US20150066272A1 - Electric energy generation using variable speed hybrid electric supercharger assembly - Google Patents

Electric energy generation using variable speed hybrid electric supercharger assembly Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150066272A1
US20150066272A1 US14/388,527 US201314388527A US2015066272A1 US 20150066272 A1 US20150066272 A1 US 20150066272A1 US 201314388527 A US201314388527 A US 201314388527A US 2015066272 A1 US2015066272 A1 US 2015066272A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
supercharger
engine
vehicle
generator
energy storage
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Abandoned
Application number
US14/388,527
Inventor
Robert P. Benjey
Vasilios Tsourapas
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Eaton Corp
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Eaton Corp
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Publication date
Priority to US201261617152P priority Critical
Application filed by Eaton Corp filed Critical Eaton Corp
Priority to PCT/US2013/030954 priority patent/WO2013148206A2/en
Priority to US14/388,527 priority patent/US20150066272A1/en
Publication of US20150066272A1 publication Critical patent/US20150066272A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • B60L11/1809
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/42Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by the architecture of the hybrid electric vehicle
    • B60K6/48Parallel type
    • B60K6/485Motor-assist type
    • B60L11/1851
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/60Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries
    • B60L50/61Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries by batteries charged by engine-driven generators, e.g. series hybrid electric vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/50Charging stations characterised by energy-storage or power-generation means
    • B60L53/53Batteries
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B33/00Engines characterised by provision of pumps for charging or scavenging
    • F02B33/32Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type
    • F02B33/34Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type with rotary pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B33/00Engines characterised by provision of pumps for charging or scavenging
    • F02B33/32Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type
    • F02B33/34Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type with rotary pumps
    • F02B33/40Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type with rotary pumps of non-positive-displacement type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D13/00Controlling the engine output power by varying inlet or exhaust valve operating characteristics, e.g. timing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D23/00Controlling engines characterised by their being supercharged
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D23/00Controlling engines characterised by their being supercharged
    • F02D23/005Controlling engines characterised by their being supercharged with the supercharger being mechanically driven by the engine
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/42Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by the architecture of the hybrid electric vehicle
    • B60K6/48Parallel type
    • B60K2006/4825Electric machine connected or connectable to gearbox input shaft
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60YINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO ASPECTS CROSS-CUTTING VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
    • B60Y2400/00Special features of vehicle units
    • B60Y2400/43Engines
    • B60Y2400/435Supercharger or turbochargers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B33/00Engines characterised by provision of pumps for charging or scavenging
    • F02B33/32Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type
    • F02B33/34Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type with rotary pumps
    • F02B33/36Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type with rotary pumps of positive-displacement type
    • F02B33/38Engines with pumps other than of reciprocating-piston type with rotary pumps of positive-displacement type of Roots type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B39/00Component parts, details, or accessories relating to, driven charging or scavenging pumps, not provided for in groups F02B33/00 - F02B37/00
    • F02B39/02Drives of pumps; Varying pump drive gear ratio
    • F02B39/08Non-mechanical drives, e.g. fluid drives having variable gear ratio
    • F02B39/10Non-mechanical drives, e.g. fluid drives having variable gear ratio electric
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M2700/00Supplying, feeding or preparing air, fuel, fuel air mixtures or auxiliary fluids for a combustion engine; Use of exhaust gas; Compressors for piston engines
    • F02M2700/33Compressors for piston combustion engines
    • F02M2700/331Charging and scavenging compressors
    • F02M2700/335Control therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/62Hybrid vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S903/00Hybrid electric vehicles, HEVS
    • Y10S903/902Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors
    • Y10S903/903Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors having energy storing means, e.g. battery, capacitor

Abstract

An example method for selecting between modes of regeneration of an energy storage device of a vehicle includes: determining operating conditions of the vehicle; and when regeneration is appropriate based upon the operating conditions, regenerating the energy storage device, including selecting between a nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode and a performance-impacting regeneration mode.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is being filed on 13 Mar. 2013, as a PCT International Patent application and claims priority to U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 61/617,152 filed on 29 Mar. 2012, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present teachings generally include a supercharger assembly that includes a supercharger, an electric motor-generator, and a planetary gearing arrangement.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Energy efficient engines of reduced size are desirable for fuel economy and cost reduction. Smaller engines provide less torque than larger engines. A supercharger is sometimes used to increase the torque available from an engine. At low engine speeds, when higher torque is often requested by a vehicle operator by depressing the accelerator pedal, the supercharger provides additional air to the engine intake manifold, boosting air pressure and thereby allowing the engine to generate greater torque at lower engine speeds.
  • SUMMARY
  • The present teachings generally include a method for selecting between modes of regeneration of an energy storage device of a vehicle includes: determining operating conditions of the vehicle; and when regeneration is appropriate based upon the operating conditions, regenerating the energy storage device, including selecting between a nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode and a performance-impacting regeneration mode.
  • In another example, a method for selecting between modes of regeneration of an energy storage device of a vehicle having a supercharger and an electric motor-generator includes: boosting an internal combustion engine of the vehicle using the supercharger; driving the vehicle using the electric motor-generator powered by the energy storage device; and selecting between regeneration operating modes to regenerate the energy storage device.
  • In yet another example, a method for regenerating an energy storage device of a vehicle using a supercharger includes: determining operating conditions of the vehicle; and when regeneration is appropriate based upon the operating conditions, regenerating the energy storage device using the supercharger.
  • The above features and advantages and other features and advantages of the present teachings are readily apparent from the following detailed description of the best modes for carrying out the present teachings when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration in side view of a supercharger assembly and an engine assembly, with a housing assembly of the supercharger assembly partially removed, in accordance with an aspect of the present teachings.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration in side view of the supercharger assembly of FIG. 1 within the housing assembly.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration in cross-sectional view of the supercharger assembly taken at lines 3-3 in FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration in cross-sectional view of the supercharger assembly taken at lines 4-4 in FIG. 3.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a portion of the supercharger at the area indicated in FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration in an end view of a gear cover portion of the housing assembly.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration in cross-sectional view taken at lines 7-7 in FIG. 6 of a portion of the supercharger assembly within the gear cover portion.
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic perspective illustration of the gear cover portion.
  • FIG. 9 is a schematic perspective illustration of an outlet housing and outlet pipe of the housing assembly.
  • FIG. 10 is a schematic plan view illustration of the outlet housing and outlet pipe of the housing assembly.
  • FIG. 11 is a schematic illustration in side view of the outlet housing and outlet pipe of the housing assembly.
  • FIG. 12 is a schematic illustration in cross sectional view of the outlet housing and outlet pipe taken at the lines 12-12 in FIG. 11.
  • FIG. 13 is a schematic illustration in end view of the motor housing portion.
  • FIG. 14 is a schematic perspective illustration of the motor housing portion.
  • FIG. 15 is a schematic illustration in plan view of the motor housing portion.
  • FIG. 16 is a schematic illustration in end view of an inlet cover portion of the housing forming a cavity for a brake.
  • FIG. 17 is a schematic illustration in cross-sectional view of the inlet cover portion taken at the lines 17-17 in FIG. 16.
  • FIG. 18 is a schematic perspective illustration of the inlet cover portion.
  • FIG. 19 is a schematic perspective illustration of an oil slinger mounted to a pulley shaft in FIG. 3.
  • FIG. 20 is a schematic illustration in an opposite end view of the gear cover portion than shown in FIG. 6.
  • FIG. 21 is a schematic cross-sectional illustration of the rotor housing portion with an outlet component having an outlet housing and an outlet pipe in accordance with another aspect of the present teachings.
  • FIG. 22 is a schematic perspective illustration of the outlet component with the outlet housing and outlet pipe of FIG. 21.
  • FIG. 23 is a schematic illustration in bottom view of the rotor housing of FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 24 is a schematic illustration in side view of a supercharger assembly having the outlet component of FIGS. 21 and 22.
  • FIG. 25 is a flowchart illustration of an example method for selecting an appropriate operating mode for regeneration.
  • FIG. 26 is a schematic illustration in side view of the supercharger assembly and an engine assembly of FIG. 1 operating in a throttling loss regeneration mode.
  • FIG. 27 is a schematic illustration in side view of the supercharger assembly and an engine assembly of FIG. 1 operating in a braking with supercharger locked regeneration mode.
  • FIG. 28 is a schematic illustration in side view of the supercharger assembly and an engine assembly of FIG. 1 operating in a braking with supercharger unlocked regeneration mode.
  • FIG. 29 is a schematic illustration in side view of the supercharger assembly and an engine assembly of FIG. 1 operating in a pumping regeneration mode.
  • FIG. 30 is a schematic illustration in side view of the supercharger assembly and an engine assembly of FIG. 1 operating in an engine regeneration mode.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Referring to the drawings, wherein like reference numbers refer to like components throughout the several views, FIG. 1 shows an engine assembly 10 that includes a supercharger assembly 11 with a supercharger 12 placed in series with a throttle valve, also referred to herein as a throttle 14, positioned in a throttle body 16 of an engine 13. The throttle body 16 is in the air flow to the engine 13 upstream of a plenum 18 in an air intake manifold 20. Although the supercharger 12 is shown upstream of the throttle 14 in air flow to the engine 13, the supercharger 12 could instead be downstream of the throttle 14 in air flow to the engine 13. That is, the throttle 14 could feed into an inlet 84 of the supercharger 12, and an outlet of the supercharger 12 could flow directly to the plenum 18. It should be appreciated that the supercharger 12 could also be used with an engine that does not have a throttle, such as a diesel engine.
  • The supercharger 12 can have a set of rotors 24 with a first rotor 26 that can mesh with a second rotor 28 (the second rotor 28 being visible in FIG. 3). Each of the rotors 26, 28 has multiple lobes. The supercharger 12 can boost the air pressure upstream of the plenum 18, forcing more air into engine cylinders, and thus increasing engine power to power a drive axle 21 through a transmission 22.
  • The supercharger 12 can be a fixed displacement supercharger, such as a Roots-type supercharger, that outputs a fixed volume of air per rotation. The increased air output then becomes pressurized when forced into the plenum 18. A Roots-type supercharger is a volumetric device, and therefore is not dependent on rotational speed in order to develop pressure. The volume of air delivered by the Roots-type supercharger per each rotation of the rotors 26, 28 is constant (i.e., does not vary with speed). A Roots-type supercharger can thus develop pressure at low engine and rotor speeds (where the supercharger is powered by the engine) because the Roots-type supercharger functions as a pump rather than as a compressor. Compression of the air delivered by the Roots-type supercharger 12 takes place downstream of the supercharger 12 by increasing the mass of air in the fixed volume engine plenum 18. Alternatively, the supercharger 12 can be a compressor, such as a centrifugal-type supercharger that compresses the air as it passes through the supercharger 12, but with the compression and thus the volume of air delivered to the throttle body 16 and air pressure in the plenum 18 being dependent on compressor speed.
  • The supercharger assembly 11 includes a planetary gearing arrangement 41 with a sun gear member 42, a ring gear member 44, and a carrier member 46 that rotatably supports a set of pinion gears 47 that can mesh with both the ring gear member 44 and the sun gear member 42. The sun gear member 42 is referred to as the third member, the ring gear member 44 is referred to as the first member, and the carrier member 46 is referred to as the second member of the planetary gear set 41. The planetary gear set 41 is a simple planetary gear set. In other embodiments, a compound planetary gear set can be used.
  • As shown in FIG. 3, the first rotor 26 rotates on a first shaft 30 and has multiple lobes that mesh via a set of intermeshing timing gears 34, 36 with multiple lobes of the second rotor 28. It should be understood that the rotors 26, 28 mesh in that their lobes interfit with one another when the rotors 26, 28 are rotating. However, the lobes of the rotors 26, 28 do not contact one another. The second rotor 28 rotates on a second shaft 32. The second shaft 32 is driven by the first shaft 30 through the set of intermeshing timing gears 34, 36. Specifically, a first gear 34 is mounted on the first shaft 30 to rotate with the first rotor 26. A second gear 36 is mounted on the second shaft 32 to rotate with the second rotor 28. The first gear 34 meshes with the second gear 36.
  • As shown in FIG. 1, the engine 13 has a crankshaft 48 that can be operatively connected with the carrier member 46 through a belt drive 49 when an electromagnetic clutch 55 is engaged to connect a pulley 57 mounted on the crankshaft 48 for rotation with the crankshaft 48. The pulley 57 and crankshaft 48 are thereby drivingly connected through a belt 63 with a pulley 59 mounted to a pulley shaft 61 to rotate with the pulley shaft 61. The pulley shaft 61 is connected to rotate with the carrier member 46 at the same speed as the carrier member 46.
  • The clutch 55 is a normally closed clutch, in a normally engaged state in which a clutch pack has a first set of plates 31 splined to the crankshaft 48 engaged with a second set of plates 33 splined to a clutch housing 35 that is rigidly connected for rotation with the pulley 57. A spring 37 biases an apply plate 38 toward the sets of plates 31, 33 to maintain the clutch 55 in an engaged state. A coil 39 is energized to create a magnetic force to move the plate 38 axially away from the clutch plates 31, 33, overcoming the biasing force of the spring 37, and thereby disengaging the clutch 55. The coil 39 is selectively energized by a control system that includes a system controller 65, such as an engine controller, operable to provide control signals to clutch 55. The controller 65 is also operatively connected to the motor controller 62, and to an electromagnetic brake, a bypass valve 70 and the throttle 14, as discussed herein. Any other type of clutch, including a normally open clutch, can be used in place of clutch 55.
  • An electric motor-generator/generator 50 can transfer torque to or receive torque from the ring gear member 44 through a gear train that includes a first gear member 53 that meshes with a second gear member 54. The motor-generator 50 has a rotatable motor shaft 52 with the first gear member 53 mounted on the motor shaft 52. The first gear member 53 can mesh with the second gear member 54, which can be a stepped gear member that meshes with the ring gear member 44. The sun gear member 42 rotates with a shaft 56 that is connected to the first shaft 30 through a semi-flexible coupling member 58 so that the sun gear member 42 rotates at the same speed as the first rotor 26 of the supercharger 12. The coupling member 58 flexes to absorb torsional and axial vibrations between the first shaft 30 and a shaft 56 connected with the sun gear member 42. Rotation of the first rotor 26 causes rotation of the second rotor 28 via the intermeshing gears 34, 36.
  • The electric motor-generator 50 has an integrated electronic motor controller 62 that controls operation of the motor-generator 50 to function as a motor or as a generator. When the motor-generator 50 functions as a motor, it receives stored electrical energy from an energy storage device 64 such as a battery through power cables 66. The controller 62 may include a power inverter to convert the electrical energy from direct current to alternating current when energy flows from the energy storage device 64 to the motor-generator 50, and from alternating current to direct current when energy flows from the motor-generator 50 to the energy storage device 64. The system controller 65 can be an engine controller, operatively connected to the motor controller 62 via CAN bus or similar architecture, and is also configured to control engagement of the clutch 55, engagement of a brake 68, discussed herein, the position of the throttle 14, and the position of a bypass valve 70.
  • The belt drive 49 may be referred to as a front engine accessory drive (FEAD). One or more vehicle accessories 78 can be driven by the engine crankshaft 48 via the belt 63 of the belt drive 49 when clutch 55 is engaged or by the motor-generator 50 when the clutch 55 is not engaged, brake 68 is engaged to stop the sun gear 42 and the engine 13 is off, such as during an engine start/stop mode discussed herein. The vehicle accessories 78, such as an engine coolant pump or an air conditioning compressor, are operatively connected to a shaft 79 that rotates with a pulley 76 driven by the belt 63.
  • The sun gear member 42 is connected for common rotation with the first rotor 26 by the shafts 56, 30 and through the coupling member 58. The brake 68 can be controlled by the system controller 65, to selectively ground the first shaft 30 to a stationary housing assembly 80 of the supercharger assembly 11. Specifically, the brake 68 is an electromagnetic brake packaged in a cavity 69 (shown in FIG. 4) of an inlet cover portion 82 of the housing assembly 80 so that the inlet cover portion 82 supports the brake 68. The brake 68 is selectively actuated to ground the first shaft 30 to the inlet cover portion 82, as further described with respect to FIG. 4.
  • Air flows across the supercharger assembly 11, between the rotors 26, 28, from an air inlet 84 of an air inlet passage 85 in the inlet cover portion 82, shown schematically in FIG. 1, through an air inlet opening 84A (shown in FIG. 21) of the rotor housing portion 90, to an air outlet 86 (best shown in FIG. 23) of an air outlet passage 88 partially defined by a rotor housing portion 90 of the housing assembly 80. The rotor housing portion 90 radially surrounds the rotors 26, 28 and the shafts 30, 32. Shaft 30 extends out of an axial end of the rotor housing portion 90 into the inlet cover portion 82. A portion 92 of a bypass passage 94 is defined by the inlet cover portion 82. The bypass passage 94 is also referred to as a bypass route. The bypass valve 70 is supported within the bypass passage 94 and substantially closes the bypass passage 94 when in the closed position shown in FIG. 1. The position of the bypass valve 70 is schematic, and is intended to represent a position in which air flow through the passage 94 is completely blocked by the valve 70. The bypass valve 70 can be controlled by the controller 65 to move to an open position 70A shown in phantom in FIG. 1. When the bypass valve 70 is in the open position 70A, air can flow from the air inlet portion 84 through the bypass passage 94 to the throttle body 16, bypassing the rotors 26, 28, such as when engine boost is not desired.
  • FIGS. 2 and 4 show a gear cover portion 95 mounted to the rotor housing portion 90 to surround and enclose the planetary gearing arrangement 41 and the gear members 53, 54. A motor housing portion 96 of the motor-generator 50 mounts to the gear cover portion 95. Both the gear cover portion 95 and the motor housing portion 96 are portions of the stationary housing assembly 80. The housing assembly 80 includes an inlet pipe 97 that attaches to the inlet cover portion 82 to extend the inlet passage 85. The housing assembly 80 also includes an outlet pipe 98 attached to an outlet housing 99 that mounts to the rotor housing portion 90 to extend the outlet passage 88. The outlet pipe 98 operatively connects to the throttle body 16 shown in FIG. 1 through an additional pipe extension (not shown) connected to the outlet pipe 98.
  • Movement of pistons within the engine cylinders creates a vacuum that pulls air through the plenum 18. When the throttle 14 is in the relatively closed position shown in FIG. 1, the vacuum created by the engine 13 creates a pressure differential in the form of a pressure drop across the throttle 14. When the throttle 14 is moved to a relatively open position 14A, the pressure drop across the throttle 14 is relieved. However, by controlling the motor-generator 50, the pressure differential can be transferred to the rotors 26, 28, creating a torque on the rotors 26, 28 that can be captured as electrical energy in the energy storage device 64.
  • That is, a pressure differential is created across the supercharger 12 from the air inlet 84 to the air outlet 86 upstream in air flow to the throttle 14 when the throttle 14 is in the relatively open position 14A. As described below, the throttle 14 and the bypass valve 70 can be selectively controlled in conjunction with the engine 13 to provide various operating modes, such as providing a desired intake air pressure to the engine cylinders, while allowing the supercharger 12 and the motor-generator 50 to be used to provide regenerative electrical energy to the energy storage device 64. The stored electric energy can be used to provide power to vehicle electrical systems and devices in place of an alternator and/or for providing torque at the crankshaft 48 when the motor-generator 50 is controlled to function as a motor.
  • The engine assembly 10 with the supercharger assembly 11 enables a variety of different operating modes that can be selected and commanded by the controller 65 based on vehicle operating conditions such as engine torque requirements, and the state of charge of the energy storage device 64. An engine-off operating mode may be used to provide torque at the shaft 61 to power the auxiliary vehicle components 78 when the engine 13 is off. As used herein, the engine 13 is off when fuel and/or ignition is not provided for combustion in the engine 13. In the engine-off operating mode, the controller 65 controls the motor-generator 50 to function as a motor, engages the brake 68 and causes the clutch 55 to be disengaged. Torque is transferred from the motor-generator 50 to the auxiliary components 78 through the planetary gear set 41.
  • If vehicle operating conditions indicate that the engine 13 should be started, the engine assembly 10 can be transitioned from the engine-off operating mode to an engine-start operating mode simply by engaging the clutch 55 while still controlling the motor-generator 50 to function as a motor and keeping the brake 68 engaged. Torque from the motor-generator 50 will thus be applied to the crankshaft 48 to start the engine 13. Once the engine 13 is started, the motor-generator 50 can freewheel, with the controller 65 neither directing electric energy from the energy storage device 64 to the motor-generator 50, nor directing electric energy from the motor-generator 50 to the energy storage device 64. The start/stop ability of the motor-generator 50 allows the engine 13 to be shut off rather than idle, such as at traffic lights, with an expected increase in fuel economy and reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Thus, fuel savings can be realized during the period that the engine 13 is shutoff, and restarting the engine 13 can be accomplished with the electric energy generated from recaptured energy stored in the battery.
  • Alternatively, once the engine 13 is started, the motor-generator 50 can function either as a motor or as a generator. With the engine 13 on, engine boost, brake regeneration and throttle loss regeneration modes described herein may be used. See FIGS. 25-30. An engine boost operating mode can be established by the controller 65 when additional torque is required at the drive axle 21, such as for vehicle acceleration. To establish the boost operating mode with the engine 13 on, the clutch 55 is engaged and the brake 68 is disengaged. The motor-generator 50 is controlled to function as a motor and the bypass valve 70 is in the closed position shown in FIG. 1. The engine 13 provides torque to drive the first shaft 30 through the belt drive system 49 and the carrier member 46. The motor-generator 50 provides torque to drive the first shaft 30 through the intermeshing gears 53, 54 to the ring gear member 44. The speed of the first shaft 30 is thus increased relative to the speed of shaft 61 using the motor-generator 50 to adjust the speed of ring gear member 44 and, through the planetary gearing arrangement 41, set the desired rotational speed of shafts 56 and 30, providing desired boost pressure.
  • The amount of boost pressure provided at the engine plenum 18 can thus be varied during the engine boost operating mode in response to varying torque demand. First, the controller 65 can vary the speed of the motor-generator 50 to control the amount of boost pressure developed in the plenum 18 during the engine boost operating mode. Alternately or in addition, the controller 65 can control the position of the bypass valve 70, such as by moving the bypass valve 70 from the closed position shown in FIG. 1 to the open position 70A. Air from the air inlet 84 can thus flow through the bypass passage 94, reducing the volume of air that will flow through the rotor housing 90 past the rotors 26, 28 and thereby reducing the pressure of air at the plenum 18 in comparison to pressure that develops when air flows through the rotors 26, 28. Operation of the bypass valve 70 by opening the bypass valve 70 to the fully open position 70A can allow a relatively quick adjustment in air pressure in the plenum 18 in comparison to a more gradual adjustment achieved by changing the speed of the motor-generator 50. A more modulated adjustment in boost pressure can be achieved by placing the bypass valve 70 in an intermediate position between the fully open position 70A and a fully closed position. Control of both the speed of the motor-generator 50 and the position of the bypass valve 70 allows a tailored engine boost in response to engine torque demand. Because the boost pressure provided in the plenum 18 by the supercharger 12 is independent of engine speed, a relatively constant torque can be obtained at the crankshaft 48 across the entire range of operating speeds of the engine 13. Alternately, the torque at the crankshaft 48 can be tailored as desired across the range of engine operating speeds.
  • In other vehicle operating modes, the engine assembly 10 and the supercharger assembly 11 provide regeneration of the energy storage device 64. In these examples, the controller 65 is used to select an appropriate operating mode based upon vehicle operating conditions. If regeneration is appropriate, an operating mode involving regeneration is selected.
  • For example, referring now to FIG. 25, an example method 300 for selecting an appropriate operating mode for regeneration is shown. In this example, the method 300 is implemented by the controller 65, which monitors operating conditions and selects the appropriate operating mode.
  • At operation 302, the controller 65 determines the current vehicle operating conditions. Factors such as vehicle speed, torque requirements, and state of charge of the energy storage device 64 are considered by the controller 65.
  • Next, at operation 304, the controller determines if regeneration is appropriate. If so, control is passed to operation 306, and the controller selects an appropriate operating mode for regeneration. If not, control is instead passed back to operation 302 for reevaluation of the vehicle operating conditions at a later point in time.
  • For example, if the controller 65 determines that the vehicle is accelerating rapidly and that boost is necessary, regeneration is not appropriate. So, the controller 65 would pass control back to operation 302 in that scenario. Conversely, if the vehicle is traveling at a constant rate of speed, such as on a highway, the controller 65 would pass control to operation 306 to select the appropriate mode for regeneration.
  • There are various regeneration operating modes that result in regeneration. Some of these regeneration operating modes are “nonperformance-impacting” in that the regeneration operating modes involve the recapture of energy that would otherwise be lost or otherwise does not appreciably impact the performance of the vehicle. See FIGS. 26-28. Some other regeneration operating modes are “performance-impacting” in that the regeneration operating modes involve the capture of energy that would otherwise be used for another purpose, such as propelling the automobile. See FIGS. 29-30. Each of the regeneration operating modes is described below.
  • Referring to FIG. 26, a “nonperformance-impacting” operating mode, referred to as a throttling loss regeneration mode 310, is shown. In this example, the throttle 14 is fully opened, and the pressure drop across the supercharger 12 provides torque for regeneration.
  • When the engine 13 is on and engine boost is not required, such as during vehicle cruising at a relatively steady vehicle speed, the controller 65 can slow the speed of the supercharger 12 and control the throttle 14 so that the throttling losses (i.e., the pressure drop associated with the vacuum created by the moving engine cylinders) can be applied across both the throttle 14 and the supercharger 12 with the bypass valve 70 closed. The position of the throttle 14 can be balanced with the pressure drop desired across the supercharger 12 and air flows through both the supercharger 12 and past the at least partially closed throttle 14 to reach the engine cylinders. The bypass valve 70 can also be controlled during this mode to allow air to bypass the supercharger 12 when a rapid change in air flow to the engine 13 is required. The torque generated by the pressure drop across the supercharger 12 will be applied to the sun gear member 42, and thus to the engine crankshaft 48 and also to the motor-generator 50 (when controlled to operate as a generator) via the torque split provided by the planetary gearing arrangement 41. All or a portion of the torque generated by the pressure drop across the supercharger 12 can be converted to electric energy stored in the energy storage device 64 by controlling the motor-generator 50 to function as a generator. The stored electric energy generated from the pressure drop-induced torque is referred to as being from “recaptured throttling losses.”
  • During an extended cruising period, when engine boost is not required, the throttling loss regeneration mode 310 can be maintained until the energy storage device 64 reaches a predetermined maximum state of charge. Then, the brake 68 can be applied, the bypass valve 70 opened to position 70A, and the motor-generator 50 controlled to function as a motor to apply torque to the engine crankshaft 48 until the energy storage device 64 reaches a predetermined minimum state of charge. This cycling of charging and depleting the energy storage device 64 can continue throughout the cruising period.
  • Referring to FIG. 27, another “nonperformance-impacting” operating mode, referred to as a braking with supercharger locked regeneration mode 320, is shown. In this example, the supercharger 12 is locked, and negative torque from the electric motor-generator 50 is supplied to support braking of the vehicle, which in turn provides torque for regeneration.
  • The supercharger assembly 11 can also be controlled to capture energy during vehicle braking in the braking with supercharger locked regeneration mode 320. When vehicle braking slows the drive axle 21, the controller 65 is configured to engage the brake 68 and control the electric motor-generator 50 to function as a generator with torque applied to the electric motor-generator 50 in a reverse direction that is the opposite of the direction of torque supplied by the electric motor-generator 50 when the electric motor-generator functions as a motor. Reverse torque is thus applied to the crankshaft 48 through the planetary gearing arrangement 41 and electric energy generated by the electric motor-generator 50 is stored in the energy storage device 64. In this manner, energy from the braking of the vehicle is recaptured.
  • Referring to FIG. 28, yet another “nonperformance-impacting” operating mode, referred to as a braking with supercharger unlocked regeneration mode 330, is shown. This is similar to the braking with supercharger locked regeneration mode 320 describe above, except the supercharger 12 remains unlocked. The throttle 14 and bypass valve 70 are controlled by the controller 65 during braking such that the pressure downstream of the supercharger 12 increases and cause the supercharger 12 to brake. The electric motor-generator 50 then applies negative torque to slow down the vehicle while regenerating energy to charge the energy storage device 64.
  • Referring to FIG. 29, a “performance-impacting” operating mode, referred to as a pumping regeneration mode 340, is shown. This is similar to the throttling loss regeneration mode 310 described above, except that the electric motor-generator 50 applies a negative torque that adds resistance to the intake of air into the engine 13. This results in the engine 13 consuming additional fuel (“performance-impacting”) to operate at a higher speed, with the torque generated by the supercharger 12 being applied to the electric motor-generator 50 to charge the energy storage device 64.
  • Finally, referring to FIG. 30, another “performance-impacting” operating mode, referred to as an engine regeneration mode 350, is shown. In this example, the supercharger 12 is stopped by the brake 68, and torque from the engine 13 is directed applied to the electric motor-generator 50 to regenerate the energy storage device 64. Fuel is consumed (“performance-impacting”) by the engine 13 to provide the torque to the electric motor-generator 50 to charge the energy storage device 64.
  • Referring again to FIG. 1, an oil slinger 100 is mounted to the pulley shaft 61 to rotate with the pulley shaft 61. FIG. 19 is a perspective view of the oil slinger 100 disconnected from the pulley shaft 61. The oil slinger 100 is an annular member with a first end 102 that has a first inner diameter 104 configured to fit to the outer surface of the pulley shaft 61. A second end 106 has a larger diameter so that the oil slinger 100 fans out from the pulley shaft 61 toward the second end 106. The oil slinger 100 is positioned on the pulley shaft 61 so that the second end 106 faces the planetary gearing arrangement 41, as best shown in FIG. 3. FIG. 19 shows that the oil slinger 100 is formed with a series of scooped portions 108 about a periphery of the oil slinger 100 generally midway between the ends 102, 106. Each of the scooped portions 108 has an opening 110, with each of the openings 110 facing the same direction of rotation. Each scooped portion 108 tapers in an axial direction between the larger end 106 and the smaller end 102. When the pulley shaft 61 rotates in a clockwise direction, the oil slinger 100 also rotates in a clockwise direction and oil mist within the gear cover portion 95 will enter through the openings 110 and be captured by the scooped portions 108. The oil mist will contact the inner surface 112 of the scooped portion 108. Rotation of the oil slinger 100 will cause the oil mist to travel toward the end 106 along an inner surface 114 of the oil slinger 100 and be propelled from the oil slinger 100 in the direction of arrow A. The oil will be strewn generally toward the planetary gear set 41 for lubrication of the planetary gear set 41.
  • FIG. 2 shows the supercharger assembly 11 with the various portions of the housing assembly 80 attached to one another. The inlet pipe 97 has openings that align with openings 113 of the inlet cover portion 82, shown in FIG. 18, so that fasteners 115 can be used to attach the inlet pipe 97 to the inlet cover portion 82 over the air inlet 84. As used herein, a fastener can be any suitable component used to attach two adjacent components, such as a bolt, a screw, or other suitable fastener.
  • FIG. 3 shows an extension portion 116 of the first shaft 30 that has a toothed end portion 118. A rotating member 120 with a flange 122 is splined to the toothed end portion 118 and is supported at the inlet cover portion 82 by a bearing 124 to be rotatable relative to the inlet cover portion 82. The extension portion 116, toothed end portion 118, rotating member 120 and flange 122 are within the cavity 69. An electromagnetic brake 68 is selectively actuatable by the controller 65 by wires (not shown) that extend through a wire access opening 126 shown in FIG. 18 to provide electric energy used to actuate a coil 128 within the brake 68 to hold the flange 122 stationary relative to the inlet cover portion 82 via electromagnetic attraction. The coil 128 is shown in FIG. 3 not in FIG. 18. A brake cover 130 is attached to the inlet cover portion 82 with fasteners 132 that extend through openings 134 in the inlet cover portion 82. As discussed with respect to FIG. 1, the inlet cover portion 82 also defines a portion 92 of the bypass passage 94. The portion 92 is in fluid communication with the inlet 84 and extends through the inlet cover portion 82. The portion 92 is shown over the brake cavity 69 and extending out of a bottom of the inlet cover portion 82 in FIG. 18. For illustrative purposes, portion 92 is shown only above the brake 68 in FIG. 1. Any suitable orientation of the portion 92 in the inlet cover portion 82 may be used. The bypass passage 94 is connected to the inlet cover portion 82 to be in communication with the portion 92 alternately bypass passage 94 may be attached upstream from inlet cover 82 and inlet pipe 97 via a plumbing tee or the like.
  • FIG. 2 shows a fastener 135 that is used to attach the inlet cover portion 82 to the rotor housing portion 90. Although only one fastener 135 is shown, multiple additional fasteners 135 can be placed at various positions around the interface of the rotor housing 90 and the inlet cover portion 82. FIG. 3 shows that when the inlet cover portion 82 is attached to the rotor housing portion 90, the first shaft 30 extends from the rotor housing portion 90 into the inlet cover portion 82.
  • FIG. 5 is a closer view of a portion of the supercharger assembly 11 that shows the planetary gearing arrangement 41 and its operative connection to the first shaft 30. Specifically, the coupling member 58 is positioned within an opening 140 of the motor housing portion 96. The coupling member 58 includes a first member 142 fit to the first shaft 30 and pinned to a flange 144 of the shaft 56 with circumferentially positioned pins 146. The coupling member 58 absorbs torsional vibrations that may be caused by pressure pulsation emanating from the supercharger assembly 11 on shaft 30 or engine pulsation from shaft 61. A seal 148 seals the first shaft 30 to the rotor housing 90 to prevent leakage of air from within the rotor housing 90.
  • FIGS. 6-8 show the gear cover portion 95 including a pattern of fastener openings 150 that match a pattern of fastener openings 152 on the motor cover portion 96, shown in FIG. 13. Fasteners 157 (two shown in FIG. 4) are used to attach the gear cover portion 95 to the motor housing portion 96 through the aligned openings 150, 152. Some of the fastener openings 150 are obscured in FIG. 6 by a mounting flange 154 of the gear cover portion 95. The mounting flange 154 has fastener openings 156 though which fasteners are placed to mount the gear cover portion 95, and thereby the entire supercharger assembly 11, to the engine 13 of FIG. 1.
  • The pulley 59 is shown with a hex screw 158 extending through an opening in the pulley 59 to mount the pulley 59 to the pulley shaft 61 (shown in FIG. 4). The pulley shaft 61 extends through an opening in the gear cover portion 95. A washer 161 is positioned between the hex screw 158 and the pulley shaft 61. Bearings 160A, 160B shown in FIG. 4 permit the pulley shaft 61 and pulley 59 to rotate relative to the gear cover portion 95. At least one passage 162 though the gear cover portion 95 directs lubricating fluid through the gear cover portion 95 to the bearings 160A, 160B. A seal 164 is positioned between the gear cover portion 95 and the pulley 59 at an opening in the gear cover portion 95 through which the shaft 61 extends. As best shown in FIG. 7, a wave disc spring 166A is positioned between the pulley 59 and the bearing 160A to stop the inner bearing race of bearing 160A from spinning relative to shaft 61 and manage stack-up tolerances. Another wave disc spring 166B is positioned between the bearing 160B and a ledge of the gear cover portion 95 to prevent the outer race of bearing 160B from spinning in gear cover housing 95. Disc springs 166C, 166D are also used between the gear cover portion 95 and motor gear 53 shaft and idler gear 54 shaft ends which ride on needle bearings 168A and 168B housed in recesses 169 of the gear cover portion 95. These disc springs provide wear surfaces and manage tolerance stack-up. Needle bearing 168A allows gear 53 to rotate relative to and extend through the motor housing portion 96. Gear 53 is splined to the motor shaft 52 (shown in FIG. 4). Needle bearings 168B and 188 allows the gear 54 to rotate relative to the gear housing portion 95 and motor housing portion 96.
  • FIG. 20 shows that the gear cover portion 95 has ribs 167A, 167B, 167C that strategically collect and direct oil within the gear cover portion 95. Ribs 167A and 167B generally form a V shape above the recesses 169 in which the needle bearings 168A, 168B are housed. Oil droplets within the gear cover portion 95 will collect on the ribs 167A, 167B and drain to the recesses 169 to lubricate the bearings 168A, 168B. Rib 167C forms a V shape that strategically directs oil in the gear cover portion 95 to the passage 162. Oil drains through the passage 162 to a space in the opening 151 between the bearings 160A, 160B to lubricate the bearings 160A, 160B.
  • FIGS. 9-12 show the outlet housing 99 with the outlet pipe 98 extending from the outlet housing 99. In this embodiment, the outlet pipe 98 and outlet housing 99 are welded together. In the embodiment of FIGS. 21-22, an outlet housing 99A and an outlet pipe 98A are a unitary, one-piece outlet component 101. The outlet housing 99 of FIG. 9 has a pattern of fastener openings 170 that matches a pattern of fastener openings 177 (see FIG. 23) at the rotor housing portion 90 around the air outlet 86. One fastener 172 is shown in FIG. 2 connecting the outlet housing 99 to the rotor housing 90. FIG. 9 shows a flange 173 with an opening 174 that can be used to mount the outlet housing 99 to the engine 13. An opening 103 of the outlet housing 99 is in fluid communication with the air outlet 86 of the rotor housing portion 90. The outlet 176 of the outlet pipe 98 feeds into the throttle body 16 of FIG. 1.
  • FIGS. 13-15 show the motor housing 96 with a mounting flange 180 with an opening 182 by which the motor housing 96 can be mounted to the engine 13 of FIG. 1. The mounting flange 180 extends in the same direction as the flange 154 of the gear cover portion 95. A seal 185 is positioned in an opening 186 of the motor housing 96 at which the motor shaft 52 is splined to the first gear member 53, as shown in FIG. 4. A needle bearing 188 is positioned in another opening 190 in the motor housing portion 96 at which the second gear member 54 is supported for rotation. The rotor housing 90 can be fastened to the motor housing portion 96 around the opening 140 with fasteners that extend through stepped openings 192. FIG. 14 shows that the motor housing portion 96 has openings 193 around a flange at which the motor controller housing 194 of FIG. 4 is mounted by fasteners extending through the openings 193. The motor cover portion 96 includes integral cooling fins 196 for cooling the motor-generator 50.
  • FIGS. 16-18 show the inlet cover portion 82 with the toothed end portion 118 of the extension 116 extending into the cavity 69. FIG. 17 shows a bearing 198 supporting the end portion 116 for rotation relative to the inlet cover portion 82. A snap ring 200 holds the bearing in a bore in the inlet cover portion 82. A wave disc spring 202 absorbs axial thrust forces between the bearing 198 and the inlet cover portion 82 keeping the outer race of bearing 198 from spinning in the bore. Stepped openings 204 extend through the inlet cover portion 82 to allow the inlet cover portion 82 to be mounted to the rotor housing portion 90 with fasteners (not shown).
  • FIGS. 21 and 22 show a unitary, one-piece outlet component 101 that includes an outlet housing 99A and an outlet pipe 98A. The outlet component 101 can be used in lieu of the outlet housing 99 and outlet pipe 98, as shown in the supercharger assembly 11A of FIG. 24, which is otherwise identical to supercharger assembly 11. An extension pipe 105 can be welded to the outlet pipe 98A to connect to the throttle body 16. The outlet housing 99A has an opening 103A that is generally shaped like a pentagon. The opening 103A has a tapered, V-shaped end, opposite a wider end. FIG. 23 shows that the air outlet 86 of the rotor housing portion 90 is also generally shaped like a pentagon and is generally the same shape as the opening 103A. The outlet pipe 98A extends from the outlet housing 99A at a 45 degree angle. The generally pentagon shape of the opening 103A as well as the angle at which the outlet pipe extends from the outlet housing 99A provide beneficial air flow characteristics. FIG. 24 shows the supercharger assembly 11A like the supercharger assembly 11 of FIG. 2 except with a housing assembly 80A that includes the outlet component 101 in place of the outlet housing 99 and the outlet pipe 98.
  • As is apparent in FIGS. 1 and 2, the housing assembly 80 is configured so that the electric motor-generator 50 and the rotor housing portion 90 are on an opposite side of the gear cover portion 95 than the pulley 59. Additionally, the air inlet passage 85 and inlet pipe 97 are adjacent to the electric motor-generator 50 and the air outlet passage 88 and outlet pipe 98 are on an opposite side of the rotor housing portion 90 than the electric motor-generator 50. The housing assembly 80A is arranged in a like manner. It should be appreciated that the throttle body 16 and throttle 14 may be positioned upstream of the inlet pipe 97 in air flow to the engine 13, in which case the supercharger 12 would pull air through the throttle 14 and would be operable to allow the same operating modes discussed herein.
  • The reference numbers used in the drawings and the specification along with the corresponding components are as follows:
      • 10 engine assembly
      • 11 supercharger assembly
      • 11A supercharger assembly
      • 12 supercharger
      • 13 engine
      • 14 throttle
      • 14A fully open position of throttle
      • 16 throttle body
      • 18 plenum
      • 20 intake manifold
      • 21 drive axle
      • 22 transmission
      • 24 set of rotors
      • 26 first rotor
      • 28 second rotor
      • 30 first shaft
      • 31 first set of plates
      • 32 second shaft
      • 33 second set of plates
      • 34 first gear
      • 35 clutch housing
      • 36 second gear
      • 37 spring
      • 38 apply plate
      • 39 coil
      • 41 planetary gearing arrangement
      • 42 sun gear member
      • 44 ring gear member
      • 46 carrier member
      • 47 pinion gears
      • 48 crankshaft
      • 49 belt drive
      • 50 electric motor-generator
      • 52 motor shaft
      • 53 first gear member
      • 54 second gear member
      • 55 clutch
      • 56 shaft
      • 57 pulley
      • 58 semi-flexible coupling member
      • 59 pulley
      • 61 pulley shaft
      • 62 motor controller
      • 63 belt
      • 64 energy storage device
      • 65 system controller
      • 66 power cables
      • 68 brake
      • 69 cavity
      • 70 bypass valve
      • 70A fully open position of bypass valve
      • 76 pulley
      • 79 shaft
      • 78 vehicle accessories
      • 80 stationary housing assembly
      • 80A stationary housing assembly
      • 82 inlet cover portion
      • 84 air inlet of inlet cover portion
      • 84A air inlet opening of rotor housing portion
      • 85 air inlet passage
      • 86 air outlet
      • 88 air outlet passage
      • 90 rotor housing portion
      • 92 portion of bypass passage
      • 94 bypass passage
      • 95 gear cover portion
      • 96 motor housing portion
      • 97 inlet pipe
      • 98 outlet pipe
      • 98A outlet pipe
      • 99 outlet housing
      • 99A outlet housing
      • 100 oil slinger
      • 101 outlet component
      • 102 first end of oil slinger
      • 103 opening of outlet housing 99
      • 103A opening of outlet housing 99A
      • 104 first inner diameter
      • 105 extension pipe
      • 106 second end of oil slinger
      • 108 scooped portion
      • 110 opening
      • 112 inner surface of scooped portions
      • 113 opening of inlet cover portion
      • 114 inner surface of oil slinger
      • 115 fastener
      • 116 extension portion of first shaft
      • 118 toothed end portion
      • 120 rotating member
      • 122 flange
      • 124 bearing
      • 126 wire access opening
      • 128 coil
      • 130 brake cover
      • 132 fastener
      • 134 opening
      • 135 fastener
      • 140 opening of motor housing portion
      • 142 first member of coupling
      • 144 flange of shaft 56
      • 146 pin
      • 148 seal on first shaft
      • 150 fastener openings on gear cover portion
      • 151 opening
      • 152 fastener opening in motor cover portion
      • 154 mounting flange
      • 156 fastener opening
      • 157 fasteners
      • 158 hex screw
      • 160A bearing
      • 160B bearing
      • 161 washer
      • 162 passage
      • 164 seal
      • 166A wave disc spring
      • 166B wave disc spring
      • 166C disc spring
      • 166D disc spring
      • 167A ribs
      • 167B ribs
      • 167C ribs
      • 168A needle bearing
      • 168B needle bearing
      • 169 recess
      • 170 fastener opening
      • 172 fastener
      • 173 flange
      • 174 opening
      • 176 outlet of outlet pipe
      • 177 fastener opening
      • 180 mounting flange
      • 182 opening
      • 185 seal
      • 186 opening
      • 188 needle bearing
      • 190 opening
      • 192 stepped opening
      • 193 opening
      • 194 motor controller housing
      • 196 cooling fins
      • 198 bearing
      • 200 snap ring
      • 202 wave disc spring
      • 204 stepped openings
      • 300 method for regeneration
      • 302 operation of the method
      • 304 operation of the method
      • 306 operation of the method
      • 310 throttling loss regeneration mode
      • 320 supercharger locked regeneration mode
      • 330 supercharger unlocked regeneration mode
      • 340 pumping regeneration mode
      • 350 engine regeneration mode
  • A direction of oil
  • While the best modes for carrying out the many aspects of the present teachings have been described in detail, those familiar with the art to which these teachings relate will recognize various alternative aspects for practicing the present teachings that are within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (20)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for selecting between modes of regeneration of an energy storage device of a vehicle, the method comprising:
determining operating conditions of the vehicle; and
when regeneration is appropriate based upon the operating conditions, regenerating the energy storage device, including selecting between a nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode and a performance-impacting regeneration mode.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein selecting the nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
opening a throttle to an engine of the vehicle;
allowing a pressure drop across a supercharger to spin the supercharger; and
applying torque from the supercharger to an electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
3. The method of claim 2, further comprising opening a bypass valve to allow fluid to bypass the supercharger when a rapid change in fluid flow to the engine is required.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein selecting the nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
locking a supercharger of the vehicle; and
applying negative torque from an electric motor-generator to an engine of the vehicle to support braking of the vehicle; and
allowing the negative torque applied to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein selecting the nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
controlling a throttle of an engine of the vehicle to increase pressure downstream of a supercharger to cause the supercharger to brake;
applying negative torque from an electric motor-generator to the engine of the vehicle to support braking of the vehicle; and
allowing the negative torque applied to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein selecting the performance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
opening a throttle to an engine of the vehicle;
allowing a pressure drop across a supercharger to spin the supercharger;
allowing the supercharger to apply a negative torque to the engine as the supercharger spins; and
applying a torque from the supercharger to an electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein selecting the performance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
stopping a supercharger; and
applying torque from an engine of the vehicle to an electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
8. A method for selecting between modes of regeneration of an energy storage device of a vehicle having a supercharger and an electric motor-generator, the method comprising:
boosting an internal combustion engine of the vehicle using the supercharger;
driving the vehicle using the electric motor-generator powered by the energy storage device; and
selecting between regeneration operating modes to regenerate the energy storage device.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein selecting between the regeneration operating modes further comprises:
determining operating conditions of the vehicle; and
when regeneration is appropriate based upon the operating conditions, regenerating the energy storage device, including selecting between a nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode and a performance-impacting regeneration mode.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein selecting the nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
opening a throttle to the engine of the vehicle;
allowing a pressure drop across the supercharger to spin the supercharger; and
applying torque from the supercharger to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising opening a bypass valve to allow for an increase in air flow when a rapid change in a speed of the engine is required.
12. The method of claim 9, wherein selecting the nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
locking the supercharger of the vehicle;
applying negative torque from the electric motor-generator to the engine of the vehicle to support braking of the vehicle; and
allowing the negative torque applied to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
13. The method of claim 9, wherein selecting the nonperformance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
controlling a throttle of the engine of the vehicle to increase pressure downstream of the supercharger to cause the supercharger to brake;
applying negative torque from the electric motor-generator to the engine of the vehicle to support braking of the vehicle; and
allowing the negative torque applied to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
14. The method of claim 9, wherein selecting the performance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
opening a throttle to the engine of the vehicle;
allowing a pressure drop across the supercharger to spin the supercharger; and
allowing the supercharger to apply a negative torque to the engine as the supercharger spins; and
applying a torque from the supercharger to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
15. The method of claim 9, wherein selecting the performance-impacting regeneration mode further comprises:
stopping the supercharger; and
applying torque from the engine of the vehicle to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
16. A method for regenerating an energy storage device of a vehicle using a supercharger, the method comprising:
determining operating conditions of the vehicle; and
when regeneration is appropriate based upon the operating conditions, regenerating the energy storage device using the supercharger.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein regenerating the energy storage device further comprises:
opening a throttle to an engine of the vehicle;
allowing a pressure drop across the supercharger to spin the supercharger; and
applying torque from the supercharger to an electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
18. The method of claim 17, further comprising opening a bypass valve to allow for an increase in air flow when a rapid change in a speed of the engine is required.
19. The method of claim 16, wherein regenerating the energy storage device further comprises:
locking the supercharger of the vehicle;
applying negative torque from an electric motor-generator to an engine of the vehicle to support braking of the vehicle; and
allowing the negative torque applied to the electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
20. The method of claim 16, wherein regenerating the energy storage device further comprises:
opening a throttle to an engine of the vehicle;
allowing a pressure drop across the supercharger to spin the supercharger; and
allowing the supercharger to apply a negative torque to the engine as the supercharger spins; and
applying a torque from the supercharger to an electric motor-generator to charge the energy storage device.
US14/388,527 2012-03-29 2013-03-13 Electric energy generation using variable speed hybrid electric supercharger assembly Abandoned US20150066272A1 (en)

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