JP4699681B2 - LED module and lighting device - Google Patents

LED module and lighting device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4699681B2
JP4699681B2 JP2003185508A JP2003185508A JP4699681B2 JP 4699681 B2 JP4699681 B2 JP 4699681B2 JP 2003185508 A JP2003185508 A JP 2003185508A JP 2003185508 A JP2003185508 A JP 2003185508A JP 4699681 B2 JP4699681 B2 JP 4699681B2
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Prior art keywords
led
light
layer
led chip
light emitting
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Expired - Fee Related
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JP2005019874A5 (en
JP2005019874A (en
Inventor
久志 中山
賢児 折田
秀男 永井
正昭 油利
聡之 田村
昌宏 石田
康弘 藤本
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パナソニック株式会社
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/10Bump connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/15Structure, shape, material or disposition of the bump connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/16Structure, shape, material or disposition of the bump connectors after the connecting process of an individual bump connector
    • H01L2224/161Disposition
    • H01L2224/16151Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/16221Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/16225Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation
    • H01L2224/16227Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation the bump connector connecting to a bond pad of the item
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/18High density interconnect [HDI] connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/18High density interconnect [HDI] connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/23Structure, shape, material or disposition of the high density interconnect connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/24Structure, shape, material or disposition of the high density interconnect connectors after the connecting process of an individual high density interconnect connector
    • H01L2224/241Disposition
    • H01L2224/24135Connecting between different semiconductor or solid-state bodies, i.e. chip-to-chip
    • H01L2224/24137Connecting between different semiconductor or solid-state bodies, i.e. chip-to-chip the bodies being arranged next to each other, e.g. on a common substrate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/73Means for bonding being of different types provided for in two or more of groups H01L2224/10, H01L2224/18, H01L2224/26, H01L2224/34, H01L2224/42, H01L2224/50, H01L2224/63, H01L2224/71
    • H01L2224/732Location after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/73251Location after the connecting process on different surfaces
    • H01L2224/73267Layer and HDI connectors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/91Methods for connecting semiconductor or solid state bodies including different methods provided for in two or more of groups H01L2224/80 - H01L2224/90
    • H01L2224/92Specific sequence of method steps
    • H01L2224/922Connecting different surfaces of the semiconductor or solid-state body with connectors of different types
    • H01L2224/9222Sequential connecting processes
    • H01L2224/92242Sequential connecting processes the first connecting process involving a layer connector
    • H01L2224/92244Sequential connecting processes the first connecting process involving a layer connector the second connecting process involving a build-up interconnect
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/30Technical effects
    • H01L2924/35Mechanical effects
    • H01L2924/351Thermal stress
    • H01L2924/3512Cracking

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a light emitting diode (hereinafter referred to as “LED”), an LED chip composed of the LED, an LED module having the LED chip, and a lighting device including the LED module.
[0002]
[Prior art]
In recent years, as the brightness of white LEDs has been increased, for example, studies have been actively conducted on using LEDs as illumination sources instead of incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lamps. The LED, which is a point light source, is expected to be used as spot lighting in stores, museums, showrooms and the like because of its characteristics.
[0003]
However, although the increase in luminance is progressing, the luminance of one conventional LED is much lower than that of an incandescent bulb or a fluorescent lamp. Therefore, the luminance as an illumination device is improved by mounting a large number of LEDs on a printed wiring board (see Patent Documents 1 and 2).
[0004]
[Patent Document 1]
JP-A-11-162231
[0005]
[Patent Document 2]
JP 2002-270905 A
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
Although it is possible to improve the brightness by mounting a large number of LEDs, it is necessary to obtain a luminous flux equivalent to that of an incandescent bulb or fluorescent light, although the size of one LED is smaller than that of an incandescent bulb or fluorescent bulb. The area for mounting can be increased, which can lead to an increase in the size of the lighting device, and the significance as an alternative light source can be lost.Further, it is necessary to increase the chip size in order to obtain a high luminous flux. In general, however, a semiconductor element has a higher probability that a defect is included in the semiconductor element, so that the yield decreases.
[0007]
In view of the above-described problems, an LED capable of improving luminance without increasing the mounting area, an LED chip including the LED, an LED module including the LED chip, and a lighting device including the LED module are provided. The purpose is to do.
In addition, even if the chip size is increased, a structure that does not lower the yield is realized..
[0008]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to achieve the above object, an LED according to the present invention includes a diode structure layer in which a light emitting layer is sandwiched between a p-type cladding layer and an n-type cladding layer, and a plurality of layers are stacked via a contact layer. The contact layer electrically connects adjacent diode structure layers and transmits light emitted from the light emitting layer.
[0009]
The contact layer includes a p-type heavily doped layer provided on the p-type cladding layer side and an n-type heavily doped layer provided on the n-type cladding layer side.
Further, at least one of the plurality of diode structure layers emits light of a color different from that of the other diode structure layers.
[0010]
In addition, at least three of the diode structure layers are provided, one of which emits red light, one of which emits blue light, and one of which emits green light.
In order to achieve the above object, an LED chip according to the present invention includes at least two LEDs stacked on the same substrate by crystal growth, and one LED and another LED are wired by a metal thin film. It is characterized by being connected by a pattern.
[0011]
In order to achieve the above object, an LED module according to the present invention has a printed wiring board and at least two of the LEDs mounted on the printed wiring board, and the LEDs are connected in series by printed wiring. It is characterized by being connected in parallel.
In order to achieve the above object, an LED module according to the present invention includes a printed wiring board and at least two LED chips mounted on the printed wiring board, and the LEDs are connected in series by printed wiring. Or it is connected in parallel, It is characterized by the above-mentioned.
[0012]
In order to achieve the above object, an illumination device according to the present invention includes the LED module.
[0013]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
(Embodiment 1)
FIG. 1A is an external perspective view of an LED bare chip (hereinafter simply referred to as “LED chip”) 2 according to Embodiment 1, and FIG. 1B is a plan view of the LED chip 2. .
[0014]
As shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B, the LED chip 2 has a plurality of (9 in this example) LEDs 6 to 22 in common with the sapphire substrate 4, and has N rows and M columns (in this example, (3 rows by 3 columns). The dimension L1 × W1 of each LED 6-22 is 400 μm × 400 μm, and the dimension L2 × W2 of the LED chip 2 is 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm.
[0015]
Since all of the LEDs 6 to 22 have substantially the same structure, the LED 20 will be described as a representative here.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA in FIG.
As shown in FIG. 2, the LED 20 is made of n-Al.0.1Ga0.9N clad layer (Si doping amount 2 × 1018cm-3), In0.03Ga0.97N (Thickness 3nm) / Al0.05Ga0.95N (5 nm thick) 5-period multiple quantum well light-emitting layer, p-Al0.1Ga0.9N clad layer (Mg doping amount 3 × 1019cm-3The light-emitting element composed of a diode structure layer having a thickness of 200 nm is stacked on the sapphire substrate 4 in three stages.
[0016]
Here, as shown in FIG. 2, each light emitting element is referred to as a first light emitting element 24, a second light emitting element 26, and a third light emitting element 28 in order from the sapphire substrate 4 side.
Between the first light emitting element 24 and the second light emitting element 26 and between the second light emitting element 26 and the third light emitting element 28, p+-GaN highly doped layer (Mg doped amount 3 × 1019cm-3, Thickness 10nm) and n+-GaN highly doped layer (Si doping amount 6 × 1019cm-3The contact layers 30 and 32 having a thickness of 10 nm are formed. Here, the contact layer 30 is referred to as a first contact layer 30, and the contact layer 32 is referred to as a second contact layer 32.
[0017]
A contact layer 36 and an n-GaN contact layer 38 similar to the contact layers 30 and 32 are formed between the anode electrode (Ni / Al electrode) 34 and the third light emitting element 28. Here, the contact layer 36 and the n-GaN contact layer 38 are collectively referred to as a third contact layer 40.
In general, the anode electrode and the light emitting element are connected via a p-type semiconductor (in this example, a p-GaN contact layer).+-GaN layer and n+By interposing the -GaN layer, the anode electrode and the light emitting element can be connected via an n-type semiconductor (in this example, the n-GaN contact layer 38). Since this technique is disclosed in “Appl. Phys. Let., Vol. 78, pp. 3265-3267, 21 MAY 2001 (author Jeon et al.)”, Detailed description thereof will be omitted.
[0018]
In the present embodiment, the above technique is used not only for connection between electrodes and light emitting elements, but also for connection between light emitting elements. Thereby, the 1st light emitting element 24, the 2nd light emitting element 26, and the 3rd light emitting element 28 will be electrically connected in series in this order.
An n-GaN buffer layer 42 is provided between the n-AlGaN cladding layer of the first light emitting element 24 and the sapphire substrate 4, and a cathode electrode (Ti / Au electrode) is provided on the n-AlGaN cladding layer. 44 is formed.
[0019]
The thickness of the n-AlGaN cladding layer in the second light emitting element 26 and the third light emitting element 28 is 100 nm, the thickness of the n-AlGaN cladding layer in the first light emitting element 24 is 1.5 μm, and the n-GaN contact layer 38. The thickness of is 200 nm.
When power is supplied to the LED 20 having the above configuration through the anode electrode 34 and the cathode electrode 44, near ultraviolet light having a wavelength of 380 nm is generated in each (InGaN / AlGaN) × 5 light emitting layer of the light emitting elements 24, 26, and 28. Near-ultraviolet light is transmitted through the sapphire substrate 4 and emitted.
[0020]
Note that generation of cracks is suppressed because stress is relieved by the multiple quantum well structure constituting the light emitting element.
Therefore, the LED according to the present embodiment has higher luminance per unit light emitting area than the conventional LED having only one light emitting layer (light emitting element / diode structure layer). . As a result, as will be described later, when a plurality of LEDs are used to form an LED module or a lighting device, if the luminance is the same, the LED according to the embodiment is used in the conventional manner. As a result, the number of the LEDs can be reduced. In other words, the LED mounting area is reduced when the LED according to the embodiment is used, and the LED module and the lighting device can be downsized.
[0021]
As will be described later, since the LED chip 2 is mounted with the sapphire substrate 4 facing upward (flip chip mounting) and takes out light from the sapphire substrate 4 side, the reflectance is reflected on the n-GaN contact layer 38 side below. It is desirable to improve the light extraction efficiency by providing a high metal layer, a dielectric multilayer film, or a semiconductor multilayer film. In this example, the light extraction efficiency is increased by providing an Al layer having a high reflectance also serving as an electrode. Other than Al, metals such as Pt, Rh, and Ag are suitable.
[0022]
Note that the insulating film (SiThreeNFourThe film 46 and the bridge wiring 48 will be described later.
Returning to FIGS. 1A and 1B, the LEDs 6 to 22 are connected in series on the sapphire substrate 4 as shown in the connection diagram of FIG. In the drawings of the present application, one light emitting element (diode structure layer) having a basic diode structure is represented by one conventional diode symbol.
[0023]
A mode of series connection will be described with reference to cross-sectional views of adjacent LEDs 6 and 8. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view from LED 6 to LED 8. In FIG. 3, in order to avoid complication, the (InGaN / AlGaN) × 5 light emitting layer to the contact layer 36 (see FIG. 2) of the first light emitting element 24 in each LED are expressed in an integrated manner. Reference numeral 50 designates it. Further, the n-AlGaN cladding layer in the first light emitting element 24 is denoted by reference numeral 52.
[0024]
As shown in FIG. 3, the adjacent LED 6 and LED 8 are separated by a separation groove 54 cut into the sapphire substrate 4. Note that the depth of cut of the separation groove 54 with respect to the sapphire substrate 54 is very shallow and is superficial, so that the sapphire substrate 4 does not break due to the presence of the separation groove 54.
Also, an insulating film (SiThreeNFourFilm) 46 is formed. On the insulating film 46, a bridge wiring 48 that connects the anode electrode 34 of the LED 6 and the cathode electrode 44 of the LED 8 is formed. Adjacent LED 6 and LED 8 are connected in series by this bridge wiring 48. Moreover, the anode electrode 34 of LED8 and the cathode electrode of LED10 (refer FIG. 1) are also connected by the bridge wiring 48, and LED6-LED22 is connected in series in this order similarly below. In FIG. 1B, all bridge wires are denoted by reference numeral 48.
[0025]
In the LED chip 2 having the above configuration, power is supplied through the cathode electrode of the LED 6 and the anode electrode of the LED 22, so that all three light emitting elements emit light in all the LEDs.
In general, as the size of a semiconductor element increases, the probability that a defect is included therein increases, so that the yield decreases. In the LED, if a bare chip contains a defect, current may leak and light may not be emitted. In the case of the present embodiment, even if a current leak due to a defect or the like occurs in an LED connected in series on a bare chip, the LED itself has a reduced output or no lighting, but the remaining LEDs Since the current is normally supplied, the entire LED chip is normally lit (of course, the defective LED may be unlit). Therefore, the yield does not decrease even when the chip size is increased.
[0026]
Next, a method for manufacturing the LED chip 2 will be described with reference to FIGS. 5 and 6, ((InGaN / AlGaN) × 5 light-emitting layer to contact layer 36 of the first light-emitting element 24 are integrally represented and denoted by reference numeral 50 as in the case of FIG. 3.
First, as shown in FIG. 4, from an n-GaN buffer layer 42 to an n-GaN contact layer 38 on a sapphire substrate 56 using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition method (MOCVD method). Each layer is sequentially formed by crystal growth [step (a)]. The sapphire substrate 56 is a substrate having a diameter of 5 cm and an area where about 1300 LED chips 2 can be manufactured simultaneously.
[0027]
Next, a mask 58 is applied to the surface of the n-GaN contact layer 38. The masking region is a region that is slightly wider than the region where the anode electrode is to be formed in each LED. Then, the portion corresponding to the non-masking region is removed by etching to the middle of the n-AlGaN clad layer 52 that constitutes the first light emitting element 24 (see FIG. 2) [step (b)]. Thereby, a cathode electrode connection surface (electrode formation surface) is formed.
[0028]
After removing the mask 58 formed in the step (a), a separation groove 54 is formed by laser processing [step (c)]. The depth of the separation groove 54 is such a depth that a part of the sapphire substrate 56 is removed. Thereby, each LED is partitioned and each LED is electrically insulated. Note that the separation groove may be formed not only by the laser processing method but also by an etching method.
[0029]
When the separation groove 54 is formed, next, SiThreeNFourA film (insulating film) 46 is entirely deposited [step (d)].
And the SiThreeNFourA mask 60 is applied to the film 46. The masking area is an area other than the anode electrode formation scheduled area. And Si corresponding to the non-masking regionThreeNFourAfter the film 46 is removed by etching, a Ni / Al film that is a metal thin film is formed by vapor deposition. Thereby, the anode electrode (Ni / Al electrode) 34 is formed [step (e)]. The Ni / Al film (not shown) formed on the mask 60 is removed together with the mask 60 before going to the next process.
[0030]
A cathode electrode (Ti / Au electrode) 44 is formed by the same method as in the step (e). That is, Si corresponding to the cathode electrode formation scheduled regionThreeNFourA mask 62 is formed in a portion other than the film 46, and the exposed SiThreeNFourAfter the film portion is removed by etching, a Ti / Au film that is a metal thin film is formed by vapor deposition to form the cathode electrode 44 [step (f)]. A Ti / Au film (not shown) formed on the mask 62 is removed together with the mask 62 before going to the next step.
[0031]
Subsequently, the bridge wiring 48 is formed. After the mask 64 is formed on the surface other than the surface where the bridge wiring is to be formed, a Ti / Pt / Au film that is a metal thin film is formed by vapor deposition. As a result, a bridge wiring 48 made of a Ti / Pt / Au film is formed, and the nine LEDs 6 to 22 are connected in series in this order [step (g)].
[0032]
The Ti / Pt / Au film (not shown) formed on the mask 64 in the step (g) is removed together with the mask 64 before going to the next step [step (h)].
Finally, the individual LED chips are separated by dicing to complete the LED chip 2 (see FIG. 1).
FIG. 7 is an external perspective view of a white LED module 70 having the LED chip 2 (hereinafter simply referred to as “LED module 70”). The LED module 70 is used by being mounted on a lighting fixture 120 described later.
[0033]
The LED module 70 includes a circular ceramic substrate 72 having a diameter of 5 cm and three glass lenses 74, 76, and 78. The ceramic substrate 72 is provided with a guide recess 80 for attachment to the lighting fixture 120 and terminals 82 and 84 for receiving power from the lighting fixture 120.
8A is a plan view of the LED module 70, FIG. 8B is a cross-sectional view taken along line BB in FIG. 8A, and FIG. 8C is an enlarged view of a portion C in FIG. 8B. Respectively.
[0034]
As shown in FIGS. 8A and 8B, a guide hole (through hole) 86 for attaching to the lighting fixture 120 is formed in the center of the ceramic substrate 72.
In FIG. 8A, one LED chip 2 (three in total) is mounted on a ceramic substrate 72 corresponding to the center of each of the lenses 74, 76, and 78 that appear circular.
[0035]
As shown in FIG. 8C, the ceramic substrate 72 is a multilayer ceramic substrate in which five ceramic substrates 88 to 96 having a thickness of 2 mm and mainly made of AlN are laminated. As a material of the ceramic substrate, in addition to AlN, Al2OThreeBN, AlN, MgO, ZnO, SiC, diamond, etc. are conceivable.
The LED chip 2 is mounted on the lowermost ceramic substrate 88 by a flip chip mounting method. Through holes 98 for creating a space for mounting the LED chip 2 are formed in the upper ceramic substrates 90 to 96.
[0036]
Gold plating 99 is applied to the lower surface of the ceramic substrate 88 in order to improve heat dissipation characteristics.
The LED chip 2 is covered with a phosphor film 100. Near-ultraviolet light from the LED chip 2 is converted into white light by the phosphor in the phosphor film 100, passes through the lens 78, and is emitted from the LED module 70.
[0037]
An Al film, which is a light reflecting film, is deposited on the side wall of the through hole 98, thereby improving the light extraction efficiency. Instead of a metal film such as Al, ultrafine particles having a center particle diameter of several tens to several hundreds of nanometers may be applied. As ultrafine particles, SiO2, Al2OThree, ZnO, Y2OThreeTiO2, ZrO2, HfO2, SnO2, Ta2OThree, Nb2OFive, BaSOFour, ZnS, V2OFiveOr a mixture of these materials can be used.
[0038]
The three LED chips 2 are connected in parallel by a wiring pattern formed on the lowermost ceramic substrate 88.
FIG. 9A is a plan view of the LED module 70 with the lenses 74, 76, and 78 removed. Here, the three LED chips 2 are distinguished from each other by adding symbols A, B, and C.
[0039]
A pad pattern shown in FIG. 9B is printed on the surface of the ceramic substrate 88 at the mounting positions of the LED chips 2A, 2B, and 2C. The pad pattern includes an anode pad 102, a cathode pad 104, and eight island pads 106. As the pad pattern, a copper (Cu) surface is subjected to nickel (Ni) plating and then gold (Au) plating. Gold bumps 108 are formed at appropriate positions of the anode pad 102, the cathode pad 104, and the island pad 106.
[0040]
LED chips 2A, 2B, and 2C are bonded to each pad pattern thus configured by flip chip mounting. By the flip chip mounting, the anode electrode 34 (see FIG. 2) and the anode pad 102 of the LED 22 (see FIG. 1) at the high potential end in each LED chip 2A, 2B, 2C are connected to the LED 6 (see FIG. 1) at the low potential end. Cathode electrode 44 (see FIG. 2) and cathode pad 104 are connected to each other. Each remaining electrode of each LED 6-22 is bonded to a corresponding island pad 108. The island pad 108 is not expected to have an electrical connection function (since each LED is already connected in series on the sapphire substrate as described above). The island pad 108 is provided to exhibit a function of diffusing heat generated in the LED chip 2 to the ceramic substrate side and a function of increasing the bonding strength between the LED chip 2 and the ceramic substrate.
[0041]
In addition, the LED chip 2 can be electrically connected more reliably by making the gold bump hitting the anode pad 102 and the cathode pad 104 higher than the gold bump hitting the island pad 108. Further, instead of hitting each pad with gold bumps, flip chip mounting may be performed with the gold bumps arranged on the LED chip 2.
The anode pad 102 connected to each LED chip 2A, 2B, 2C is electrically connected via the wiring pattern 110, and the end of the wiring pattern 110 is connected to the positive electrode terminal 82 via the through hole 112. It is connected. On the other hand, the cathode pad 104 connected to each LED chip 2A, 2B, 2C is electrically connected via the wiring pattern 114, and the end of the wiring pattern 114 is connected to the negative terminal via the through hole 116. 84. That is, the LED chips 2A, 2B, and 2C are connected in parallel by the wiring patterns 114 and 116.
[0042]
The lenses 74, 76, and 78 are adhered to the ceramic substrate 72 by an adhesive 118 (see FIG. 8C) after the phosphor film 100 is formed. As the adhesive, silicone resin, epoxy resin, or the like can be used. In addition to glass, epoxy resin or the like can be used as the lens material. Further, the lens can be integrally molded with the ceramic substrate 72 by molding.
[0043]
When DC power is supplied to the LED module 70 having the above configuration via the positive terminal 82 and the negative terminal 84, each LED chip 2 emits near ultraviolet light, and the near ultraviolet light is phosphor. It is converted into white light by the film 100, and the white light is emitted through the lenses 74, 76 and 78.
At this time, the disconnection between the light emitting elements (diode structure layers) hardly occurs in the LED chip 2 unless a current greatly exceeding the rating flows. This is because the light emitting elements (diode structure layers) in one LED are connected via a contact layer, and the individual LEDs are connected by a metal thin film.
[0044]
In this respect, one chip is one light emitting element (diode structure layer), and the same number (27) of LED chips as the light emitting elements (diode structure layer) in the LED chip 2 are flip-chip mounted on a ceramic substrate (hereinafter, “ Compared with “comparative example”), the probability of disconnection can be significantly reduced. In the comparative example, the connection between each LED chip (light emitting element / diode structure layer) includes a gold bump or a bonding wire for connecting the printed wiring and the LED chip in addition to the printed wiring. This is because, at the connection location, disconnection is likely to occur due to an external force applied due to thermal deformation of surrounding members and the like.
[0045]
The LED module 70 configured as described above is used by being attached to the lighting fixture 120. The LED module 70 and the lighting fixture 120 constitute a lighting device 122.
FIG. 10A is a schematic perspective view of the lighting device 122, and FIG. 10B is a bottom view of the lighting device 122.
[0046]
The lighting fixture 120 is fixed to, for example, an indoor ceiling. The luminaire 120 includes a power supply circuit (not shown) that converts AC power (for example, 100 V, 50/60 Hz) from a commercial power source into DC power necessary to drive the LED module 70.
With reference to FIG. 11, a structure for attaching the LED module 70 to the lighting fixture 120 will be described.
[0047]
The lighting fixture 120 has a circular recess 124 in which the LED module 70 is fitted. The bottom surface of the circular recess 124 is finished to be a flat surface. A female screw (not shown) is cut in a portion near the opening of the inner wall of the circular recess 124. In addition, flexible power supply terminals 126 and 128 and a guide piece 130 protrude from an inner wall between the female screw and the bottom surface. The power supply terminal 126 is a positive electrode and the power supply terminal 128 is a negative electrode. Further, a guide pin 132 is erected at the center of the bottom surface of the circular recess 124.
[0048]
As a member for attaching the LED module 70 to the lighting fixture 120, a silicon rubber O-ring 134 and a ring screw 136 are provided. The ring screw 136 has a ring shape having a substantially rectangular cross section, and a male screw (not shown) is formed on the outer periphery thereof. Further, the ring screw 136 has a cutout portion 138 formed by cutting out a part in the circumferential direction.
[0049]
Subsequently, the attachment procedure will be described.
First, the LED module 70 is fitted into the circular recess 124. At this time, the ceramic substrate 72 of the LED module 70 is positioned between the power supply terminals 126 and 128 and the bottom surface of the circular recess 124, and the guide pin 132 is inserted into the guide hole 86, and the guide recess 80, the guide piece 130, Fit in so that The center of the LED module 70 is aligned with the circular recess 124 by the guide hole 86 and the guide pin 132, and the power supply terminals 126 and 128 corresponding to the positive terminal 82 and the negative terminal 84 are formed by the guide recess 80 and the guide piece 130. And alignment.
[0050]
When the LED module 70 is fitted, the O-ring 134 is attached, and then the ring screw 136 is screwed into the circular recess 124 and fixed. As a result, the positive electrode terminal 82 and the power supply terminal 126 are in close contact with each other, and the negative electrode terminal 84 and the power supply terminal 128 are in close contact with each other, so that they are electrically connected reliably. In addition, almost the entire surface of the ceramic substrate 72 and the flat bottom surface of the circular recess 124 are in close contact with each other, so that heat generated in the LED module 70 is effectively transmitted to the lighting fixture 120, and the cooling effect of the LED module 70 is improved. It will be. In addition, in order to further increase the heat transfer efficiency of the LED module 70 to the lighting device 120, silicon grease may be applied to the bottom surfaces of the ceramic substrate 72 and the circular recess 124.
[0051]
In the lighting device 120 configured as described above, when power is supplied from a commercial power source, as described above, each LED chip 2 emits near ultraviolet light, and the near ultraviolet light is converted into white light by the phosphor film 100. The converted white light is emitted through the lenses 74, 76, and 78. When a current of 150 mA was passed through each LED module 70, the total luminous flux was 800 lm, and the central luminous intensity was 1600 cd. The emission spectrum was as shown in FIG.
[0052]
In this embodiment, the LED chip is flip-chip mounted, and there are no obstacles that prevent light emission on the light emitting surface side, i.e., the sapphire substrate side, such as electrodes and bonding wires. The shadow of the obstacle will not appear.
(Embodiment 2)
The second embodiment is basically the same as the first embodiment except that the composition of the light emitting element (diode structure layer) and the type and shape of the substrate of the LED chip are different. Therefore, description of the same components as those in the first embodiment will be omitted or simplified, and different portions will be mainly described. In the drawing of the second embodiment, the same reference numerals as those used in the first embodiment are given to the same components as those in the first embodiment.
[0053]
FIG. 13 is a partial sectional view of the LED chip 200 and corresponds to FIG.
The light emitting elements 25, 27, and 29 in the second embodiment are different from the first embodiment in that the n-GaN cladding layer (Si doping amount 3 × 1018cm-3), InGaN (thickness 2 nm) / GaN (thickness 8 nm), 6-period multiple quantum well light-emitting layer, p-GaN cladding layer (Mg doping amount 3 × 1019cm-3, And a thickness of 100 nm).
[0054]
In the first embodiment, the sapphire substrate 4 is used as the substrate. In the second embodiment, as shown in FIG. 13, a non-doped GaN substrate 202 (hereinafter simply referred to as “GaN substrate 202”). Is used.
In general, GaN-based blue to ultraviolet LEDs on a sapphire substrate have a light-emitting layer or cladding layer with a higher refractive index than that of the sapphire substrate, so that the light emitted from the light-emitting layer is transmitted to the sapphire substrate. Since the efficiency is low and most of the light is confined in the light emitting layer and the clad layer, the light extraction efficiency does not increase. Since the LED chip 200 of the second embodiment uses a GaN substrate that is the same material as the light emitting layer for the substrate, the light generated in the light emitting layer propagates to the GaN substrate with almost no reflection. Thus, almost no propagation loss occurs when a substrate having a lower refractive index than the material of the light emitting layer is used.
[0055]
Further, the back surface (light emission surface) of the GaN substrate 202 is formed on a concavo-convex surface 202A of several μm. The unevenness is formed by an etching method after the step (h) described in Embodiment 1 and before separation of individual LED chips by dicing.
Thus, by providing the light emitting surface with irregularities, the light extraction efficiency from the inside of the chip to the outside of the chip can be improved. In general, this effect becomes more prominent as the chip size increases.
[0056]
In this embodiment, since the input power per bare chip is large, the chip size is increased to reduce the thermal resistance and enhance the heat dissipation effect. Therefore, in order to reduce the decrease in light extraction efficiency caused by increasing the chip size, the uneven surface is formed.
The use of a substrate (GaN substrate) made of the same material as the light emitting layer and the concavo-convex structure provided on the GaN substrate can improve the light extraction efficiency several times compared to the case of using a sapphire substrate. Especially, chip size is 1mm2The effect becomes remarkable by the above.
[0057]
Next, an LED module 204 using the LED chip 200 will be described.
FIG. 14A shows a schematic perspective view of the LED module 204, and FIG. 14B shows a plan view of the LED module 204.
As shown in FIGS. 14A and 14B, the LED module 204 includes a ceramic substrate 206 and an optical unit 208.
[0058]
FIG. 15 is a plan view of the LED module 204 (ceramic substrate 206) with the optical unit 208 removed.
Four LED chips 200 are mounted on the ceramic substrate 206 as Philip chips. Unlike the first embodiment, the ceramic substrate 206 is a single-plate ceramic substrate. The thickness of the ceramic substrate 206 is 1.5 mm, and the diameter is 5 cm as in the first embodiment. The ceramic substrate 206 is a tilted ceramic substrate having a composition of a metal material such as copper and a ceramic material such as alumina, and the composition ratio of which changes in the thickness direction. Specifically, the composition ratio of the metal material increases as it is closer to the back surface opposite to the LED chip mounting surface, and conversely, the composition ratio of the ceramic material increases as it is closer to the LED chip mounting surface. By employing such a tilted ceramic substrate, high thermal conductivity and insulation on the LED chip mounting surface can be ensured.
[0059]
Since the pad pattern formed on the chip mounting surface of the ceramic substrate 206 is the same as that of the first embodiment shown in FIG. 9B, the illustration and description thereof are omitted.
A positive electrode terminal 210 and a negative electrode terminal 212 are formed on the chip mounting surface at the same position as in the first embodiment. The positive electrode terminal 210 and the four anode pads (not shown) to which the LED chips 200 are bonded are the wiring patterns 214, and the four cathode pads (not shown) to which the negative electrode terminal 212 and the LED chips 200 are bonded. Are connected by a wiring pattern 216. As a result, the four LED chips 200 are connected in parallel.
[0060]
The ceramic substrate 206 is provided with a guide recess 218 as in the first embodiment.
16A is a cross-sectional view taken along the line D / D in FIG. 14B, and FIG. 16B is an enlarged view of a portion E in FIG.
As shown in FIG. 16B, the LED chip 200 is covered with a phosphor film 220. The phosphor film 220 integrally covers the four LED chips 200. The phosphor film 220 is made of (Sr, Ba)2SiOFour: Eu2+A yellow phosphor such as the above is dispersed in a silicone resin, and is excited by blue light emitted from the LED chip 200 to emit yellow light. White light is obtained by mixing the blue light emitted from the LED chip 200 and the yellow light emitted from the phosphor.
[0061]
As shown in FIG. 16A, the optical unit 208 includes a reflector 222, a first lens 224, and a second lens 226.
The reflecting plate 222 is a concave mirror in which an aluminum plate or a stainless steel plate is processed into a shape as shown in the figure by pressing or the like, and the concave surface portion is finished to a mirror surface. The first lens 224 is attached to the reflection plate 222 with an adhesive 228. The second lens 226 is also attached to the upper part of the reflector 222 with an adhesive (not shown). Glass or epoxy resin can be used for the lens. An adhesive such as an epoxy resin or a silicone resin can be used. Further, the lens can be integrally formed by molding.
[0062]
In the LED module 204 having the above configuration, the white light emitted from the phosphor film 220 is transmitted through the first lens 224, and part of the white light is reflected by the reflecting surface of the concave mirror and enters the second lens 226. The portion directly enters the second lens 226 and is emitted to the outside. By combining the concave mirror and two lenses, the generated light can be efficiently extracted outside as a narrow-angle beam.
[0063]
The LED module 204 can also be attached to the lighting fixture 120 (FIGS. 10 and 11) of Embodiment 1 to form a lighting device.
When the LED module 204 was attached to a lighting fixture as in the first embodiment and a DC current of 200 mA was supplied through the positive terminal 210 and the negative terminal 212, the total luminous flux was 1500 lm and the central luminous intensity was 3000 cd. The emission spectrum was as shown in FIG.
[0064]
In the second embodiment, GaN is used as the substrate material of the LED chip. However, by using AlGaN or AlN, it is possible to realize a bare chip that emits ultraviolet light with high efficiency, and a high efficiency combined with a phosphor. A white module can be realized.
(Embodiment 3)
The third embodiment is basically the same as the second embodiment except that the type of substrate in the LED chip, the number and size of the LEDs in the chip, and the connection mode between the LEDs are different. Therefore, the description of the same components as those of the second embodiment will be omitted or simplified, and different portions will be mainly described.
[0065]
FIG. 18A is an external perspective view of the LED chip 300 according to Embodiment 3, and FIG. 18B is a plan view of the LED chip 300. FIG.
As shown in FIGS. 18A and 18B, in the LED chip 300, 16 LEDs 302 to 332 are arranged in a matrix of 4 rows and 4 columns. The size of each LED 302 to 332 in plan view is 300 μm square, and the size of the LED chip 300 is 1.2 mm square.
[0066]
In the LED chip 300, as shown in FIG. 18B, the anode electrodes of the LEDs adjacent in the row direction and the column direction are connected to the bridge wiring 334 (in the figure, only two are denoted by “334” to avoid complexity). Are attached.) Therefore, all the anode electrodes of the LEDs 302 to 332 are electrically connected. In the LED chip 300, an n-doped GaN substrate 336 (hereinafter simply referred to as “GaN substrate 336”) is used as the substrate. Therefore, all of the n-GaN cladding layers 42 (see FIG. 13) of the first light emitting elements 24 in the LEDs 302 to 332 are electrically connected via the GaN substrate 336. As a result of the connection as described above, as shown in FIG. 18C, all the LEDs 302 to 332 are connected in parallel.
[0067]
The operating voltage when current of 800 mA was passed through the LED chip 300 in a state where heat dissipation was ensured was 14V.
The LED chip 300 is mounted on a ceramic substrate similar to the ceramic substrate 206 (FIG. 15) described in the third embodiment, and constitutes an LED module similar to the LED module 204 (FIG. 14).
[0068]
However, the pad pattern for mounting the LED chip 300 is different from the pattern of the second embodiment (FIG. 9B). FIG. 19 shows a pad pattern according to the third embodiment. In FIG. 19, black circles represent gold bumps.
At the time of flip chip mounting, the anode pad 338 and the anode electrode of the LED 326 (FIG. 18B) in the LED chip 300 are bonded via a gold bump.
[0069]
The cathode pad 340 and the cathode electrodes of the LEDs 302, 304, 306, and 308 are joined through gold bumps 342, 344, 346, and 348, respectively. Further, the cathode pad 340 and the cathode electrodes of the LEDs 326, 328, 330, and 332 are joined through gold bumps 350, 352, 354, and 356, respectively.
[0070]
Other anode electrodes and cathode electrodes in the LED chip 300 are bonded to the corresponding island pads 358.
As described above, since all the n-GaN cladding layers 42 (see FIG. 13) of the first light emitting elements 24 in the LEDs 302 to 332 are electrically connected via the GaN substrate 336, they are connected to the cathode pad 340. This is because only the cathode electrode of one LED is sufficient, and it is not necessary to form a cathode electrode for the other LEDs. However, in this embodiment, all the LEDs are provided with a cathode electrode, and a corresponding pad is formed on the ceramic substrate side so that the bonding strength is enhanced by bonding in a wider area, and the heat dissipation effect is achieved. It is improving. A pad corresponding to each anode electrode is also provided for the same purpose.
[0071]
An LED module configured using the LED chip 300 may be mounted on the same lighting fixture as in the first and second embodiments to configure the lighting device.
In the lighting device, when a direct current of 3.2 A was fed through the positive electrode terminal and the negative electrode terminal on the ceramic substrate, the total luminous flux was 2500 lm and the central luminous intensity was 5000 cd. Moreover, the emission spectrum was the same as that of Embodiment 2 (FIG. 17).
(Embodiment 4)
In the first to third embodiments, a plurality of LEDs are formed on a common substrate to form a single LED chip, and each LED has a light emitting layer sandwiched between a p-type cladding layer and an n-type cladding layer. A diode structure layer (light-emitting element) was laminated in three layers via a contact layer. On the other hand, in the LED chip 400 according to the fourth embodiment, one chip is one LED, and the diode structure layer is stacked in 30 layers.
[0072]
FIG. 20A shows a cross-sectional view of the LED chip 400, and FIG. 20B shows a plan view of the LED chip 400.
As shown in FIG. 20A, in the LED chip 400, after the n-AlGaN buffer layer 404 (20 nm) is stacked on the n-type 6H—SiC substrate 402, the light-emitting layer 406 and the p-GaN cladding layer 408 are formed. Thirty layers of diode structure layers (light emitting elements) 412, 414,..., 416 sandwiched between the n-GaN clad layer 410 are stacked in series via contact layers 418, 420,. Note that the size of the 6H—SiC substrate 402 is 2 mm square in plan view.
[0073]
The structure of the lowermost light emitting element 412 is the light emitting element 24 (FIG. 2) of the first embodiment, and the structure of the upper light emitting elements 414 to 416 is the contact with the light emitting elements 26 and 28 of the first embodiment. The structure of the layers 418, 420,... Is the same as that of the contact layers 30 and 32 of the first embodiment.
The contact layer 422 has the same configuration as the contact layer 36 of the first embodiment, and the n-GaN contact layer 424 has the same configuration as the n-GaN contact layer 38 of the first embodiment.
[0074]
A cathode electrode (Ti / Al electrode) 426 is formed on the lower surface of the SiC substrate 402, and an anode electrode (Ti / Pt / Au electrode) 428 is formed on the n-GaN contact layer 424. As shown in FIG. 20C, a p-GaN contact layer 430 is formed on the p-GaN cladding layer of the uppermost light emitting element 416 in the same manner as in a general diode, and an anode electrode (Ni) is formed thereon. / Pt / Au electrode) 432 may be provided.
[0075]
In the LED chip 400 having the above configuration, the operating voltage when a current of 50 mA was applied in a state where heat dissipation was ensured was 120V.
FIG. 21 is an external perspective view of a white LED module 434 having the LED chip 400 (hereinafter simply referred to as “LED module 434”).
The LED module 434 has a circular composite substrate 436 having a diameter of 5 cm and seven glass lenses 438 to 450. The composite substrate 436 is provided with guide recesses 452 for attaching to the lighting fixture and terminals 454 and 456 for receiving power from the lighting fixture.
[0076]
22A is a plan view of the LED module 434, FIG. 22B is a cross-sectional view taken along line FF in FIG. 22A, and FIG. 22C is an enlarged view of a portion K in FIG. 22B. Respectively.
In FIG. 22A, one LED chip 400 is mounted on a composite substrate 436 corresponding to the center of each of the lenses 438 to 450 that look circular (seven in total).
[0077]
As shown in FIG. 22 (c), the composite substrate 436 has an alumina composite insulating layer (hereinafter simply referred to as “insulating layer”) 460, 462, 464 having a thickness of 100 μm on an aluminum plate 458 having a thickness of 1 mm. Are laminated. A wiring pattern for connecting the LED chips 400 between the first insulating layer 460 and the second insulating layer 462 and between the second insulating layer 462 and the third insulating layer 464 Wiring copper layers 466 and 468 having a thickness of 25 μm for forming (described later) are formed.
[0078]
The LED chip 400 is mounted on the upper surface of the first insulating layer 460. The mounting is performed by bonding the cathode electrode 426 of the LED chip 400 to the cathode pad (see FIG. 23B) formed on the upper surface of the insulating layer 460 by gold solder eutectic. Note that bump mounting may be performed instead of the gold solder eutectic. In the second insulating layer 462 and the third insulating layer 464, a through hole 470 for creating a space for mounting the LED chip 400 is formed. An anode pad (see FIG. 23B) is formed on the upper surface of the second insulating layer 462, and the anode pad and the anode electrode 428 of the LED chip 400 are connected by a bonding wire (gold wire) 472. Has been.
[0079]
The LED chip 400 is covered with a phosphor film 474. The phosphor film 474 is made of (Sr, Ba)2SiOFour: Eu2+A yellow phosphor such as is dispersed in a silicone resin. Blue light from the LED chip 400 is converted into yellow light by the phosphor in the phosphor film 474, and white light is obtained by mixing the blue light emitted from the LED chip 400 and the yellow light emitted from the phosphor.
[0080]
An aluminum reflection mirror 476 is provided on the upper surface of the composite substrate 436 (insulating layer 464), thereby improving the light extraction efficiency.
The seven LED chips 400 are connected in parallel by wiring patterns formed on the insulating layer 460 and the insulating layer 462.
FIG. 23A is a plan view of the LED module 434 with the lenses 438 to 450 and the reflection plate 476 removed.
[0081]
A pad pattern shown in FIG. 23 is printed on the surfaces of the insulating layers 460 and 462 corresponding to the mounting position of the LED chip 400. The pad pattern includes a cathode pad 478 and an anode pad 480. As the pad pattern, a copper (Cu) surface is subjected to nickel (Ni) plating and then gold (Au) plating.
[0082]
The LED chip 400 is bonded to each pad pattern thus configured as described above.
Each cathode pad 478 connected to each LED chip 400 is electrically connected via a wiring pattern 482 formed on the upper surface of the insulating layer 460, and the wiring pattern 482 is connected to a negative electrode via a through hole 484. A terminal 456 is connected. On the other hand, the anode pad 480 connected to each LED chip 400 is electrically connected via the wiring pattern 486, and the wiring pattern 486 is connected to the positive electrode terminal 454 via the through hole 488. That is, the seven LED chips 400 are connected in parallel by the wiring patterns 482 and 486.
[0083]
The lenses 438 to 450 are attached to the composite substrate 436 by an adhesive 490 (see FIG. 22C) after the reflector 476 is attached and the phosphor film 474 is formed.
The LED module 434 configured as described above is used by being attached to a lighting fixture similar to the lighting fixtures of the first to third embodiments. The LED module 434 and the lighting fixture constitute a lighting device.
[0084]
When a direct current 350 mA was fed to the LED module 434 attached to the lighting fixture through the positive terminal 488 and the negative terminal 456, the color temperature was 5400 k, the average color rendering index was 70, the total luminous flux was 800 lm, and the central luminous intensity was 1600 cd. The emission spectrum was the same as shown in FIG.
Note that the absorption edge of the 6H—SiC substrate is in the vicinity of 420 nm, and when a light-emitting layer having a shorter wavelength than that is provided, the efficiency decreases due to absorption. Therefore, for example, when near ultraviolet light is used as excitation light, a 4H—SiC substrate may be used instead of the 6H—SiC substrate. It is also effective to form a highly reflective film made of a dielectric multilayer film or a semiconductor multilayer film between the SiC substrate and the light emitting element to prevent the light emitted from the light emitting element from going to the SiC substrate side. .
[0085]
In the above example, the LED chip 400 is joined to the cathode electrode 426 by soldering. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and flip chip mounting may be used.
As described above, the present invention has been described based on the embodiments. However, the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, and for example, the following embodiments can be employed.
(1) The emission color of the LED chip, the type of phosphor, and the combination thereof for obtaining white light are not limited to the above-described embodiments, and can be as follows, for example.
[0086]
(1) A blue phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet and emitting blue light + a green phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet and emitting green light + a red phosphor excited by the near ultraviolet light and emitting red light.
(2) Blue phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet and emitting blue light + Green phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet and emitting green light + Yellow phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet light and emitting yellow light + Excited by the near ultraviolet light and red A red phosphor that emits light.
[0087]
(3) A blue phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet and emitting blue light + a yellow phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet and emitting yellow light.
(4) A blue phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet and emitting blue light + a yellow phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet light and emitting yellow light + a red phosphor excited in the near ultraviolet light and emitting red light.
(5) Blue phosphor that is excited in the near ultraviolet and emits blue light + Green phosphor that emits green light that is excited by blue light emitted from blue phosphor + Red phosphor that is excited by blue light emitted from blue phosphor and emits red light body.
[0088]
(6) Blue phosphor that is excited in the near ultraviolet and emits blue light + Green phosphor that emits green light that is excited by blue light emitted from blue phosphor + Red phosphor that is excited by green light emitted from green phosphor and emits red light body.
The blue light is light having a main emission peak in a wavelength range of 400 nm or more and less than 500 nm, the green light is light having a main emission peak in a wavelength range of 500 nm or more and less than 550 nm, and the yellow light is 550 nm or more and 600 nm. The light having the main emission peak in the wavelength range of less than the above-mentioned red light was defined to indicate light having the main emission peak in the wavelength range of 600 nm or more and less than 680 nm.
[0089]
Further, as the blue phosphor, (Ba, Sr) MgAlTenO17: Eu2+, (Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg)TenMg (POFour)6Cl2: Eu2+As the green phosphor, BaMgAlTenO17: Eu2+, Mn2+, (Ba, Sr)2SiOFour: Eu2+As a yellow phosphor, (Ba, Sr)2SiOFour: Eu2+, (Y, Gd)ThreeAlFiveO12: Ce3+As a red phosphor, La2O2S: Eu3+, CaS: Eu2+However, the present invention is basically not limited by the type of phosphor.
[0090]
Taking the case of (2) above as an example, this will be described in more detail.2O2S: Eu3+Etc.), green (color BaMgAlTenO17: Eu2+Mn2+Etc.), yellow ((Sr, Ba)2SiOFour: Eu2+Etc.), blue ((Ba, Sr) MgAlTenO17: Eu2+Etc.) in a suitable ratio, binders such as phosphorous oxide and boron oxide, SiO2A paste in which a thickener such as ultrafine particles and nitrocellulose is mixed with a butyl acetate solvent is applied to the bare chip mounting portion and dried, and then fixed and formed in an air atmosphere at 400 ° C. for several minutes. At this time, the organic component is not burned, and a phosphor film fixed by the binder is formed. The center particle size of the ultrafine particles is several 10 to several 100 nm,2Besides Al2OThree, ZnO, Y2OThreeTiO2, ZrO2, HfO2, SnO2, Ta2OThree, Nb2OFive, BaSOFour, ZnS, V2OFiveOr a mixture of these materials can be used.
(2) In the above embodiment, the wavelength of light emitted from each light emitting element (diode structure layer) on one LED is the same. However, the wavelength of each light emitting element (diode structure layer) is different. It can also emit light. AlInGaN-based materials are known as materials that emit from red light to ultraviolet light by appropriately adjusting the combination of Al, In, and Ga, which are Group 3 materials, and the ratio thereof. By utilizing this fact, it is possible to emit white light without using a phosphor by forming two or more types of light emitting elements (diode structure layers) so as to emit at least two wavelengths in one LED. Become.
[0091]
For example, if two colors of blue and yellow, three colors of blue, green and red, and four colors of blue, green, yellow and red are emitted from one LED, white light is emitted by one LED. It becomes possible.
Further, a light emitting element (diode structure layer) emitting blue and red and a yellow phosphor ((Ba, Sr))2SiOFour: Eu2+, (Y, Gd)ThreeAlFiveO12: Ce3+Etc.) can be combined to realize white light having an average color rendering index higher than that of a general blue LED and a white LED using a yellow phosphor.
(3) In the above embodiment, the number of light emitting elements (diode structure layers) in one LED is 3 or 30, but the number of light emitting elements (diode structure layers) is limited to this. Instead, it may be 2 or 4 to 29 or 31 or more. In short, it is sufficient to provide at least two light emitting elements (diode structure layers).
[0092]
In addition, in the first and second embodiments, nine LEDs are formed per LED chip, and in the third embodiment, 16 LEDs are formed. However, the number of LEDs per LED chip is as follows. It is not limited to these, and may be 2 to 8, 10 to 15, or 17 or more. Further, the arrangement of the LEDs on one LED chip is not limited to the above-described matrix shape, and may be arranged linearly, for example.
(4) In the above embodiment, the LED chip is mounted using bumps or solder. However, the LED chip may be directly bonded to the electrode on the mounting substrate without using bumps or solder.
(5) The power from the lighting fixture to the LED module may be supplied not only by constant current control but also by constant voltage control.
[0093]
Moreover, you may make it provide a constant current circuit and a protection circuit in the LED module side.
(6) In the above embodiment, the LED chip is directly mounted on the mounting substrate (ceramic substrate or composite substrate), but it is also possible to mount it on the mounting substrate via a submount such as a Si substrate. . It is also possible to mount a plurality of LED chips on a submount and mount them on a mounting board. At that time, a protection circuit or the like may be provided on the submount substrate.
(7) In the above embodiment, as a method for improving the light extraction efficiency from the LED chip, the concave-convex structure is provided on the LED chip surface (light emitting surface). However, it can also be provided in the LED chip. .
[0094]
In addition, the concavo-convex structure is more effective in a periodic structure called a photonic crystal (PC) structure or a photonic band gap (PBG) structure than an irregular concavo-convex structure. In general, the PC structure and the PBG structure are arranged in the laminating direction like a periodic structure in which irregularities appear in the plane direction at intervals of a micron order to λ / 4 order (λ is a wavelength in the medium) or a distributed feedback mirror (DBR) structure. A short-period structure that has the function of selectively reflecting and transmitting a specific wavelength.
[0095]
There are variations depending on the substrate material used, the mounting form, the sealing form, etc. in which position (between layers) of the LED chip the PC structure, the PBG structure, or the uneven structure described in the embodiment is provided. .
(8) In the first to fourth embodiments described above, a plurality of LED chips are connected in parallel on a printed wiring board (ceramic substrate, composite substrate). May be. Such connection can be easily realized by appropriately changing the wiring pattern on the printed wiring board.
[0096]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, according to the LED according to the present invention, the diode structure layer in which the light emitting layer is sandwiched between the p-type clad layer and the n-type clad layer is laminated through the contact layer. The luminance per unit light emitting surface of the LED can be improved as compared with the conventional LED having only a single diode structure layer. As a result, for example, when a plurality of LEDs are mounted to form a module or lighting device, if the luminance is the same, the LED according to the present invention is more suitable than the conventional LED. It becomes possible to reduce the number of LEDs. In other words, when the LED according to the present invention is used, the LED mounting area is reduced, and the LED module and the lighting device can be downsized.
[0097]
Since the LED chip according to the present invention is composed of the LED, the same effects as described above can be obtained.
According to the LED module according to the present invention, since it is configured by the above-described LED or LED chip, the module can be reduced in size for the same reason as described above.
[0098]
According to the illumination device according to the present invention, since the LED module is provided, the entire device can be reduced in size.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1A is a perspective view of an LED chip according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
(B) is a top view of the LED chip.
(C) is a connection diagram in the LED chip.
2 is a partial cross-sectional view of an LED chip according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
3 is a partial cross-sectional view of the LED chip according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
4 is a diagram for explaining the manufacturing method of the LED chip according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
5 is a diagram for explaining the manufacturing method of the LED chip according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
6 is a diagram for explaining a manufacturing method of the LED chip according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
7 is a perspective view of the LED module according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
8A is a plan view of the LED module according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
(B) is the BB sectional drawing in (a).
(C) is the C section enlarged view in (b).
9A is a diagram showing a state where a lens is removed from the LED module according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
(B) is a figure which shows the pad pattern formed on the ceramic substrate which comprises the LED module of Embodiment 1. FIG.
FIG. 10A is a perspective view showing a lighting apparatus according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
(B) is a bottom view of the illumination device.
11 is an exploded perspective view of the lighting device according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
12 is a diagram showing an emission spectrum of the lighting apparatus according to Embodiment 1. FIG.
13 is a partial cross-sectional view of an LED chip according to Embodiment 2. FIG.
14A is a perspective view of an LED module according to Embodiment 2. FIG.
(B) is a bottom view of the LED module.
15 is a diagram showing a state where an optical unit is removed from the LED module according to Embodiment 2. FIG.
16 (a) is a cross-sectional view taken along line D / D in FIG. 14 (b).
(B) is the E section enlarged view in the above (a).
17 shows an emission spectrum of the lighting apparatus according to Embodiment 2. FIG.
FIG. 18A is a perspective view of an LED chip according to Embodiment 3. FIG.
(B) is a top view of the LED chip.
(C) is a connection diagram in the LED chip.
19 is a diagram showing a pad pattern formed on a ceramic substrate constituting the LED module of Embodiment 3. FIG.
20A is a cross-sectional view of an LED chip according to Embodiment 4. FIG.
(B) is a top view of the LED chip.
(C) is a figure which shows the modification of the said LED chip.
FIG. 21 is a perspective view showing an LED module according to Embodiment 4. FIG.
22A is a plan view of an LED module according to Embodiment 4. FIG.
(B) is the FF line sectional drawing in (a).
(C) is the K section enlarged view in (b).
FIG. 23 (a) is a diagram showing a state where a lens and a reflection plate are removed from the LED module according to Embodiment 4;
(B) is a figure which shows the pad pattern formed on the composite substrate which comprises the LED module of Embodiment 4. FIG.
[Explanation of symbols]
2, 200, 300, 400 LED chip
4 Sapphire substrate
6-22, 302-332 LED
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 412, 414, 416 Diode structure layer
30, 32, 418, 420 Contact layer
70, 204, 434 LED module
122 Illumination device
202 GaN substrate
402 n-SiC substrate

Claims (3)

  1. A plurality of diode structure layers each having a multiple quantum well light emitting layer sandwiched between a p-type cladding layer and an n-type cladding layer via a contact layer, and the contact layer is provided on the p-type cladding layer side. A GaN-based structure comprising an n-type heavily doped layer provided on the n-type clad layer side and an electrically connected adjacent diode structure layer and transmitting light emitted from the light-emitting layer At least two LEDs made of a semiconductor material are formed by crystal growth on the same substrate made of a material that transmits light from the light emitting layer ,
    In each LED, a cathode electrode is connected to the n-type cladding layer closest to the substrate, and an anode electrode is connected to the p-type cladding layer farthest from the substrate,
    An insulating film is formed on the side wall of each LED,
    And one LED anode electrode and another LED of the cathode electrode of the the bridge wiring consisting這設metal thin film on an insulating film that is electrically connected L ED chip flip-chip mounted on a printed wiring board LED module,
    The printed wiring board corresponds to the electrodes other than the anode electrode of the LED on the high potential side end and the cathode electrode on the low potential side end of the LEDs electrically connected by the bridge wiring in the LED chip. Provided with electrically isolated island pads,
    The LED module, wherein the corresponding other electrode is bonded to each island pad via a bump.
  2. The LED module according to claim 1 , further comprising a phosphor film that covers the LED chip and converts light from the light emitting layer into light of a different color.
  3. An illumination device comprising the LED module according to claim 1 .
JP2003185508A 2003-06-27 2003-06-27 LED module and lighting device Expired - Fee Related JP4699681B2 (en)

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