floor plates 3 that are loose and positioned on the lower beams of the central structure 2 ; versatile ceiling plates 4 that have flags positioned in the upper beams of the central structure 2 ; independent intermediate flexible side plates 5 that are positioned in adjacent edge lines or vertical frames of the central structure 2 ; and groups of multipliable connective and disconnective nodes 2 .
  • the central structure 2 and the interconnection to it may be of metal materials, plastic material of high strength, wood and others, which may be composed or not, but that make it possible to service its function whether or not of the same material as that of the structure, with the upper nodes group 2 . 6 aligned at the axis and positioned on the upper part of each column, the group of horizontal intermediate nodes 2 . 6 positioned at each upper and lower beam between of the pillars nodes, and the group of vertical intermediate engage nodes 2 . 6 positioned at different levels along the column that are between the upper and lower nodes of each column forming multiple central structures 2 with columns 2 . 1 and beams 2 .
  • the system described has patterns and pre-arranged attributes contained within the same, even if they are not being fully used at the same time.
  • FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 show an embodiment of the invention in which the central structure 2 is provided with a set of 4 columns 2 . 1 and 8 beams 2 . 2 made of a metal belonging to the group consisting of steel and aluminum and having the flexibility of being of another possible material without suffering changes in its characteristics, which is hollow inside or not.
  • the size and the shape of the central structure can variate between 1.50 and 6.40 m in length, maximum height of the upper beam to the ground of 3.40 m; and width between 1.25 and 2.60 m.
  • the central structure 2 if of steel or aluminum.
  • the dynamic structures of the same concepts allow the connection of the beams 2 . 2 in several ways, allowing the same to be welded, screwed or engaged to the columns 2 . 1 and joining them.
  • the lower beams 2 . 2 are positioned at a distance of 20 to 40 cm from the ground, thus providing a space of an insufflation/air cushion between the upper and lower beams 2 . 2 and columns 2 . 1 and a space for inserting the roof panel 4 , hereinafter called the foot 2 . 3 in each of the columns 2 . 1 , without generating a discontinuity thereof and the upper beams are below a threshold level promoting smaller vertical spans and greater structural stability.
  • the beams 2 . 2 are repeated or are between one floor and another, and they are at a distance of at least 10 cm apart, and the auxiliary beams 2 . 5 are repeated or not from one floor to another.
  • passage elements such as water pipes, sewage and gas collection ducts, conduits for electrical wires, telephone cables, coaxial cables for transmitting data and image, air circulation tubes, primary and secondary ridges, which ends can be parallel or diagonal to each other and the same can stay in different levels and others passage elements pertaining to the state of the art, not enabling the overlapping of the panels, any of which may be removed and enabling free access to the premises without the need to break or demolish anything.
  • a new way to use the premises consisting of using premises that are segregated, compartmentalized and arranged by the central structure 2 , which utilize plug systems and flexible links whether or not located inside the columns 2 . 1 and beams 2 . 2 the central structure 2 , wherein the same can be disconnected if necessary upon the change in the building.
  • the reversible modular coordination system 1 is easily translated from one location to another and may or may not be a static building, it can also be transported on a vehicle, e.g. on a truck or by train, without the need for special transportation to be brought to the construction site, it has been imagined and developed to get completely ready to use and finished on site, by rooms at the location or to arrive disassembled for hard access sites and to be mounted at the location using the same technology through the connective and disconnective nodes 2 .
  • the floor panels 3 , ceiling panels 4 and side panels 5 are versatile/flexible panels that are typically employed by civil construction and produced with respected dimensions and being totally independent of the central structure 2 , and can be added or removed at any time without compromising on aesthetics and system functionality. There can be used superposed bulged concave panels of various sizes, shapes and any kind of material without compromising and modifying technical, functional and practical specifications, thus enabling the use of one-piece or split panels consisted of the same material or not.
  • aluminum panels such as those sold under the trademark ROCK WOOL® Thermal Insulation, PVDF-ROCK WOOL® and Aluminum Curtain Wall Panel®; composite panels such as those sold under the trademarks ISOJOINT® SL PUR and PLYBEN®; honeycomb panels, cement slabs such as those provided by BRASILIT® and CASSOL®, wood panels such as those sold under the trademark MASTERBOARD produced by BRASILIT®; Structural glass panels; fiberglass panels such as those sold under the trademark ECOPLAN®; and PVC panels produced by ARTESANA®.
  • the described system is a catalyst of several other technologies, that is, it allows a high index of adaptation of the panels. For example: a building in the south of Brazil would have panels suitable to respond better to the cold, and a house in the northeast of Brazil would respond better to heat and also can be changed in its aesthetic. In other words, it is highly adaptable and flexible in anywhere, upon need or trend without promoting changes in the system.
  • the floor panels 3 have holes for the passage elements and opening points that allow access to the same
  • the ceiling panels 4 are one-piece panels and the side panels 5 have openings corresponding to the windows and doors and can be unique or duplicated face to face, leveled or at different levels that overlap or not the central structure 2 , thus possibly providing larger sealing and different finishes when one or more rooms are connected.
  • the floor panels 3 of the upper floor may or may not be overlapping the roof panels 4 of the lower floor, but without a contact between them, they are panels independent to each other in the same level or at different levels, aligned or misaligned to the axis, giving many possibilities of use, flexibility and technical advantages, including a greater acoustic and thermal insulation, and air insufflation. These characteristics also make it possible the complete independence between the rooms and the fact that they arrive ready to use at the implantation site.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates an alternative embodiment of the invention in which the central structure 2 is juxtaposed and connected to at least one further central structure 2 in horizontal, vertical and diagonal direction, from several angles, independent from each other, although they become unique when connected, thus consolidating the juxtaposition of the system so that there is no space between the main structures, these remaining in contact all the time without requiring any other insertion element intermediate to them.
  • FIG. 5A Although not shown, a second central structure 2 is juxtaposed in the vertical direction on the first central structure 2 of the lower floor (no need to change the structure plan) through the connection and engagement nodes 2 . 6 , where a folded sheet or a ladder is attached, or welded to the lower beam 2 .
  • the structure further allows the installation and passage of an elevator system, and further, allows each central structure 2 becomes unique again through the possibility of disconnection that exists in each connective and disconnective node 2 . 6 existing in various points of same.
  • FIG. 5B can be seen of the embodiments of the invention in which multiple central structures 2 are juxtaposed in the diagonal direction when viewed from the side and fixed one to each other providing several possibilities of vertical variations.
  • this figure only illustrates the juxtaposition of multiple central structures 2 in one direction aligned to the axis of the pillars as viewed from above, it is possible to accomplish the juxtaposition of the central structures 2 in different offset directions of the axes of the pillars, resulting in misaligned combinations of diagonal connections both when viewed from the side and from above.
  • connection of the central structures cantilevered, and these would be connected by the connection and engagement nodes in the lower and upper ends of the columns of both central structures 2 , or the connection and engagement nodes vertically intermediate distributed along the columns, when it has level variations enabling it is implanted in various types of topography.
  • FIG. 5C illustrates the juxtaposition of two central structures in multiple horizontal directions secured to each other aligned or misaligned to an axis of the pillars when viewed from above, providing the system evolution. And further, it still uses smaller central structures 2 . 4 that can have the same height of the central structures 2 or have variations in height and length and width halved.
  • the central structure 2 is consisted of auxiliary beams 2 . 5 conferring greater strength to this main structure.
  • the floor panels 3 and ceiling 4 panels could be supported thereon.
  • FIG. 6 shows that the central structure is still consisted of two groups of upper and lower connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 aligned to an axis and horizontally and vertically intermediate independent between the modules and is the main component of the central structure 2 and the system. It is a pre-arranged and fundamental component in all columns 2 . 1 and beams 2 . 2 of the system, even though in some cases they are not all being used in its entirety, which allow the expansion or reduction of the building, even after the system is completed and implanted, and makes it possible to disconnect the system by ready rooms, with exactly the same characteristics as when it arrived.
  • the connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 are positioned in strategic locations of each column 2 . 1 and beam 2 . 2 of each central structure 2 enabling the various multiple connections. When these connections are horizontally aligned to axis occur, they occur through the connection and engagement nodes in the ends of each pillar of the two central structures 2 ; when connected intermediate to the horizontal axes displaced from the axes of the pillars, they occur through the intermediate connection and engagement nodes that exist in the central structures 2 and the nodes contained in the ends of each column of the other central structure 2 .
  • central structures 2 are diagonally juxtaposed resulting in different vertical variations, they are connected through the existing connection and engagement nodes that exist in the ends of the pillars in a central structure 2 and other nodes distributed along the pillars of another central structure 2 , and further such central structures could be juxtaposed containing horizontal and vertical variations misaligned to the axes of the pillars and beams, in this case through connective and disconnective nodes distributed along the pillars of the central structure 2 and the existing nodes in the beams of other central structure 2 . It is to be understood that the system can allow many variations in its embodiment that are not described above, as long as it does not depart from the scope of the invention.
  • the connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 are composed of specific groups of pieces, and they may or may be not of the same material as the central structure 2 , they can be cubic, semi-cubic, comprised by up to 6 or more sides, having one or more of their parts movable, consisting of an internal and external “box” that is overlapping or underlapping to the central structure 2 , having magnets, slits/holes strategic in their walls plus long openings, having one or more threadable or engageable pins, one or more threads and safety keys and locking mechanism, threaded and toothed sleeves, one or more “handle”, one or more latches, plates and/or guide bars, that limits and/or transfers the load and are welded inside or outside the central structure 2 having or not holes with or without thread, having or not magnets, having one or more direction and plumb guides, and one or more auxiliary bars to access, handle, squeeze, and release them.
  • an internal and external “box” that is overlapping or underlapping to the central structure 2 ,
  • the connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 are joined by a (static or rotating) coupling system by means of braces, catches, screws, latches, rings/belts and clamping rings, self-locking pins, pins with “oblong” type end, clips/safety clamps, bars, one or more positive and negative coil ends, one or more sheets of positive and negative toothed coupling, one or more orientation and locking bars that may or may not contain openings for fittings and have or not inside them steel cables and/or springs, and they can even be independent of bars, magnets of several types arranged independently for each connective node and allowing the connection in all the directions when put in touch with each other, dampers that can be de same as used in automobiles or motorcycles or otherwise, disposed within each node, allowing the engagement and the absorption of the load transfer of the lower central structure 2 to the upper central structure 2 and others.
  • a (static or rotating) coupling system by means of braces, catches, screws, latches, rings/
  • connection and disconnection points with horizontal and vertical variations between the nodes 2 . 6 and the central structure 2 at the same time as perpendicular, parallel, transverse, diagonal inclined and curved beams and columns, the beams 2 . 2 also allowing the connection of modules halved and also allowing multiple modulations, custom designs and economy in the foundation structure, wherein from a single node there can be carried out the connection and disconnection of at least 3 other independent vertices, two horizontally and one vertically.
  • the connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 allow the joining of different modules aligned or misaligned to the axis of the pillars and beams, even if these modules are positioned with a gap between 15 cm and 3.25 m, in order to respect, as much as possible, the original topography of the land, causing less impact, cost and execution time at the site of implantation, allowing complete independence and flexibility of each central structure 2 /system module.
  • each central structure 2 has from 6 to 52 connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 and they enable a dual function of interconnection both vertically and horizontally in the same node and independent of each other (the vertical elements can be connected and disconnected, since they are independent of the horizontal elements, and vice versa), are embedded (they do not get exposed) in varied points, allowing multi-connectivity, angular variations and positive and negative curves, both horizontality and verticality, both at angles and in varying degrees, in “half-heights” and lower heights “half-cantilevered” and cantilevered (resulting in different advances and depths of the facades, the floors and the covers), allowing the columns 2 . 1 to duplicate, triplicate and quadruplicate upon the connection, and beams 2 .
  • connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 can also be used for fastening any other system item, when not being used for a connection between structures.
  • the floor panels 3 are fastened to the central structure 2 by means of the lower beams 2 . 2 and/or the secondary beams 2 . 5
  • the ceiling panels 4 are attached to the central structure 2 through several openings for fitting around/permeating the connective and disconnective nodes 2 . 6 and overlapping laterally the upper beams 2 . 2 , thereby preventing infiltration points
  • the side panels 5 are fastened to the central structure 2 via the frames 6 .
  • the person skilled on the art uses frames for fastening the structures that occupy a smaller area in a building, such as windows and doors.
  • a reversible modular coordination system 1 for building provisional buildings, for example in case of natural disasters; as well as the construction of resilient and non-resilient perennial buildings, or both at the same time, it can have their morphology, state of use and format modified at any time by the reversibility of independent rooms.
  • the resilient building in this case would be a building that could be built in a determined location, disconnected between modules and connected to in another location, without compromising the structure of the reversible modular coordination system 1 . It allows the permanence of the system after an emergency care aiming at not only a cost minimization and to speed the reconstruction, but allowing the emergency use in shelter format and making it of various shapes and sizes later and being permanently used and it can be expanded, reduced and modified as needed. In the case of new disaster, the dwelling could be relocated to a safe area, preventing further loss of lives, homes and a high financial cost.
  • FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 show different possibilities of juxtaposition in a single level or story of the modules of the reversible modular coordination system 1 .
  • the modules when they are juxtaposed, they can have several functions in the building, for example, a module serves as a bedroom, another module serves as living room, another as bathroom and etc.
  • the reversible modular coordination system 1 is further useful in the construction of buildings with multiple levels or stories, since the central structure 2 provides the necessary support to different modules that are overlapped on each other. That is, a reversible modular coordination system 1 , in the most extreme cases, is dimensioned in order that its structure supports the maximum number of stories as possible, for example 20 stories.
  • reversible modular coordination system 1 also allows the construction in phases of a building, and the same may be multiplied even after the building is completed, i.e. in different steps vertically through the connective and disconnective nodes that are pre-existing at the upper part of the multiple connectable structure of the last story and also horizontally by the same connective and disconnective nodes or further by the nodes existing along each profile, and these can be additions to the building that are aligned or not to the axis.
  • This way, a building initially built with 10 stories can receive five or more stories until the limit of support of the structure, without the need of any kind of reinforcement or interventions.
  • FIGS. 10 and 11 show the modular reversible coordinate system 1 built in steps.
  • FIG. 10 there are seen buildings erected with 1 and 2 levels in a land threatened by a natural disaster, while FIG. 11 shows in sequence that additional modules are modified and added to the reversible modular coordination system 1 on the erected buildings, thus increasing the number of dwelling units.
  • the reversible modular coordination system 1 is useful for the construction of buildings of various utilities, allowing the addition of finished central structures at any time and in any of the connective and disconnective nodes in an existing building, making the same reversible and changeable at any time according to need and will of its user without the need for demolishing or the addition of material.
  • the reversible modular coordination system 1 has a high index of free plant and at least 90% of the panels can be removed without demolition and or even drastic interventions, simply with a clean and safe removal of side closure panels for they have independent structures.
  • a building can be dismantled from its original place of implantation in modules and be transported and implanted elsewhere without demolitions, with 100% of reuse of the building, providing a new paradigm of constructive process (of design/manufacturing/materials/assembly/connection) and use of a building. It is therefore a complete and comprehensive system.

Abstract

The present invention is a reversible modular coordination system comprising central structures that are multiple connectable and disconnectable, flexible and independent of each other; versatile floor plates that are loose and positioned on the lower beams of the central structure; versatile ceiling plates that have flags positioned in the upper beams of the central structure; independent intermediate flexible side plates that are positioned in adjacent edge lines or vertical frames of the central structure; and groups of multipliable connective and disconnective nodes; forming individual modules that can be used in the building construction; and the use of reversible modular coordination system for the construction of provisional buildings as well as for the construction of perennial resilient and not resilient buildings.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention belongs to the field of civil engineering, specifically to the field of modular, reversible, expandable, reducible, modifiable and multifunctional buildings that can be used in the construction of buildings.
  • STATE OF THE ART
  • Currently, the construction of provisional buildings comprises tents, stands and the like, and constructions that after the joining of the elements cannot be altered in its structure, as of prefabricated houses in general.
  • With regard to prefabricated buildings with a modular architecture, the drawback is on the size of the elements and the junction between them, which preclude transport of them or their structural components fully assembled, causing them to be transported completely or partially disassembled and only being assembled at the construction site. This fact makes the process of assembling prefabricated structures and its structural elements slow, and requires the use of a large amount of manpower, which is in addition cost-expensive and more time consuming to build.
  • There are also modular architectures that arrive ready to use; however, it is worth noting that these are usually destined to the whole single-story homes, which are usually static as to shape or size. Those that make it possible to reach over 2 stories use whole support (main) structures that are not part of the central structures of the modules. Therefore, in this case, the buildings shall contain two types of structures, namely, the main structural that allow more than one story, which support and transfer loads, and secondary structures of the modules. These restrictions are due to the fact that the structures are not designed to have flexibility or continuity, in other words, do not deal with multiple connectable structures or provided with connectable nodes.
  • The prior art includes some innovations as the modular architectures. The patent document MU 7900320-6 teaches a system comprising closure panels, which contains in its interior the vertical structure and the horizontal guide tube through which the fastening cable passes, the upper closure panel consists of a U profile giving the finishing, at the bottom is composed of staple with hole through which the lower attachment cable passes, the junction of the walls is done by fitting the property of stability is made through points located in the corners of the building, the assembly of the prefabricated house system with panels can be made by a specially designed device for this purpose which, after the assembly of the structure is removed from the location, leaving the house supporting base to be made last, or one makes a support base fixed in the ground and thereafter assembles the skeleton of the house and finally the panels.
  • The patent document MU 8302783-1 teaches an assembly system of prefabricated houses where the pillar is attached to a base and not buried. With less weight than a traditional system, it provides lower cost and greater agility in the execution of the work. Said house consists of a pillar in reinforced concrete, containing channels height-wise that allow the perfect fit of the prefabricated concrete slabs. Some pillars are coupled with a light box, allowing the passage of electrical wires, facilitating the electric wiring. At the bottom of the pillar there is an iron pin to be used for fixing the pillar on the grade beam. At the top, there is a wire for fixing locking lines. In the assembly system, there first are built the foundation and grade beams and then the beam is pierced to fit the lower pin of the pillar in its entirety. After the erecting of all the walls, under the pillar runs a wooden guide of 1 inch in thickness and 10 cm in width to lock and support the walls of rafter.
  • The patent document PI 9702476-7 teaches a set of elements for assembling a structure which can receive traditional elements of a construction, such as bricks, windows, and others.
  • With respect to popular constructions, some of the greatest problems is the cost and quality of the construction, even when done on a large scale by companies with standardization, the construction cannot manage to have a low cost as would be desirable, even when simplistic standards are used and with little aesthetic appeal, and when the construction is carried out by the owner or in the form of joint effort, the quality of construction leaves much to be desired, both on the technical and aesthetic requirements.
  • Another problem that exists in popular houses is that the indispensable facilities are built, in general the project is carried out without planning or future vision, which makes expansion or modification of the house very difficult and expensive. For example, as the walls act as structures, they generally cannot be removed in the expansion at a reasonable cost, in order to be incorporated in new rooms; therefore, without any practicality, this turns the house into a construction without ordering and makes any evolutionary process sufferable.
  • Therefore, a technical challenge to be supplanted is the creation of pre-built structures produced by the concept of modules with multiple central structures connectable independently to each other that enable the rapid and safe construction of buildings, provisional buildings, and resilient buildings that can be easily modified after the construction, merely by adding new modules or by the withdrawal of the modules that make up the construction without relying on another main structure, this being contained independently of each room.
  • Objective of the Invention
  • The objective of this invention is to propose a modular coordination system, reversible for buildings that have standards and pre-arranged attributes contained within, although they are not fully utilized at the same time, but that allow the future needs and trends to be anticipate resulting in interventions with a high reduction of technical, functional, temporal and aesthetic impacts, these being considerably sustainable, designed, and ordered by independent rooms may have their morphology and state of use through reversible modified at any time and can be used for the construction of multifunctional permanent buildings, resilient buildings, and/or provisional buildings for emergency use.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention is a complete system of reversible modular coordination for buildings that is equipped with multiple flexible central structures connectable and independent to each other, in which loose versatile ceiling plates with flags positioned in the upper beams of said central structure, loose versatile floor plates and positioned in the lower beams of said central structure, independent intermediate flexible side plates positioned on the adjacent edge lines or vertical frames of said central structure through frames, and multipliable connective and disconnective nodes, formulating the set of central structures that make up individual modules, and, wherein said central structure can be connected do other central structures in a way that they can mate and form a building; as well as, if necessary, the central structures can be disconnected without incurring in damage of any kind to the building.
  • The reversible modular coordination system of the invention forms a pre-constructed system, of multiple connective and reversible concept, and dynamic size, useful to be used in the construction of buildings of diversified present and future uses and/or emergency activities, and employs important and functional technological improvements, in accordance with the standards and technical specifications required for the construction industry, and further provides technical, practical and economic advantages.
  • The use of the modules of the present invention allows to incorporate different predispositions, versatility, mobility and recyclability to the construction, as well as providing improvements in the quality of life of individuals, social integration, ordered, planned, and sustainable growth development of cities and a reduction on the cost of the construction and a significant reduction in lead time.
  • Furthermore, the use of modules enables the building to arrive at the location complete, but segregated to the location, and thus the modules are connected with each other to form a complete building.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • In order to achieve a full and complete view of the object of the invention at issue here, the patent of invention object, there follows the drawings, to which reference is made as follows.
  • FIG. 1 presents the spatial view of the reversible modular coordinate system for buildings.
  • FIG. 2 shows the view of the main components of reversible modular coordination system for buildings.
  • FIG. 3 shows the exploded view of the reversible modular coordinate system for buildings.
  • FIG. 4 shows a second exploded view of the object of the invention.
  • FIG. 5 shows some alternative embodiments of the invention.
  • FIG. 6 shows the plan of a building in a level; A: roof plan and B: Spatial plan of the lower level.
  • FIG. 7 shows a plan view of a construction of a level raised by the juxtaposition of multiple multifunctional modular systems.
  • FIG. 8 shows the plant another embodiment of an erected level by the juxtaposition of multiple multifunctional modular systems.
  • FIG. 9 is a representation of a multilevel building composed by juxtaposing multiple multifunctional modular systems.
  • FIG. 10 shows a set of buildings constructed on an emergency basis on a land.
  • FIG. 11 shows the reversibility and flexibility of the system with the increasing of units, wherein one can be that building set of FIG. 9.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an exploded view of the reversible modular coordination system 1 for the construction of buildings of the present invention, that comprises two multiple connectable and disconnectable central structures 2, that are flexible and independent of each other; versatile floor plates 3 and positioned loose on the lower beams of the central structure; versatile floor plates 3 that are loose and positioned on the lower beams of the central structure 2; versatile ceiling plates 4 that have flags positioned in the upper beams of the central structure 2; independent intermediate flexible side plates 5 that are positioned in adjacent edge lines or vertical frames of the central structure 2; and groups of multipliable connective and disconnective nodes 2.6, and these mechanical details being strategically pre-arranged at points of the central structure 2 and the interconnection to it may be of metal materials, plastic material of high strength, wood and others, which may be composed or not, but that make it possible to service its function whether or not of the same material as that of the structure, with the upper nodes group 2.6 aligned at the axis and positioned on the upper part of each column, the group of horizontal intermediate nodes 2.6 positioned at each upper and lower beam between of the pillars nodes, and the group of vertical intermediate engage nodes 2.6 positioned at different levels along the column that are between the upper and lower nodes of each column forming multiple central structures 2 with columns 2.1 and beams 2.2 perpendicular, adjacent, parallel, angular, inclined, curved and wavy, with rooms that are complete and independent of each other, that can be connected and disconnected, and are employed in the building construction, including enabling the connection of other types of systems and buildings already constructed, wherein it does not depend on other technics although not excluding them.
  • The system described has patterns and pre-arranged attributes contained within the same, even if they are not being fully used at the same time.
  • in that it has patterns and pre-arranged attributes contained within the same, even if they are not being fully used at the same time.
  • FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 show an embodiment of the invention in which the central structure 2 is provided with a set of 4 columns 2.1 and 8 beams 2.2 made of a metal belonging to the group consisting of steel and aluminum and having the flexibility of being of another possible material without suffering changes in its characteristics, which is hollow inside or not. The size and the shape of the central structure can variate between 1.50 and 6.40 m in length, maximum height of the upper beam to the ground of 3.40 m; and width between 1.25 and 2.60 m. Preferentially, the central structure 2 if of steel or aluminum.
  • The dynamic structures of the same concepts allow the connection of the beams 2.2 in several ways, allowing the same to be welded, screwed or engaged to the columns 2.1 and joining them. The lower beams 2.2 are positioned at a distance of 20 to 40 cm from the ground, thus providing a space of an insufflation/air cushion between the upper and lower beams 2.2 and columns 2.1 and a space for inserting the roof panel 4, hereinafter called the foot 2.3 in each of the columns 2.1, without generating a discontinuity thereof and the upper beams are below a threshold level promoting smaller vertical spans and greater structural stability. The beams 2.2 are repeated or are between one floor and another, and they are at a distance of at least 10 cm apart, and the auxiliary beams 2.5 are repeated or not from one floor to another.
  • In the area of air insufflation 2.3 there can also be inserted passage elements, such as water pipes, sewage and gas collection ducts, conduits for electrical wires, telephone cables, coaxial cables for transmitting data and image, air circulation tubes, primary and secondary ridges, which ends can be parallel or diagonal to each other and the same can stay in different levels and others passage elements pertaining to the state of the art, not enabling the overlapping of the panels, any of which may be removed and enabling free access to the premises without the need to break or demolish anything.
  • Furthermore, in another aspect of this invention, a new way to use the premises is presented, consisting of using premises that are segregated, compartmentalized and arranged by the central structure 2, which utilize plug systems and flexible links whether or not located inside the columns 2.1 and beams 2.2 the central structure 2, wherein the same can be disconnected if necessary upon the change in the building.
  • It should be apparent to those skilled on the area that it is due to its size the reversible modular coordination system 1 is easily translated from one location to another and may or may not be a static building, it can also be transported on a vehicle, e.g. on a truck or by train, without the need for special transportation to be brought to the construction site, it has been imagined and developed to get completely ready to use and finished on site, by rooms at the location or to arrive disassembled for hard access sites and to be mounted at the location using the same technology through the connective and disconnective nodes 2.6, and further by allowing it to be disconnected exactly as it arrived, completely ready and finished, or to arrive disassembled when necessary, allowing the building to be enlarged, reduced and modified room by room and in size and shape in vertical, horizontal and diagonal direction, and it can return to its original state later or not, keeping the same versatility and flexibility. Its diverse concepts and attributes make possible compose a system capable of adapt and develop in the future. And further it is characterized in that it is not demolished, do not generate waste, since when needed it would be disconnected and implanted in another place or taken to a recycling location assembled the same way as when it arrived.
  • The floor panels 3, ceiling panels 4 and side panels 5 are versatile/flexible panels that are typically employed by civil construction and produced with respected dimensions and being totally independent of the central structure 2, and can be added or removed at any time without compromising on aesthetics and system functionality. There can be used superposed bulged concave panels of various sizes, shapes and any kind of material without compromising and modifying technical, functional and practical specifications, thus enabling the use of one-piece or split panels consisted of the same material or not. By way of example, there can be used aluminum panels such as those sold under the trademark ROCK WOOL® Thermal Insulation, PVDF-ROCK WOOL® and Aluminum Curtain Wall Panel®; composite panels such as those sold under the trademarks ISOJOINT® SL PUR and PLYBEN®; honeycomb panels, cement slabs such as those provided by BRASILIT® and CASSOL®, wood panels such as those sold under the trademark MASTERBOARD produced by BRASILIT®; Structural glass panels; fiberglass panels such as those sold under the trademark ECOPLAN®; and PVC panels produced by ARTESANA®.
  • The described system is a catalyst of several other technologies, that is, it allows a high index of adaptation of the panels. For example: a building in the south of Brazil would have panels suitable to respond better to the cold, and a house in the northeast of Brazil would respond better to heat and also can be changed in its aesthetic. In other words, it is highly adaptable and flexible in anywhere, upon need or trend without promoting changes in the system.
  • In this embodiment of the invention, preferably, the floor panels 3 have holes for the passage elements and opening points that allow access to the same, and the ceiling panels 4 are one-piece panels and the side panels 5 have openings corresponding to the windows and doors and can be unique or duplicated face to face, leveled or at different levels that overlap or not the central structure 2, thus possibly providing larger sealing and different finishes when one or more rooms are connected. In a building with multiple floors, the floor panels 3 of the upper floor may or may not be overlapping the roof panels 4 of the lower floor, but without a contact between them, they are panels independent to each other in the same level or at different levels, aligned or misaligned to the axis, giving many possibilities of use, flexibility and technical advantages, including a greater acoustic and thermal insulation, and air insufflation. These characteristics also make it possible the complete independence between the rooms and the fact that they arrive ready to use at the implantation site.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates an alternative embodiment of the invention in which the central structure 2 is juxtaposed and connected to at least one further central structure 2 in horizontal, vertical and diagonal direction, from several angles, independent from each other, although they become unique when connected, thus consolidating the juxtaposition of the system so that there is no space between the main structures, these remaining in contact all the time without requiring any other insertion element intermediate to them. When juxtaposed laterally, it has its faces glued between the pillars and beams of each central structure 2, in cases of horizontal and diagonal juxtaposition and horizontally glued against the upper and lower face of the pillars of each central structure 2 when vertically juxtaposed, enabling multiple vertical variations at half-height and variable heights between floors and ceilings in multiple horizontal variations of the facades, and these may even be cantilevered or half-cantilevered. In FIG. 5A, although not shown, a second central structure 2 is juxtaposed in the vertical direction on the first central structure 2 of the lower floor (no need to change the structure plan) through the connection and engagement nodes 2.6, where a folded sheet or a ladder is attached, or welded to the lower beam 2.2 of the first central structure 2 and the lower beam 2.2 of the second central structure, thus enabling the passage of a user from a first module positioned at a lower level to a second module positioned at a level higher than the first module. The structure further allows the installation and passage of an elevator system, and further, allows each central structure 2 becomes unique again through the possibility of disconnection that exists in each connective and disconnective node 2.6 existing in various points of same.
  • In FIG. 5B can be seen of the embodiments of the invention in which multiple central structures 2 are juxtaposed in the diagonal direction when viewed from the side and fixed one to each other providing several possibilities of vertical variations. Although this figure only illustrates the juxtaposition of multiple central structures 2 in one direction aligned to the axis of the pillars as viewed from above, it is possible to accomplish the juxtaposition of the central structures 2 in different offset directions of the axes of the pillars, resulting in misaligned combinations of diagonal connections both when viewed from the side and from above. And further allows the connection of the central structures cantilevered, and these would be connected by the connection and engagement nodes in the lower and upper ends of the columns of both central structures 2, or the connection and engagement nodes vertically intermediate distributed along the columns, when it has level variations enabling it is implanted in various types of topography.
  • FIG. 5C illustrates the juxtaposition of two central structures in multiple horizontal directions secured to each other aligned or misaligned to an axis of the pillars when viewed from above, providing the system evolution. And further, it still uses smaller central structures 2.4 that can have the same height of the central structures 2 or have variations in height and length and width halved.
  • In alternative embodiments of FIGS. 5B and 5C, the central structure 2 is consisted of auxiliary beams 2.5 conferring greater strength to this main structure. In this case, the floor panels 3 and ceiling 4 panels could be supported thereon.
  • FIG. 6 shows that the central structure is still consisted of two groups of upper and lower connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 aligned to an axis and horizontally and vertically intermediate independent between the modules and is the main component of the central structure 2 and the system. It is a pre-arranged and fundamental component in all columns 2.1 and beams 2.2 of the system, even though in some cases they are not all being used in its entirety, which allow the expansion or reduction of the building, even after the system is completed and implanted, and makes it possible to disconnect the system by ready rooms, with exactly the same characteristics as when it arrived.
  • The connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 are positioned in strategic locations of each column 2.1 and beam 2.2 of each central structure 2 enabling the various multiple connections. When these connections are horizontally aligned to axis occur, they occur through the connection and engagement nodes in the ends of each pillar of the two central structures 2; when connected intermediate to the horizontal axes displaced from the axes of the pillars, they occur through the intermediate connection and engagement nodes that exist in the central structures 2 and the nodes contained in the ends of each column of the other central structure 2.
  • Now, when the central structures 2 are diagonally juxtaposed resulting in different vertical variations, they are connected through the existing connection and engagement nodes that exist in the ends of the pillars in a central structure 2 and other nodes distributed along the pillars of another central structure 2, and further such central structures could be juxtaposed containing horizontal and vertical variations misaligned to the axes of the pillars and beams, in this case through connective and disconnective nodes distributed along the pillars of the central structure 2 and the existing nodes in the beams of other central structure 2. It is to be understood that the system can allow many variations in its embodiment that are not described above, as long as it does not depart from the scope of the invention.
  • The connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 are composed of specific groups of pieces, and they may or may be not of the same material as the central structure 2, they can be cubic, semi-cubic, comprised by up to 6 or more sides, having one or more of their parts movable, consisting of an internal and external “box” that is overlapping or underlapping to the central structure 2, having magnets, slits/holes strategic in their walls plus long openings, having one or more threadable or engageable pins, one or more threads and safety keys and locking mechanism, threaded and toothed sleeves, one or more “handle”, one or more latches, plates and/or guide bars, that limits and/or transfers the load and are welded inside or outside the central structure 2 having or not holes with or without thread, having or not magnets, having one or more direction and plumb guides, and one or more auxiliary bars to access, handle, squeeze, and release them.
  • Furthermore, they also have an internal system of rotatable shaft in the lower connective and disconnective nodes inserted inside the column 2.1, starting from the lower one and follows until after the height of the lower beams 2.2, and can follow well up to the upper node of the same column, and they allow connections and disconnections of the lower nodes face to face with the lower columns 2.1 and any other base.
  • the connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 are joined by a (static or rotating) coupling system by means of braces, catches, screws, latches, rings/belts and clamping rings, self-locking pins, pins with “oblong” type end, clips/safety clamps, bars, one or more positive and negative coil ends, one or more sheets of positive and negative toothed coupling, one or more orientation and locking bars that may or may not contain openings for fittings and have or not inside them steel cables and/or springs, and they can even be independent of bars, magnets of several types arranged independently for each connective node and allowing the connection in all the directions when put in touch with each other, dampers that can be de same as used in automobiles or motorcycles or otherwise, disposed within each node, allowing the engagement and the absorption of the load transfer of the lower central structure 2 to the upper central structure 2 and others. This way, there can be performed several construction embodiments, as they have more than one independent connection and disconnection points with horizontal and vertical variations between the nodes 2.6 and the central structure 2 at the same time as perpendicular, parallel, transverse, diagonal inclined and curved beams and columns, the beams 2.2 also allowing the connection of modules halved and also allowing multiple modulations, custom designs and economy in the foundation structure, wherein from a single node there can be carried out the connection and disconnection of at least 3 other independent vertices, two horizontally and one vertically.
  • In all embodiments of the invention, the connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 allow the joining of different modules aligned or misaligned to the axis of the pillars and beams, even if these modules are positioned with a gap between 15 cm and 3.25 m, in order to respect, as much as possible, the original topography of the land, causing less impact, cost and execution time at the site of implantation, allowing complete independence and flexibility of each central structure 2/system module.
  • In addition, each central structure 2 has from 6 to 52 connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 and they enable a dual function of interconnection both vertically and horizontally in the same node and independent of each other (the vertical elements can be connected and disconnected, since they are independent of the horizontal elements, and vice versa), are embedded (they do not get exposed) in varied points, allowing multi-connectivity, angular variations and positive and negative curves, both horizontality and verticality, both at angles and in varying degrees, in “half-heights” and lower heights “half-cantilevered” and cantilevered (resulting in different advances and depths of the facades, the floors and the covers), allowing the columns 2.1 to duplicate, triplicate and quadruplicate upon the connection, and beams 2.2 multiply up to 12 times, giving continuity to the central structure 2, that is, no element is interposed between the central structures, and they can be duplicated and divided in varied size and shape, and allowing that the columns 2.1 when connect become unitary, due to the contact existing along them and through the connections between their respective connective and disconnective nodes 2.6.
  • The connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 can also be used for fastening any other system item, when not being used for a connection between structures.
  • In all the embodiments of the invention, the floor panels 3 are fastened to the central structure 2 by means of the lower beams 2.2 and/or the secondary beams 2.5, the ceiling panels 4 are attached to the central structure 2 through several openings for fitting around/permeating the connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 and overlapping laterally the upper beams 2.2, thereby preventing infiltration points, and the side panels 5 are fastened to the central structure 2 via the frames 6. Usually, the person skilled on the art uses frames for fastening the structures that occupy a smaller area in a building, such as windows and doors. In the present invention, however, these structures have been surprisingly dimensioned to fasten the panels that occupy a much greater area in a building and showed excellent strength and the same practicality, a fact which promotes a reduction in the time spent to erect a building.
  • for the construction of provisional buildings and for the construction of resilient and non-resilient perennial buildings, or both at the same time, it can have their morphology, state of use and format modified at any time by the reversibility of independent rooms.
  • It is also an object of this invention the use of a reversible modular coordination system 1 for building provisional buildings, for example in case of natural disasters; as well as the construction of resilient and non-resilient perennial buildings, or both at the same time, it can have their morphology, state of use and format modified at any time by the reversibility of independent rooms.
  • 25. Use of the system according to claim 24, characterized in that it provides a construction in phases of a building, and it can be multiplied even after the building, that is, in distinctive steps vertically through the connective and disconnective nodes 2.6 pre-existing in the upper part of the top story multi-connectable structure and also horizontally by the same connective and disconnective nodes or still by the existing nodes along each profile, and these additions can be aligned or not in axis in the building.
  • For purposes of this invention, the resilient building in this case would be a building that could be built in a determined location, disconnected between modules and connected to in another location, without compromising the structure of the reversible modular coordination system 1. It allows the permanence of the system after an emergency care aiming at not only a cost minimization and to speed the reconstruction, but allowing the emergency use in shelter format and making it of various shapes and sizes later and being permanently used and it can be expanded, reduced and modified as needed. In the case of new disaster, the dwelling could be relocated to a safe area, preventing further loss of lives, homes and a high financial cost.
  • FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 show different possibilities of juxtaposition in a single level or story of the modules of the reversible modular coordination system 1. In these Figures, it can be seen that, when the modules are juxtaposed, they can have several functions in the building, for example, a module serves as a bedroom, another module serves as living room, another as bathroom and etc.
  • As it can be seen in FIG. 9, the reversible modular coordination system 1 is further useful in the construction of buildings with multiple levels or stories, since the central structure 2 provides the necessary support to different modules that are overlapped on each other. That is, a reversible modular coordination system 1, in the most extreme cases, is dimensioned in order that its structure supports the maximum number of stories as possible, for example 20 stories.
  • The use of reversible modular coordination system 1 also allows the construction in phases of a building, and the same may be multiplied even after the building is completed, i.e. in different steps vertically through the connective and disconnective nodes that are pre-existing at the upper part of the multiple connectable structure of the last story and also horizontally by the same connective and disconnective nodes or further by the nodes existing along each profile, and these can be additions to the building that are aligned or not to the axis. This way, a building initially built with 10 stories can receive five or more stories until the limit of support of the structure, without the need of any kind of reinforcement or interventions.
  • FIGS. 10 and 11 show the modular reversible coordinate system 1 built in steps. In FIG. 10, there are seen buildings erected with 1 and 2 levels in a land devastated by a natural disaster, while FIG. 11 shows in sequence that additional modules are modified and added to the reversible modular coordination system 1 on the erected buildings, thus increasing the number of dwelling units.
  • Thus, due to the multiple constructive embodiments provided by the present invention, the reversible modular coordination system 1 is useful for the construction of buildings of various utilities, allowing the addition of finished central structures at any time and in any of the connective and disconnective nodes in an existing building, making the same reversible and changeable at any time according to need and will of its user without the need for demolishing or the addition of material.
  • In all embodiments of the invention, and its possible alternatives can be used trucks Munk or cranes to position the modules already assembled on site on which the building will be erected.
  • The reversible modular coordination system 1 has a high index of free plant and at least 90% of the panels can be removed without demolition and or even drastic interventions, simply with a clean and safe removal of side closure panels for they have independent structures.
  • A building can be dismantled from its original place of implantation in modules and be transported and implanted elsewhere without demolitions, with 100% of reuse of the building, providing a new paradigm of constructive process (of design/manufacturing/materials/assembly/connection) and use of a building. It is therefore a complete and comprehensive system.
  • There is no knowledge of a modular, reversible and multifunctional system for permanent buildings, that are resilient and/or for emergency activities that gather together all constructive and functional characteristics reported above, and that, directly or indirectly, is or was as effective as the object system of the present patent.
  • While the invention has been described extensively, it is obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without these modifications are out of the covering provided by the scope of the invention.
  • The examples that will be given below are merely illustrative of embodiments of the invention, and should not be used in the designation of the owner rights, which should comply only with the appended claims.

Claims (27)

1-19. (canceled)
20. Reversible modular coordination system wherein it comprises two multiple connectable and disconnectable central structures, that are flexible and independent of each other; versatile floor plates and positioned loose on the lower beams of the central structure; versatile floor plates that are loose and positioned on the lower beams of the central structure; versatile ceiling plates that have flags positioned in the upper beams of the central structure; independent intermediate flexible side plates that are positioned in adjacent edge lines or vertical frames of the central structure; and groups of multipliable connective and disconnective nodes; forming individual modules that can be used in the building construction; and the use of reversible modular coordination system for the construction of provisional buildings as well as for the construction of perennial resilient and not resilient buildings.
21. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the connective and disconnective multipliable groups are mechanical details strategically pre-arranged in points of the central structure and interconnected to the same, which may be of metallic materials, plastic material of high strength, wood and others, which may be compounded or not, and may or may not be of the same material as the structure, with the group of upper nodes aligned in an axis and positioned at the upper part of every column, the group of lower nodes aligned in an axis and positioned at the lower part of each column, the group of horizontal intermediate nodes positioned at each upper and lower beam between of the pillars nodes, and the group of vertical intermediate engage nodes positioned at different levels along the column that are between the upper and lower nodes of each column forming multiple central structures with columns and beams perpendicular, adjacent, parallel, angular, inclined, curved and wavy.
22. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein it has patterns and pre-arranged attributes contained within the same, even if they are not being fully used at the same time.
23. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the central structure is provided with a set of 4 columns and 8 beams made of a metal belonging to the group consisting of steel and aluminum and they are totally independent of the floor plate, the ceiling plates and side plates, having the flexibility of being of another possible material without suffering changes in its characteristics, which is hollow inside or not; the dimensions of the central structure are between 1.50 and 6.40 m in length, maximum height of the upper beam to the ground of 3.40 m; and width between 1.25 and 2.60 m.
24. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the central structure is preferably of steel or aluminum.
25. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 23, wherein the dynamic structures of the same concepts allow the connection in several ways, allowing the beams to be welded, screwed or engaged to the columns and joining them.
26. Modular system, according to claim 23, wherein the lower beams are positioned at a distance of 20 to 40 cm from the ground providing a foot in each of the columns.
27. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 26, wherein in the area delimited by the feet, passage elements are inserted, such as water pipes, sewage and gas collection ducts, conduits for electrical wires, telephone cables, coaxial cables for transmitting data and image, air circulation tubes, primary and secondary ridges, which ends can be parallel or diagonal to each other and the same can stay in different levels and others.
28. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein it uses premises that are segregated, compartmentalized and arranged by the central structure, which utilize plug systems and flexible links whether or not located inside the columns and beams the central structure, wherein the same can be disconnected if necessary upon the change in the building.
29. Reversible modular coordination system according to claim 20, wherein it is easily transported over a vehicle, to arrive fully ready and finished by rooms at the location or to arrive disassembled and to be mounted at the location using the same technology through the connective and disconnective nodes, and further by allowing it to be disconnected exactly as it arrived, completely ready and finished, allowing the building to be enlarged, reduced and modified room by room and in size and shape in vertical, horizontal and diagonal direction, and it can return to its original state later or not, providing an orderly deconstruction of the building resulting in buildings that no longer should be demolished, but disconnected and transported to the recycling location.
30. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the floor panels, ceiling panels and side panels are completely independent of the structure and can be of various materials such as aluminum panels, composite panels, honeycomb panels, cement slabs, wood panels, structural glass panels, fiberglass panels, and PVC panels, which can be added or removed at any time without compromising aesthetics and functionality of the system and there may be used superposed bulged concave panels of various sizes, shapes and any kind of material without compromising and modifying technical, functional and practical specifications, thus enabling the use of one-piece or split panels consisted of the same material or not.
31. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the floor panels have holes for the passage elements and opening points that allow access to the same, and the ceiling panels are one-piece panels and the side panels have openings corresponding to the windows and doors and can be unique or duplicated face to face, leveled or at different levels that overlap or not the central structure.
32. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the central structure is juxtaposed and connected to at least one other central structure horizontally, vertically, and diagonally at various angles, being them independent of each other, which become unique when connected, so that there is no space between the main structures, remaining these in contact at all times without requiring any other component is insert between them and that, when laterally juxtaposed, have their faces glued between pillars and beams of each central structure in case of horizontal and diagonal juxtaposition and horizontally glued face to face with the upper and lower faces of the pillars of each central structure when vertically juxtaposed, enabling multiple vertical variations at half height and variable heights between floors and ceilings, multiple horizontal variations of facades, and these can even be cantilevered or half-cantilevered and enable the installation and the passage of an elevator system, and further allowing that each central structure becomes again unique through the possibility of an existing disconnection in each connective and disconnective node existing in various points of the same.
33. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 32, wherein a second central structure is juxtaposed in the vertical direction about the first central structure and a ladder is engaged into or welded to the beam lower than the first central structure and the beam lower than the second central structure, thus enabling the passage of an user of a first module positioned at a level lower than a second module positioned at a level higher than the first module.
34. System reversible modular coordination, according to claim 20, wherein multiple central structures are juxtaposed in the diagonal direction when laterally viewed, and are fixed to each other providing several possibilities for vertical variations in a single direction aligned to the axis of the pillars, but misaligned to the axes of the beams, or when viewed from above and fixed to each other providing various possibilities for horizontal variations in one direction also aligned to the axis, and further diagonally when viewed from above and laterally and fixed to each other providing multiple possibilities of horizontal and vertical variations in different directions that may be misaligned to the axes of the pillars and beams, resulting in multiple horizontal, vertical, and diagonal connection combinations.
35. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein it further has smaller central structures, which can have the same height of the central structure or have variations in height, length and width reduced to half.
36. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the central structure can consist of auxiliary beams which confer greater strength to the structure.
37. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 21, wherein the connective and disconnective nodes can be cubic, semi-cubic, comprised by up to 6 or more sides, having one or more of their parts movable, consisting of an internal and external “box” that is overlapping or underlapping to the central structure, having magnets, slits/holes strategic in their walls plus long openings, having one or more threadable or engageable pins, one or more threads and safety keys and locking mechanism, threaded and toothed sleeves, one or more “handle”, one or more latches, plates and/or guide bars, that limits and/or transfers the load and are welded inside or outside the central structure having or not holes with or without thread, having or not magnets, having one or more direction and plumb guides, and one or more auxiliary bars to access, handle, squeeze, and release them.
38. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 37, wherein the connective and disconnective nodes are joined by braces, catches, screws, latches, rings/belts and clamping rings, self-locking pins, pins with “oblong” type end, clips/safety clamps, bars, one or more positive and negative coil ends, one or more sheets of positive and negative toothed coupling, one or more orientation and locking bars that may or may not contain openings for fittings and have or not inside them steel cables and/or springs, and they can even be independent of bars, magnets of several types arranged independently for each connective node and allowing the connection in all the directions when put in touch with each other, dampers that can be de same as used in automobiles or motorcycles or otherwise, disposed within each node, allowing the engagement and the absorption of the load transfer of the lower central structure to the upper central structure and others.
39. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 19, wherein the connective and disconnective nodes allow the joining of the different modules with a difference of between 15 cm and 3.25 m.
40. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein each central structure has from 6 to 52 connective and disconnective nodes and they enable a dual function of interconnection both vertically and horizontally in the same node and independent of each other, are embedded in varied points, allowing multi-connectivity, angular variations and positive and negative curves, both horizontality and verticality, both at angles and in varying degrees, in “half-heights” and lower heights “half-cantilevered” and cantilevered, allowing the columns to duplicate, triplicate and quadruplicate upon the connection, and beams multiply up to 12 times, giving continuity to the central structure.
41. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the connective and disconnective nodes can also be used for fastening any other system item, when not being used for a connection between structures.
42. Reversible modular coordination system, according to claim 20, wherein the floor panels are fastened to the central structure by the lower beams and/or the secondary beams, the ceiling panels are attached to the central structure through several openings for fitting around/permeating the connective and disconnective nodes and overlapping laterally the upper beams, thereby preventing infiltration points, and the side panels are fastened to the central structure via the frames.
43. Use of reversible modular coordination system, wherein it is for the construction of provisional buildings and for the construction of resilient and non-resilient perennial buildings, or both at the same time, it can have their morphology, state of use and format modified at any time by the reversibility of independent rooms.
44. Use of the system according to claim 43, wherein it provides a construction in phases of a building, and it can be multiplied even after the building, that is, in distinctive steps vertically through the connective and disconnective nodes pre-existing in the upper part of the top story multi-connectable structure and also horizontally by the same connective and disconnective nodes or still by the existing nodes along each profile, and these additions can be aligned or not in axis in the building.
45. Modular system, according to claim 25, wherein the lower beams are positioned at a distance of 20 to 40 cm from the ground providing a foot in each of the columns.
US15/105,524 2013-12-16 2014-12-16 Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings Abandoned US20160319534A1 (en)

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
BR1020130322970 2013-12-16
BR102013032297A BR102013032297A2 (en) 2013-12-16 2013-12-16 multifunctional modular system for housing, multi-purpose buildings and / or emergency activities
PCT/BR2014/000442 WO2015089602A1 (en) 2013-12-16 2014-12-16 Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings
BR102014031456-3A BR102014031456B1 (en) 2014-12-16 2014-12-16 Reversible modular coordination system for buildings
BR1020140314563 2014-12-16

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20160319534A1 true US20160319534A1 (en) 2016-11-03

Family

ID=53401819

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US15/105,524 Abandoned US20160319534A1 (en) 2013-12-16 2014-12-16 Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US20160319534A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2015089602A1 (en)

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20180118347A1 (en) * 2016-10-26 2018-05-03 Airbus Operations Gmbh Cabin monument for an aircraft
US10011979B1 (en) * 2017-03-24 2018-07-03 Aluhouse Technology (Gd) Company Limited House having aluminum alloy structure
US10253465B2 (en) * 2013-10-16 2019-04-09 John Preston Modular building construction using composite interconnected frame panels
US10287788B2 (en) * 2017-10-11 2019-05-14 Aluhouse Technology (Gd) Company Limited Mobile house of an aluminum alloy structure
US10323428B2 (en) * 2017-05-12 2019-06-18 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Sequence for constructing a building from prefabricated components
US10487493B2 (en) * 2017-05-12 2019-11-26 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Building design and construction using prefabricated components
US10508442B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2019-12-17 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Floor and ceiling panel for slab-free floor system of a building
US10676923B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2020-06-09 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Waterproofing assemblies and prefabricated wall panels including the same
US10724228B2 (en) 2017-05-12 2020-07-28 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Building assemblies and methods for constructing a building using pre-assembled floor-ceiling panels and walls
US10900224B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2021-01-26 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Prefabricated demising wall with external conduit engagement features
US10961710B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2021-03-30 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Pre-assembled wall panel for utility installation
US10975590B2 (en) 2014-08-30 2021-04-13 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Diaphragm to lateral support coupling in a structure
US11054148B2 (en) 2014-08-30 2021-07-06 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Heated floor and ceiling panel with a corrugated layer for modular use in buildings
US11060286B2 (en) 2014-08-30 2021-07-13 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Prefabricated wall panel for utility installation
US11098475B2 (en) 2017-05-12 2021-08-24 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Building system with a diaphragm provided by pre-fabricated floor panels
US20220064934A1 (en) * 2020-08-26 2022-03-03 Michael Lanier Brooks Functional modules for factory-built homes
US11473291B2 (en) * 2019-12-12 2022-10-18 Nexgen Composites Llc Expandable field kitchen
ES2940883A1 (en) * 2021-11-11 2023-05-11 Univ Sevilla STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR MODULAR CONSTRUCTION (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2070424A5 (en) * 1969-12-04 1971-09-10 David Gil Jacques
US3623287A (en) * 1969-10-13 1971-11-30 Florida Rolling Mills Inc Corner construction for walls
US3696574A (en) * 1968-11-22 1972-10-10 Richard Dietrich Building having a skeleton frame
US3710528A (en) * 1970-02-13 1973-01-16 J Riedberger Building structures
US4045937A (en) * 1973-06-21 1977-09-06 Credelca A.G. Method of constructing a prefabricated room element and a building of a plurality of said elements
US5331779A (en) * 1992-10-23 1994-07-26 Hing Ally O Truss framing system for cluster multi-level housing
US8893451B2 (en) * 2010-01-19 2014-11-25 Beuchat, Barros & Pfenniger Building block for construction of buildings and its procedure
US20160160515A1 (en) * 2006-08-26 2016-06-09 Global Building Modules, Inc. System for modular building construction
US20170002559A1 (en) * 2013-02-22 2017-01-05 Vectorbloc Corporation Modular Building Units, And Methods Of Constructing And Transporting Same

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4107886A (en) * 1974-03-25 1978-08-22 Systems Concept, Inc. Prefabricated building module
BR7101261U (en) * 1991-06-07 1993-02-09 Mauri Resende Vargas PREFABRICATED MORTAR PANEL STRUCTURED IN STEEL
BR7700052U (en) * 1997-01-16 1998-09-29 Paoli Sergio Mauro De Prefabricated buildings
BRPI0504604A (en) * 2005-11-10 2007-07-31 Alexandre Beluco metal frame based quick assembly prefab building system with bent galvanized steel sheets
US20090113820A1 (en) * 2007-10-30 2009-05-07 Scott Deans Prefabricated wall panel system
WO2010007476A1 (en) * 2008-07-13 2010-01-21 Iyad Mohamad Adnan Daadoush Cubical structural system

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3696574A (en) * 1968-11-22 1972-10-10 Richard Dietrich Building having a skeleton frame
US3623287A (en) * 1969-10-13 1971-11-30 Florida Rolling Mills Inc Corner construction for walls
FR2070424A5 (en) * 1969-12-04 1971-09-10 David Gil Jacques
US3710528A (en) * 1970-02-13 1973-01-16 J Riedberger Building structures
US4045937A (en) * 1973-06-21 1977-09-06 Credelca A.G. Method of constructing a prefabricated room element and a building of a plurality of said elements
US5331779A (en) * 1992-10-23 1994-07-26 Hing Ally O Truss framing system for cluster multi-level housing
US20160160515A1 (en) * 2006-08-26 2016-06-09 Global Building Modules, Inc. System for modular building construction
US8893451B2 (en) * 2010-01-19 2014-11-25 Beuchat, Barros & Pfenniger Building block for construction of buildings and its procedure
US20170002559A1 (en) * 2013-02-22 2017-01-05 Vectorbloc Corporation Modular Building Units, And Methods Of Constructing And Transporting Same

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10253465B2 (en) * 2013-10-16 2019-04-09 John Preston Modular building construction using composite interconnected frame panels
US11060286B2 (en) 2014-08-30 2021-07-13 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Prefabricated wall panel for utility installation
US11054148B2 (en) 2014-08-30 2021-07-06 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Heated floor and ceiling panel with a corrugated layer for modular use in buildings
US10975590B2 (en) 2014-08-30 2021-04-13 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Diaphragm to lateral support coupling in a structure
US10961710B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2021-03-30 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Pre-assembled wall panel for utility installation
US10508442B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2019-12-17 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Floor and ceiling panel for slab-free floor system of a building
US10676923B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2020-06-09 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Waterproofing assemblies and prefabricated wall panels including the same
US10900224B2 (en) 2016-03-07 2021-01-26 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Prefabricated demising wall with external conduit engagement features
US20180118347A1 (en) * 2016-10-26 2018-05-03 Airbus Operations Gmbh Cabin monument for an aircraft
US10556686B2 (en) * 2016-10-26 2020-02-11 Airbus Operations Gmbh Cabin monument for an aircraft
US10011979B1 (en) * 2017-03-24 2018-07-03 Aluhouse Technology (Gd) Company Limited House having aluminum alloy structure
AU2017235906B2 (en) * 2017-03-24 2018-12-13 Aluhouse Technology (Gd) Company Limited House having aluminum alloy structure
US10323428B2 (en) * 2017-05-12 2019-06-18 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Sequence for constructing a building from prefabricated components
US10724228B2 (en) 2017-05-12 2020-07-28 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Building assemblies and methods for constructing a building using pre-assembled floor-ceiling panels and walls
US10487493B2 (en) * 2017-05-12 2019-11-26 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Building design and construction using prefabricated components
US11098475B2 (en) 2017-05-12 2021-08-24 Innovative Building Technologies, Llc Building system with a diaphragm provided by pre-fabricated floor panels
US10287788B2 (en) * 2017-10-11 2019-05-14 Aluhouse Technology (Gd) Company Limited Mobile house of an aluminum alloy structure
US11473291B2 (en) * 2019-12-12 2022-10-18 Nexgen Composites Llc Expandable field kitchen
US20220064934A1 (en) * 2020-08-26 2022-03-03 Michael Lanier Brooks Functional modules for factory-built homes
ES2940883A1 (en) * 2021-11-11 2023-05-11 Univ Sevilla STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR MODULAR CONSTRUCTION (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2015089602A1 (en) 2015-06-25

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US20160319534A1 (en) Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings
JP4658115B2 (en) Transportable modular building and construction method thereof
US9115504B2 (en) System for modular building construction
US9067721B2 (en) Height adjustable shipping container
US20100325971A1 (en) Structural Building Panels with Seamless Corners
US3712008A (en) Modular building construction system
US20050241242A1 (en) Modular buildings
US20090165399A1 (en) Prefabricated reinforced-concrete single-family dwelling and method for erecting said dwelling
CN101654930B (en) Beam frame structure of combined type house and assembly method thereof
TW201022503A (en) Unitised building system
US20080236056A1 (en) Modular buildings
US4586299A (en) Building system of interconnected block elements
ES2333636A1 (en) Method of installation on site of a prefabricated semi-resistant module for construction
AU2009242961A1 (en) Fire rated, multi-storey, multi-dwelling structure and method to construct same
CN205839980U (en) Novel modularized house
ITMI20061233A1 (en) HOUSE OF PREFABRICATED AND TRANSPORTABLE TYPE
KR101086060B1 (en) Prefebrication module
CN201276758Y (en) Beam frame structure of combined house
KR100660211B1 (en) Large vertical space type building module and method for executing the same
Shroff et al. Pre-Fabricated Architecture For Urban Adaptability: Factory Built Constructions–Sustainable & Flexible Urban Solutions
Puzey et al. Use of load‐bearing AAC panels in transportable, prefabricated, pre‐finished, modular housing
BR102014031456B1 (en) Reversible modular coordination system for buildings
JP2022138941A (en) Skeleton unit and simple structure
BRPI1103773A2 (en) constructive process of modular units and modular units thus obtained
RU1796748C (en) Multi-store building

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION