US20040046148A1 - Composition for chemical mechanical planarization of copper, tantalum and tantalum nitride - Google Patents

Composition for chemical mechanical planarization of copper, tantalum and tantalum nitride Download PDF

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US20040046148A1
US20040046148A1 US10/446,887 US44688703A US2004046148A1 US 20040046148 A1 US20040046148 A1 US 20040046148A1 US 44688703 A US44688703 A US 44688703A US 2004046148 A1 US2004046148 A1 US 2004046148A1
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cu
ta
etching solution
planarization
approximately
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Fan Zhang
Dan Towery
Joseph Levert
Shyama Mukherjee
Yanpei Deng
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Zhang Fan
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Fan Zhang
Dan Towery
Joseph Levert
Shyama Mukherjee
Yanpei Deng
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Priority to US09/745,266 priority Critical patent/US6630433B2/en
Application filed by Fan Zhang, Dan Towery, Joseph Levert, Shyama Mukherjee, Yanpei Deng filed Critical Fan Zhang
Priority to US10/446,887 priority patent/US20040046148A1/en
Publication of US20040046148A1 publication Critical patent/US20040046148A1/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09GPOLISHING COMPOSITIONS OTHER THAN FRENCH POLISH; SKI WAXES
    • C09G1/00Polishing compositions
    • C09G1/02Polishing compositions containing abrasives or grinding agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23FNON-MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF METALLIC MATERIAL FROM SURFACE; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL; MULTI-STEP PROCESSES FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL INVOLVING AT LEAST ONE PROCESS PROVIDED FOR IN CLASS C23 AND AT LEAST ONE PROCESS COVERED BY SUBCLASS C21D OR C22F OR CLASS C25
    • C23F1/00Etching metallic material by chemical means
    • C23F1/10Etching compositions
    • C23F1/14Aqueous compositions
    • C23F1/16Acidic compositions
    • C23F1/18Acidic compositions for etching copper or alloys thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23FNON-MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF METALLIC MATERIAL FROM SURFACE; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL; MULTI-STEP PROCESSES FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL INVOLVING AT LEAST ONE PROCESS PROVIDED FOR IN CLASS C23 AND AT LEAST ONE PROCESS COVERED BY SUBCLASS C21D OR C22F OR CLASS C25
    • C23F3/00Brightening metals by chemical means
    • C23F3/04Heavy metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23FNON-MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF METALLIC MATERIAL FROM SURFACE; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL; MULTI-STEP PROCESSES FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL INVOLVING AT LEAST ONE PROCESS PROVIDED FOR IN CLASS C23 AND AT LEAST ONE PROCESS COVERED BY SUBCLASS C21D OR C22F OR CLASS C25
    • C23F3/00Brightening metals by chemical means
    • C23F3/04Heavy metals
    • C23F3/06Heavy metals with acidic solutions
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/3205Deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; After-treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/321After treatment
    • H01L21/32115Planarisation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/3205Deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; After-treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/321After treatment
    • H01L21/32115Planarisation
    • H01L21/3212Planarisation by chemical mechanical polishing [CMP]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/3205Deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; After-treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/321After treatment
    • H01L21/3213Physical or chemical etching of the layers, e.g. to produce a patterned layer from a pre-deposited extensive layer
    • H01L21/32133Physical or chemical etching of the layers, e.g. to produce a patterned layer from a pre-deposited extensive layer by chemical means only
    • H01L21/32134Physical or chemical etching of the layers, e.g. to produce a patterned layer from a pre-deposited extensive layer by chemical means only by liquid etching only

Abstract

Chemical mechanical planarization or spin etch planarization of surfaces of copper, tantalum and tantalum nitride is accomplished by means of the chemical formulations of the present invention. The chemical formulations may optionally include abrasive particles and which may be chemically reactive or inert. Contact or non-contact CMP may be performed with the present chemical formulations. Substantially 1:1 removal rate selectivity for Cu and Ta/TaN is achieved.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present application is filed pursuant to 37 C.F.R. § 1.53(b) as a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/357,264, filed Jul. 19, 1999, and claims priority therefrom as to subject matter commonly disclosed pursuant to 35 U.S.C § 120 and 37 C.F.R. § 1.78.[0001]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Technical Field [0002]
  • This invention relates to chemical mechanical processes for the planarization of surfaces, and to chemical compositions especially suited thereto. More particularly, this invention relates to composition for the chemical mechanical planarization of conductive, barrier and dielectric surfaces as typically encountered in the fabrication of integrated circuits, including compositions specifically formulated for CMP and non-contact chemical planarization of Cu/Ta/TaN are [0003]
  • 2. Description of Related Art [0004]
  • Fabrication of integrated circuits (“ICs”) to improve performance and reduce costs involves complex analysis of materials properties, processing technology and IC design. IC's consist of multiple layers of conducting, insulating and semiconductor materials, interconnected in various ways by conducting metallic channels and plugs (“vias”), including various dopants implanted into various materials for producing the electronic functionality desired of the IC. The near-universal trend in the manufacture of integrated circuits is to increase the density of components fabricated onto a given area of wafer, increase the performance and reliability of the ICs, and to manufacture the ICs at lower cost with less waste and fewer defective products generated by the manufacturing process. These goals lead to more stringent geometric and dimensional requirements in the manufacturing process. In particular, etching precise patterns into a layer is facilitated by the layer having a surface as nearly planar as feasible at the start of the patterning process. For the common case of patterning by means of photolithography, a planar surface permits more precise location and dimensioning for focusing the incident radiation onto the surface to be etched than would be possible with a surface having deviations from planarity. Similar conclusions typically apply for electron beam or other means of etching. That is, deviations from planarity of the surface to be etched reduce the ability of the surface to support precisely positioned and precisely dimensioned etches. In the following description of the present invention we focus on the typical etching, planarization and photolithography processes as practiced in the manufacture of ICs. However, this is by way of illustration and not limitation, as those skilled in the art of etching will appreciate that the techniques of the present invention for producing planar surfaces will have applicability in increasing the precision of etching by means other than photolithography. In addition, the present invention is not limited to the field of IC manufacture and may find applicability in other areas of technology requiring planar surfaces. [0005]
  • Chemical Mechanical Planarization (“CMP”) has been successfully integrated into integrated circuit multilayer manufacturing processes to achieve highly planar surfaces as described in text books (for example, “Microchip Fabrication” by Peter Van Zant, 3rd Ed., 1997 and “Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials” by J. H. Steigerwald, S. P. Murarka and R. J. Gutman, 1997) and generally known in the art. We note that “CMP” is also used in the art to denote “Chemical Mechanical Polishing” as well as “Chemical Mechanical Planarization”. We use CMP herein synonymously in either sense without distinction. [0006]
  • A typical CMP process is depicted schematically in FIG. 1. During a CMP process, the wafer, [0007] 1, is typically held inside a rotating carrier and pressed onto a rotating pad, 2, under pressure, 6, while an abrasive slurry, 5, (typically containing particles of abrasive such as SiO2, Al2O3, and the like) flows between the wafer and the pad. The slurry, 5, will typically contain reagents for chemically etching the wafer, 1, leading to chemical as well as mechanical removal of material. Thus, in the typical practice of CMP, material removal is effected by a combination of chemical attack and mechanical abrasion.
  • Typically, the wafer, [0008] 1, will be caused to rotate as depicted by 3 in FIG. 1, while the polishing pad will itself rotate (4 in FIG. 1). FIG. 1 depicts the polishing pad and wafer rotating in the same direction (for example, clockwise when viewed from above as in FIG. 1). However, this is merely for purposes of illustration and counter-rotation of wafer and polishing pad is also practiced. In addition to the rotation of the wafer depicted by 3 in FIG. 1, the wafer, 1, may be caused to oscillate in the plane of the surface being polished, substantially perpendicular to the direction of the applied force, 6 (This oscillatory motion is not depicted in FIG. 1).
  • Recent work has indicated the ability to planarize surfaces by purely chemical means, without the need for a polishing pad or mechanical contact with the surface undergoing planarization (Ser. No. 09/356,487, incorporated herein by reference). As described in the referenced application, appropriate etchant chemicals are applied to a spinning wafer under conditions and in such a fashion as to planarize the wafer surface. The techniques described in Ser. No. 09/356,487 are collectively denoted as “spin etch planarization” or SHP. Chemical compositions presented in the present application may be employed in SHP processes for the planarization of Cu/Ta/TaN surfaces as well as in more conventional CMP [0009]
  • Increasing the speed and performance of ICs typically calls for increasing the density of components on the wafer and increasing the speed at which the IC performs its desired functions. Increasing component density typically requires decreasing the size of conducting channels and vias (or plugs). It is well known that decreasing the cross-section of a current-carrying conductor increases the electrical resistance of the conductor for the same material. Thus, decreasing component size on ICs increases electrical resistance, degrading performance and perhaps leading to unacceptable heating. This is one reason IC developers have been looking for conducting materials for use in IC fabrication having lower electrical resistance. Present IC technology typically makes use of tungsten (chemical symbol W) and aluminum (Al) as conductors. Both have adequate electrical conductivities in present devices, but future generations of IC devices will preferably make use of yet higher conductivity materials. Copper (Cu) is among the leading candidates. [0010]
  • Increasing the density of IC components on the wafer also increases the capacitance of the circuits. That is, bringing charge carrying circuit elements closer together increases the capacitive coupling between such circuit elements. Higher capacitance is detrimental to circuit performance, especially for higher frequency operation as would typically be encountered in telecommunication applications and elsewhere. However, capacitive coupling between proximate circuit elements can be reduced by reducing the dielectric constant of the insulator or insulating material separating the coupled circuit elements. Thus, in addition to seeking conductors with higher conductivities, insulators with lower dielectric constant (“low k”) are also being sought for use as insulating layers in ICs. [0011]
  • Current multi-layer IC fabrication typically makes use of tungsten (W) CMP processes at each successive circuit level. Typically, blanket films of W, Titanium (Ti) and Titanium Nitride (TiN) are deposited. The films are then typically polished, thereby removing material resulting in (for example) W vias or “plugs” which are inlaid, typically in an SiO[0012] 2 dielectric layer. The W plugs act as electrically conducting paths between the metal lines of adjacent layers of the IC. Typically, the metal lines connected by W vias will consists of alloys of Al and Cu in present ICs. In typical present IC designs, Ti and TiN layers are used as barrier layers (to hinder unwanted diffusive intermixing of components during fabrication) and adhesion layers (to promote good bonding between otherwise poorly bound layers and avoid delamination). Such barrier and adhesion layers must also be removed during W CMP to reveal the inlaid W plugs. Desirable CMP for such ICs should remove the various layers equally and, thus, planarize in one CMP step. Commercially available W slurries can achieve almost the ideal 1:1 removal rate selectivity between W and Ti/TiN layers. This results in a very flat surface of the device wafers after W CMP. Thus, if other combinations of conductor and insulators are to be used in IC fabrication, adequate chemical reagents for CMP must be employed and adequate planarization processes must be used. Such are among the objects of the present invention.
  • The use of W vias, Al—Cu lines, and SiO[0013] 2 dielectric layers, although quite successful in present ICs, has inherent drawbacks that hinder attaining the circuit performance desired in future devices. The Al—Cu alloys and W vias are conductive, but less so than Cu. The SiO2 dielectric layers (although good electrical insulators) have a relatively high dielectric constant, leading to deleterious capacitive effects. (“High k” typically denotes dielectric constants in the range of approximately 3 to 9.) The combination of relatively high resistivity metals and relatively high dielectric constant insulators reduces circuit speed and reliability, particularly as the device geometry is reduced in future ICs below approximately 0.25 μm, (that is 0.25 microns).
  • Metallic copper (Cu) has a lower resistivity than W or Al—Cu alloys. Therefore, Cu is becoming a popular choice for the interconnect metal to be used in future generation ICs. It is further envisioned that low k dielectric materials (that is, materials with dielectric constants, k, less than about 3.0) will be used in conjunction with Cu metallization to reduce capacitive effects. However, both of these choices bring accompanying challenges in the fabrication of high performance, low cost, reliable ICs. Low k dielectrics are often mechanically weak relative to conventional dielectrics and tend to delaminate under the stress of CMP, especially if the applied pressure, [0014] 6, in FIG. 1 must be rather large in order to achieve adequate material removal rates. An adequate rate of material removal is required in order to achieve planarization in an acceptable period of time. Addressing these challenges, the focus of the present invention is on the use of copper, on barrier layers to avoid harmful diffusion of Cu, and slurry compositions for effective Cu CMP (or SHP) in the presence of effective barrier and adhesion layers. Typical barrier layers in copper damascene or dual damascene fabrication processes include Ta and TaN.
  • In order to increase performance and reduce manufacturing costs, it is envisioned that Cu metal will most likely be used in future ICs in fabricating the metallic conducting channels within a layer and in the vias which connect adjacent layers. This will likely be accomplished using a “metal damascene” or “dual damascene” manufacturing approach. Damascene processing typically proceeds by depositing a blanket layer of metal on top of a patterned insulating or dielectric layer, thereby filling channels and vias in the patterned insulating layer. When necessary, the metal deposition is preceded by the deposit of a barrier or adhesion layer between the metal and the dielectric. Since trench and vial filling is not typically uniform, the metal is deposited to fill the features and covers the field regions between features as well. This blanket metal overlayer is then typically removed by CMP or etching revealing the inlaid metal channels and vias with a surface ideally coplanar with the field regions of the surrounding dielectric. The barrier layer on the field region is also typically removed in the planarization step. Dual damascene is a two-step damascene process, typically forming more than one layer of features in the dielectric before barrier layer and metal is deposited. [0015]
  • It is envisioned that the metal of choice for the next generations of ICs will be copper. Therefore, to be concrete in our description, we will describe the practice of the present invention in connection with copper damascene or dual damascene processing including the use of Ta/TaN barrier layers. However, the present invention is not inherently so limited and other embodiments will be obvious to those having ordinary skills in the art. [0016]
  • Copper has the advantage of higher conductivity, but suffers from several complications which heretofore have delayed its adoption in ICs. Among copper's disadvantages is the fact that it is a very diffusive contaminant. That is, copper diffuses widely and easily through other materials typically used in the fabrication of ICs, seriously degrading electronic performance by doing so. It is among the objects of the present invention to address, eliminate or ameliorate some of these attendant drawbacks in the use of Cu metallization in the fabrication of ICs. [0017]
  • In addition to its high rate of diffusion, reaction products of copper with typical etching reagents have often resulted in non-volatile (or insoluble) reaction products. Thus, etching of Cu with convention CMP slurries has been difficult. Identification of a group of effective copper etching reagents having volatile or soluble reaction products (while maintaining adequate removal rate and selectivity) is among the objectives of the present invention. [0018]
  • Tantalum (Ta) and Tantalum Nitride (TaN) have been identified as promising barrier layer, or “liner metals”, that will prevent harmful Cu diffusion. Because CMP is presently the most effective and well understood planarization technique, it is the natural method with which to undertake the planarization of Cu, Ta or TaN. Such Cu/Ta/TaN CMP requires slurries with high. Cu and Ta/TaN removal rates and close to a 1:1 removal selectivity between Cu and the liner metals. However, Ta and TaN are mechanically hard and they do not react readily with most etching chemicals. For these reasons, CMP slurries having appropriate chemical formulations to obtain 1:1 selectivity between Cu and the liner metals have been difficult to achieve. Hence, at present there is no slurry commercially available for Cu CMP. [0019]
  • Typical experimental Cu slurries are composed of H[0020] 2O2, various oxidizers, alumina and/or silica abrasive, and other chemical components, typically in acidic (low pH) solutions. (Tytgat et. aL. U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,981,553; 5,098,571). These formulations typically give good Cu removal rate, but often achieve very low Ta/TaN removal rates, even when high polishing pressures are employed. Currently there are two common experimental approaches being employed for Cu CMP, both of which suffer from disadvantages. In one approach (Brusic, “A Cautious Approach to the Removal of Ta in the CMP Polishing of Cu/Ta Structures, 193rd Electrochemical Society Meeting, May 1998) Cu CMP is conducted by using a two-step polishing process to remove Cu and Ta/TaN. The Cu and Ta/TaN layers are removed separately in sequence using two distinct slurries. This two step approach significantly complicates the fabrication processes and increases the cost of the CMP process applied to Cu. A single-step Cu CMP would be preferable, but it would require a slurry with 1:1 selectivity for Cu and Ta/TaN. One possible way to increase the removal rate of Ta/TaN layers is to dramatically increase the polishing downforce. However, a higher polishing downforce is contraindicated since it could damage the underlying low k materials, which are often mechanically weak and subject to delamination. Achieving a slurry with the required near 1:1 selectivity without the application of large polishing downforce is among the objects of the present invention.
  • Slurry formulations that react chemically with inert liner metals to achieve adequate removal rates and selectivity would be an improvement in Cu CMP. A single-step Cu CMP employing a slurry that provide 1:1 selectivity and high material removal rates at low polishing pressures, is highly desirable. However, a two-step CMP slurry that did not require high polishing pressures, though less desirable than the single-step slurry, would still be an improvement in the present art. [0021]
  • The present invention is described for the specific example of CMP slurries for Cu/Ta/TaN on IC wafers as this specific case is expected to be a primary area of applicability of the present invention. However, the compositions and processes of the present invention are not inherently limited to these particular instances. The present invention could be useful for processing many different types of metallic, dielectric, or organic layers, or mixtures and/or composites thereof, on numerous types substrate for numerous technical applications, as would be known to those skilled in the art. In addition, etchant formulations that may be used in connection with non-contact CMP (or SHP) are described. [0022]
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Chemical mechanical planarization of surfaces of copper, tantalum and tantalum nitride is accomplished by means of the chemical formulations of the present invention. The chemical formulations may optionally include abrasive particles and which may be chemically reactive or inert. Contact or non-contact CMP may be performed with the present chemical formulations. Substantially 1:1 removal rate selectivity for Cu and Ta/TaN is achieved. In addition to 1:1 removal rate selectivity, the present invention provides adequate material removal rates without excessive downforce being necessary on (often delicate) low dielectric components. Etchant formulations of the present invention are also applicable for use with spin etch planarization. [0023]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1: Schematic depiction of Chemical Mechanical Planarization (“CMP”). [0024]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • In the following description and figures, similar reference numbers are used to identify similar elements. For economy of language we use “CMP” to denote both chemical mechanical planarization in which a polishing pad is used (“contact CMP”) as well as non-contact CMP in which no polishing pad is used. SHP is included within this usage of CMP as a type of non-contact CMP. [0025]
  • The Cu/Ta/TaN CMP slurries, or “etchants”, described herein are improved formulations of chemicals typically used for CMP including abrasive slurries, metal etchants and cleaners, chemical polishes, brighteners, and pickling solutions, etc. Conventional (contact) CMP typically includes abrasive particles in the etchant formulation, abrasives are typically not present in non-contact CMP. Etchants with and without abrasive particles are within the scope of the present invention. The chemical compositions of the etchant include chemical mixtures, typically comprised of one or more of the following constituents: [0026]
    TABLE A
    Abrasive Particles
    Mineral Acids
    Organic Acids
    Strong Bases
    Mineral Salts
    Organic Salts
    pH buffers
    Oxidizing Agents
    Organic and Inorganic Peroxides
    Corrosion Inhibitors
    Chelating Agents
    Surface Modifying Agents
    Liquid polymers
    Surfactants
    Solution Stabilizers
    Solvents (including water)
  • In general, CMP use of the etchants described herein requires a method of introducing the etchant onto the wafer surface and preferably a method for transporting the etchant across the wafer surface. The polishing pad and process depicted in FIG. 1 is the typical mechanism used in contact CMP. However, the CMP chemical formulations of the present invention need not include abrasives in the etchant mixture and do not necessarily require mechanical contact between the wafer surface and another surface or body, such as a polishing pad. Thus, the etchants of the present invention may be used to good effect in both contact and non-contact CMP, but require different transport mechanisms (such as SHP) than the polishing pad depicted in FIG. 1. [0027]
  • In addition to adjusting the type and concentration of etchant constituents, heating the etchant solution may be used to control the removal and rate of removal of material from the surface of the wafer. Temperature control of the reaction may be achieved by introducing the etchant onto the wafer preheated to the desired temperature, by heating the polishing pad other body and/or by maintaining the polishing at a constant temperature. [0028]
  • Improved CMP is achieved by means of etching solutions as described below. Abrasive particles are optionally included and may optionally react with the surface of the wafer being etched as well as provide mechanical removal of wafer material. Many suitable abrasive materials could be used, including conventional abrasives (SiO[0029] 2, Al2O3 and the like), and various nonconventional abrasives that are comprised of metals, solid elemental particles (for example carbon), polymer particles, oxides, carbides, fluorides, carbonates, borides, nitrides, or hydroxides of several metals, including, but not limited to, Al, Ag, Au, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, Ge, La, In, Hf, Mn, Mg, Ni, Nd, Pb, Pt, P, Sb, Sc, Sn, Tb, Ti, Ta, Th, Y, W, Zn, Zr, or mixtures thereof. These particles may be coated with a thin layer of another material, including but not limited to those described above. The potential advantages of the use of coated particles are expected to include decreasing cost by coating a less dense, inactive and inexpensive particle, such as SiO2, with a chemically active, and often more dense and expensive active material such as CeO2. The effective density of such particles will be less than solid particles comprising all chemically reactive material, and thus more stable in terms of particle settling according to Stokes Law which predicts a larger settling velocity for particles having a higher density. Similarly for a given wt % of solids, slurries comprised of coated abrasive particles (typically less dense) will have a greater number of particles in a given volume of fluid and thereby present a greater abrasive surface area in contact with the wafer surface.
  • It is envisioned in the practice of the present invention that many of the particle systems described herein will be produced by means of the “sol” method. This typically involves growing the particles to their final size in solution. By growing the particles entirely in solution and remaining in solution for use (that is, never dried) there is no sintering or “necking” of the particles that will result in large agglomerate, which may be damaging to the sensitive IC layers, or underlying structures. Having avoided agglomeration, these particles are introduced into solvent systems very readily and at lower cost than conventional abrasives that typically must undergo additional and expensive particle size reduction and powder dispersion processing. The practice of the present invention makes use of several particle size distributions. A bi-modal particle size distribution, or a multi-modal particle size distribution, or a broad Gaussian particle size distribution, may all be employed in the practice of the present invention with typical particle sizes in the range 4 nm to 5 μm. It is envisioned in the practice of the present invention that particle sizes greater than approximately 5 μm will not give satisfactory results, particularly in terms of increasing removal rates and reducing defects and scratches. [0030]
  • We note elsewhere herein typical components of the etching reagents useful in the practice of the present invention. Practical industrial applications may also require the reagent mixture to contain other additives to inhibit premature reaction, stabilize the mixture, increase shelf life of the reagent mixture, reduce volatility, inhibit toxicity, inhibit photodegradation, and the like. Such additives are known to those skilled in the art and art not otherwise specified in detail herein. [0031]
  • Tables 1-13 following are examples of reagent mixtures usefully employed in the practice of the present invention for planarizing copper surfaces or other surfaces as indicated on the Tables. [0032]
    TABLE 1
    AQUEOUS PEROXIDE - PHOSPHORIC ACID REAGENT
    SOLUTIONS FOR PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer Co-Reactant Other Additives
    a) H2O2 H3PO4 HCl, aliphatic alcohols
    b) H2O2 H3PO4 HCl,
    Agidol (butylated
    hydroxytoluene)
    c) H2O2 H3PO4 HCl, Agidol-2,
    d) H2O2 H3PO4 HCl, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-
    4[(dimethylamino)
    methyl]phenol
    e) H2O2 H3PO4 HCl; H3PO4,
    (HPO4)2−, PO4 3−
    f) H2O2 H3PO4 HCl, 2,6-di-tert-
    −4N,N-dimethyl
    aminomethyiphenol
    g) H2O2 H3PO4 borax
    h) H2O2 H3PO4 various additives
  • [0033]
    TABLE 2
    AQUEOUS PEROXIDE - SULFURIC ACID REAGENT
    SOLUTIONS FOR PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer Co-Reactant Other Additives
    a) H2O2 H2SO4/H3PO4 Ethylene glycol,
    ZnSO4
    b) H2O2 H2SO4 MeOH, Poly(oxy
    ethylene)lauryl ether,
    Malic acid
    c) H2O2 H2SO4 HOOC(CX2)nCOOH
    with X═OH, amine, H
    n = 1 − 4
    d) H2O2 H2SO4 3% tartaric acid
    1% ethylene glycol
    c) H2O2 H2SO4 1,2,4-triazole,
    1,2,3-triazole,
    tetrazole,
    nonionic surfactant
    f) H2O2 H2SO4 C2H5OH, aliphatic
    alcohols,
    nonionic surfactant
    g) H2O2 H2SO4 Triflouroethanol,
    Laprol 602 ® surfactant,
    aliphatic alcohols
    h) H2O2 H2SO4 aliphatic alcohols
    i) H2O2 H2SO4 SiF6, Organic salt
    surfactant
    j) H2O2 H2SO4 various additives
  • [0034]
    TABLE 3
    AQUEOUS PEROXIDE MINERAL ACID REAGENT SOLUTIONS
    FOR PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer Co-Reactant Other Additives
    a) H2O2 HNO3 alcohols,
    HOOC(CX2)nCOOH
    X═OH, amines, H
    n = 1 − 4
    b) H2O2 HNO3 various additives
  • [0035]
    TABLE 4
    AQUEOUS NITRIC ACID REAGENT SOLUTIONS FOR
    PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer Co-Reactant Other Additives
    a) H2O2/HNO3 H3PO4 methanol
    b) H2O2/HNO3 Triflouroethanol,
    Laprol 602 ®
    Surfactant, aliphatic
    alcohols
    c) HNO3 H3PO4 PVA
    d) HNO3 H2SO4 diphenylsulfamic acid,
    aliphatic alcohols
    e) HNO3 H2SO4 HCl
    f) HNO3 H2SO4 various additives
    g) HNO3 BTA (benzotriazole)
  • [0036]
    TABLE 5
    AQUEOUS PEROXIDE ORGANIC ACID REAGENT SOLUTIONS
    FOR PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer Co-Reactant Other Additives
    a) H2O2 Oxalic acid Sodium oxalate,
    Benzotriazole,
    Sodium Lignosulfonate
    b) H2O2 other organic various additives
    acids
  • [0037]
    TABLE 6
    AQUEOUS DILUTE MINERAL ACID REAGENT SOLUTIONS
    FOR PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Acid Other Additives
    a) H3PO4 various additives
  • [0038]
    TABLE 7
    AQUEOUS CONCENTRATED ACID REAGENT SOLUTIONS FOR
    PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer Acids Other Additives
    a) H3PO4/Acetic/ H2SO4
    b) H3PO4/Acetic/HNO3
    c) H3PO4/Acetic/HNO3/H2SO4 Glycol, Gelatine
    Carboxymethyl-
    cellulous, amines,
    surfactants, heavy
    metal salts including
    Cu and Ta.
    d) H2O2 H3PO4/Acetic/H2SO4 Glycol, Gelatine
    Carboxymethyl-
    cellulous, amines,
    surfactants, heavy
    metal salts including
    Cu and Ta.
    e) H2O2 H3PO4/H2SO4 100 ml propylene
    glycol, 100 ml 2-ethyl-
    hexylamine, 25 ppm
    Cl.
    f) H3PO4/Acetic/HNO3 nonionic surfactant
    g) H2O2 H3PO4/Acetic/HNO3/H2SO4 various additives
    h) H3PO4/HNO3
  • [0039]
    TABLE 8
    AQUEOUS DILUTE ACID - METAL SALT REAGENT
    SOLUTIONS FOR PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer Acid Metal Salt Other Additives
    a) HCl CuCl
    b) HCl CuCl KCl
    c) HCl FeCl various additives
    d) H2O2 H2SO4 CuCl n-propanol
    e) HCl CuCl various additives
    f) H2O2 H2SO4 CuCl various additives
    g) HCl FeCl3 glycerol
    h) HNO3 HCl FeCl3
    i) HCl FeCl3
    j) HCl FeCl3 various additives
    k) HCl FeCl3 CuCl2, SnCl2
    l) HCl FeCl3 ethanol
  • [0040]
    TABLE 9
    AQUEOUS OXIDIZER - SALT REAGENT SOLUTIONS FOR
    PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Oxidizer 2nd Oxidizer Base Salt Other Additives
    a) NaClO3 NH4F CuSO4 Na EDTA salt of
    wetting agent
    b) FeNO3 various additives
    c) (NT4)2S2O8 various additives
    d) CuNH4Cl3 NH4OH various additives
    e) Na2S2O3 K2S2O5 various additives
  • [0041]
    TABLE 10
    AQUEOUS BASE REAGENT SOLUTIONS FOR
    PLANARIZATION OF COPPER
    Base Oxidizer Other Additives
    a) NH4OH/KOH H2O2 various additives
    b) NH4OH H2O2 various additives
    c) NH4OH (NH4)2S2O8 various additives
    d) NH4OH Cu(NO3)2
  • [0042]
    TABLE 11
    AQEUOUS ACID REAGENT SOLUTIONS FOR
    PLANARIZATION OF TANTALUM AND COPPER
    Oxidizer Acid Other Additives
    a) HNO3 HF various additives
    b) H2O2 HF various additives
    c) HNO3 HF lactic acid, various additives
    d) H2O2 HF H2SO4
  • [0043]
    TABLE 12
    AQUEOUS BASE REAGENT SOLUTIONS FOR
    PLANARIZATION OF TANTALUM AND COPPER
    Base Acid Other Additives
    a) NaOH
    b) NaOH H2O2
    c) KOH H2O2
    d) NH4OH H2O2
  • Remove oxide film after CMP with rinse of dilute acetic acid, dilute nitric acid, aqueous solution or other solutions. [0044]
    TABLE 13
    MISCELLANEOUS REAGENTS FOR PLANARIZATIONS
    OF COPPER
    a) EDTA, NH4OH, H2O2, in aqueous solution
    b) Citric acid, Erythotbic acid, Triethanolamine, in aqueous solution
    c) Trisodium citrate, Triethanolamine, Sodium nitrate, in aqueous solution
    d) H2SO4, H2O2, Sodium molybdate, Phenosulfonic acid, in aqueous
    solution
    e) Mineral acid (sulfuric, HCl or the like), molybdenum salt
  • In addition to the additives shown in Tables 1-13 above, other additives include but are not limited to the following: [0045]
  • borax, zinc sulfate, copper carbonate, alcohol (including low molecular weight alcohols, glycols, phenols, aliphatic alcohols, polyvinylalcohols and the like), surfactants (including anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants and others preferentially adhering to certain materials, modifying thereby the chemical reactivity of certain sites), solution stabilizers (including polyvinyl alcohols and other agents inhibiting spontaneous decomposition of oxidizing agents), wetting agents. [0046]
  • For example, one specific formulation uses highly concentrated H[0047] 2O2 in a strong base, such as KOH, plus chemical-active abrasive particles such as CeO2 or SnO2, in conjunction with other chemical components. According to Tytgat (U.S. Pat. No. 4,981,553), the chemical etchant alone (without abrasion) provides a Ta removal rate of approximately 1000-2000 Ångstrom/min., which is significantly higher than Ta removal rates typically available Cu slurries. The present invention may be expected to achieve increased Ta removal rates in CMP by employing the additional mechanism of mechanical abrasion of the wafer by abrasive particles. In addition, heating the slurry, or the opposing body or pad, could enhance the removal rate of the Ta or TaN layers. Thus temperature control may be another means of achieving a low polishing pressure CMP process.
  • EXAMPLES Example A
  • 50 parts by volume H[0048] 3PO4
  • 40 parts by volume Acetic Acid [0049]
  • 10 parts by volume HNO[0050] 3
  • All acids are fully concentrated aqueous solutions. [0051]
  • The formulation of Example A yields a Cu removal rate of approximately 15,000 Å/min. when SEP is performed and a surface roughness (RMS) less than approximately 100 Å[0052]
  • Example B
  • 70 parts by volume H[0053] 3PO4
  • 24 parts by volume Acetic Acid [0054]
  • 6 parts by volume HNO[0055] 3
  • All acids are fully concentrated aqueous solutions. [0056]
  • The formulation of Example B yields a Cu removal rate of approximately 152000 Å/min. when SEP is performed. [0057]
  • Example C
  • 50 parts by volume H[0058] 3PO4
  • 40 parts by volume Acetic Acid [0059]
  • 3 parts-10 parts by volume HNO[0060] 3
  • All acids are fully concentrated aqueous solutions. [0061]
  • The formulation of Example C yields a Cu removal rate in the range from approximately 3,000 Å/min to approximately 20,000 Å/min. when SEP is performed. The rate of Cu removal is approximately proportional to the nitric acid content. [0062]
  • Example D
  • 50 parts by volume H[0063] 3PO4
  • 40 parts by volume Acetic Acid [0064]
  • 3 to 10 parts by volume HNO[0065] 3
  • 1 to 15 parts by volune HF [0066]
  • All acids are fully concentrated aqueous solution. [0067]
  • The formulation of Example D provides simultaneous removal of Cu and layers of silicon-containing polymer or silicon-containing inorganic (such as TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) and silicon). [0068]
  • Example E
  • 42% by volume sulfuric acid [0069]
  • 8% by volume nitric acid [0070]
  • 0.5% by volume hydrochloric acid [0071]
  • remainder is water [0072]
  • All acids are fully concentrated aqueous solution [0073]
  • Having described the invention in detail, those skilled in the art will appreciate that, given the present disclosure, modifications may be made to the invention without departing from the spirit of the inventive concept described herein. Therefore, it is not intended that the scope of the invention be limited to the specific and preferred embodiments illustrated and described. [0074]

Claims (21)

We claim:
1) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising:
a) an oxidizing reactant selected from the group consisting of H2O2, HNO3 and mixtures thereof; and,
b) a co-reactant is selected from the group consisting of H3PO4, H2SO4, HNO3, oxalic acid, acetic acid, organic acids and mixtures thereof; and,
c) other additives selected from the group consisting of selected from the group consisting of HCl, aliphatic alcohols, butylated hydroxytoluene, Agidol-2, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenol, 2,6-di-tert-4N,N-dimethylaminomethylphenol, borax, ethylene glycol, ZnSO4, methanol, propanol, poly(oxyethylene)lauryl ether, malic acid, HOOC(CX2)nCOOH wherein X═OH, amine, H and n=1-4), 3% tartaric acid, 1% ethylene glycol, 1,2,4-triazole, 1,2,3-triazole, tetrazole, nonionic surfactant, ethanol, triflouroethanol, SiF6, organic salt surfactant, polyvinyl alcohol, diphenylsulfamic acid, sodium oxalate, benzotriazole, sodium lignosulfonate, glycol, gelatin carboxymethylcellulose, amines, heavy metal salts, salts of Cu and Ta, KCl, CuCl2, SnCl2, propylene glycol, 2-ethyl-hexylamine, copper carbonate, low molecular weight alcohols, glycols, phenols, aliphatic alcohols, polyvinylalcohols, anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, fluorocarbon-based surfactants, nonionic surfactants having the properties of preferentially adhering to certain materials, modifying thereby the chemical reactivity where so adhered, polyvinyl alcohol solution stabalizers and species inhibiting spontaneous decomposition of oxidizing agents, wetting agents and mixtures thereof.
2) An etching solution as in claim 1 further comprising a species selected from the group consisting of CuCl, FeCl, FeCl3, and mixtures thereof.
3) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising species selected from the group consisting of NaClO3, FeNO3, (NH4)2S2O8, CuNH4Cl3, Na2S2O8, K2S2O5, NH4F, CuSO4, NH4OH, sodium EDTA salt of wetting agent and mixtures thereof.
4) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising species selected from the group consisting of, (NH4)2S2O8, KOH, NH4OH, H2O2, Cu(NO3)2 and mixtures thereof.
5) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising species selected from the group consisting of HF, HNO3, H2O2, H2SO4, lactic acid and mixtures thereof.
6) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising species selected from the group consisting of, NaOH, KOH, NH4OH, H2O2, and mixtures thereof.
7) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising: EDTA, NH4OH, H2O2, in aqueous solution.
8) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising: citric acid, erythorbic acid, triethanolamine, in aqueous solution.
9) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising: trisodium citrate, triethanolamine, sodium nitrate, in aqueous solution.
10) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising: H2SO4, H2O2, sodium molybdate, phenolsulfonic acid, in aqueous solution.
11) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising: mineral acid, molybdenum salt.
12) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface as in claim 1 further comprising abrasive particles selected from the group consisting SiO2, Al2O3 metallic and solid elemental particles, polymer particles, oxides, carbides, fluorides, carbonates, borides, nitrides, hydroxides of Al, Ag, Au, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, Ge, La, In, Hf, Mn, Mg, Ni, Nd, Pb, Pt, P, Sb, Sc, Sn, Tb, Ti, Ta, Th, Y, W, Zn, Zr, and mixtures thereof.
13) An etching solution as in claim 12 wherein said abrasive particles are coated.
14) An etching solution as in claim 13 wherein said coating is a chemically active species.
15) An etching solution as in claim 12 wherein said coating is CeO2.
16) An etching solution as in claim 12 wherein said particles are produced by the sol method.
17) An etching solution as in claim 12 wherein said particles have a range of sizes from approximately 4 nanometers to approximately 5 micrometers.
18) An etching solution as in claim 12 wherein said particles have a size less than approximately 5 micrometers.
19) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising
a) from approximately 50 parts by volume to approximately 70 parts by volume of concentrated aqueous H3PO4; and
b) from approximately 24 parts by volume to approximately 40 parts by volume of concentrated aqueous acetic acid; and,
c) from approximately 3 parts by volume to approximately 10 parts by volume of concentrated aqueous HNO3.
20) An etching solution as in claim 19 further comprising from approximately 1 part by volume to approximately 15 parts by volume of concentrated aqueous HF.
21) An etching solution for the planarization of a Cu/Ta/TaN surface comprising an aqueous solution of approximately 42% by volume of sulfuric acid, approximately 8% by volume nitric acid and approximately 0.5% by volume hydrochloric acid.
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