KR101981385B1 - TSV pin-hole testing method and system of the same - Google Patents

TSV pin-hole testing method and system of the same Download PDF

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Publication number
KR101981385B1
KR101981385B1 KR1020170050186A KR20170050186A KR101981385B1 KR 101981385 B1 KR101981385 B1 KR 101981385B1 KR 1020170050186 A KR1020170050186 A KR 1020170050186A KR 20170050186 A KR20170050186 A KR 20170050186A KR 101981385 B1 KR101981385 B1 KR 101981385B1
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KR
South Korea
Prior art keywords
penetrating electrode
penetrating
current
substrate
end
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KR1020170050186A
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Korean (ko)
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KR20180117280A (en
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백상현
노신우
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한양대학교 에리카산학협력단
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Priority to KR1020170050186A priority Critical patent/KR101981385B1/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/28Testing of electronic circuits, e.g. by signal tracer
    • G01R31/2851Testing of integrated circuits [IC]
    • G01R31/2853Electrical testing of internal connections or -isolation, e.g. latch-up or chip-to-lead connections
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/28Testing of electronic circuits, e.g. by signal tracer
    • G01R31/2851Testing of integrated circuits [IC]
    • G01R31/2884Testing of integrated circuits [IC] using dedicated test connectors, test elements or test circuits on the IC under test

Abstract

A method for measuring a defect in a penetrating electrode and an apparatus therefor are provided. A method for measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode includes the steps of applying a test voltage to one end of a penetrating electrode passing through a substrate, applying an amplification voltage to the substrate, measuring a penetrating current at the other end of the penetrating electrode, And determining whether pinholes are generated in the penetrating electrode.

Description

[0001] The present invention relates to a method of measuring a defect in a penetrating electrode,

The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for measuring a defect in a penetrating electrode, and more particularly, to a method and an apparatus for measuring a defect in a penetrating electrode, And more particularly, to a method and an apparatus for measuring a defect in a penetrating electrode that determines whether or not a hole is generated.

IC (Integrated Circuit) refers to a highly integrated three-dimensional chip package in which two-dimensional planar chips are vertically stacked to maximize the number of transistors per single area. The IC has a structure in which vertically stacked two-dimensional chips are connected through wire bonding or through-silicon-vias (TSV). Wire bonding is a structure in which vertically stacked two-dimensional chips are connected by metal wiring from the outside, and there is a problem in connection with the connection of the external metal wiring. The silicon penetrating electrode developed to replace this is formed by forming a via in a via through a two-dimensional chip and forming a metal interconnection in the via, and fundamentally solving the problem of bad connection due to the external metal interconnection of the wire bonding And the entire length of the wiring is reduced, which has the advantage that low power and high speed operation are possible.

However, problems arise during the process of forming the silicon penetrating electrode, so that the silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) film may be destroyed, and a defect such as a pin hole may be generated in the silicon penetrating electrode. When a pinhole is formed in the silicon penetrating electrode, a leakage current flows from the silicon substrate to the silicon penetrating electrode, so that a failure may occur in the entire IC.

Accordingly, studies on a test method capable of detecting defects formed on a silicon through electrode have been actively conducted.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a method of measuring a defect in a through electrode capable of determining whether a fine pinhole occurs.

Another problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a method of measuring defects in penetrating electrodes with improved accuracy.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a defect measuring apparatus for a penetrating electrode capable of simultaneously testing a plurality of penetrating electrodes.

The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is not limited to the above.

According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of measuring a defect in a penetrating electrode.

According to one embodiment, a method of measuring a defect in a penetrating electrode includes the steps of applying a test voltage to one end of a penetrating electrode passing through a substrate, applying an amplification voltage to the substrate, measuring a penetrating current at the other end of the penetrating electrode And determining whether a pinhole of the penetrating electrode is generated using the penetrating current.

According to one embodiment, the step of determining whether pinholes are generated in the penetrating electrode may include calculating a difference value between the penetrating current and the reference current, and determining whether the difference value is within a reference range, The reference current may be a current value flowing at the other end of the through electrode if there is no pin hole in the through electrode.

According to one embodiment, a defect measurement method of a penetrating electrode may include an increase in the penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode as the amplification voltage applied to the substrate increases.

According to one embodiment, a defect measurement method of a penetrating electrode may include an increase in the penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode as the doping concentration of the substrate increases.

According to one embodiment, the doping concentration of the substrate may be 10 15 to 10 17 / cm 3 .

According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided an apparatus for measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, a defect measuring apparatus for a penetrating electrode is connected to one end and another end of a penetrating electrode passing through a substrate, the test voltage is applied to one end of the penetrating electrode, and the penetrating current is measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode And a second circuit for applying an amplification voltage to the substrate, wherein the first circuit includes: a test voltage generator for applying the test voltage; a penetration current measurer for measuring the penetration current; And a pinhole generation determining unit for determining a pinhole occurrence of the penetrating electrode by using the difference value.

According to one embodiment, the first circuit includes a first resistor provided in series between the one end of the penetrating electrode and the test voltage generating unit, and a second resistor connected in series between the other end of the penetrating electrode and the pin hole generating / The second circuit may further include a third resistor connected in series to the other side of the substrate when the amplification voltage is applied to one side of the substrate.

A method for measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention includes the steps of applying an amplification voltage to a substrate on which a penetrating electrode is formed and then applying a test voltage to one end of the penetrating electrode and measuring a penetrating current And compares the difference between the penetrating current and the reference current value with a reference range to determine whether the penetrating electrode is defective or not. When a defect is formed in the penetrating electrode, the difference may exceed the reference range and the defect formed in the penetrating electrode may be measured.

FIG. 1 is a flowchart illustrating a method of measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention.
2 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a defect measuring apparatus for a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention.
3 is a schematic view for explaining an apparatus for measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode according to another embodiment of the present invention.
FIGS. 4 to 7 are graphs illustrating penetration currents measured when an amplification voltage is applied to experimental examples using the apparatus for measuring defects of a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG.

Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. However, the technical spirit of the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described herein but may be embodied in other forms. Rather, the embodiments disclosed herein are provided so that the disclosure can be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art.

In this specification, when an element is referred to as being on another element, it may be directly formed on another element, or a third element may be interposed therebetween. Further, in the drawings, the thicknesses of the films and regions are exaggerated for an effective explanation of the technical content.

Also, while the terms first, second, third, etc. in the various embodiments of the present disclosure are used to describe various components, these components should not be limited by these terms. These terms have only been used to distinguish one component from another. Thus, what is referred to as a first component in any one embodiment may be referred to as a second component in another embodiment. Each embodiment described and exemplified herein also includes its complementary embodiment. Also, in this specification, 'and / or' are used to include at least one of the front and rear components.

The singular forms "a", "an", and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. It is also to be understood that the terms such as " comprises " or " having " are intended to specify the presence of stated features, integers, Should not be understood to exclude the presence or addition of one or more other elements, elements, or combinations thereof.

In the following description of the present invention, a detailed description of known functions and configurations incorporated herein will be omitted when it may make the subject matter of the present invention rather unclear.

FIG. 1 is a flowchart illustrating a method of measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Referring to FIG. 1, a test voltage is applied to one end of a penetrating electrode passing through a substrate (S110). According to one embodiment, the substrate is a silicon substrate, and the doping concentration of the substrate may be 10 15 to 10 17 / cm 3 . According to one embodiment, the test voltage may be 1V. And a penetrating current can flow through the penetrating electrode by application of the test voltage.

An amplification voltage is applied to the substrate (S120). According to one embodiment, the amplification voltage may be 10V. When the pinhole is formed in the penetrating electrode, the penetration current can be increased by application of the amplification voltage. However, when the pinhole is not formed in the penetrating electrode, the penetration current is not affected even if the amplification voltage is applied.

The penetrating current is measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode (S130). According to one embodiment, as the amplification voltage applied to the substrate increases, the penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode may increase. According to another embodiment, as the amplification voltage applied to the substrate decreases, the penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode may decrease.

 According to one embodiment, as the doping concentration of the substrate increases, the penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode may increase. According to another embodiment, as the doping concentration of the substrate decreases, the penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode may decrease.

As described above, the penetration current can be controlled according to the amplification voltage applied to the substrate and the doping concentration of the substrate.

The penetration current is used to determine whether a pinhole is generated in the penetrating electrode (S140). According to an embodiment, the pinhole generation determining unit may determine whether the pinhole is generated by calculating a difference between the through current and the reference current measured by the penetrating current measuring unit. Specifically, the reference current is defined as a current value flowing at the other end of the through electrode when the through electrode has no pin hole, and when the difference value is out of the reference range, it is determined that the pin hole is generated .

A method for measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention includes the steps of applying the amplification voltage to the substrate on which the penetrating electrode is formed and then applying the test voltage to the one end of the penetrating electrode, The penetration current may be measured at the other end, and the difference between the penetration current and the reference current value may be compared with a reference range to determine whether the penetration electrode is to generate the pinhole.

Specifically, a method for measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention applies the amplification voltage to the substrate for the pinhole measurement of the penetrating electrode. Accordingly, the value of the penetrating current which is increased when the pinhole is formed in the penetrating electrode is amplified. Therefore, even when the pinhole having a minute size (for example, nano-size) is formed, the generation of the pinhole can be easily determined.

2 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a defect measuring apparatus for a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Referring to FIG. 2, the defect measuring apparatus of the penetrating electrode includes a first circuit and a second circuit.

The first circuit may include a test voltage generating unit 140, a first resistor 142, a penetration current measuring unit 150, a second resistor 152, and a pinhole generation determining unit 160.

The test voltage generator 140 may apply the test voltage to one end of the penetrating electrode 120. According to one embodiment, the test voltage may be 1V.

When the test voltage is applied to the penetrating electrode 120, the first resistor 142 can prevent a sudden current from flowing through the penetrating electrode 120 as a short circuit. According to one embodiment, the first resistor 142 may be 50 OMEGA. According to one embodiment, the first resistor 142 may be provided between the test voltage generator 140 and the one end of the penetrating electrode 120.

The penetrating current measuring unit 150 may measure the penetrating current at the other end of the penetrating electrode 120. According to one embodiment, the penetrating current measuring unit 150 may be directly connected to the other end of the penetrating electrode 120. According to another embodiment, the penetrating current measuring unit 150 may be provided adjacent to the other end of the penetrating electrode 120.

When the test voltage is applied to the penetrating electrode 120, the second resistor 152 can prevent a sudden current from flowing through the penetrating electrode 120 as a short circuit. According to one embodiment, the second resistor 152 may be 50 OMEGA. According to one embodiment, the second resistor 152 may be provided adjacent to the penetrating current measuring unit 150 directly connected to the other end of the penetrating electrode 120. According to another embodiment, the second resistor 152 may be provided between the penetrating current measuring unit 150 and the other end of the penetrating electrode 120.

The pinhole generation determining unit 160 calculates a difference between the penetrating current and the reference current and determines whether pinhole of the penetrating electrode 120 is generated using the difference. According to one embodiment, the pinhole generation determination unit 160 may be provided between the test voltage generator 140 and the penetrating current measurer 150.

The second circuit may include an amplification voltage generator 170 and a third resistor 172.

The amplification voltage generating unit 170 may apply the amplification voltage to one side of the substrate 110. According to one embodiment, the amplification voltage may be 10V. According to one embodiment, the amplification voltage generating unit 170 may be directly connected to the one side of the substrate 110.

When the amplification voltage is applied to the substrate 110, the third resistor 172 may prevent a sudden current from flowing due to the substrate 110 operating as a short circuit. According to one embodiment, the third resistor 172 may be 1 OMEGA. According to one embodiment, the third resistor 172 may be directly connected to the other side of the amplification voltage generator 170.

3 is a schematic view for explaining an apparatus for measuring a defect of a penetrating electrode according to another embodiment of the present invention.

Referring to FIG. 3, a plurality of the penetrating electrodes 120 are formed on the substrate 110.

The penetrating electrode defect measuring apparatus includes the first circuit and the second circuit. The first circuit includes the test voltage generating unit 140, the first resistor 142, A plurality of second resistors 152, and the pinhole generation determining unit 160. The first and second resistors 152,

The test voltage generating unit 140, the first resistor 142, and the pinhole generation determining unit 160 may be provided as described with reference to FIG.

The plurality of penetrating current measuring units 150 and the plurality of second resistors 152 may be provided in a number corresponding to the number of the plurality of through electrodes 120 formed in the substrate 110. The test voltage generator 140 applies the test voltage to the plurality of penetrating electrodes 120 and the penetrating currents passing through the plurality of penetrating electrodes 120 are applied to the plurality of second resistors 152, And is measured by a plurality of the penetration current measuring units 150. [ The pinhole generation determining unit 160 can individually determine whether or not the pinhole is formed with respect to the plurality of penetrating electrodes 120. [ In other words, the defect measuring apparatus of the penetrating electrode can simultaneously perform the measurement of the pinhole with respect to each of the plurality of penetrating electrodes 120 formed on the substrate 110. Accordingly, defect measurement of the substrate 110 can be efficiently performed in a short time.

The second circuit includes the amplification voltage generating unit 170 and the third resistor 172. The amplification voltage generating unit 170 and the third resistor 172 may be provided as described with reference to FIG.

Production of Substrate Having Through-Electrode According to Experimental Examples 1 to 3

A cylindrical through-hole electrode having a diameter of 10 μm and a height of 30 μm is formed in a silicon substrate doped with a P-type dopant at a concentration of 10 15 / cm 3 , and the inside of the through electrode is made of copper And a through-hole electrode according to Experimental Example 1 in which a pin hole having a predetermined size was formed inside the penetrating electrode.

A cylindrical through-hole electrode having a diameter of 10 μm and a height of 30 μm is formed in a silicon substrate doped with a P type dopant at a concentration of 10 16 / cm 3. The inside of the through electrode is made of copper, A silicon dioxide film having a thickness of 0.1 mu m, and a penetrating electrode according to Experimental Example 2, in which a pinhole of a predetermined size was formed in the penetrating electrode, was manufactured.

A cylindrical through-hole electrode having a diameter of 10 μm and a height of 30 μm is formed in a silicon substrate doped with a P type dopant at a concentration of 10 17 / cm 3. The inside of the through electrode is composed of copper, A through-hole electrode according to Experimental Example 3 in which a pinhole of a predetermined size was formed inside the through electrode was formed.

Referring to Table 1 below, the substrates on which the through electrodes were formed according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3 were formed with pinholes having a radius of 0 to 5 μm in the inside of the through electrodes. The test voltage generator of the penetrating electrode defect measuring apparatus applies a voltage of 1 V to one end of the penetrating electrode. When the first and second resistance values are 50 OMEGA, the test electrodes of the through- The through current was measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode through the penetrating current measuring unit.

Radius of pin hole formed in penetrating electrode Experimental Example 1 Experimental Example 2 Experimental Example 3 0 nm 19.60mA 19.60mA 19.60mA 10 nm 19.60mA 19.60mA 19.59mA 1 μm 19.60mA 19.59mA 19.54mA 5 μm 19.60mA 19.56mA 19.28mA

The penetration current values of 19.28 to 19.60 mA were measured for the substrates on which the through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3 were formed. It can be seen that when the amplification voltage is not applied at one side of the substrate, the value of the penetration current is not substantially affected by whether the pin hole is generated or the size of the generated pin hole.

Referring to Table 2 below, the substrates on which the penetrating electrodes are formed according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3 are formed with pinholes having a radius of 0 to 5 μm in the penetrating electrode. The test voltage generating unit of the penetrating electrode defect measuring apparatus applies a voltage of 1 V to one end of the penetrating electrode, the amplifying voltage generating unit applies a voltage of 10 V at one side of the substrate, and the first and second resistance values are 50 Ω And the third resistance value was 1 OMEGA, the penetration current was measured through the penetrating current measuring unit at the other end of the penetrating electrode of the substrates on which the penetrating electrodes were formed according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3.

Radius of pin hole formed in penetrating electrode Experimental Example 1 Experimental Example 2 Experimental Example 3 0 nm 19.60mA 19.60mA 19.60mA 10 nm 19.84mA 19.96mA 20.39mA 1 μm 20.30mA 21.70mA 29.31mA 5 μm 21.71 mA 31.63mA 103.46mA

The penetration current values of 19.60 to 103.46 mA were measured on the substrates having the through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3. When the amplification voltage is applied from one side of the substrate, the value of the penetration current changes depending on whether the pin hole is generated or not and the size of the generated pin hole. Specifically, in the case where pinholes are not generated in the substrates having the through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3, the through current value is constantly measured to 19.60 mA. On the other hand, when pinholes are generated in the substrates having the through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3, it can be seen that the penetration current value increases as the pinhole size increases.

FIGS. 4 to 7 are graphs illustrating penetration currents measured when an amplification voltage is applied to experimental examples using the apparatus for measuring defects of a penetrating electrode according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG.

4 to 7, a test voltage of 1 V is applied to one end of a through electrode of substrates having through holes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3, in which pinholes having a radius of 10 nm are formed, Is a graph showing penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode in accordance with the amplification voltage applied from one side of the substrate when the first and second resistances are 50 Ω.

Referring to FIG. 4, the penetration current measured when amplification voltage of 0.5 V is applied to the substrates having the through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3 is shown. The difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0 mA and the difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0.02 mA in the substrate on which the through electrode according to Experimental Example 2 was formed, 3, the difference between the through current and the reference current value is 0.14 mA.

Referring to FIG. 5, the penetration current measured when amplification voltage of 1 V is applied to substrates having through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3 is shown. The difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0.01 mA and the difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0.03 mA in the substrate on which the through electrode according to Experimental Example 2 was formed, 3, the difference between the through current and the reference current value is 0.22 mA.

Referring to FIG. 6, through-currents measured when amplification voltages of 5 V are applied to the substrates having through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3 are shown. The difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0.1 mA and the difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0.18 mA in the substrate on which the through electrode according to Experimental Example 2 was formed, 3, the difference between the through current and the reference current value is 0.52 mA.

Referring to FIG. 7, through-currents measured when amplification voltages of 10 V are applied to the substrates having the through electrodes according to Experimental Examples 1 to 3 are shown. The difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0.24 mA and the difference between the through current and the reference current value was 0.36 mA in the substrate on which the through electrode according to Experimental Example 2 was formed, 3, the difference between the through current and the reference current value is 0.79 mA.

As the doping concentration of the substrate increases, the difference between the through current and the reference current increases as the magnitude of the amplification voltage applied to the substrate increases.

While the present invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to exemplary embodiments thereof, it is to be understood that the scope of the present invention is not limited to the disclosed exemplary embodiments. It will also be appreciated that many modifications and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the present invention.

110: substrate
120: penetrating electrode
130: pin hole
140: Test voltage generator
142: first resistance
150: Through-current measurement unit
152: second resistance
160: Pin hole generation determination unit
170: amplification voltage generator
172: Third resistance

Claims (7)

  1. Applying a test voltage to one end of the penetrating electrode passing through the substrate;
    Applying an amplification voltage to the substrate;
    Measuring a penetrating current at the other end of the penetrating electrode while the amplification voltage is applied to the substrate; And
    And determining whether or not a pinhole is generated in the penetrating electrode by using the penetrating current.
  2. The method according to claim 1,
    Wherein the step of determining whether pinholes are generated in the penetrating electrode comprises:
    Calculating a difference value between the penetrating current and the reference current; And
    Determining whether the difference value is within a reference range,
    Wherein the reference current is a current value flowing at the other end of the penetrating electrode when the penetrating electrode does not have a pinhole.
  3. The method according to claim 1,
    And increasing the penetration current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode as the amplification voltage applied to the substrate increases.
  4. The method according to claim 1,
    Wherein the penetrating current measured at the other end of the penetrating electrode increases as the doping concentration of the substrate increases.
  5. The method according to claim 1,
    Wherein the substrate has a doping concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 / cm 3 .
  6. A first circuit connected to one end and the other end of a penetrating electrode passing through a substrate to apply a test voltage to one end of the penetrating electrode and measure a penetrating current at the other end of the penetrating electrode; And
    And a second circuit for applying an amplification voltage to the substrate,
    The first circuit comprising:
    A test voltage generator for applying the test voltage;
    A penetration current measuring unit for measuring the penetration current in a state where the amplification voltage is applied to the substrate;
    And a pinhole generation determining unit for calculating a difference value between the penetrating current and the reference current and determining whether a pinhole is generated in the penetrating electrode using the difference value.
  7. The method according to claim 6,
    The first circuit comprising:
    A first resistor connected in series between the one end of the penetrating electrode and the test voltage generating unit; And
    And a second resistor connected in series between the other end of the penetrating electrode and the pinhole generation determining unit,
    The second circuit comprising:
    And a third resistor connected in series to the other side of the substrate when the amplification voltage is applied from one side of the substrate.
KR1020170050186A 2017-04-19 2017-04-19 TSV pin-hole testing method and system of the same KR101981385B1 (en)

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Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2011171607A (en) * 2010-02-19 2011-09-01 Sony Corp Semiconductor device and method of testing through electrode
JP2012078332A (en) * 2009-10-09 2012-04-19 Elpida Memory Inc Semiconductor device, method for testing semiconductor device, and data processing system

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3338607B2 (en) * 1996-02-19 2002-10-28 ポーラ化成工業株式会社 Pinhole inspection equipment
KR20150119540A (en) * 2014-04-15 2015-10-26 에스케이하이닉스 주식회사 Semiconductor device

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2012078332A (en) * 2009-10-09 2012-04-19 Elpida Memory Inc Semiconductor device, method for testing semiconductor device, and data processing system
JP2011171607A (en) * 2010-02-19 2011-09-01 Sony Corp Semiconductor device and method of testing through electrode

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