US3712008A - Modular building construction system - Google Patents

Modular building construction system Download PDF

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US3712008A
US3712008A US3712008DA US3712008A US 3712008 A US3712008 A US 3712008A US 3712008D A US3712008D A US 3712008DA US 3712008 A US3712008 A US 3712008A
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modules
building
columns
members
support members
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R Scanzani
T Georgiev
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T Georgiev
R Scanzani
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34807Elements integrated in a skeleton
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/35Extraordinary methods of construction, e.g. lift-slab, jack-block

Abstract

This invention relates to modular building construction system. In particular, it relates to a system in which a supporting structure and a separate space utilization structure are constructed in modular form, generally off the site, and assembled together on the job during erection of the building.

Description

United States Patent 1191 Georgiev et al. 51 Jan. 23, 1973 15 1 MODULAR BUILDING 2,664,740 1/1954 Cochrane .....s2/sa3 CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM 3,156,071 11/1962 Van Bij1evelt.. ..52/236 [76] Inventors: Tancho D. Georgiev, 78 Hawthorne Z1370 n 3 Avenue New, Mass- 02166; 3,503,170 3/1970 Shelley ..52/236 Filed:
Robert M. Scanzani, 182 Bridge Street, Beverly, Mass. 01914 [22] Oct. 16, 1970 [21] Appl. No.: 81,486
[52] U.S. Cl. ..52/79, 52/236, 52/251, 52/259 [51] Int. Cl. ..E04b 1/348 [58] Field of Search ..52/79, 236, 583; 46/25, 26
[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,609,929 10/1971 Brown ..52/236 3,613,321 10/1971 Rohrer ..52/79 3,546,792 12/1970 Sherman ..52/236 3,514,910 6/1970 Comm ..52/79 OTHER PUBLICATIONS The New Building Block, Quoted from Progressive Architecture October 1964, pages 128-137 Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant Examiner-Henry A. Raduazo Attorney-Cesari & McKenna [57] ABSTRACT This invention relates to modular building construction system. In particular, it relates to a system in which a supporting structure and a separate space utilization structure are constructed in modular form, generally off the site, and assembled together on the job during erection of the building.
16 Claims, 35 Drawing Figures PATENTED M I975 712,008
SHEET UlUF 14 FIG. 1 22 30 j FIG, 2 TANCHO D. GEORGIEV m ROBERT M. SCANZANI /nven/0rs AI/omaya PATENTEBJAH 23 1975 SHEET 'UEUF 14 I m N W N5 GNMKH Am mCw m f G a D M M OT Hm B NW C A v TR H m, pm 5 PATENTEDJAH 23 I975 SHEET U3UF 14 FIG. 38
FIG. 3A
FIG. 4
TANCHO 0. GEORGIEV ROBERT M SCANZANI /nven/0r$ By CESAR! 8 McKENNA Af/omeys PATENTEDJAH 23 1975 3,712,008 SHEET sum 14 TANCHO D. GEORGIEV 56 ROBERT M. SCANZANI /nven tors By CESARI 8 McKENNA Al/omeys PATENTEDJAH23IB75 3.712.008 SHEET USUF 14 TANCHO D. GEORGIEV ROBERT M. SCANZANI lnvenfors By CESARI 8 McKENNA Attorneys PATENTEB AN 975 3.712.008
' SHEET DBUF 14 F IG. l6
TANCHO D. GEORGIEV ROBERT M. SCANZANI By CESARI 8 McKENNA Al/omeys PATENTED JAN 2 3 I975 SHEET O7BF14 TANCHO D. GEORGIEV ROBERT M. SCANZANI lnven/ors By CESAR! 8 McKENNA A ffom eys PATENTEDJAH 23 I975 rs ENNA l 0 W G Kn R m PAIENTED JAN 2 3 I975 SHEET USUF 14 v mm M43002 m0 EOkFOm M43002 .0 QOP M43002 m0 EOhPOm TANCHO D. GEORGlEV ROBERT M. SCANZANI Muenfors By CESAR! 8 McKENNA Af/omeys lll PATENTEDJAH23 I975 3,712,008
' sum 10m 14 WWW WW4? TANCHO D. GEORGIEV ROBERT M. SCANZANI /nven10rs By CESARI 8 McKENNA Afforneys PATENTEDJAH 23 1975 SHEET 110F14 TANCHO D. GEORGIEV By CESAR! a McKENNA AI/omeys PATENTED JAH 2 3 I975 SHEET 13UF 14 TANCHO D. GEORGIEV ROBERT M. SCANZANI /nvenf0rs 5y CESAR! 8 McKENNA Al/omeys PA-TENTED JAR 23 I975 SHEET NW 14 FIG. 26
TANCHO D. GEORGIEV ROBERT M. SCANZANI FIG, a, CESARI a fi NNA A l/orneys MODULAR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In recent years, with the cost of building construction rising at a rapid rate, a number of arrangements have been proposed for reducing cost by constructing part or all of a structure off the site, with the structure then being assembled and erected on the site. This permits much of the actual construction work to be done in a central location where the use of factory-type production techniques provides for substantially greater efficiency than fabrication at the building site.
These techniques generally take one of several forms. For example, the entire structure may be constructed at the factory and delivered in two or three units that are assembled together at the building site. Each of the units comes completely equipped with wall panels and underlying structural members in place; even the electrical, plumbing and heating systems are to a large extent incorporated into the prefabricated structure. While this technique is widely used, it is largely limited to relatively small units such as single-family dwellings, although attempts have been made to extend it to medium and high rise structures. Also, each manufacturer can provide only a limited number of different models if he is to obtain the benefits of mass production.
In another arrangement that has been proposed for multiple story structures such as apartment buildings, a series of modules corresponding to rooms or parts thereof are placed side by side and stacked to form the successive stories of the building. Gaps between the adjacent modules are filled with concrete to provide a structural framework. Among the drawbacks of this system is the need for relatively great structural strength in the modules. Also, it is not so simple to provide both connections to the various utilities, i.e., heat, electricity, water, etc., and subsequent servicing of those connections.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved structural system involving off-site prefabrication of building components. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a structural system that is suitable for the assembly and erection of multiple-story structures such as apartment houses, office buildings, hospitals, etc., as well as smaller structures such as single-family dwellings, restaurants, gas stations and the like.
Another object of the invention is to provide a structural system comprised of prefabricated building components with which the manufacturer of the components can efficiently accommodate a large number of different building designs and layouts.
Another object of the invention is to provide a system in which the building components, in their unassembled state, can be transported readily to any site relatively unencumbered by limitations on the transportation system.
A further object of the invention is to provide a structural system characterized by ease and speed of assembly and erection at the building site.
Another object is to provide a prefabricated structural system in which loads are efficiently distributed throughout the finished structure.
Other objects will in part be obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Our structural system is one in which the prefabricated modules corresponding to habitation areas such as rooms and the like are supported on a separate framework, the individual members of the framework-also being modular and prefabricated. The framework also defines vertical and horizontal passages required for utilities, corridors, elevators, etc.
The use of habitation modules that are supported on a separate framework rather than on other habitation modules provides a number of significant advantages. In the first place, the habitation modules can be relatively light in weight, since, in general, they support only their own weight and the interior loads imposed on them. Moreover, they can have open sides and ends so that a series of adjacent modules can define relatively large unobstructed spaces.
Other advantages are inherent in the resulting efficiency of construction. For example, the habitation modules do not rest on one another, they are vertically spaced apart to provide space for horizontal runs of the various utilities. These spaces can also be large enough to provide access for maintenance. After a habitation module has been set into place, the electrical, plumbling and heating connections can easily be made through either the top or bottom panel of the module.
Another factor making for ease of erection is simultaneous erection of the framework and positioning of the habitation modules. That is, in the erection of each building the framework that supports a given story is assembled together. Then the habitation modules and framework in that story are assembled to the structure. The utilities are then brought into the modules, after which the supporting framework for the next story is erected. This arrangement provides an unobstructed space for cranes to efficiently move the modules, framework and utility networks into position.
The invention is also applicable to smaller structures and in this connection we note that a relatively small number of different types of habitation modules can be assembled in a wide variety of configurations to provide a large number of different layouts. This permits a manufacturer to obtain high efficiency even though he provides his customers with a wide choice of building designs.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a multiple-story structure embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary transversesection of the structure, taken in the plane 22 of FIG. 1 and illustrating the lower part of the structure;
FIG. 3 is an exploded view of the framework of the structure of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 3A and 3B depict the arrangement used to couple and fasten the girders in the framework of FIG.
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary transverse section of a modification of the structure of FIG. I; this figure also shows the manner in which the habitation modules of FIG. I interfit with the framework;
FIGS. 5a, 5b and 5c are simplified perspective views of habitation modules that may be incorporated in a structure embodying the invention;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the framework that may be used in the end frames of habitation module of FIG. 7;
FIG. 7 is an exploded view of a habitation module;
FIGS. 8A, 8B and 8C are head, jamb and sill sections, respectively, of the module of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary view from above a pair of habitation modules, illustrating an arrangement for fastening the modules together;
FIG. 10 is an exploded view of another habitation module;
FIGS. 11a, 11b and 110 are head, jamb and sill sections, respectively, of the module of FIG. 10;
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary vertical section illustrating the inclusion of a window panel infill in an end frame of the module of FIG. 10;
FIG. 13 is a fragmentary top view showing how modules of the type shown in FIG. 10 may be fastened together;
FIGS. 14, 15 and 16 illustrate various roof treatments that may be applied to the habitation modules;
FIG. 17 is an exploded view of another arrangement of the framework of a multiple-story structure embodying the invention;
FIG. 18 is a fragmentary, partly exploded viewof another multiple-story structure embodying the invention;
FIG. 19 is a set of fragmentary transverse sections of the structure of FIG. 18;
'FIG. 20 is an exploded view of a habitation module that may be used in the structure of FIG. 18;
FIG. 21 is a fragmentary perspective view of a singlestory structure embodying the invention;
FIG. 22 is a transverse section of the single-story building of FIG. 2, illustrating also the alternate use of flat and pitched roofs;
FIG. 23 is an exploded view of a habitation module used in the structure of FIG. 21;
FIG. 24 illustrates an alternative top for the module of FIG. 23
FIG. 25 is a schematic diagram of the layout of a structure generally of the type depicted in FIG. 1;
FIG. 26 is a fragmentary schematic diagram of an alternative layout; and
FIG. 27 is a schematic diagram of yet another layout.
Referring first to FIG. 1, a representative structure embodying the invention comprises a set of habitation modules 10a, 10b and 100 supported on a frame comprising horizontal girders 12, locking units 14, and modular columns 160 and 16b. The girders 12 are supported on the columns 16 and the habitation modules 10 in turn rest directly on the girders 12. The locking units 14 tie together and are supported by the columns 16. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, each locking unit is an integration of a habitation module and sections of a pair of columns 16. In the following description, we shall term the direction of the girders 12, the longitudinal direction and the direction of the locking units 14 the transverse direction, althoughthe building may be constructed with a dimension in the transverse direction greater than that in the longitudinal direction. Also various details are not specifically shown in FIG. 1 for reasons of clarity and ease of illustration. For example the components of the modular columns and 161) are locked together and rigidified by reinforcing cages as shown at 43 in FIG. 3.
Certain features of the invention are immediately apparent from inspection of FIG. 1. Although the struc- I ture has several tiers or stories as illustratively indicated as 18, 20, and 22, the habitation modules 10 of each story are structurally isolated from those in the stories immediately above and below. Thus each module 10 need support only itself and its contents. Moreover, there is accessible space 24 between the gir-' ders 12 that support each row of adjoining modules 10. The horizontal spaces 24 communicate with vertical passages 26 withinthe columns 16 to accommodate a network of utilities connected to the various modules 10.
FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate the details of the framework of the structure. Each of the columns 16 is comprised of a series of bearing blocks 30 and intermediate end bearings 28, the latter being parts of the locking units 14. The locking units are further formed with upper and lower transverse beams 31a and 31b integral with the end bearings 28. Thus, the end bearings 28 and beams 31a and 31b define an interior space 14a that substantially conforms to the interior dimensions of adjacent habitation modules 10 (FIG. 1).
The exterior columns 16a are of single depth (transverse direction) and the interior columns 16b and their component parts are of double depth to accommodate the double loads imposed thereon. Each end bearing 28 in an exterior column 16a has a vertical aperture 32 that is a segment of one of the vertical passages 26. A second aperture 33, disposed outwardly of the aperture 32 is used for structural purposes as described below. At the other end of each of the locking units 14 are a similar pair of apertures 34 and 35. The girders 12 rest on thick wall sections 36 between the space 14a and the apertures 32 and 34. At the interior ends of the locking units 14, the end walls 37 are reduced in height to aid in assembly and interlocking of the structure as described below.
With reference to FIG. 3, each of the bearing blocks 30 in the exterior columns 16a is a U-shaped member having apertures 32a and 33a in register with the apertures 32 and 33 in the end bearings 28. The interior side of the aperture 32a is open to provide communication between the vertical passages 26 in the columns 16a and the horizontal spaces 24 (FIG. 1). As shown in FIG. 3, one may use a similar arrangement at each of the interior columns 16b, with a double bearing block 300, in effect, comprising a pair of bearing blocks, positioned back-to-back and having apertures 34a and 35a.
Alternatively, the bearing blocks 30c may be constructed to provide direct access in the longitudinal direction (FIG. I from the vertical passages 26.
Still referring to FIG. 3, the girders 12 are secured end-to-end by means of couplers 38 that join the ends of reinforcing rods used to pre-tension the girders.
As shown in FIG. 30 each girder end is terminated by a channel 40 which is a part of a coupler 38 and is also a part of the pretensioning assembly of the girder l2; specifically, it is joined to one or more reinforcing rods within the girder. Each channel 40'has a plurality of bolt clearance holes 400 that register with threaded tie loop inserts 40b (FIG. 3) in the end bearings 28-when the girder is in place. Bolts passingthrough the holes 400 and corresponding holes 40c in locking plates 40d are screwed into the tie loop inserts 40b to secure the girders 12 in place.
With reference to FIG. 3b, each girder 12 also contains a post-tensioning cable or rod 39a loosely fitted therein. The ends of these rods 39a extending from successive girders can be drawn up and coupled together by a post-tensioning coupling 39b. The rods 39a terminating at the ends of the building are suitably secured to the end walls thus providing a unitary tension member through the girders containing the rods 39a. This arrangement ties each string of girde'rs 12 together so that to some extent they perform as a single long beam, thereby increasing the load-carry capacity of the girders.
Referring next to FIG. 2, to erect the structure, a lower sub-structure may first be formed by erecting a base framework 41 on bearing blocks which make the union of the modularized columns 16 with the foundation.
Habitation modules and locking units with their integral end bearings 28 are then moved into place, after which workmen, using the tops of the modules 10 as a platform, make utility connections through the tops of these modules. Next, a layer of bearing blocks 30 and girders 12 are secured in place (see also FIGS. 1 and 3), after which the habitation modules 10 of the next story are placed on top of the girders 12. The cycle is then repeated until the structure is completed.
With reference to FIG. 3, the components of the respective columns are locked together and rigidified by means of vertical columnar reinforcing cages 43 that are inserted into the apertures 33 and 33a in the end bearings 28 and bearing blocks 30. The cages 43 in each column 16 are connected together to form a unitary reinforcing network for a concrete core that is poured into the apertures 33 and 33a.
Also, as shown in FIG. 3, abutting short walls 37 of the interior and bearings 28 permit the use of bridging reinforcement members between the columnar reinforcing cages 43 extending through the adjacent apertures 35 of abutting locking units 14 and the corresponding apertures 35a of the bearing blocks 30.
These bridging members, together with the core concrete in the spaces above the short walls 37, provide a monolithic system that looks the units 14 together end-to-end. I
Compressible. bearing pads shown at 3611 in FIG. 3 are disposed on top of the walls 36 to distribute stresses associated with loading by the girders 12. Also the bottoms of the end bearings 28 are suitably shaped to provide clearance above the girders l2 and couplers 38 and thereby accommodate deflection of the girders under load.
FIG. 4 illustrates the preferred arrangement for locking the habitation modules in the transverse direction. Each of the girders 12 is formed with longitudinal top and bottom shoulders 12a and 12b. The bottom edges of the modules 10 interfit with the shoulders 12a. The top edges of the modules 10 have notches that loosely conform with the shoulders 12b.
Compressible bearing pad gaskets 45 support the habitation modules 10 on the girders l2. Resilient caulking 45a is provided along the tops of habitation modules 10 to fill the gaps between them and the girders 12. The purposeof these gaps is to prevent the transfer of loads from each story to the modules 10 in the story below. This separation also minimizes the acoustical coupling between each module 10 and the modules above and below it.
As further shown in FIG. 1, each longitudinally extending row of habitation modules 10 spans the longitudinal distance between successive columns 16. Each row may be interrupted, as shown, by locking units 14. However, the interior spaces 14a (FIG. 3) of the locking units 14 serve as integral parts of the interiors of the rows of modules 10. Thus, one may, if desired, obtain a clear interior span the entire length of the building.
In the structure of FIG. 1, each pair of rows of habitation modules 10, i.e., in the longitudinal direction, is separated by the depth of an interior column 16b. Slabs 44 and 46 may be laid down to provide floors and ceilings co-planar with the floors and ceilings of the habitation modules and thereby integrate this space into the spaces defined by the modules 10. Alternatively, the top and bottom panels of the habitation modules 10 may be cantilevered to integrally replace slabs 44 and 46.
Similarly, as shown schematically in FIG. 25, the recessed aspect of the building facade may be eliminated by cantilevers of the modules 10 that extend to the outer surfaces of the outer columns 16a. In that case, the entire longitudinal span from column to column, at the outer surface of the building, will have not external columns or posts, which permits a variety of desirable architectual effects.
A flush outer surface may also be provided by positioning the outer columns 16 inboard of the structure,
with the girders 12 in register with outer walls of theend bearings 28. FIG. 25 also schematically illustrates the layout of a building incorporating this arrangement.
In another arrangement, one may construct the habitation modules 10 for direct connection end-toend as schematically shown in FIG. 26, eliminating the spaces between rows of the modules. FIG. 4 illustrates details of this arrangement. Pairs of interior girders 12 are positioned adjacent to each other so that the modules 10 supported on these girders are connected back-to-back. A single girder may be substituted for this pair if desirable. In this arrangement the interior columns 16b (FIG. 3) are suitably modified to accommodate the elimination of the intermodule space.
Referring next to FIGS. 5a, 5b and 5c, the modules 10 have widths that are preferably based on an integral number of units, one unit being the width of the module 10a. The module 10b is two units wide and the module is three units wide. Although a variation in module width is not necessary, it will generally be found desirable for both practical and aesthetic reasons.
Each of the modules 10 has a floor panel 48 and a ceiling panel 50 interconnecting a pair of end frames 52 and 54 which can be identical as shown. The end frames also may include closure panels, windows or doors, or they may be left open as required for the interior layout of the structure. In FIG. 1 the end frames 52 are used as window frames on the exterior of the structure. The modules 10 can be completely constructed at an offsite factory, or alternatively, to conserve shipping cost, the panels and end frames can be constructed offsite and assembled at the building site. To some extent a degree of prefabrication of the mechanical systems can be incorporated into these subassemblies during their manufacture.
FIG. 6 and 7 illustrate details of the frames 52 and 54 and panels 48 and 50. Each frame 52 or 54 has a framework (FIG. 6) comprising upper and lower horizontal angle plates 55 and 56 welded to vertical channels 57. The framework is preferably welded to reinforcing members 53 for concrete that fills out the rest of the frame (FIG. 7). The floorand ceiling panels 48 and 50 may also be identical. Each panel is made of reinforced concrete, with angle plates 58 at the ends welded to the reinforcing.
To assemble a module 10, the panels 48 and 50 and frames 52 and 54 are fitted together with the angle plates 58 nested in the plates 55 and 56. The angle plates 58 are then welded to the plates 55 and 56 along the lengths of their parallel edges. Finally a sill S is second to the underside of frame 52. FIGS. 8d, 8b, and 8c are of head, jamb and sill sections of an assembled habitation module 10, with the sill S omitted for reasons of clarity.
FIG. 9 shows the manner in which the habitation modules 10 of FIGS. 6-8 are locked together. Each of the channels 57 has an inwardly inclined side so that the mouth of the channel is narrower than the interior. When the modules 10 are put in place on the building,
' the channels 57 of adjacent modules register with each other and an interlocking key 59 can then be dropped into the two grooves to hold the modules together. The remaining space in the grooves is then preferably pumped full of non-shrinking grout to maintain a rigid inter-module connection. Preferably resilient gaskets 60 are included between adjacent end frames 52 on the outer surface of the building to seal the interior against moisture.
When the system of FIG. 4 is used, the same arrangement can be used to lock habitation modules together end-to-end, i.e., in the transverse direction of the buildmg.
Alternatively, the habitation modules may be constructed with performed side frames instead of, or in addition to, the end frames.
FIGS. 10-13 illustrate another embodiment of the habitation modules 10. The end frames 62 and 64 are entirely of metal; the floor and ceiling panels 66 and 68 have metal frames, with corrugated bottoms on which concrete has been cast. The panels 66 and 68 are welded to the frames 62 and 64 along the lengths of their two parallel edges as shown in FIGS. 11 and 12.
FIGS. 11a, 11b and 11c are head, jamb and sill sections illustrating a frame 62 in a finished module fitted with a glass pane 70. The pane 70 is fastened-to'aweb 62a on the frame by means of a preformed gasket 72.
FIG. 12 shows how a glass pane 74 contained within an infill panel 76 is fitted to a frame 62.
As shown in FIG. 13, the frames 62 and tw n.
jacent habitation modules of the FIG. 10 type can systems. The members 112 are installed on suitable joints and the fastenings may then be coveredby a premolded closure strip 63.
FIG. 17 illustrates a modification of the structure of FIG. 3 in which the elements of the locking units 14 are separate, rather than integral with each other. These elements are assembled to each other and to the other structural components as the building is erected.
FIGS. 18 and 19 illustrate a variation of the multiplestory structure in which habitation modules 87 are located on every other floor. As shown in FIG. 18, the floors containing the habitation modules 87 are separated bybearing blocks 88 and 90 having a length corresponding to the height of a story. Instead of the girders 12 of FIG. 3, the structure of FIG. 18 has trusses 92 that rest on integral end bearings 96 of locking units 94. The trusses 92 have the height of a story so that each set of trusses defines a story between a pair of stories occupied by the modules 10. In this case, each story defined by the trusses 92 has, as its floor, the tops of the modules 10 and locking units 94 below and, as its ceiling, the bottoms of the modules 10 and locking units 94 above. The modules 10 and locking units 94 thus support, in addition to their own weight and contents, the building contents disposed immediately above them.
The end bearings 96 of FIG. 18 are somewhat reduced in height, in similar fashion to the end bearings 28 of FIG. 3. The difference in height is taken up by extra height of the bearing blocks 88 and 90. This provides nesting of the trusses 92 between the blocks 88 and shoulders 98 on the locking units 94 to securely position the bottom members of the trusses. The tops of the trusses 92 are similarly secured between the bearing blocks 88 and shoulders 100 formed in the bottoms of the locking units 94.
The ends of abutting trusses 92 are secured together by suitable couplers 102.
As shown in FIG. 19, the joints between the modules 87 and the trusses 92 at each floor line (FIG. 19a) and (FIG. 19b) are covered by closure members 104 providing sill and lintel functions. The spaces thus enclosed may be utilized for mechanical systems when the trusses 92 are made of steel, for example. The vertical elements 91 of trusses 92 (FIGS. 18 and 19), may be covered with suitable closure panels 93, as shown in FIG. 19.
The habitation module 87 illustrated in FIG. 20 is suitable for the structure of FIG. 18. It has end frames 78 and floor and ceiling panels 82 and 84 that are made of reinforced concrete. Upper tabs 78a on the frames may be made of metal so as to be welded to metal inserts in recesses 840 at the ends of the ceiling panels 84. Similarly, metal parts (not shown) on tabs 82a extending from the floor panel 82 may be welded into place in recesses 78b at the bottoms of the frames 78.
The panels 82and 84 of FIG. 20 have a waffled" construction. This not only lightens these panels, itprovides knockout panels that can readily be pierced or removed to conduct utilities into the interior of the habitation module. Moreover, the waffling provides recesses in which various fixtures can be positioned.
FIGS. 21 and 22 illustrate the application of the invention to a single story structure. Habitation units rest on spaced-apart U-shaped bearing members 112 which also receive and distribute the mechanical footings. As shown in FIG. 21, an interior corridor is formed by the erection of a partition 114.
In the structure of FIG. 21, the floor and ceiling panels 116 and 118 of the habitation units 110 are exposed to the elements. Therefore, it is necessary to provide them with strength to resist snow loads, etc., (panels 118) and to provide some thermal insulation. Accordingly, they are preferably cast as shown in FIG. 23 with a series of ribs and voids or channels that provide strength and, at the same time, the insulating value of dead air spaces. In other particulars, the modules 110 are essentially identical with the modules 10 of FIG. 7. The sill 120 shown in FIGS. 23 and 21 is designed to be used in combination with a window infill.
FIG. 24 illustrates a frame 122 which is a variation of the ceiling panel 118 for incorporation into a habitation module 110. The frame 122 may be fitted with a transparent or translucent panel to admit light from above.
A series of habitation units 110 incorporating frames 122 create an arcade or sun-screened pergola.
The plates 124 of FIGS. 21 and 22 are used as the upper part of the facade of the building. They are supported in place by means of integral flanges 124a.
A pitched roof may also be installed on a building embodying the invention. This is shown as an alternate arrangement in FIG. 22, wherein a roof of this type is assembled from interfitting precast sections 126 and 128. The sections are secured to the tops of the habitation modules 10, 110, etc. by angled tabs 130. Facias 132, integral with the sections 126 and 128, cover the upper joints of the habitation modules. FIGS. 14, 15, and 16 illustrate other roofing arrangements that may be applied to the habitation modules.
The invention is applicable to many layouts in addition to those specifically described above. This can be seen by comparing FIGS. 25 and 27. In FIG. 26 there is a space between the parallel rows of habitation modules 10, as in FIG. 1. FIG. 26 schematically illustrates the layout of a structure of the type shown in FIG. 4, in which the habitation modules 10 are connected end-'to-end as well as side-by-side.
FIG. 27 illustrates the layout of a tower-type structure embodying the invention. The modules 10, which extend both longitudinally and transversely, as shown, are disposed around a central core. They rest on a system of girders or trusses which run in both directions and which are supported on columns 142 of the same general type as previously described. The illustrated tower also includes void spaces 144 at the corners for use as part of the mechanical system of the building.
It will be apparent that one may make a number of modifications without departing from the scope of the invention. These include monolithic construction of the habitation modules instead of their assembly from pre-built panels and frames. Also, of course, the habitation modules can be manufactured from high strength reinforced plastics or other suitable materials or combinations of these materials. In addition module components can be secured together by other means such as bolts or adhesives. Further granolithic slabs can be applied to any or all the floors if desired, an example of this being the floor 146 in FIG. 4. Moreover, depending on the particular structure, shear walls or other suitable diagonal bracing can be applied at the ends of the building, in the locking units 14 (FIG. 1) or elsewhere as required.
The invention is not limited to the construction of fulhsize buildings. In other words. the various components can be miniaturized so that one may assemble small-scale replicas of the full-sized structures. This is done quite readily and the invention therefore greatly assists the architect in designing structures of the above type without the costly model building often associated with architectural design. Indeed, kits of small scale components can be used as teaching aids or even as educational toys.
It will be apparent from the foregoing then that our structural system has great flexibility of design. As such, it can be used to erect large buildings, such as multi-story office and apartment buildings, as well as smaller single-family dwellings, garages and the like. Whatever the size of the building, our system distributes the imposed loads efficiently throughout the completed structure.
With all its structural advantages, our system also results in a considerable'cost-saving as compared with prior building systems. More particularly, the habitation modules can be assembled easily at the building site. Consequently, they can be shipped unassembled, thereby conserving shipping costs. Also, increased costs due to damage in transit are minimized because an unassembled unit is less likely to be damaged than a fully assembled one.
Even further savings arise because of the reduced requirement for special building trades or skills at the construction site and the fact that the builder can purchase the various building components from competing suppliers thereof. Such competition for the supply of identical modular components obviously has a restraining effect on costs.
Still further, the invention facilitates accurate prediction of the cost of the structure, since the purchase cost of the components and the amount of labor required are both readily predictable. This, in turn, permits the extensive use of computers, both in estimating costs and as an aid in designing the structures themselves. In other words, the various building components can be stored in the memory of the computer and the designer can then instruct the computer to assemble them in a visual display in any manner he wishes. In this way, he can obtain an instantaneous view of the building he is designing.
It will thus be seen that the object set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efficiently attained and, since certain changes may be made in the above construction without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described.
We claim:
1. A multiple story building comprising A. a framework, including 1. a plurality of vertically-extending columns spaced apart from each other both longitudinally and transversely and formed from a stack of successively joined bearing members 2. horizontally extending support members extending between longitudinally spaced columns and supported thereby,

Claims (25)

1. A multiple story building comprising A. a framework, including 1. a plurality of vertically-extending columns spaced apart from each other both longitudinally and transversely and formed from a stack of successively joined bearing members 2. horizontally extending support members extending between longitudinally spaced columns and supported thereby, 3. first bearing members of columns associated with said horizontal support members, and 4. a plurality of locking units interconnecting transversely spaced columns, each of said locking units being formed from a pair of end sections forming second bearing members of columns and having transverse vertically spaced plates interconnecting said first members and defining with said members an opensided space, and B. rows of space-enclosing modules abutting side-by-side along said pair of support members and resting thereon, said modules being supported by said framework independently of any modules above or below.
2. horizontally extending support members extending between longitudinally spaced columns and supported thereby,
2. A building according to claim 1 in which the end sections and the transverse spaced plates of said locking units are formed integral with each other.
2. having top and bottom panels substantially coplanar with said upper and lower locking plates, and
2. a plurality of locking units interconnecting said columns in the transverse direction, each of said locking units comprising i. upper and lower locking plates spaced apart by substantially the height of a story of said structure, and ii. bearing units interconnecting said locking plates at the ends thereof,
3. having vertical end frames extending longitudinally,
3. horizontal support members interconnecting said columns in the longitudinal direction and being supported by the bearing blocks forming said columns, and B. a plurality of space-enclosing modules
3. A building according to claim 1 in which the first and second bearing members have passages extending therethrough which are vertically aligned when said members are joined into columns to thereby provide a vertical passageway for utilities.
3. first bearing members of columns associated with said horizontal support members, and
4. a plurality of locking units interconnecting transversely spaced columns, each of said locking units being formed from a pair of end sections forming second bearing members of columns and having transverse vertically spaced plates interconnecting said first members and defining with said members an open-sided space, and B. rows of space-enclosing modules abutting side-by-side along said pair of support members and resting thereon, said modules being supported by said framework independently of any modules above or below.
4. A building according to claim 1 in which the support members space said modules in the vertical direction and provide a horizontally extending void between said modules for utilities.
4. connected together side-by-side to provide a longitudinally extending row of modules supported on said framework
5. interior ones of said modules having open side walls providing access from module to module.
5. A building according to claim 4 in which the second bearing members have horizontally extending passages opening into said void whereby utilities may enter said void from said bearing members.
6. A building according to claim 1 in whiCh pairs of vertically spaced support members define therebetween separate stories of said building, groups of modules being placed on successive vertically spaced support members to form habitation spaces at each story.
7. A building according to claim 1 in which pairs of vertically spaced support members define therebetween separate stories of said building, groups of modules being placed on alternate vertically spaced support members to form habitation spaces from the interior of said modules on stories occupied by said modules and from the roofs of modules at one storey and the floors of modules at the next higher storey at intermediate stories not occupied by said modules.
8. A building according to claim 7 including vertical end plates for said intermediate stories.
9. A building according to claim 1 in which at least some of said modules have open sides aligned with the opening between the vertically spaced plates of said locking units to thereby define an open-sided habitation space extending through said locking units and said modules.
10. The building defined in claim 1 in which A. said support members and the space-enclosing modules in successive stories of said building define horizontal passages, and B. said columns include vertical passages communicating with said horizontal passages.
11. The building defined in claim 10 A. in which said columns further include second bearing units alternated with said first bearing units and substantially coextensive in height with said support members, and B. in which said second bearing units include openings from said vertical passages to said horizontal passages.
12. A building structure according to claim 1 in which each said space-enclosing module comprises A. a top panel B. a bottom panel C. first and second end frames, D. means for joining said panels and frames to provide a module in which said panels define horizontal planes and said frames define vertical planes of the space enclosed by the module.
13. The combination defined in claim 12 in which at least one of said frames is arranged to include an infill panel alternatively in the form of a window, a door, or an opaque panel.
14. The combination defined in claim 13 including means for joining together abutting modules assembled from sets of said components.
15. A multiple storey structure comprising A. a framework including
16. The structure defined in claim 15 including means for coupling said horizontal support members end-to-end in strings thereof.
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US3992848A (en) * 1973-05-25 1976-11-23 Credelca A.G. Buildings
US4095380A (en) * 1972-11-01 1978-06-20 Forest City Dillon, Inc. Building and elevator module for use therein
US4098036A (en) * 1975-10-30 1978-07-04 Demag A.G. Elevated train station
EP0118957A2 (en) * 1983-03-11 1984-09-19 Bureau Bouwcoördinatie Nederland B.V. Method for constructing a building, and building constructed in accordance with said method
US4551961A (en) * 1983-02-28 1985-11-12 Kiselewski Donald L Method of constructing a modular unit
US4646495A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-03-03 Rachil Chalik Composite load-bearing system for modular buildings
US4909001A (en) * 1988-03-17 1990-03-20 Gonzalez Espinosa De Los Monte System of housing and building construction by means of prefabricated components
US5028320A (en) * 1989-12-04 1991-07-02 Gaudin Carl J Sewer catch basin with gas seal for a petroleum refinery or chemical processing plant
US5062735A (en) * 1989-12-04 1991-11-05 Gaudin Carl J Self sealing domed sewer cover assembly
US5233808A (en) * 1990-06-19 1993-08-10 Masa-Yards Oy Method of constructing a building
CN1059312C (en) * 1994-06-27 2000-12-13 Wm·雷格利Jr·公司 Method for refining spearmint oils and chewing gum made from same
US20040010991A1 (en) * 2000-06-14 2004-01-22 Ludwig Felser Steel structure system
US20050074098A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-07 Microsoft Corporation Method and system for web-based event notification
US20050072061A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-07 Oscar Marty Modular system of permanent forms for casting reinforced concrete buildings on site
US20050108957A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2005-05-26 Quesada Jorge D. Pre-fabricated building modules and method of installation
US20060059803A1 (en) * 2003-02-06 2006-03-23 Ericksen Roed & Associates, Inc. Precast, prestressed concrete truss
US20080016805A1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2008-01-24 Richard Walter Truss lock floor systems and related methods and apparatus
US20080022623A1 (en) * 2006-07-28 2008-01-31 Paul Brienen Coupling beam and method of use in building construction
US20090019811A1 (en) * 2007-06-07 2009-01-22 Goldman Gary B Modular housing and method of installation in a structural framework
US20090249708A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2009-10-08 Flyport Development Entwicklungs Und Betreuungsgesellchaft Mbh Passenger Terminal Consisting of Mobile Room Units
US20100058675A1 (en) * 2008-09-10 2010-03-11 Conxtech, Inc. Building-insert module and associated methodology
US20100077675A1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2010-04-01 Seavy Richard J Dwelling complex
US20130152485A1 (en) * 2011-11-18 2013-06-20 Douglas Austin Non-Bearing Modular Construction System
US20150135632A1 (en) * 2012-05-21 2015-05-21 Inderjit Singh Dhillon High rise building elevation concept
US9388562B2 (en) * 2014-05-29 2016-07-12 Rocky Mountain Prestress, LLC Building system using modular precast concrete components
US20180291611A1 (en) * 2015-07-17 2018-10-11 Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd. Frame structure and method of constructing frame structure
US10941561B2 (en) 2017-07-27 2021-03-09 Rad Urban, Llc Prefabricated modular buildings

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Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4095380A (en) * 1972-11-01 1978-06-20 Forest City Dillon, Inc. Building and elevator module for use therein
US3992848A (en) * 1973-05-25 1976-11-23 Credelca A.G. Buildings
US4098036A (en) * 1975-10-30 1978-07-04 Demag A.G. Elevated train station
US4551961A (en) * 1983-02-28 1985-11-12 Kiselewski Donald L Method of constructing a modular unit
EP0118957A2 (en) * 1983-03-11 1984-09-19 Bureau Bouwcoördinatie Nederland B.V. Method for constructing a building, and building constructed in accordance with said method
EP0118957A3 (en) * 1983-03-11 1986-02-19 Bouwcoordinatie Nederl Bv Method for constructing a building, and building constructed in accordance with said method
US4646495A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-03-03 Rachil Chalik Composite load-bearing system for modular buildings
US4909001A (en) * 1988-03-17 1990-03-20 Gonzalez Espinosa De Los Monte System of housing and building construction by means of prefabricated components
US5028320A (en) * 1989-12-04 1991-07-02 Gaudin Carl J Sewer catch basin with gas seal for a petroleum refinery or chemical processing plant
US5062735A (en) * 1989-12-04 1991-11-05 Gaudin Carl J Self sealing domed sewer cover assembly
US5233808A (en) * 1990-06-19 1993-08-10 Masa-Yards Oy Method of constructing a building
CN1059312C (en) * 1994-06-27 2000-12-13 Wm·雷格利Jr·公司 Method for refining spearmint oils and chewing gum made from same
US20040010991A1 (en) * 2000-06-14 2004-01-22 Ludwig Felser Steel structure system
US6874287B2 (en) * 2000-06-14 2005-04-05 Ludwig Felser Steel structure system
US20060059803A1 (en) * 2003-02-06 2006-03-23 Ericksen Roed & Associates, Inc. Precast, prestressed concrete truss
US7275348B2 (en) * 2003-02-06 2007-10-02 Ericksen Roed & Associates Precast, prestressed concrete truss
US20050072061A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-07 Oscar Marty Modular system of permanent forms for casting reinforced concrete buildings on site
US7185467B2 (en) * 2003-10-06 2007-03-06 Oscar Marty Modular system of permanent forms for casting reinforced concrete buildings on site
US20050074098A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-07 Microsoft Corporation Method and system for web-based event notification
US20050108957A1 (en) * 2003-11-25 2005-05-26 Quesada Jorge D. Pre-fabricated building modules and method of installation
US20090249708A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2009-10-08 Flyport Development Entwicklungs Und Betreuungsgesellchaft Mbh Passenger Terminal Consisting of Mobile Room Units
US20080016805A1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2008-01-24 Richard Walter Truss lock floor systems and related methods and apparatus
US7934347B2 (en) 2006-07-28 2011-05-03 Paul Brienen Coupling beam and method of use in building construction
US20080022623A1 (en) * 2006-07-28 2008-01-31 Paul Brienen Coupling beam and method of use in building construction
US9663937B2 (en) * 2007-06-07 2017-05-30 Gary B. Goldman Modular housing and method of installation in a structural framework
US20090019811A1 (en) * 2007-06-07 2009-01-22 Goldman Gary B Modular housing and method of installation in a structural framework
US20100058675A1 (en) * 2008-09-10 2010-03-11 Conxtech, Inc. Building-insert module and associated methodology
US20100077675A1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2010-04-01 Seavy Richard J Dwelling complex
US9593478B2 (en) * 2011-11-18 2017-03-14 Pre-Form Systems LLC Non-bearing modular construction system
US9068340B2 (en) * 2011-11-18 2015-06-30 Pre-Form Systems LLC Non-bearing modular construction system
US20130152485A1 (en) * 2011-11-18 2013-06-20 Douglas Austin Non-Bearing Modular Construction System
US20150135632A1 (en) * 2012-05-21 2015-05-21 Inderjit Singh Dhillon High rise building elevation concept
US10280609B2 (en) * 2012-05-21 2019-05-07 Inderjit Singh Dhillon High rise building elevation concept
US9388562B2 (en) * 2014-05-29 2016-07-12 Rocky Mountain Prestress, LLC Building system using modular precast concrete components
US20180291611A1 (en) * 2015-07-17 2018-10-11 Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd. Frame structure and method of constructing frame structure
US10465374B2 (en) * 2015-07-17 2019-11-05 Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd. Frame structure and method of constructing frame structure
US10941561B2 (en) 2017-07-27 2021-03-09 Rad Urban, Llc Prefabricated modular buildings
US10947720B2 (en) 2017-07-27 2021-03-16 Rad Urban, Llc Block construction of prefabricated buildings

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