US3696574A - Building having a skeleton frame - Google Patents

Building having a skeleton frame Download PDF

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US3696574A
US3696574A US3696574DA US3696574A US 3696574 A US3696574 A US 3696574A US 3696574D A US3696574D A US 3696574DA US 3696574 A US3696574 A US 3696574A
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sides
frame
building
frame elements
upright
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Richard Dietrich
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RICHARD DIETRICH
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RICHARD DIETRICH
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/34Extraordinary structures, e.g. with suspended or cantilever parts supported by masts or tower-like structures enclosing elevators or stairs; Features relating to the elastic stability
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2448Connections between open section profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2466Details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2472Elongated load-supporting part formed from a number of parallel profiles

Abstract

The skeleton frame of a building consists essentially of identical frame elements fastened to each other to form a system of parallelepiped-shaped cells, each cell being bounded by four frame elements which are at least in part common to two contiguously juxtaposed cells. The cells may be freely cantilevered from upright pillars or freely span distances between pillars which are multiples of the horizontal dimension of one cell.

Description

United States Patent [151 3,696,574 Dietrich [45] Oct. 10, 1972 [54] BUILDING HAVING A SKELETON 2,444,091 6/1948 Carlsen ..52/732 FRAME 2,891,397 6/1959 l-lauer ..52/637 2,970,676 2/ l 961 Maciunas ..52/732 [72] fi f' g gg Adalbemr- 8 3,357,727 12/1967 Finkenstein et a1 ..287/54 A 1 "many 3,466,823 9/1969 Dowling ..52/637 22 F d: N 19, 1969 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS N l 1 pp 629,188 1/1963 Belgium ..52/280 778,542 2/1968 Canada ..5Z/79 [30] Foreign Application Priority Data 619,582 1/1927 France ..52/236 No 22, 1968 Germany "P 18 10 4342 1,064,397 6/1955 France ..52/236 Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott [52] U.S. Cl. ..52/236, 52/79, 52/168, Assistant Examiner beslie A. Bram] 52/173, 52/220, 52/280, 52/505, 52/637, Anomey Kelman and Barman 287/54 A 57 ABSTRACT 51 Int. Cl ..E04b 5/48, E040 1/39, E04C 3/32, I 1

504 3 40 1 1, 3 04 The skeleton frame of a building consists essentially of [58] Field 61 Search ..52/236, 505, 637, 648, 65], identical frame elements fastened to each other 52,239 50 3 2 0 79 732. 2 7 1 9 3 form a system of parallelepiped-shaped cells, each cell A 54 A being bounded by four frame elements which are at least in part common to two contiguously juxtaposed [56] References Cited cells. The cells may be freely cantilevered from upright pillars or freely span distances between pillars UNITED STATES PATENTS which are multiples of the horizontal dimension of one 11. 1,347,808 7/1920 Franklin ..287/54 A cc 2,037,889 4/1936 Doud ..52/732 16 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PATENTEBum 10 0912 SHEET 1 BF 5 INVENTOR w 0/8 M BY.( y

PAIENTEDncr 10 1912 SHEET 2 0F 5 INVENTOR "M d 12 rme Ma Ma if/ru PATENTEllum 10 m2 SHEET 3 BF 5 PATENTEDncI 10 m2 SHEET U 0F 5 INVENTOR RIC/)a VCL I C 'I H BY: WM Mp MM PATENTEDum 10 m2 SHEET 5 BF 5 FlG.5

E m [I INVENTOR R fcl a rd, Df 'f 6 BY M nimum AGE/v75 BUILDING HAVING A SKELETON FRAME This invention relates to building construction, and particularly to a building having a load-bearing skeleton frame.

In its more specific aspects, the invention is concerned with a building skeleton or frame which may be assembled from identical, prefabricated frame elements at the construction site, and is rigid enough to permit the frame to be cantilevered from upright pillars or to span relatively wide open spaces. Yet, the frame elements must be light enough to be transported on ordinary road vehicles and railroad cars, and should be capable of being erected at the building site without scaffolding.

The building of the invention thus includes at least one upright pillar and a skeleton frame fastened to the pillar. The frame essentially consists of substantially identical frame elements and of fasteners which fasten the frame elements to each other. The frame elements constitute contiguously juxtaposed, parallelepipedshaped cells. Each cell is bounded by four frame elements having each two upright sides fastened by the fasteners to upright sides of respective other frame elements bounding the cell, two horizontally extending sides defining the top and bottom of the cell, and four corner portions more rigid than the sides and connecting the two ends of each upright side to a correspondin g end of a horizontally extending side.

The frame freely projects from the pillar in a horizontal direction over a distance at least equal to the length of one of the horizontally extending sides. Floor plates are supported by the horizontally extending sides of the cells and spaced apart approximately by the length of an upright frame element side so that each frame element has the same height as one floor of the building.

The sides of the frame may be formed, at least in part, by corresponding side members which are integrally connected to constitute a corner portion of the frame, the greater rigidity of the corner portion being achieved by one of the frame members increasing in cross section toward the corner portion, which preferably is arcuate in shape.

The frame elements are rigid enough under most conditions not to require internal reinforcements so that the four sides jointly bound an unobstructed central aperture in the frame element.

The element may be assembled from several circumferential sections by means of connecting elements approximately centered in respective sides of the frame element and releasably connecting the sections.

Other features, additional objects, and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will readily become apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention when considered in connection with the appended drawing in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective and partly exploded partial view of a building including a skeleton frame of the invention;

FIG. 2 shows a frame junction in the building of FIG. 1 in partly disassembled condition and in a perspective view;

FIG. 2A shows the device of FIG. 2 in section on the line [IA-IIA on a larger scale;

FIG. 3 shows two superimposed upright frame elements of the building of FIG. 1 in perspective view;

FIG. 4 illustrates a modified frame junction in a view corresponding to that of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 shows the skeleton frame of the building of FIG. 1 in front elevation on a smaller scale; and

FIG. 6 is a sectional plan view of the skeleton frame of FIG. 5 taken on the line VI-Vl.

Referring now to the drawing in detail, and initially to FIGS. 1 to 3, there is seen a three-dimensional skeleton frame assembled from substantially identical, upright, rectangular frame elements 1 whose thickness is but a very small fraction of their length and height, the height being slightly smaller than the length and corresponding to the height of one floor of the building in which the assembled frame elements I constitute the load-bearing elements. The upright columns of the skeleton are constituted in each floor by two to four upright sides of respective frame elements 1, and the horizontal beams of the skeleton by normally two horizontal sides of respective frame elements 1. The four arcuate comers of each frame element 1 are en larged to make them more rigid than the upright and horizontal sides of the frames. The frame elements are fixedly, but releasably fastened to each other, as will presently be described in more detail. The connected frame elements 1 form a skeleton frame mainly consisting of identical cells having each the shape of a right parallelepiped.

The building further includes filler elements set into the frame elements I to close the openings of the same such as floor plates 2 whose surfaces 3 may form the ceiling of a lower building portion, and upright wall panels 4, S. If so desired, false ceilings 6 may be suspended from the floor plates 2.

Where less than four upright sides of respective frame elements I are joined to each other to form an upright column, or where reinforcement is otherwise needed, the joined upright frame sides are strengthened by bars 18, and reinforcing angles 17 may be provided at the junctions of several frame element corners if needed. Similar horizontal bars 18 may be fastened on the horizontally extending sides of frame elements on the outside of the building to complete there the nessecary cross section of the skeleton beams.

The frame elements I are prefabricated and dimensioned for transportation from a manufacturing plant to a construction site on trucks or railroad cars of normal size. They are interchangeable and may be used again in other skeleton frames if they were originally installed in a temporary building.

The preferred material of construction for the frame elements 1 is steel, and the four sides of each frame element are each T-shaped in cross section. The web portion 7 of the four frame sides in each element 1 are located in a common plane, and the flange portions 8 are parallel to the axis of the central frame aperture and bound the aperture.

The frame elements are connected with each other by means of spaced, flat lugs 9 laterally projecting in both directions from the web portion 7 of each horizontal frame side, and lugs 10 projecting in only one lateral direction from the upright frame sides, the lugs 9, 10 being spacedly parallel to the associated flange portions 8.

When the contiguously juxtaposed sides of respective frame elements 1 are connected by means of their superimposed lugs 9, lo, the connections are located substantially in the neutral zone of the beam or column so assembled, and are subjected only to relatively weak stresses. They are therefore adequately connected by bolts passing through bores 11 in the lugs and equipped with nuts, the conventional bolts and nuts not being explicitly shown. Notches 12 are formed in the web portions 7 between the lugs 9, to reduce the weight of the frame elements 1.

Each frame element 1 may be an assembly of four L- shaped sections 13, and the four sections may be shipped from the manufacturing plant separately to occupy a minimum of space and assembled at the construction site. The four sections 13 are joined to each other in the center of each frame side which is subjected to relatively minor static stresses in the finished building. Terminal integral flanges 14 on each section 13 are engaged face-to-face in the assembled frame element and connected to each other by means of non-illustrated bolts in mating openings of the flanges 14. Flat, apertured plates 15 having twice the size of the faces on the flanges 14 may be interposed between respective pairs of flanges 14 on two juxtaposed frame elements 1 to connect the elements, as is evident from F I08. 2 and 3. The bending or torsion stresses decrease towards the center of the columns and beams in normal service. lt is therefore permissible gradually to reduce the width of the cross-section of the columns consisting of the upright sides of the connected frame elements, from the frame corner toward the transverse flange 14, the width of the flange portion 8 remaining constant for convenience of assembly. If desired, the weight of each frame element 1 may be reduced without loss of necessary strength by decreasing the thickness of each flange portion 8 from the corner of the frame element 1 toward the transverse flange 14.

As is best seen in FIG. 2, the lugs 9 on the horizontal frame sides are arranged in closely spaced pairs, and the notches 12 separate adjacent pairs from each other. Pairs of wedges 19 having twice the thickness of the lugs 9 are introduced into the gaps between paired, superimposed lugs during assembly of the skeleton frame. When the wedges are driven home in the gaps, they cause precise alignment of the superimposed lugs 9, and may be left in position thereafter as partly shown in FIG. 2.

The lugs 10 on the upright frame sides have recesses 16 which jointly bound two passages at right angles to each other in a column assembled from four frame elements 1 in the manner best seen in FIG. 2A. Wedges 19 are driven into the passages for aligning the frame elements and assist in holding the elements in their relative positions after assembly by absorbing shearing stresses.

The two vertically superposed frame elements seen in FIG. 3 differ from each other and from other frame elements described so far in that the upper frame element consists of two L-shaped circumferential sections 13 and another unitary, U-shaped section constituting one half of the frame and connected to the L-shaped sections 13 by flanges l4 and portions of apertured plates 15. The lower frame element is a unitary structure in its entirety. The frame elements shown in FIG. 3 are interchangeable in the assembled skeleton frame with the four-section frame elements more specifically described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2.

The heaviest stresses in the assembled frame elements 1 occur in the comers whose web portions are enlarged so as not to be deformed as mentioned before, angle pieces 17 may be superimposed on the web portion 7 further to increase the rigidity of the frame corner. As has not been shown explicitly in the drawing, reinforcements may also be provided in the corner areas to double the thickness of the flange portion 8 in a manner analogous to the strengthening of the web portion 7 by an angle piece 17.

FIG. 4 illustrates a modified structure of the invention wherein each rectangular frame element is formed from four U-shaped sections, hereinafter referred to as U-channels, the open side of each channel facing outwardly and away from the central frame aperture. The frame elements are assembled in the skeleton in spaced relationship, the open sides of the channels facing each other at a distance substantially corresponding to the height of one channel. The frame elements are joined to each other by connectors 21. Each connector 21 consists of three steel tubes or hollow bars 22 of square cross section which are welded to bisect each other at right angles. The arms of the three-dimensional cross constituted by the steel tubes or bars 22 are interposed between the sides of the frame elements at the frame corners. The spacedly juxtaposed frame elements are additionally connected by box-shaped apertured spacers 23 and bolts engaging the apertures 26 in the spacers and apertures 25 in lugs 24 welded to each channel 20 partly to close the open side near each end of the channel. The flanges of the channels 20 have notches 27 adjacent the lugs 24 for access of tools to nuts or heads on bolts passing through the apertures 26, 25 of the spacers 23 and of the lugs 24. Similar lugs, not themselves visible in the drawing, cover the open side of each channel near the end of the associated steel tube 22 for a bolted connection with the tube. Additional notches 27 in the channel flanges give access to the connecting bolts. corrugations 28 on the outer faces of the tubes 22 engage mating recesses of corresponding corrugations in the edges of the channels 20 to provide greater shearing strength to the assembled bundle of frame sides and connecting element parts which constitutes each column and beam of the skeleton frame.

In a manner analogous to that described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2, the flange portions of the channels 20 increase in height from the middle of each upright frame side toward the corners, thus making the corners most rigid. The width of the channel web remains constant throughout the length of the channel. The flange height in the horizontal frame sides is uniform. But may also be decreased toward the center of each side, that is, toward the free end of the horizontal leg in each L-shaped sections 20.

In addition to the upright frame elements constituted by the L-shaped sections 20, the building skeleton partly illustrated in FIG. 4 also includes horizontal frame elements 29 attached to the vertical faces of the tubes or hollow bars 22 which extend horizontally from the welded junction with other tubes.

Each tube 22 and spacer 23 jointly do not extend over the entire length of the associated leg of an L- shaped section 20. The gap 30, the spacer and the tube may receive electrical or water lines, an emergency water system for fire fighting purposes, or additional structural members for reinforcing the skeleton. Such reinforcement, where needed, may also be provided by the use of two contiguously superimposed frame elements instead of a single element as partly shown in FIG. 4. This arrangement is of particular advantage in buildings intended for use with unevenly distributed loads. The skeleton frame of the entire building is made of frame elements adequate for areas of light loading when used singly, and double framing is resorted to where unusually heavy loads have to be supported. This still permits the entire building frame to be erected from identical and interchangeable frame elements, while avoiding the use of unnecessarily heavy framing in areas of the building not intended for heavy loading.

As is shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, the connected frame elements of the invention may span large spaces without intermediate supports and may be cantilevered freely. The principal upright load bearing structures of the partly illustrated skeleton frame for a building according to the invention are two pillars 31, 32. The conventionally constructed steel pillar 31 has a height of five floors. The other pillar 32 is a single cell of frame elements of the invention. The exposed edge portions of the framework are reinforced by means of angle pieces 17 and strengthening bars 18 as described above, and connected with the frame elements in such a manner that at least all upright columns of the skeleton consist of bundles of metal elements. The angle pieces 17 and bars 18 are connected with the frame elements by means of bolts, not shown.

The invidivudal cells 33 of the main building portion are arranged in a pattern of steps forming terraces on one outer face of the building. Interior spaces extend partly over more than one floor and have a free span greater than the horizontal length of one cell, the cells forming the ceilings of such interior spaces being freely cantilevered. The apertures of a few frame elements are closed by upright plates 34, and horizontal plates 35 close the apertures of cells formed by the four upright frame elements forming the cell for even greater rigidity of the skeleton in areas of exceptionally high stress. A similar function is performed by centrally apertured horizontal frames 36 and diagonal struts 37. However, such extraneous reinforcing devices are not normally required.

As is evident from FIGS. 5 and 6, the same frame elements of the invention may be employed for erecting the skeletons of single-floor buildings, of towers, of buildings straddling a free space, of buildings standing on steep slopes, and the like.

it is a particular advantage of buildings based on the skeleton frames of the invention that they lend themselves to the solution of a problem common in urban renewal. They permit the gradual replacement of old buildings as they become vacant by small units which may be enlarged readily by the addition of cells as adjacent spaces become available. Where an old building remains standing temporarily between two skeleton frame buildings of the invention, the two frames may be connected above the old structure by a bridge of cells, and the new structure grow upward from the broader base so formed. Ultimately, the old structure may be demolished and the open gap in the new structure filled with additional cells as may be needed.

The frame elements of the invention may be built as unitary structures or in a few parts, L- or U-shaped, and the frame elements are handled quickly and conveniently at the construction site without requiring facilities other than a crane. There is no need for scaffolding.

Because of the releaseable bolt connections between the frame elements, a skeleton frame of the invention can be modified, enlarged, or reduced in size at any time during the life of the building if equipped with similarly mounted wall, floor, and ceiling elements.

What is claimed is:

l. A building comprising, in combination:

a. an upright pillar;

b. a skeleton frame fastened to said pillar, said frame essentially consisting of a plurality of substantially identical frame elements and fastening means fastening said frame elements to each other,

i. said frame elements constituting a plurality of contiguously juxtaposed, parallelepiped-shaped cells,

. each cell being bounded by four frame elements having each two upright sides fastened by said fastening means to upright sides of respective other frame elements bounding said cell, two horizontally extending sides defining the top and bottom of said cell, and four corner portions more rigid than said sides and connecting the two ends of each upright side to a corresponding end of a horizontally extending side,

3. said frame freely projecting from said pillar in a horizontal direction over a distance at least equal to the length of one of said horizontally extending sides; and

c. a plurality of floor plate members supported by horizontally extending sides of said cells and spaced apart substantially by the length of said upright sides.

2. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein each frame element has an upright side member and a horizontally extending side member, said members constituting respective portions of the corresponding sides and being integrally connected to constitute one of said corner portions, the cross section of one of said members increasing toward said corner portion.

3. A building as set forth in claim 2, wherein said corner portion is are uate.

4. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein the four sides of each frame element jointly bound an unobstructed central aperture in said frame element.

5. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein each of said elements is constituted by at least two circumferential sections, and connecting means approximately centered in respective sides of said frame element and releasably connecting said sections to each other.

6. A building as set forth in claim 5, wherein said connecting means include respective integral, terminal flanges on said sections and securing means securing said flanges to each other in face-to-face relationship.

7. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein said fastening means include a plurality of connectors, each connector including a plurality of bar members fixedly fastened to each other in rectangularly intersecting relationship, two of said bar members being releasably fastened to sides of respective frame elements in one of said cells.

8. A building as set forth in claim 7, wherein said fastening means further include a plurality of bolts respectively securing said bar members to said sides of the frame elements.

9. A building as set forth in claim 7, wherein said two bar members and the releasably fastened sides of said frame elements are formed with respective interengaged projections and recesses.

10. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein said sides of each frame element are substantially T-shaped in cross section so as each to have a flange portion and a web portion, said flange portions bounding a central aperture in the frame element, and the flange elements being located substantially in a common plane.

ll. A building as set forth in claim 10, further comprising a plurality of lugs on each web portion, each lug being spaced from the associated flange portion and substantially parallel thereto, the lugs of juxtaposed frame elements being contiguously superimposed on each other, and securing means securing the superimposed lugs to each other.

12. A building as set forth in claim 11, wherein said lugs are formed with respective alignable apertures,

and said securing means include a wedge member simultaneously engaging the apertures of the superimposed lugs.

13. A building as set forth in claim 10, wherein columns consisting of the upright sides of the connected frame elements decrease in cross section from the comer portion of the frame elements toward the center of their upright side, the flange portion of said upright side being of uniform cross section over the length of said upright side.

14. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein the upright and horizontally extending sides of another one of said frame elements are directly superimposed on the upright and horizontally extending sides respectively of one of said four frame elements.

15. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein each of said four frame elements partly bounds two of said cells.

16. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein at least some of the cells are provided with frame elements mounted to the horizontally extending sides defining the top and bottom of said cells.

* 1i i t i

Claims (18)

1. A building comprising, in combination: a. an upright pillar; b. a skeleton frame fastened to said pillar, said frame essentially consisting of a plurality of substantially identical frame elements and fastening means fastening said frame elements to each other, 1. said frame elements constituting a plurality of contiguously juxtaposed, parallelepiped-shaped cells, 2. each cell being bounded by four frame elements having each two upright sides fastened by said fastening means to upright sides of respective other frame elements bounding said cell, two horizontally extending sides defining the top and bottom of said cell, and four corner portions more rigid than said sides and connecting the two ends of each upright side to a corresponding end of a horizontally extending side, 3. said frame freely projecting from said pillar in a horizontal direction over a distance at least equal to the length of one of said horizontally extending sides; and c. a plurality of floor plate members supported by horizontally extending sides of said cells and spaced apart substantially by the length of said upright sides.
2. each cell being bounded by four frame elements having each two upright sides fastened by said fastening means to upright sides of respective other frame elements bounding said cell, two horizontally extending sides defining the top and bottom of said cell, and four corner portions more rigid than said sides and connecting the two ends of each upright side to a corresponding end of a horizontally extending side,
2. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein each frame element has an upright side member and a horizontally extending sidE member, said members constituting respective portions of the corresponding sides and being integrally connected to constitute one of said corner portions, the cross section of one of said members increasing toward said corner portion.
3. A building as set forth in claim 2, wherein said corner portion is arcuate.
3. said frame freely projecting from said pillar in a horizontal direction over a distance at least equal to the length of one of said horizontally extending sides; and c. a plurality of floor plate members supported by horizontally extending sides of said cells and spaced apart substantially by the length of said upright sides.
4. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein the four sides of each frame element jointly bound an unobstructed central aperture in said frame element.
5. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein each of said elements is constituted by at least two circumferential sections, and connecting means approximately centered in respective sides of said frame element and releasably connecting said sections to each other.
6. A building as set forth in claim 5, wherein said connecting means include respective integral, terminal flanges on said sections and securing means securing said flanges to each other in face-to-face relationship.
7. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein said fastening means include a plurality of connectors, each connector including a plurality of bar members fixedly fastened to each other in rectangularly intersecting relationship, two of said bar members being releasably fastened to sides of respective frame elements in one of said cells.
8. A building as set forth in claim 7, wherein said fastening means further include a plurality of bolts respectively securing said bar members to said sides of the frame elements.
9. A building as set forth in claim 7, wherein said two bar members and the releasably fastened sides of said frame elements are formed with respective interengaged projections and recesses.
10. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein said sides of each frame element are substantially T-shaped in cross section so as each to have a flange portion and a web portion, said flange portions bounding a central aperture in the frame element, and the flange elements being located substantially in a common plane.
11. A building as set forth in claim 10, further comprising a plurality of lugs on each web portion, each lug being spaced from the associated flange portion and substantially parallel thereto, the lugs of juxtaposed frame elements being contiguously superimposed on each other, and securing means securing the superimposed lugs to each other.
12. A building as set forth in claim 11, wherein said lugs are formed with respective alignable apertures, and said securing means include a wedge member simultaneously engaging the apertures of the superimposed lugs.
13. A building as set forth in claim 10, wherein columns consisting of the upright sides of the connected frame elements decrease in cross section from the corner portion of the frame elements toward the center of their upright side, the flange portion of said upright side being of uniform cross section over the length of said upright side.
14. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein the upright and horizontally extending sides of another one of said frame elements are directly superimposed on the upright and horizontally extending sides respectively of one of said four frame elements.
15. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein each of said four frame elements partly bounds two of said cells.
16. A building as set forth in claim 1, wherein at least some of the cells are provided with frame elements mounted to the horizontally extending sides defining the top and bottom of said cells.
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US4000589A (en) * 1976-02-13 1977-01-04 Antonio Bianchini Congruent modular building segments
US4045937A (en) * 1973-06-21 1977-09-06 Credelca A.G. Method of constructing a prefabricated room element and a building of a plurality of said elements
WO1981000130A1 (en) * 1979-07-03 1981-01-22 Allied Chem Structural element,tetrahedral truss constructed therefrom and method of construction
US4372087A (en) * 1980-06-12 1983-02-08 Kump Ernest J Modular building structures
US4446666A (en) * 1979-07-03 1984-05-08 Allied Corporation Tetrahedral truss
US4562681A (en) * 1985-02-05 1986-01-07 Gte Products Corporation Web section for a space frame
US4593514A (en) * 1984-09-19 1986-06-10 Gte Products Corporation Space frame
EP1473417A1 (en) * 2002-02-06 2004-11-03 Shinichi Sunahara Building structure
US20040231256A1 (en) * 2003-05-20 2004-11-25 Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. Unit building
US20040237439A1 (en) * 2003-05-02 2004-12-02 Powell David W. Method and system for prefabricated construction
US20090249708A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2009-10-08 Flyport Development Entwicklungs Und Betreuungsgesellchaft Mbh Passenger Terminal Consisting of Mobile Room Units
US20160319534A1 (en) * 2013-12-16 2016-11-03 Marcio BERNARDO Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings

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EP1473417A1 (en) * 2002-02-06 2004-11-03 Shinichi Sunahara Building structure
EP1473417A4 (en) * 2002-02-06 2009-08-05 Shinichi Sunahara Building structure
US20040237439A1 (en) * 2003-05-02 2004-12-02 Powell David W. Method and system for prefabricated construction
US7665250B2 (en) * 2003-05-02 2010-02-23 Powell David W System for construction of a compression structure with corner blocks, key blocks, and corner block supports
US20040231256A1 (en) * 2003-05-20 2004-11-25 Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. Unit building
US20090249708A1 (en) * 2005-11-28 2009-10-08 Flyport Development Entwicklungs Und Betreuungsgesellchaft Mbh Passenger Terminal Consisting of Mobile Room Units
US20160319534A1 (en) * 2013-12-16 2016-11-03 Marcio BERNARDO Reversible module co-ordination system for buildings

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB1279888A (en) 1972-06-28
FR2023944A1 (en) 1970-08-21
BE742036A (en) 1970-05-04
JPS5341444B1 (en) 1978-11-02
DE1810434C3 (en) 1975-06-19
DE1810434B2 (en) 1974-10-31
AT309031B (en) 1973-07-25
DE1810434A1 (en) 1970-06-11
SE346350B (en) 1972-07-03
NL6917560A (en) 1970-05-26

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