JP2003524443A - Medical guidance device - Google Patents

Medical guidance device

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Publication number
JP2003524443A
JP2003524443A JP2000565784A JP2000565784A JP2003524443A JP 2003524443 A JP2003524443 A JP 2003524443A JP 2000565784 A JP2000565784 A JP 2000565784A JP 2000565784 A JP2000565784 A JP 2000565784A JP 2003524443 A JP2003524443 A JP 2003524443A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
electromagnetic radiation
catheter
position
probe
device
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2000565784A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
ピンハス ギルボア
ダニー ブレチェール
Original Assignee
スーパー ディメンション リミテッド
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to IL12562698A priority Critical patent/IL125626D0/en
Priority to IL125626 priority
Priority to IL126814 priority
Priority to IL12681498A priority patent/IL126814D0/en
Application filed by スーパー ディメンション リミテッド filed Critical スーパー ディメンション リミテッド
Priority to PCT/IL1999/000371 priority patent/WO2000010456A1/en
Publication of JP2003524443A publication Critical patent/JP2003524443A/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=26323687&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=JP2003524443(A) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/06Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/06Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
    • A61B5/061Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body
    • A61B5/062Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body using magnetic field
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2046Tracking techniques
    • A61B2034/2051Electromagnetic tracking systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2072Reference field transducer attached to an instrument or patient
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/05Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
    • A61B5/055Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves involving electronic [EMR] or nuclear [NMR] magnetic resonance, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/02Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes; Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/03Computerised tomographs
    • A61B6/032Transmission computed tomography [CT]
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/08Detecting organic movements or changes, e.g. tumours, cysts, swellings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/42Details of probe positioning or probe attachment to the patient
    • A61B8/4245Details of probe positioning or probe attachment to the patient involving determining the position of the probe, e.g. with respect to an external reference frame or to the patient

Abstract

SUMMARY An apparatus and method are provided for tracking the position and orientation of a probe, such as a catheter having a lateral inner diameter of about 2 mm or less. Using three flat antennas at least partially overlapping, the electromagnetic radiation is transmitted simultaneously with the radiation transmitted by each antenna having its respective spectrum. In the case of a single frequency spectrum, the antenna is provided with a mechanism to decouple them from each other. The receiver inside the probe includes sensors for the three components of the transmitted magnetic field, and symmetrically couples the sensors for at least two of these components to a common reference point as pairs of sensors such as coils. Arrange.

Description

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0001]

[Industrial applications]

The present invention relates to electromagnetic tracking devices, and more particularly to devices and methods for tracking a medical probe, such as a catheter, as it travels within a patient's body.

[0002]

[Prior art]

Equipped with a transmitter that emits electromagnetic radiation to a moving object, the receiver is placed at a well-known fixed position on the reference fixed frame, and the transmitter transmits the position and direction of the object that changes continuously, and the receiver A method for tracking the position and direction of a moving object with respect to a fixed frame serving as a reference by inferring from the signal received by the is already known. Similarly, the principle of interaction equips a moving object with a receiver and mounts the transmitter in a known fixed position within a reference fixed frame. Generally, the transmitter has three orthogonal magnetic dipole transmit antennas, the receiver has three orthogonal magnetic dipole receive sensors, and the object is a stationary device (transmitter or The receiver is reasonably close, the frequency of the signal is low enough, and the signal is a near field signal. Also, a commonly used device is a closed loop device, i.e. the receiver is directly coupled to the transmitter and is explicitly synchronized. Typical prior art patents in this area are Egli et al.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,287,809 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,394,8
No. 31, U.S. Pat. No. 4,737,794 issued to Jones,
U.S. Pat. No. 4,742,356 to Kuipers, U.S. Pat. No. 4,849,692 to Blood, and El Har.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,347,289 to Hardt). Some of the prior art patents, particularly Jones's, have proposed non-iterative algorithms for computing the position and orientation of a magnetic dipole transmitter relative to a magnetic dipole receiver.

For an important variation on these devices, see US Pat.
, 600, 330. In Brad's device, the transmitter is fixed to a fixed reference frame and the receiver is attached to a moving object. Brad's transmit antenna is spatially extended and cannot be treated as a point source. Brad also proposed an algorithm that can non-iteratively calculate only the orientation of the receiver with respect to the transmitter (not including position).

Devices similar to Brad's device are useful for tracking probes such as catheters and endoscopes as they travel within the body of a medical patient. In this method of application, a transmitting antenna with sufficient power does not fit within the limited size of the probe, so that the receiver is located inside the probe and the transmitter is located outside the patient. Is especially important. A typical prior art for this type of device is PCT WO96 / 05768 entitled "Medical Diagnosis, Treatment and Imaging System", which is hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes. It is described in. Methods of applying such devices to the medical field include myocardial revascularization, balloon catheterization, stent implantation, electrocardiography, and insertion of nerve stimulation electrodes into the brain.

Perhaps the most important application method of this tracking method is Acker's PCT Publication No. US Pat. No. 5,729,12 in connection with WO95 / 09562
It is the in-vivo induction described in No. 9. It is possible to obtain three-dimensional images of the patient such as CT and MRI images. The image includes fiducial markers at predetermined fiducial points on the surface of the patient. An auxiliary receiver, similar to that of the probe, is placed at the reference point. The signal received by the auxiliary receiver is used to position the image relative to the reference transmitter frame so that the icon representing the probe can be displayed in the correct position and orientation with respect to the image overlaid on a piece of the image. The physician can thus see the position and orientation of the probe with respect to the patient's organs.

WO 96/05768 describes another limitation imposed on this device by the small inner dimensions of the probe. In most conventional devices, such as the Egli et al. Device, the receiver sensor is three concentric, orthogonal coils wound on a ferrite core. This coil is coaxial in the sense that its centers coincide. Such a receiver with sufficient sensitivity is not suitable inside a medical probe. Therefore, WO96 / 05768 is co-linear, i.e. located three-dimensionally in front of one another, as shown in Figure 3 of WO96 / 05768, with its center located along the axis of the probe. This reduces the accuracy of position and orientation measurements. Because, instead of detecting three independent magnetic field components at the same point in space, this receiver detects three independent magnetic field components at three different, adjacent points in space. .

An even greater concession to accommodate the small internal dimensions of the catheter of the device described in WO96 / 05768 is the use of an air wound coil rather than a conventional ferrite core. By measuring the interconnection strength of a collinear coil wound on a ferrite core and three independent magnetic field components at three different points in space, these measurements were significantly distorted and measured at one point. The result is fatally different from the value.

Another drawback of the device of WO 96/05768 is the shape of the transmitter antenna. These are three non-overlapping flat coplanar coils, preferably arranged in a triangle. The strength of the magnetic field transmitted by one of these coils corresponds to the reciprocal cube at a distance from the coil, and the receiver usually detects magnetic fields of very different strengths, so that the position and direction of the measurement are Accuracy is further reduced. Acker solves this problem by automatically augmenting the force transmitted to the transmitter coil far away from the receiver. Also, U.S. Pat. No. 5,752, issued to Acker et al.
No. 513 solves this problem by stacking coplanar transmit coils.

Acker et al. Transmit time multiplexed DC signals. This time multiplexing slows down the measurement. Although this problem can be overcome by frequency multiplexing as taught in WO96 / 05768, the transmitter coils are linked with a mutual inductance of non-zero transmission frequency and the shape of the transmitted magnetic field depends on a single coil. There is a new problem that the coil is not a simple shape but a more complicated shape due to some connected coils. This complicates the calculation of the position and orientation of the receiver with respect to the transmitter coil and reduces speed. Mutual induction modification “Mutual Induc
PCT publication WO 97/36143 entitled "tion Correction" solves this problem by generating a reverse magnetic field in each transmitter coil that cancels the magnetic field generated by the other transmitter coil.

Another cause of slow receiver position and orientation calculations is the repeatability of calculations required by spatially extended transmitters. As mentioned above, Brad iteratively calculates the position of the receiver. Even in the case of DC, Acker et al. Iteratively calculates the position and orientation of the receiver.

[0011]

[Problems to be Solved by the Invention]

Thus, there is a widely recognized need for a faster, more accurate method of tracking a medical probe within a patient's body, and it is highly beneficial to establish that method.

[0012]

[Means for Solving the Problems]

According to the invention, a plurality of first sensors are included, each first sensor detecting a different component of the vector force field, and each first sensor being centered on a common reference point within the probe. A first sensor provides a device for tracking the position and orientation of a probe, characterized in that it comprises two symmetrically arranged sensor elements, the first sensor being mounted inside the probe.

According to the invention, (a) the object is provided with three independent sensors of electromagnetic radiation; (b) each has a fixed position in a reference frame, at least one of which extends spatially. And (c) transmitting electromagnetic radiation using the transmitting antenna, the first transmitting antenna transmitting electromagnetic radiation in the first spectrum, The second transmitting antenna transmits electromagnetic radiation of a second spectrum different from the first spectrum, and the third transmitting antenna transmits electromagnetic radiation of a third spectrum different from the first spectrum. (D) receiving a signal corresponding to electromagnetic radiation in synchronization with transmission of the electromagnetic radiation a plurality of times in all three sensors; and (e) non-repetitively from the signal. Object position A method of determining the position and orientation of an object with respect to a reference frame, including the step of estimating the position and the orientation.

According to the invention: (a) a plurality of at least partially overlapping transmit antennas;
(B) a mechanism for exciting the transmitting antennas to cause each transmitting antenna to simultaneously transmit electromagnetic radiation having a different spectrum; and (c) at least one associated with an object that functionally produces a signal corresponding to the electromagnetic radiation. Two electromagnetic field sensors; (d)
Provided is a device for determining the position and direction of an object, which includes a mechanism for estimating the position and direction of the object from a signal.

Furthermore, according to the invention, (a) a plurality of at least partially overlapping transmit antennas; and (b) a mechanism for exciting the transmit antennas to transmit electromagnetic radiation of one independent frequency and phase. And (c) a mechanism characterized in that each transmitting antenna includes a mechanism for decoupling each transmitting antenna from the electromagnetic radiation transmitted by every other transmitting antenna; Provided is a device for determining the position and orientation of an object, comprising: at least one electromagnetic field sensor functionally producing a corresponding signal; and (d) a mechanism for inferring the position and orientation of the object from this signal. ing.

Further, according to the present invention, (a) a machine frame having a lateral inner dimension of about 2 mm or less;
) Providing a catheter including at least one coil wound around a solid core mounted in a machine casing.

Further according to the invention: (a) a receiver of electromagnetic radiation located inside the probe; (b) a device for taking an image of the body; (c) a fixed reference to the device. A device for guiding a probe in the body, comprising a transmitter of electromagnetic radiation including at least one antenna rigidly attached to the device to form a frame.

Furthermore, according to the invention: (a) a first receiver of electromagnetic radiation located inside the probe; (b) a device for obtaining an image of the body; (c) a device And a second receiver of electromagnetic radiation rigidly attached to the device to form a fixed frame of reference and a device for guiding the probe within the body.

Furthermore, according to the present invention, (a) a step of providing a device for obtaining an image of the body; And (c) displaying the probe by superimposing the display of the probe on the image of the body according to its position and direction, and guiding the probe in the body.

Furthermore, according to the invention, a device for detecting an electromagnetic field at one point comprises at least four detection elements, at least two of which are located off that point. We provide a device to do this.

Furthermore, according to the invention, (a) providing three independent electromagnetic radiation sensors on the object; (b) each having a fixed position in the reference frame, at least one being spatially Providing three extending independent transmitting antennas; (c) transmitting electromagnetic radiation using the transmitting antennas, the first transmitting antenna transmitting electromagnetic radiation in the first spectrum. And the second transmitting antenna transmits electromagnetic radiation of a second spectrum different from the first spectrum, and the third transmitting antenna transmits electromagnetic radiation of a third spectrum different from the first spectrum. And (d) receiving a signal corresponding to the electromagnetic radiation in synchronization with the transmission of the electromagnetic radiation a plurality of times in all three sensors; (e) amplitude of the signal. Set of Establishing an overdetermined set of linear equations associated with each of the sensors and one of the amplitudes for each of the transmit antennas;
(F) solving the set of linear equations to obtain the amplitude, and determining the position and orientation of the object with respect to the reference frame.

Further, according to the present invention, (a) a step of providing a device for obtaining an image of the body; (b) at the same time, (i) taking an image of the body, and (ii) the position and direction with respect to the image of the body. And (c) obtaining the position and orientation of the probe with respect to the body, and (d) superimposing the display of the probe on the image of the body according to both the location and both directions. A method of inducing a probe is provided.

Furthermore, according to the present invention, there is provided a device for detecting an electromagnetic field at a single point, comprising:
) Two sensing elements comprising a first lead and a second lead, said first leads being electrically connected to each other and to ground; (b) a differential amplifier, A differential amplifier characterized in that the second leads are electrically connected to different input terminals of the differential amplifier, respectively.

Further in accordance with the invention: (a) an outer sleeve having an end; (b) an inner sleeve having an end and slidably mounted within the outer sleeve; and (c) an outer sleeve. A catheter is provided that includes a first flexible member connecting an end to an end of an inner sleeve; and (d) a first coil attached to the first flexible member.

Furthermore, according to the invention, (a) at least one transmitting antenna for transmitting an electromagnetic field; and (b) two antennas associated with the object and responsive to the first component of the transmitted electromagnetic field. A first electromagnetic field sensor including a sensing element, wherein each sensing element has a first lead and a second lead, the first lead being electrically connected to each other and to ground. And (c) a first differential amplifier, wherein the second leads are electrically connected to different input terminals of the first differential amplifier, respectively. Apparatus for determining the position and orientation of an object, including a differential amplifier.

Furthermore, according to the present invention, (a) a conductive surface; (b) a magnetic permeability compensator;
(C) A mechanism for fixing the compensator to the surface and substantially suppressing the distortion of the external electromagnetic field caused by the surface.

Further in accordance with the present invention, (a) a machine casing including diametrically opposed holes of the first pair; (b) a first core mounted in the first pair of holes; (c) ) A device for detecting an electromagnetic field comprising a first conductive coil wrapped around a core.

According to the present invention, (a) a substantially cylindrical catheter; (b) a satellite; (c) a catheter and a fixed position and orientation of the satellite relative to the catheter after the satellite has been inserted into the body cavity. And a mechanism for reversibly immobilizing the probe to the body cavity.

Each receiving sensor of the present invention includes two sensor elements symmetrically located with respect to a reference point within the probe, so that all sensor element pairs share the same reference point. , The magnetic field component to be measured is not measured at three different points, even though the inner dimension of the probe in the lateral direction is limited as in the conventional device.
It represents the magnetic field component value at one reference point. By arranging the sensor elements symmetrically with respect to the reference point, the magnetic field component to be measured represents the magnetic field component of the reference point, even though the individual detection elements are not centered on the reference point. This state in which the center is not aligned with the reference point is referred to as an eccentric arrangement with respect to the reference point.

In one preferred embodiment of the receiver of the present invention, the sensor element is a helical coil. Inside each sensor, the coils are connected in series in parallel with each other.
As in conventional receivers, the coil is centered in the sensor on the axis of the probe. To ensure that the coils of the different sensors are perpendicular to each other, the probe frame is formed with a pair of diametrically opposed holes that are perpendicular to each other and whose axes are perpendicular to the axis of the probe. Both ends are wrapped around a core that extends beyond the ends of each coil, with both ends of the core mounted in respective holes.

In another embodiment of the receiver of the invention with three sensors, the sensor element is a flat rectangular coil bent to the cylindrical inner surface shape of the probe.
The sensor elements of the three sensors are interleaved around a cylindrical surface. this,
An advantage of a further preferred embodiment over the first preferred embodiment is that this preferred embodiment leaves space in the probe for the insertion of other medical devices.

As mentioned above, in any sensor, the coils are connected in series. This connection is grounded. The other end of each coil is connected by one of the twisted pairs of wires to another input terminal of the differential amplifier.

In a preferred embodiment of the cardiac catheter incorporating the receiver of the present invention, the catheter has an inner sleeve slidably mounted within an outer sleeve. One of the sensors includes two coils inside the inner sleeve, mounted toward the tip of the catheter. The tip of the inner sleeve is connected to the tip of the outer sleeve by a flexible strip. Other sensors each have two coils mounted on opposite lateral edges of a pair of flexible strips flanking the inner sleeve, the inner sleeve of the pair of two members. It has been extended. When the inner sleeve is in the extended position relative to the outer sleeve, the flexible strip lies flat against the inner sleeve to allow the catheter to be manipulated through the patient's blood vessel and toward the patient's heart. become. Once the end of the catheter has been introduced to the target location in the heart, the inner sleeve is withdrawn from the outer sleeve to a retracted position, the pair of flexible strips forming a circle concentric with the reference point. Also,
The outward facing surface of the flexible strip, and optionally the tip of the inner sleeve,
Electrodes for electrophysiological mapping of the heart are also attached. Alternatively, the electrode attached to the tip of the inner sleeve can be used for cardiac tissue ablation, for example in the case of rapid heart ventricular therapy.

Another preferred embodiment of the cardiac catheter of the present invention has an inflatable balloon connecting the tips of the inner and outer sleeves. The outer sensor coil is mounted on the outer surface of the balloon. When the inner sleeve is in the extended position relative to the outer sleeve, the balloon is in flat, close contact with the inner sleeve and the catheter can be maneuvered through the patient's blood vessels toward the patient's heart. Once the end of the catheter has been introduced to the desired location on the heart, the inner sleeve is withdrawn from the outer sleeve to a retracted position and the balloon is inflated into a spherical shape concentric with the reference point.

The main application of the receiver of the present invention is to track the probe by receiving the externally generated electromagnetic radiation, but within the scope of the present invention is the externally generated vector force. Similar tracking based on the reception of fields, eg time-varying isotropic elastic fields, is also included.

The algorithm for estimating the position and orientation of the receiver relative to the transmitter according to the present invention is similar to the algorithm described in co-pending Israel patent application No. 122578. The signal received by the receiver is transformed into a 3x3 matrix M. The columns of M correspond to linear combinations of the amplitudes of the transmitted magnetic fields. Row M corresponds to the sensor of the receiver. The 3x3 position matrix W and the 3x3 rotation matrix T, which are rotationally invariant, can be inferred from the matrix M non-iteratively. The Euler angle representing the direction of the receiver with respect to the transmitting antenna is calculated non-iteratively from the element of T, and the Cartesian coordinate of the receiver with respect to the transmitting antenna is calculated from the element of W. Use pre-calibration of the device by explicitly measuring the signals received by the receiver sensor at a series of receiver positions and orientations or by theoretically predicting these signals at a series of receiver position and orientations Then, the polynomial coefficient to be used in the non-iterative calculation of Euler angle and Cartesian coordinates is obtained. In essence, the time taken for iterative calculations is used as the time taken for initial calibration. The simplification of the inventive algorithm compared to IL122578 is that the inventive device is a closed loop device.

A preferred form of the transmit antenna of the present invention is an at least partially overlapping set of flat, substantially coplanar coils. Unlike the preferred arrangement of Acker et al., Not all coils need to overlap all other coils as long as each coil overlaps at least one other coil. The most preferable form of the transmitting antenna of the present invention is composed of three antennas. Two of the antennas are adjacent to each other and form an outer circumference. The third antenna partially follows the outer circumference and also partially overlaps the first two antennas. First of M
The elements in the column are the sum of the field amplitudes attributed to the first two antennas. The element in the second column of M is the difference in field amplitudes attributable to the first two antennas. Also M
The element in the third column of is the field amplitude attributed to the third antenna and the field attributed to the fourth antenna that overlaps some of the first two antennas but not the third antenna. Is a first-order combination of the field amplitudes, which corresponds to the difference between the

The signals transmitted by the various antennas of the present invention have different and independent spectra. As used herein, the term "spectrum" includes both the amplitude and phase of the transmitted signal as a function of frequency. Therefore, for example, when one antenna transmits a signal proportional to cos ωt and another antenna transmits a signal proportional to sin ωt, even if both of the amplitude spectra are proportional to δ (ω), It is said that the two signals have independent frequency spectra because their phases are different. As used herein, the term "independent spectrum" means that one spectrum is not proportional to another spectrum. Therefore, for example, when one antenna transmits a signal corresponding to cos ωt and another antenna transmits a signal corresponding to 2 cos ωt, the spectrums of the two signals are not independent. In the scope of the present invention, only the phase is different,
Although independent transmission signals having the same frequency are also included, in the example shown below, only independent transmission signals having different frequency contents are described.

[0039] The transmit antennas may be decoupled and each antenna may only transmit at a single frequency different from the frequency transmitted by the other antenna, or two antennas at a single frequency but between two signals. Is transmitted while maintaining a predetermined phase relationship, the method adopted by the present invention is to make each antenna look like an open circuit to the field transmitted by the other antenna. It is to excite. Therefore, the excitation circuit of the present invention includes an active circuit element such as a differential amplifier, unlike a conventional excitation circuit that includes only passive elements such as a capacitor and a resistor. A smallpox excitation circuit is a circuit that applies a current having a desired transmission spectrum to an antenna, and has a function of detecting transmission by another antenna having another spectrum and generating a compensation current, for example, in WO 97/36143. Unlike a circuit like.

With respect to intracorporeal guidance, it is within the scope of the present invention to simultaneously image and display a patient and display the probe in the patient's body relative to the image, similar to a probe oriented and oriented with respect to the patient. Positioning and orienting and overlaying display on it.
This can be accomplished by positioning and orienting the imaging device in one of two relative to the transmitter reference frame. Either the transmit antenna is rigidly attached to the imaging device, or the second receiver is rigidly attached to the imaging device, and the position and orientation of the imaging device with respect to the transmitter is relative to the transmitter. It is determined in the same way as the position and direction of the probe. This eliminates the need for reference points and reference markers. The scope of the present invention includes two-dimensional and three-dimensional images, as well as imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, ultrasound and fluoroscopy. Medical applications for which the present invention is particularly suitable include transesophageal echocardiography, intravascular ultrasound and intracardiac ultrasound. The term "image" as used herein with respect to body guidance is an image of the inside of the patient's body, not an image of the patient's appearance.

In some circumstances, the present invention facilitates navigation through the body, even if imaging is performed prior to guiding the probe inside the patient while viewing the image. The third receiver is rigidly secured to the limb of the patient undergoing the medical procedure. During imaging, the position and orientation of the third receiver with respect to the imaging device is determined as described above. Thereby, the position and direction of the limb with respect to the image can be determined. Then, while the probe is moving through the limb, the position and orientation of the probe with respect to the limb is determined using the second method above,
The probe is positioned and oriented with respect to the imaging device during simultaneous imaging and guidance. If the position and orientation of the probe with respect to the limbs and the direction and position of the limbs with respect to the image are known, it is easy to estimate the position and orientation of the probe with respect to the image.

Many imaging devices used in accordance with the present invention have a conductive surface. One important example of such an imaging device is a fluoroscope, the image intensifier of which has a conductive front surface. According to the present invention, the imaging device includes a magnetically transparent compensator that suppresses the distortion of the electromagnetic field near the conductive surface as a result of eddy currents being induced in the conductive surface by the electromagnetic waves transmitted by the transmitting antenna of the present invention. I have it.

Also within the scope of the invention is a method of later attaching a device, such as the receiver of the invention, to a catheter to improve a probe for examining or treating a body cavity of a patient. The tether allows the device and the catheter to relax the mechanical connection between the device and the catheter during insertion into the patient. When the device and catheter reach the desired body cavity, the tether is retracted and the device is pulled into the pocket on the catheter. The pocket then holds the device in a fixed position and orientation relative to the catheter.

[0044]

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for tracking the position and orientation of an object with respect to a fixed frame of reference. In particular, the present invention can be used to track the movement of a medical procedure probe, such as a catheter or endoscope, inside a patient.

The principles and operation of remote tracking according to the present invention will be more apparent from the drawings and the accompanying description.

Description will be made with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a general representation of the device of the present invention.
A receiver 14 is rigidly mounted in the probe 10. Receiver 14
Includes three magnetic field component sensors 16, 18, and 20, each detecting a different component of the electromagnetic field. The sensor 16 has two sensor elements 16a and 16b.
including. The sensor 18 also includes two sensor elements 18a and 18b. The sensor 20 includes two sensor elements 20a and 20b. Generally, the sensor element is a coil and the component to detect is an independent magnetic field component. Sensor element 16
a and 16b are equidistantly located on both sides of the common reference point 22. Similarly,
The sensor elements 18a and 18b are equidistant on both sides of the point 22, and the sensor elements 20a and 20b are also equidistant on both sides of the point 22. As shown in the examples, the sensors 16, 18, and 20 are linearly aligned along the longitudinal axis 12 of the probe 10, although other shapes are possible, as described below.

The apparatus of FIG. 1 also includes a transmitter 24 of electromagnetic radiation. The transmitter 24 includes three substantially coplanar rectangular loop antennas 26 connected to an excitation circuit 32,
28, and 30 are included. The loop antennas 26 and 28 are adjacent to each other, and the loop antenna 30 partially overlaps. The excitation circuit 32 comprises a suitable signal generator and an amplifier for exciting each loop antenna 26, 28 and 30 at a different frequency. The receiver 14 receives the electromagnetic wave generated by the transmitter 24. The signals from the transmitter 14 corresponding to these electromagnetic waves are transmitted to the receiving circuit 34 including an appropriate amplifier and AD converter. The receiver circuit 34 and the exciter circuit 32 are controlled by a control processor 36 which is typically a suitable programmed personal computer. The control processing device 36 causes the excitation circuit 32 to generate a transmission signal and causes the reception circuit 34 to receive the reception signal. Further, the control processing device 36 executes an algorithm described later to estimate the position and direction of the probe 10. It will be appreciated that the device of FIG. 1 is a closed loop device and that the reception of signals from the receiver 14 is synchronized with the transmission of electromagnetic waves by the transmitter 24.

FIG. 2 shows a special, slightly modified embodiment of the receiver 14. Figure 2 (a
4] is a partially cutaway perspective view of the probe 10 with the receiver 14 attached to the machine casing 11. FIG. 2B is a circuit diagram of the receiver 14. In this example,
The sensor elements 16a, 16b, 18a, and 18b are coils of conductor wire wound around the ferrite core 70. The coils 16a and 16b are parallel to each other.
The coils 18a and 18b are parallel to each other and the coils 16a and 1b
It is perpendicular to 6b. Coils 16a, 16b, 18a, and 18b are all perpendicular to axis 12. Instead of the sensor 20 having two sensor elements 20a and 20b, the embodiment of FIG. 2 has a single coil 20 'consisting of a conductor wound around a ferrite core 70. The coil 20 'is parallel to the axis 12 and thus perpendicular to the coils 16a, 16b, 18a, 18b. The coil 20 'has a reference point 2
Centered at 2. The sensors 16, 18 and 20 'are connected to the receiving circuit 34 by a twisted pair of wires 38. As shown in the circuit diagram of FIG. 2B, coil 1
6a and 16b are connected in series, and the coils 18a and 18b are connected in series.

Since the sensors 16, 18 and 20 ′ of FIG. 2 all measure magnetic field components at the same reference point 22, the lateral inner diameter 72 of the probe 10 is typically less than 2 mm when the probe 10 is a catheter. Small, but coils 16a, 16b, 18a, 18b
And 20 'to WO96 / 05 without causing excessive distortion in the received signal.
Instead of an air core of 768, it can be wound on a ferrite core 70.

The pair of wires 38 are twisted to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the pair of wires 38 and the environment, and in particular to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the pair of wires 38 and the transmitter 24. is there. FIG. 2C is a circuit diagram showing another feature of the present invention for suppressing this electromagnetic coupling. Although FIG. 2C shows the sensor 16 as a reference, the same function applies to the sensor 18 as well.

The coils 16a and 16b are connected in series by their inner leads 116a and 116b. The outer lead 216a of the coil 16a is connected to the positive input terminal 126a of the differential amplifier 128 of the receiver circuit 34 by the wire 38a of the twisted pair of wires 38. The outer lead 216b of coil 16b is connected to the negative input terminal 126b of differential amplifier 128 by wire 38b of twisted pair of wires 38. The inner leads 116a and 116b are connected to the ground 124 by the wire 122. Wire 38 for clarity
A is shown by a solid line, wire 38b is shown by a dotted line, and wire 122 is shown by a chain line.

FIG. 15 is a partially exploded perspective view of the preferred embodiment of probe 10 and receiver 14. The machine casing 11 has a substantially cylindrical shape with two recesses 511 and 513 cut therein. Each recess 511 or 513 includes a pair of diametrically opposed holes, with holes 510 and 512 located at the boundaries of recess 511 and holes 514 and 516 located at the boundaries of recess 513. Arrows 530 and 532 indicate two of the three components of the cylindrical coordinate system to describe the interior of the machine casing 11 and the positions along it. The arrow 530 indicates the longitudinal direction. The arrow 532 indicates the azimuth direction. The pair of holes 510, 512 are longitudinally and azimuthally offset from the pair of holes 514, 516.

The coil 16a is a coil of conductive wire wound around the core 70a. Core 70a attaches to holes 514 and 516. That is, the end 518 that extends beyond the coil 16a of the core 70a is attached to the hole 514 and is rigidly fixed in place with a suitable glue, in the opposite direction beyond the coil 16a of the core 70a. The extending end 520 is attached to the hole 516 and is rigidly fixed in place with a suitable glue. Similarly, the coil 18a has a core 70b.
Is a coil of conductive wire wrapped around the. The core 70b is attached to the holes 510 and 512. That is, the core 70 extending beyond the coil 18a
The end portion 522 of b is attached to the hole 510 and the hole 510 is
Of the core 70b, which is rigidly fixed in place and extends beyond the coil 18a to the opposite side, is attached to the hole 512 and is firmly fixed in place by a suitable glue. .

FIG. 15 also illustrates the preferred azimuthal separation of the pair of holes 514, 516 from the pair of holes 510, 512. The pair of holes 514 and 516 are displaced from the pair of holes 510 and 512 by 90 ° in the direction of the arrow 532, and thus the pair of holes 510 and 51
It is perpendicular to 2. As a result, the core 70a becomes perpendicular to the core 70b, and the coils 16a and 18a become perpendicular to each other.

When the probe 10 is a catheter that is inserted into a body cavity such as a ventricle for examination or treatment, the machine casing 11 is made of nitinol, titanium, iconel, finox, or a nonmagnetic metal such as stainless steel. preferable. Therefore, the machine frame 11 has sufficient flexibility so as to bend by receiving a lateral force from the wall of the blood vessel into which the probe 10 is inserted toward the body cavity, and the portion of the probe 10 including the receiver 14 has a body cavity. When it reaches the interior, it has sufficient elasticity to restore the unloaded condition with the coils 16a and 18a mounted perpendicular to each other. Surprisingly, when a conductive metal is used as the material of the frame 11, the electromagnetic waves generated by the transmitter 24 induce a current vortex in the frame 11, but the receiver 14 is not affected.
It has been found that the electromagnetic field detected by is not distorted. Holes 510,512,5
14,516 can be formed very easily by laser cutting. The accuracy of the mutual perpendicularity of the coils 16a and 18a thus obtained is such that the machine frame 11 is formed as a solid cylindrical block into which mutually perpendicular recesses for receiving the coils 16a and 18a are punched. It turns out to be better than if you did.

Coils 16b and 18b are similarly mounted in diametrically opposed, azimuthally and longitudinally offset pairs of similar holes. As a result, the coils 16a and 16b are parallel to each other, the coils 18a and 18b are parallel to each other, and the coils 16b and 18b are perpendicular to each other.

In another structure (not shown) of the machine casing 11, the machine casing 11 includes cores 70 a and 70 b.
Small annular hole 510 sized to receive the ends 518, 520, 522, 524 of the
, 512, 514 and 516 are formed as an open spring-shaped frame. Due to the spring-like nature of this embodiment of machine frame 11, coils 16a and 18
a can be attached inside by pressing the ends 518, 520, 522 and 524 into the respective holes, and the bending can be performed while inserting the machine casing 11 toward the body cavity of the patient. When it arrives inside the body cavity, it will return to its unstressed state.

FIG. 3 shows two parts 10 a and 10 connected by a flexible connector 40.
FIG. 7 is an axial cross-section of a receiver 14 attached to a variant of the probe 10 with b. As shown in FIG. 2, the sensors 16 and 18 are coils of electrically conductive wire wound in the air core and include sensor elements 16a, 16b, 18a and 18b perpendicular to the axis 12.
The sensor elements 16a, 16b are parallel to each other, and the sensor elements 18a and 18b
b are parallel to each other and the sensor elements 16a and 16b are
And 18b. The sensor 20 includes two sensor elements, coils 20a and 20b with conductive wire wound on the air core. Coils 20a and 20b are equidistant from reference point 22 and are parallel to axis 12. Coils 16a and 16
b, and like coils 18a and 18b, coils 20a and 2
0b is also connected in series. The alternative form of the probe 10 is configured by the flexible connector 40 to bend as the alternative form of the probe 10 moves within the body of a medical patient. The pair of sensor elements 16, 18 and 20 are straight from the probe 10 of FIG. 3, with the sensor elements 16a, 16b facing each other equidistantly on either side of the reference point 22, as shown. 18a and 18b are also opposed to both sides of the reference point 22 at equal distances, and the sensor elements 20a and 20b are also opposed to both sides of the reference point 22 at equal distances. Is located in. If the probe 10 of FIG. 3 is straight, the sensor elements 16a, 16b, 18a
, 18b, 20a, 20b are all aligned on the axis 12 that intersects the point 22 and are therefore arranged symmetrically with respect to the point 22.

In the case of paired coils such as 16a and 16b which produce a signal representative of the magnetic field component at point 22 when the paired coils are connected as shown in FIG. 2A, the two coils are shown in FIG. 4A.
In a spatially uniform time-varying magnetic field with opposite windings, as shown in Figure 2, the signals induced in the two pairs of coils 16a and 16b must be arranged to cancel each other or enhance each other. . Pairs of coils 16a and 16b with the same turns as shown in FIG. 4B can be used to measure the slope of the magnetic field component at point 22. Alternatively, if the top of one coil is connected to the bottom of another coil, a pair of coils with the same turns can be used to measure the magnetic field component.

FIG. 5 represents a second class of preferred embodiments of the receiver 14. In FIG. 5, the conceptually cylindrical surface is indicated by a chain line 42 and a chain circle 44. The embodiment of receiver 14 shown in FIG. 5 includes three sensors 16, 18, 20.
Two sensor elements 16c and 16d, 18c and 18d, 20c and 2
It has 0d. Each sensor element is a flat, rectangular coil that is bent many times over a conductive wire to form an arch that conforms to the shape of the cylindrical surface. The sensor elements 16c, 18c, 20c are arranged such that a circle 44a is interposed between the sensor elements 16d, 18c.
Circles 44b are inserted in d and 20d. The sensor elements 16c, 16d are arranged symmetrically with respect to the reference point 22, ie the sensor elements 16c and 16d are located opposite the reference point 22 and are equidistant from the reference point 22 and of the point 22. Around 1
By 80 ° rotation it is meant that sensor 16c is oriented so as to overlap sensor 16d. Similarly, the sensor elements 18c and 18d are arranged symmetrically with respect to the reference point 22, and the sensor elements 20c and 20d are arranged symmetrically with respect to the reference point 22. Sensor elements 16c and 16d are connected in series in the same manner as sensor elements 16a and 16b to respond to one component of the magnetic field. Sensor elements 18c and 18d are likewise connected in series in response to a second component of the magnetic field, which is different from the first component, and sensor elements 20c and 20d are likewise connected to the first two components. It is connected in series in response to a third component of the magnetic field, which is different from the component. Most preferably the sensor elements 16c, 16d, 1
8c, 18d, 20c, 20d are dimensioned and spaced such that these three magnetic field components are orthogonal. In fact, the cylindrical surface on which the sensor elements 16c, 16d, 18c, 18d, 20c and 20d are arranged is the inner surface of the probe 10 as well as the outer surface of the cylindrical sleeve adapted to fit inside the probe 10. But it's okay. In the case of this embodiment of the receiver 14 formed on the outer surface of the cylindrical sleeve, the sensor elements 16c, 16d, 18c, 18d, 20c, and 20d have several standard elements including photolithography and laser trimming. Manufactured by any of the methods. Figure 1
0 shows a flat rectangular spiral 17 of electrical conductor 19 which is the preferred shape of sensor elements 16c, 16d, 18c, 18d, 20c and 20d. For clarity, the spiral 17 is shown only for 4 rolls. However, the spiral 17 is preferably composed of several hundreds of turns. For example, conductor 19
Is 0.25 microns wide and the winding spacing is 0.25 microns, 1.6m
A spiral 17 intended for a cylindrical surface with a diameter of m is 167 turns.

12A, 12B and 12C represent the tip of a cardiac catheter 300 of the present invention. FIG. 12A is a partially cutaway perspective view of the catheter 300, showing a retracted state. FIG. 12B is a perspective view showing the catheter 300 in an expanded state. FIG. 12C is an end view showing the retracted state of the catheter 300. Catheter 300 has a flexible cylindrical inner sleeve 302 slidably attached to a flexible cylindrical outer sleeve 304. Tip 306 of inner sleeve 302
Connected to the tip 308 of the outer sleeve 304 are four flexible rectangular strips 310. When the inner sleeve 302 is in its expanded position with respect to the outer sleeve 304, the strip 310 directly contacts the inner sleeve 302 as shown in FIG. 12B. When the inner sleeve 302 is in the retracted position relative to the outer sleeve 304, the strip 310 bends in an arc toward the outside as shown in FIG. 12A.

Catheter 300 includes a set of three orthogonal electromagnetic field component sensors 316, 318 and 320, similar to receiver 14 of FIG. The first sensor 316 includes opposite lateral edges 312a and 314a of strip 310a and coils 316a and 316b attached to opposite lateral edges 312c and 314c of strip 310c. Coil 316a is attached to lateral edges 312a and 312c. Coil 316a is attached to lateral edges 312a and 312c. The coil 316b has a lateral edge 314a.
And 314b. The second sensor 318 is a strip 31
0b opposite lateral edges 312b and 314b and strip 310d opposite lateral edges 312d and 314d. Coil 3
18a is attached to lateral edges 312b and 312d. Coil 318b is attached to lateral edges 314b and 314d. Third
Sensor 320 includes coils 320a and 320b. Inner sleeve 302
12C shows the coils 320a and 320b cut away in FIG. 12A. For clarity, the wires of coils 316a and 318a are shown in FIGS.
It is shown in phantom in 2B and in practice uses at least 9 turns of 45 micron diameter copper wire, but in the figure only 2 turns are shown for each coil. The wire of coil 316a passes through inner sleeve 302 from lateral edge 312a to lateral edge 312c and does not terminate at the intersection of lateral edges 312a and 312c and inner sleeve 302. Similarly, the wires of coil 318a do not terminate at the intersections of lateral edges 312b and 312d with inner sleeve 302, but instead continue from lateral edge 312b to lateral edge 312d. Also, for clarity of explanation, the lateral edges 312 are shown much wider than the actual dimensions of the preferred embodiment of the catheter 300.
Coils 320a and 320b are wrapped around a flexible core (not shown).

In an exemplary embodiment of catheter 300, the length of inner sleeve 302 exceeds the length of outer sleeve 304 by 15.7 mm in the expanded position. Also, in the exemplary embodiment of catheter 300, each of coils 320a and 320b is 1.1 mm long and about 1.1 mm in diameter and includes about 400 turns of a 10 micron diameter copper wire.

The coils 320a and 320b are parallel and equidistant from the center point 322. As shown in FIGS. 12A and 12C, when the catheter 300 is released and in its retracted position, the arc formed by the strip 310 is concentric with the point 322. As a result, the coils 316a, 316b, 318a, and 318b have the coils 316a and 316b parallel to each other, the coils 318a and 318b parallel to each other, and have a circular shape, and are concentric with the point 322. It becomes a point.

In the expanded position, the catheter 300 is tapered for insertion through the patient's blood vessels to the patient's heart, preferably less than about 2 mm in diameter. When the tip of the catheter 300 enters the intended chamber of the patient's heart, the inner sleeve 302 is pulled against the outer sleeve 304, placing the catheter 300 in the retracted position. The sensors 316, 318 and 320 are used in conjunction with the transmitter 24 to determine the position and orientation of the tip of the catheter 300 within the patient's heart, in a manner described below.

Four electrodes 326 are attached to the outer surface 324 of the strip 310. An electrode 328 is attached to the tip 306 of the inner sleeve 302. Electrodes 326 and 328 are used to make electrophysiological mappings of the patient's heart. Alternatively, a high frequency power level is applied to selected heart tissue via electrode 328 to ablate the tissue and treat conditions such as ventricular rapid heartbeat.

13A and 13B show another embodiment 40 of the cardiac catheter of the present invention.
It is a figure showing the tip of 0. FIG. 13A is a partially cutaway side view of catheter 400 in the retracted position. FIG. 13B is an end view showing the catheter 400 in the retracted position. Like catheter 300, catheter 400 also includes a flexible cylindrical inner sleeve 402 slidably attached to a flexible cylindrical outer sleeve 404. Connecting the tip 406 of the inner sleeve 402 to the tip 408 of the outer sleeve 404 is a single flexible member, an inflatable latex balloon 410. The balloon 410 directly contacts the inner sleeve 402 when the inner sleeve 402 is in the expanded position relative to the outer sleeve 404.
When the illustrated tip of catheter 400 is introduced into the intended chamber of the patient's heart, inner sleeve 402 is withdrawn to a retracted position and balloon 410 is inflated into a spherical shape.

Similar to catheter 300, catheter 400 also includes a set of three orthogonal electromagnetic field component sensors 416, 418 and 420 similar to receiver 14 of FIG. First sensor 416 includes parallel coils 416a and 416b mounted as shown on outer surface 412 of balloon 410. The second sensor 418 includes parallel coils 418a and 418b mounted orthogonally to the coils 416a and 416b on the outer surface 412 as shown. The third sensor 420 has a coil 420a.
And 420b. In FIG. 13A, balloon 410 and inner sleeve 402 are shown with coils 420a and 420b cut away. Coil 42
0a and 420b are parallel and equidistant from the center point 422. Catheter 400 is in the open, retracted position, balloon 410 is inflated spherically, and outer surface 412 is spherical concentric with point 422. This allows the coil 4
16a, 416b, 418a and 418b are circular concentric with the point 422,
The point 422 becomes a reference point for electromagnetic field measurement.

As with catheter 300, catheter 400 also has four electrodes 426 similar to electrodes 326 on outer surface 412 and electrodes 428 similar to electrodes 328 at tip 406 of inner sleeve 402.

FIG. 6 is a plan view of the loop antennas 26, 28 and 30. The loop antenna 26 is a rectangle having legs 26a, 26b, 26c and 26d. The loop antenna 28 has the same shape and dimension as the loop antenna 26, and the leg portions 28a, 2
8b, 28c and 28d. The legs 26b and 28d are adjacent to each other. Loop antenna 30 is also rectangular with legs 30a, 30b, 30c, and 30d. The leg portion 30a overlaps the leg portions 26a and 28a. In addition, the leg portion 30b is the leg portion 2
Since the leg portion 30d overlaps with the upper half of 8b and the leg portion 30d overlaps with the upper half of the leg portion 26d, the loop antenna 30 overlaps with half of the loop antenna 26 and half of the loop antenna 28. What are indicated by dotted lines in FIG. 6 are the fourth rectangular loop antenna 46 and the fifth rectangular loop antenna 48, which are not a part of the transmitter 24, but are described because they are necessary for the later description. The loop antenna 46 has the same shape and size as the loop antenna 30, and overlaps half of the loop antennas 26 and 28 that do not overlap the loop antenna 30. Loop antenna 48 fits the outer perimeter defined by loop antennas 26 and 28.

To understand the preferred mode of operating the apparatus of the present invention, the first unfavorable mode based on time domain multiplexing, operating a similar apparatus with all five antennas shown in FIG. You should think about it. In this undesirable aspect, the loop antenna 4
8 is excited with a sinusoidal current of angular frequency ω 1 . Then, the loop antennas 26 and 28 are excited by the sinusoidal currents in the opposite directions of the angular frequency ω 1 .
Finally, the loop antennas 30 and 46 are excited by oppositely directed sinusoidal currents of angular frequency ω 1 . The idea of this excitation sequence is to first create a magnetic field above the transmitter, which is spatially symmetric both horizontally and vertically, as shown in FIG. 6, and then horizontally asymmetrically and vertically. Is to create a magnetic field above the transmitter which is symmetrical and finally a magnetic field which is symmetrical in the horizontal direction and asymmetric in the vertical direction. These three magnetic fields are first-order independent, and all three magnetic fields have large amplitudes throughout the transmitter. The signal outputs from the three sensors of the receiver 14 that respond to the electromagnetic waves generated in this way are sampled tm times by the receiving circuit 34. The signal sampled is:

[0072]

[Equation 1] From the loop antenna 48, s0 im= C0 i, 1cosω1tm+ C0 i, 2sinω1tm From the loop antennas 26 and 28,       sh im= Ch i, 1cosω1tm+ Ch i, 2sinω1tm From the loop antennas 30 and 46,       sv im= Cv i, 1cosω1tm+ Cv i, 2sinω1tm And i denotes the sensor receiving the corresponding signal.

The coefficients c 0 i, 1 , c h i, 1 and c v i, 1 are the in-phase amplitudes of the received signal. The coefficients c 0 i, 2 , c h i, 2 , c v i, 2 are the quadrature amplitudes of the received signal. In principle, the quadrature should be zero because ω 1 is low enough to allow the receiver 14 to be located close to the magnetic field generated by the loop antenna. For example, in the receiving circuit 34, quadrature is usually not zero because phase distortion is unavoidable.

The amplitudes c 0 ij , c h ij and c v ij (j = 1, 2) are equal to the loop antenna 2
Only 6, 28 and 30 can be obtained. The sampling signals obtained by exciting the loop antennas 26, 28 and 30 separately with the same sine current of angular frequency ω 1 are:

[0075]

[Equation 2] From the loop antenna 26, s1 im= C1 icosω1tm +cTwo isinω1tm From the loop antenna 28, sTwo im= CThree icosω1tm +cFour isinω1tm From the loop antenna 30, sThree im= C5 icosω1tm +c6 isinω1tm

[0076]   Coefficient c1 i, CThree i, C5 iIs the in-phase amplitude and the coefficient cTwo i, CFour i, C6 i Is the quadrature amplitude. Loop antenna when the same current J flows inside
The magnetic fields radiated by 26 and 28 loop when the current J flows inside.
Since it is the same as the magnetic field generated by the antenna 48,

[0077]

C 0 i, 1 = c 1 i + c 3 i (1) c 0 i, 2 = c 2 i + c 4 i (2) By definition, c h i, 1 = c 1 i −c 3 i (3) c h i, 1 = c 2 i- c 4 i (4)

Finally, the magnetic field radiated by the loop antenna 48 may also be emulated by similar currents flowing through the loops 30 and 46,

[0079]

Equation 4] c v i, 1 = 2c 5 i -c 1 i -c 3 i (5) c v i, 2 = 2c 6 i -c 2 i -c 4 i (6)

In a preferred mode of operation of the device of the invention, the loop antennas 26, 28 and 30 are excited simultaneously with sinusoids of angular frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 and ω 3 , respectively. The signal sampled here is

[0081]

[Equation 5] sim= Ci1cosω1tm+ Ci2sinω1tm+ Ci3cosωTwotm + Ci4sinωTwotm+ Ci5cosωThreetm+ Ci6sinωThreetm (7)

Here, the amplitudes c i1 and c i2 refer to the frequency ω 1 , and the amplitudes c i3 and c i4 are
It refers to the frequency ω 2 , and the amplitudes c i5 and c i6 refer to the frequency ω 3 . The sampled signal is one row for each sensor of the receiver 14, are arranged in a matrix s only column number t m of total 3 lines and once a row. The amplitudes c ij are arranged in a matrix c of 3 rows and 6 columns. Matrices s and c are related by matrix A with 6 rows and as many columns as matrix s.

[0083]

[Equation 6] s = cA (8)

In most cases, the matrix s contains much more than 6 columns, and equation (8) gives
It is a considerable over-decision. Since the transmission frequency and the number of receptions are known, the matrix A can be calculated. The equation (8) is as follows: AA −1 = I (I is a 6 × 6 identity matrix)
It can be solved by multiplying both sides by the matrix represented by A −1 , that is, the inverse matrix of the matrix A. There is more than one retrogression example A -1 . The particular inverse matrix A −1 is
It can be selected by a well-known criterion. For example, A −1 is also the inverse matrix of A with the smallest L 2 norm. Alternatively, the matrix c is the generalized inverse matrix of equation (8):

[0085]

[Equation 7] c = sA T (AA T) -1 (9)

It can also be obtained as Here, T means a transposed matrix. The generalized inverse matrix has the advantage of being an implicit least squares solution of equation (8).

In the special case where the sampling times tm are equal, the solution of equation (8) is WO9
Mathematically the same as the 6/05768 cross-correlation. Equation (8) allows the signal from the receiver 14 to be sampled an unusual number of times. further,
There is no particular advantage to using the frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 , ω 3 which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. Using closely spaced frequencies requires a measurement time of at least about 2π / Δω (where Δω is the minimum frequency interval), except in the special case where the two signals have the same frequency but different phases. , A narrow band filter in the receiving circuit 34 can be used.

The coefficient c ij in equation (7) is the same as the coefficient c j i because the receiver 14 is in the magnetic field near the transmitter 24. Since equations (1) to (6) still hold, the in-phase matrix

[0089]

[Equation 8]

[0090] Or quadrature matrix

[0091]

[Equation 9]

One of the two 3 × 3 matrices M of the above is formed from the elements of the matrix c, and Israel patent application No. Further processing can be performed as described in 122578. Since the device of the present invention is a closed loop device, there is no symbol ambiguity in M, unlike the corresponding matrix of co-pending Israeli patent application No. 122578.

Let T be an orthogonal matrix that limits the rotation of the probe 10 with respect to the reference frame of the transmitter 24. M is expressed in the following format.

[0094]

(10) M = ET 0 T (12)

Here, T 0 is an orthogonal matrix and E is generally a non-orthogonal matrix. In general, T 0 and E are functions of the position of the probe 10 relative to the frame of reference of the transmitter 24.

[0096]

Equation 11] W 2 = MM T = ET 0 TT T T 0 T E T = EE T (13)

W 2 is a real number and is symmetric. Therefore, it can be expressed as W 2 = Pd 2 P T = (PdP T ) 2 , where d 2 is a diagonal matrix and diagonal elements are (real integer) eigenvalues of W 2 , and P is , Columns are matrices corresponding to the eigenvectors of W 2 . W = PdP T = E is also symmetric. Substituting into equation (12),

[0098]

(12) M = PdP T T 0 T (14) Therefore, T = T 0 T Pd 1 P T M (15).

If T 0 is known, then T, and thus the orientation of the probe 10 with respect to the reference frame of the transmitter 24, can be determined using equation (15).

For a particular shape of the transmitter 24 antenna, T 0 can be determined by either of two different calibration procedures.

In an empirical calibration procedure, probe 10 is oriented so that T is an identity matrix, probe 10 is moved to a series of positions relative to transmitter 24, and M is measured at each position. equation

[0102]

[Equation 13] T 0 = Pd 1 P T M (16)

From this, T 0 at each of these calibration positions can be obtained.

There are two logical calibration procedures, both utilizing reciprocity, treating receiver 14 as the transmitter and transmitter 24 as the receiver. The first procedure utilizes the principle of repeatability. The sensor element is modeled as a point source that contains as many terms in the multipole expansion as are needed for accuracy, and the transmitted magnetic field in the plane of the transmitter 24 is T at a series of positions relative to it. Is calculated with the probe 10 oriented so that becomes a unit matrix. The EMF induced in the antenna of the transmitter 24 by these time-varying magnetic fields is calculated using Faraday's law. Then, the transfer function of the receiving circuit 34 is used to calculate M at each calibration position, and the equation (16
) Determines T 0 at each calibration position. The second method models the magnetic field produced by each antenna of the transmitter 24 at three frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 and ω 3 by the Biot-Savart law. Each frequency has different sensors 16, 18, 20
Let's notice that it corresponds to. The signal received by each sensor is proportional to the degree of protrusion of the magnetic field in the direction of sensor sensitivity when the object 10 is oriented such that T is a unit matrix. As a result, the corresponding column of M becomes a multiplicative function and becomes a correction value based on the transfer function of the receiving circuit 34.

[0105] To interpolate T 0 at other positions, to adapt the function expression for T 0 to the measured value of T 0. This functional expression is preferably a polynomial. The T 0, such as: 36
It has been found most preferable to express the Euler angles α, β and γ defined as polynomials of terms. The argument of these polynomials is not a direct function of the Cartesian coordinates x, y, and z, but a matrix W similar to x, y, z, in particular a = W 13 / (which is similar to x.
W 11 + W 33 ), b = W 23 / (W 22 + W 33 ), which is similar to y, and c = log (1 / W 33 ), which is similar to z. Using Cartesian product notation, a 36-term polynomial can be expressed as:

[0106]

Α = (a, a 3 , a 5 ) (b, b 3 , b 5 ) (1, c, c 2 , c 3 ) AZcoe
. . . (17) β = (a, a 3 , a 5 ) (1, b 2 , b 4 , b 6 ) (1, c, c 2 ) ELcoe. . . (18) γ = (1, a 2 , a 4 , a 6 ) (b, b 3 , b 5 ) (1, c, c 2 ) RLcoe. . . (19)

Here, AZcoe, ELcoe, and RLcoe are 36-term vectors of azimuth coefficient, height coefficient, and rotation coefficient that are suitable for the Euler angle measurement or calculation value. To fit these 36-term vectors, the calibration process must be performed in at least 36 calibration positions. At each calibration position, W is calculated from M using equation (13) and the position-like variables a, b, c are calculated from W as described above.

Similarly, the Cartesian coordinates x, y, z of the probe 10 with respect to the reference frame of the transmitter 24 can also be expressed as a polynomial. It has been found that x, y, z is most preferably represented as a 36-term polynomial as follows:

[0109]

Equation 15] x = (a, a 3, a 5) (1, b, b 4) (1, c, c 2, c 3) Xcoe. . . (20) y = (1, a 2, a 4) (b, b 3, b 5) (1, c, c 2, c 3) Ycoe. . . (21) z = (1, a 2, a 4) (b, b 2, b 4) (1, d, d 2, d 3) Zcoe. . . (22)

Here, Xcoe, Ycoe, and Zcoe are 36-term vectors of the x coefficient, y coefficient, and z coefficient, respectively, and d = log (c). As with the Euler angles, these position coordinate coefficients measure or calculate M at at least 36 calibration positions and the resulting values of a, b, c are known calibration values x, y, z. Apply to.
Then, equations (17) through (22) are used to non-iteratively estimate the Cartesian coordinates of the moving and rotating probe 10 and the Euler angle from the measured value of M.

The antenna shapes shown in FIGS. 1 and 6 are the most preferred shapes, but other shapes are within the scope of the invention. 7A, 7B and 7C show three variants of the shape of adjacent loop antennas 26 'and 28' in pairs. The arrows indicate the direction of the current emulating a single loop antenna that coincides with the perimeter of antennas 26 'and 28'. Other useful coplanar polymerized antenna geometries are disclosed in PCT Publication No. It is described in WO 96/03188, Tower R Computerized game Board.

FIG. 8 is a schematic block diagram of an excitation circuit 32 for exciting a typical antenna 25 representing any of the loop antennas 26, 28 or 30. The digital signal generator 50 generates sinusoidal samples converted into an analog signal by the D / A converter 52. This analog signal is amplified by the amplifier 54 and sent to the positive input terminal 60 of the differential amplifier 58. The loop antenna 25 is connected to both the output terminal 64 of the differential amplifier 58 and the negative input terminal 62 of the differential amplifier 58. The negative input terminal 62 is grounded via the resistor 66. Then, the feedback loop sets the excitation antenna 25 to the sine frequency generated by the signal generator 50,
Make antenna 25 appear to be an open circuit at all other frequencies.

W for offsetting the influence of one loop antenna on another loop antenna
Unlike the circuit of O97 / 36143, the circuit of FIG. 8 decouples loop antenna 25 from other loop antennas. It is clear that the present invention is superior to WO 97/36143. For example, consider whether WO 97/36143 and the present invention modify the mutual induction coefficient between the loop antenna 26 radiating at frequency ω 1 and the loop antenna 30 radiating at frequency ω 2 . The goal is to set the magnetic field at frequency ω 1 that can exist if there is only loop antenna 26 and not loop antenna 30, and the frequency ω that can exist if there is no loop antenna 26 and only loop antenna 30. To set a magnetic field of 2 . According to Faraday and Ohm's law, the time change rate of the magnetic flux passing through the loop antenna 26 is proportional to the current flowing through the loop antenna 26, and the time change rate of the magnetic flux passing through the loop antenna 30 is
It is proportional to the current flowing through the loop antenna 30. In the absence of the loop antenna 30, the loop antenna 26 sets a certain time-varying magnetic flux of frequency ω 1 over the entire area that would limit the boundary if the loop antenna 30 were present. WO97 / 3
In the method of 6143, the time change rate of this magnetic flux passing through the loop antenna 30 is set to zero. Since the magnetic flux does not have a DC component, the magnetic flux itself passing through the loop antenna 30 disappears. This is the opposite of the situation without the loop antenna 30. On the other hand, according to the present invention, the loop antenna 30 appears to be an open circuit at the frequency ω 1 , and therefore does not change the magnetic flux from the state without the loop antenna 30.

FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of a C-shaped mount fluoroscope 80 modified for simultaneous real-time imaging and intrabody guidance in accordance with the present invention. The X-ray fluoroscope 80 includes an X-ray source 82, which is a conventional component of a C-type mount X-ray fluoroscope, and a C-type mount 7.
Included is an imaging module 84 located opposite 8 and a table 86 on which the patient lies. The imaging module 84 converts the X-rays into electronic signals that represent a two-dimensional image of the patient on the table 86. The C-mount 78 is pivotable about an axis 76 to allow the patient to be imaged from several angles and to reconstruct a 3D image of the patient from successive 2D images. In addition, either receiver 114 or transmitter 24, which is similar to receiver 14, is rigidly attached to C-shaped mount 78. The receiver 114 or the transmitter 24 has a function of forming a fixed reference frame with respect to the C-shaped mount 78. Other components shown in FIG. 1, such as the excitation circuit 32, the reception circuit 34, and the control processing device 36, are connected to the transmitter 24 and the receiver 14 in the probe 10 as described with reference to FIG. ing. Furthermore, the transmitter 24 '
The signal from the receiver 114 corresponding to the electromagnetic wave generated by the receiver is sent to the receiver circuit 134 similar to the receiver circuit 34, and the control processing device 36 receives the signal received by the receiver circuit 134 and captures the image of the X-ray fluoroscope 80. The imaging of the patient by the module 84 is instructed.

By determining the position and orientation of the probe 10 relative to the frame of reference formed by the transmitter 24, the control processor 36 determines the position and orientation of the probe 10 for each acquired two-dimensional image. Alternatively, the electromagnetic signal is transmitted by the transmitter 24 'not mounted on the C-mount 78 and the control processor 36 determines the position and orientation of the receivers 14 and 114 relative to the transmitter 24'. Determine the position and orientation of the probe 10 with respect to. The control processing device 36 uses the three-dimensional image of the patient captured by the fluoroscope 80 and the probe 1
Synthesize a combined image containing icons representing probes positioned and oriented with respect to the three-dimensional image of the patient in the same way that 0 is positioned and oriented with respect to the patient's body. The control processing device 36 displays this combined image on the monitor 92.

The C-mount mount fluoroscope 80 is illustrative rather than limiting. The scope of the invention includes all suitable devices for capturing two-dimensional or three-dimensional images of the patient's body in a manner including CT, MRI and ultrasound in addition to fluoroscopy.

Under certain circumstances, imaging and body navigation may be performed sequentially rather than simultaneously. This is convenient when the medical imaging equipment and the medical treatment equipment cannot be installed in the same place. For example, when the receiver of the present invention is rigidly attached to the patient's head with a suitable head belt, the human skull has sufficient rigidity, and the position and orientation of the receiver is Since it can represent the position and orientation of the patient's head with sufficient accuracy,
Intracranial guidance is possible. FIG. 11 is a diagram showing the patient's head 94 inside (notch) of the CT scanner 98. As in the case of the X-ray fluoroscope 80 of FIG.
The receiver 114 and transmitter 24 are rigidly attached to the CT scanner 98,
The transmitter 24 is also mounted via the arm 100. CT scanner 9
8 captures a two-dimensional X-ray image of a continuous horizontal section of the head 94. Receiver 214
Securely attaches to the head 94 using the headband 96. When a two-dimensional image is captured, the position and orientation of the receiver 214 with respect to each image is determined by the above method for determining the position and orientation of the probe 10 with respect to the two-dimensional image captured by the fluoroscope 80. These positions and directions are stored in the control processing device 36 together with the two-dimensional image. The position and orientation of the probe 10 within the head 94 is then determined by the receivers 14 and 214 during a medical procedure on the head 94 that requires guidance of the probe 10 within the head 94.
The signals from are used to determine in the manner described above using the receivers 14 and 114 to position and orient the probe 10 relative to the C-mount 78 of the fluoroscope 80. Here, for each two-dimensional CT image, the receiver 21 of the probe 10
4 and the position and orientation of the receiver 214 with respect to the two-dimensional image of the receiver 214, it is easy to determine the position and orientation of the probe 10 with respect to the two-dimensional image. As shown in FIG. 9, when imaging and guidance are performed simultaneously, the control processing device 36 takes a three-dimensional image of the head 94 taken by the CT scanner 98 and the position of the probe 10 with respect to the three-dimensional image of the head 94. The combined image, including the directional icon, is composited in the same manner as the probe 10 is positioned and oriented with respect to the head 94. Then, the control processing device 36 displays the combined image on the monitor 92.

As with the fluoroscope 80, the CT scanner 98 is illustrative rather than limiting. The scope of the present invention includes all devices suitable for taking two-dimensional or three-dimensional images of a patient's limbs, in addition to CT, in a manner including MRI, ultrasound, and fluoroscopy. .. Due to the body guidance following this imaging method, the centrally located imaging device functions as some medical treatment equipment.

FIG. 14 is a partially exploded partial perspective view of a C-mount mount fluoroscope 80 'according to one aspect of the present invention. Like the C-type mount X-ray fluoroscope 80, the C-type mount X-ray fluoroscope 80 ′ includes an X-ray source 84 and an imaging module 82 on both sides of the C-type mount 78. The imaging module 82 captures the image intensified by the image intensifier 83, which is attached to the image intensifier 83, the front surface 85 facing the X-ray source 84, and the opposite side of the image intensifier 83 from the front surface 85. CCD for
And a camera 87. The image intensifying device 83 is housed in a cylindrical machine frame 91. In addition, the fluoroscope 80 'includes an annular compensator 500 made of a magnetically permeable material such as mu alloy.

The need for the compensator 500 comes from the fact that the front surface 85 is electrically conductive. The electromagnetic waves generated by the transmitter 24 or 24 'cause an eddy current in the front surface 85 and distort the electromagnetic field detected by the receiver 14. By placing a mass of magnetically permeable material, such as a Mu alloy, in proper spatial relationship with the front surface 85,
This distortion can be suppressed. This is discussed, for example, in US Pat. No. 5,760, to Gilboa, which is hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes.
No. 335, it is explained that the CRT is shielded from external radiation without disturbing the electromagnetic field outside the CRT.

The compensator 500 is preferably a ring of Mu alloy foil with an axial length of 5 cm and a thickness of 0.5 mm. The compensator 500 is slidably mounted on the outer surface 89 of the cylindrical machine casing 91, as indicated by the double-headed arrow 504, and is held in place by friction. The position of the compensator 500 on the machine casing 91 is
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art to position the eddy currents on the front surface 85 to optimally suppress the distortion of the electromagnetic field outside the image intensifier 83.

It is preferable to retrofit an existing catheter with a new device such as receiver 14 rather than designing a new probe 10 that includes the new device such as receiver 14 and the functionality of an already existing probe. Often. This retrofitting is especially important when the probe 10 is used for medical purposes and both the device and the existing probe are already approved for medical use by the relevant regulatory bodies. Such retrofitting eliminates the normally costly and time consuming need for approval of new probes.

FIG. 16 illustrates a retrofit feature that allows a satellite 550 to be attached to a substantially cylindrical catheter 552 to enter a body cavity, such as a chamber of the heart, for examination and treatment. Satellite 550 is an instrument capsule containing receiver 14 or other medically useful device. For example, satellite 550 can include a device for ablating heart tissue. A catheter, such as catheter 552, is introduced through the patient's blood vessel into the body cavity of the patient by an introducer sheath. It is important that the introducer sheath has a minimum outer diameter to reduce the risk of bleeding in the patient. As a result, the outer diameter of the catheter 552 must also be minimal and can be introduced with the catheter 552 into the satellite 550 introducer sheath by allowing the satellite 550 to be retrofitted to the catheter 552. Like Due to the latter condition, satellite 55
It is not necessary to attach the 0 to the catheter 552. In addition, satellite 550
When the satellite 550 includes the receiver 14 and is used to track the position and orientation of the catheter 550, the satellite 550 is secured to the catheter 552 when the satellite 550 and the catheter 552 are deployed within the body cavity. It must be in the same position and direction.

Due to the retrofitting properties of FIG. 16, satellite 550 and catheter 55
2 is provided with a mechanism for only slowly mechanically connecting the satellite 550 and the catheter 552 when the satellite 550 and the catheter 552 are introduced into the body cavity, and then the satellite 550 is fixed to the catheter 552 in a fixed position and orientation. These objectives can be achieved by affixing to the catheter 552. FIG. 16A shows a thin, flexible tether 554 attached to the proximal end 556 of satellite 550. The tether 554 allows a mechanical connection to the outside of the patient. The type of instrument attached to the tether 554 also allows the tether 554 to be communicatively coupled to the outside of the patient. For example, the satellite 550 is the receiver 14
, The extension of the pair of wires 38 is included in the tether 554. Tether 55
A hollow cylindrical sleeve 558 is rigidly attached to 4 with an inner diameter equal to the outer diameter of the catheter 552.

The rest of the mechanism for reversibly attaching satellite 550 to catheter 552 is shown in FIG.
6B. Catheter 552 has a pocket 560 near its tip 564 made of a flexible, elastic and stretchable material. Pocket 560 is rigidly attached to the outer surface of catheter 552. Pocket 560 has a hole 562 adjacent the proximal end of catheter 552 and receives tether 554 therein. Pocket 560 is sized to fit satellite 550 snugly within the opening of tip 566 of pocket 560.

The satellite 550, catheter 552 and its associated anchoring mechanism are shown in FIG.
6C, tether 554 passes through hole 562 and sleeve 558 is in pocket 5
The catheter 552 is wrapped around the proximal end of 60 and the satellite 550 is assembled so that it is located distal to the pocket 560. Catheter 552 and tether 554 are shown emerging from the tip of protective jacket 568. Preferably, sleeve 558 is made of a low resistance material such as Teflon to allow sleeve 558 to slide freely along catheter 552. The assembly shown in FIG. 16C is introduced into the introducer sheath with the satellite 550 positioned in front of the catheter 552. Pocket 560 during this introduction
Are compressed against the outer surface of catheter 552 by the introducer sheath. The tether 554 is sufficiently flexible that the assembly shown in FIG. 16C curves along the catheter 552 and jacket 568 as it passes through the patient's blood vessel, but when the catheter 552 is inserted into the patient. It also has sufficient hardness to push the satellite 550 in front of the tip 564 of the catheter 552. As a result, the satellite 50 and the tip 564 of the catheter 552 reach the inside of the target body cavity in the shape shown in FIG. 16C. At this point, pocket 560 is open and pulls on tether 554 to draw satellite 550 into the interior of pocket 560 through the opening at tip 566 of pocket 560. Satellite 550 and tether 554 are held in a fixed position and orientation relative to catheter 552 by pocket 560, sleeve 558, jacket 568, as shown in FIG. 16D.

After the procedure, the tether 554 is pushed to restore the shape shown in FIG.
Allow 52 and satellite 550 to be removed from the patient.

Although the present invention has been described with respect to a limited number of embodiments, it is obvious that the present invention is capable of various modifications, changes and other applications.

[Brief description of drawings]

  The present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings for purposes of explanation only.

[Figure 1]   1 is a schematic representation of the device of the present invention.

[FIG. 2A]   It is a partially cutaway perspective view of a probe and a receiver.

FIG. 2B   2B is a circuit diagram of the receiver of FIG. 2A. FIG.

FIG. 2C is a diagram showing the receiver of FIG. 2A with unnecessary electromagnetic coupling cut off.

[Figure 3]   It is sectional drawing which looked at a probe and a receiver in the axial direction.

FIG. 4A   It is the figure which showed two coils wound in the opposite direction.

FIG. 4B   It is the figure which showed two coils wound in the same direction.

[Figure 5]   FIG. 6 shows a second preferred embodiment of the receiver.

[Figure 6]   It is a top view showing three loop antennas and two imaginary loop antennas.

FIG. 7A   It is a figure showing the modification of the shape of a pair of adjacent loop antennas.

FIG. 7B   It is a figure showing the modification of the shape of a pair of adjacent loop antennas.

FIG. 7C   It is a figure showing the modification of the shape of a pair of adjacent loop antennas.

[Figure 8]   It is a schematic block diagram of an excitation circuit.

FIG. 9 shows a C-type mount X-ray fluoroscope applied for real-time body guidance.

[Figure 10]   6 is a diagram showing a coil of the receiver of FIG. 5. FIG.

FIG. 11   It is a figure showing the modified CT scanner for imaging for intracranial guidance.

FIG. 12A is a partially cutaway perspective view of a cardiac catheter of the present invention in a retracted position.

FIG. 12B   FIG. 12B is a perspective view showing the catheter of FIG. 12A in an expanded position.

FIG. 12C   FIG. 12B is an end view of the catheter of FIG. 12A in the retracted position.

FIG. 13A is a partially cutaway side view of a second embodiment of a cardiac catheter of the present invention shown in a retracted and expanded position.

FIG. 13B is an end view of the catheter of FIG. 13A shown in the retracted and expanded positions.

14 is a partial perspective view of the X-ray fluoroscope attached to the C-shaped mount of FIG. 9 including a magnetic transmission compensator.

FIG. 15   FIG. 2B is a partially exploded perspective view showing a preferred embodiment of the probe and receiver of FIG. 2A.

FIG. 16 illustrates a method for retrofitting a device, such as the receiver of FIG. 2A, to a catheter.

[Explanation of symbols]

10 probes 11 machine frames 14 Receiver 16, 18, 20 Magnetic field component sensor 17 spiral 19 conductors 22 reference point 24 transmitter 26, 28, 30, 46, 48 loop antenna 32 Excitation circuit 34 Receiver circuit 36 Control processor 38 wires 40 connector 58 Differential amplifier 70 Ferrite core 78 C type mount 80 X-ray fluoroscope 82 X-ray source 83 Image intensifier 84 Imaging module 87 CCD camera 91 Cylindrical machine frame 92 monitor 98 CT scanner 100 arms 114 receiver 116,216 Lead 124 Earth 128 differential amplifier 134 Receiver circuit 300 catheter 302,304 sleeve 316, 318, 320 Electromagnetic field component sensor 328 electrode 400 catheter 402,404 Sleeve 410 balloon 416, 418, 420 Electromagnetic field component sensor 420 sensor 426 electrode 500 compensator 552 catheter 550 satellite 554 tether 558 Cylindrical sleeve 560 pockets 568 jacket

─────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continuation of front page (51) Int.Cl. 7 Identification code FI theme code (reference) // G01R 33/34 A61B 5/05 350 33/36 382 G01N 24/04 520A 530Y (81) Designated country EP (AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE), OA (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI) , CM, GA, GN, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG), AP (GH, GM, KE, LS, MW, SD, SL, SZ, UG, ZW), EA (AM , AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), AE, AL, AM, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, CA, C H, CN, CU, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR , KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, NO, NZ, PL, PT, RO, RU, SD, SE, SG, SI, SK, SL, TJ, TM, TR, TT, UA, UG, US, UZ, VN, YU, ZA, ZW (72) Inventor Brecher Danny Israel, Ramat Gan 52504, Yehuda Mattmon Street 10 F Term (reference) ) 4C093 AA07 AA22 CA18 CA26 DA02 DA04 EC16 EC28 EE30 FF42 FG13 4C096 AA18 AB41 AC04 AD10 AD23 CC10 CC14 CC16 DC36 EA04 FC20 4C301 BB13 EE10 EE11 FF01 GH09 GA21 KK09 GA21 EE19 CK19 EE19 BB19EE03 FE07 BB09EE03 FE09 BB19EE03

Claims (99)

[Claims]
1. (a) each detect different components of a vector force field, each including two sensor elements symmetrically arranged about a common reference point in the probe and mounted in the probe; A device for tracking the position and orientation of a probe, comprising a plurality of first sensors provided.
2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the vector magnetic field is an electromagnetic field.
3. The sensor elements each include a coil,
The device according to claim 1.
4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that for each of the first sensors the coils are parallel to each other.
5. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that for each of the first sensors the coils are connected in series.
6. Device according to claim 5, characterized in that for each of the first sensors the coils have identical turns.
7. The device of claim 5, wherein for each of the first sensors, the coil has opposite turns.
8. A device according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises three said first sensors.
9. The sensor element of claim 8, wherein the sensor element is coplanar.
The device according to.
10. The first sensor element of the first three sensors is a first sensor element.
Of the first three sensors, the second sensor element of the first three sensors interposes a second circle, each of the circles having a center, and the common reference point is 9. A device according to claim 8, characterized in that it is the center point of a line connecting the centers of the circles.
11. Device according to claim 10, characterized in that the circles form a cylindrical surface, the shape of the sensor elements respectively corresponding to the surface.
12. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising (b) a second sensor including a sensor element centered at the common reference point.
13. Device according to claim 12, characterized in that the sensor elements of the first and second sensors are coils.
14. The coil is disposed along a line passing through the common reference point, the coil of the second sensor is oriented parallel to the line, and the coil of the first sensor is 14. Device according to claim 13, characterized in that the coils are oriented perpendicular to the line.
15. (a) Providing three independent sensors for electromagnetic radiation on an object; (b) Providing three independent transmitting antennas for electromagnetic radiation, each transmitting antenna comprising: A step of having a fixed position in a reference frame, wherein at least one of the transmitting antennas is spatially extended; (c) transmitting the electromagnetic radiation using the transmitting antennas, The first transmitting antenna of the transmitting antennas transmits electromagnetic radiation of a first spectrum, and the second transmitting antenna of the transmitting antennas has a second spectrum of a second spectrum different from the first spectrum. The electromagnetic radiation is transmitted, and a third transmitting antenna of the transmitting antennas transmits the electromagnetic radiation having a third spectrum different from the first spectrum. (D) receiving a signal corresponding to the electromagnetic radiation a plurality of times in all three of the sensors in synchronization with transmission of the electromagnetic radiation; and (e) non-repeating from the signal. A method for determining the position and orientation of an object with respect to a reference frame, including the step of estimating the position and orientation of the object.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the third spectrum is different than the second spectrum.
17. A method according to claim 16, characterized in that the transmission of the electromagnetic radiation by the first, second, third transmitting antennas is performed simultaneously.
18. The estimation comprises: (i) calculating antenna amplitudes for the signals corresponding to the electromagnetic radiation from each of the transmit antennas; (ii) summing amplitudes of the antenna amplitudes; Determining two different amplitudes of difference.
19. Further comprising the step of: (f) calibrating a guess of the position and orientation of the object.
The method according to claim 15.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the calibration predicts the signal at multiple calibration positions and multiple calibration directions.
21. The number of calibration positions is 36 or more, and the number of calibration directions is 36.
21. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that
22. The method of claim 19, wherein the calibration comprises measuring the signal at multiple calibration positions and multiple calibration directions.
23. The number of calibration positions is 36 or more, and the number of calibration directions is 36.
23. A method as claimed in claim 22, characterized in that it is above.
24. (a) A plurality of transmitting antennas at least partially overlapping each other; (b) A mechanism for exciting the transmitting antennas to simultaneously transmit electromagnetic radiation, wherein the electromagnetic waves transmitted by each of the transmitting antennas. A mechanism characterized in that the radiation has different spectra; (c) at least one electromagnetic field sensor associated with the object functionally producing a signal corresponding to said electromagnetic radiation; (d) the position of the object from said signal. And a mechanism for estimating the direction; and a device for determining the position and direction of an object.
25. The device of claim 24, wherein each of the frequency spectra has a single frequency.
26. A mechanism for exciting the transmitting antennas, for each of the transmitting antennas, a mechanism for decoupling each of the transmitting antennas from the electromagnetic radiation transmitted by every other transmitting antenna. 25. Apparatus according to claim 24, characterized in that it comprises.
27. Each of said frequency spectra has a single frequency, and a mechanism for decoupling said respective transmit antennas from said electromagnetic radiation comprises: (i) said single frequency of said respective transmit antennas. 27. A device according to claim 26, characterized in that it comprises a signal generator for generating a signal to be transmitted at: (ii) at least one active circuit element connected to the signal generator.
28. The at least one active circuit element is a differential amplifier having two input terminals and one output terminal, one of the input terminals being connected to the signal generator, 27. Device according to claim 26, characterized in that the other and the output terminal are connected to the respective transmitting antennas.
29. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein the transmit antenna is substantially coplanar.
30. Three transmission antennas are provided, of the transmission antennas, a first transmission antenna and a second transmission antenna are adjacent to each other, and a third transmission antenna of the transmission antennas is the first transmission antenna. 30. Device according to claim 29, characterized in that it at least partly overlaps both the transmitting antenna and the second transmitting antenna.
31. (a) A plurality of transmitting antennas at least partially overlapping each other; (b) A mechanism for exciting each of the transmitting antennas to transmit electromagnetic radiation of a certain unique frequency and phase. Then, for each of the transmitting antennas,
A mechanism comprising a mechanism for decoupling each said transmitting antenna from said electromagnetic radiation transmitted by every other said transmitting antenna; and (c) functionalizing a signal corresponding to said electromagnetic radiation. Determining the position and direction of the object, which comprises: (d) a mechanism for estimating the position and direction of the object from the signal; Device for doing.
32. A mechanism for decoupling said respective transmitting antennas from said electromagnetic radiation comprises: (i) a signal generator for generating a transmitting signal at said frequency of said respective transmitting antennas; (ii) 32. The device of claim 31, including at least one active circuit element connected to the signal generator.
33. One of the at least one active circuit element is a differential amplifier having two input terminals and one output terminal, and one of the input terminals is connected to the new word generator. 33. The apparatus of claim 32, wherein the other of the input terminals and the output terminal are connected to the respective transmit antennas.
34. (a) A machine casing having a lateral inner dimension of about 2 mm or less;
b) a catheter wound around a solid core and comprising at least one coil mounted in the machine frame.
35. The catheter of claim 34, wherein the solid core comprises ferrite.
36. The catheter of claim 34, including a plurality of said at least one coils perpendicular to one another.
37. The catheter of claim 36, wherein the plurality of coils are co-linear.
38. (a) a receiver of electromagnetic radiation, located in the probe; (b) a device for taking an image of the body; (c) at least one antenna rigidly attached to said device. A device for guiding a probe in the body, comprising: a transmitter for the electromagnetic radiation, which forms a fixed reference frame for the device.
39. The device of claim 38, wherein the device further comprises: (d) a mechanism for displaying an indication of the probe probed to at least a portion of the image.
40. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the image is selected from the group of modalities such as CT, MRI, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, and the like.
41. (a) a first receiver of electromagnetic radiation located within the probe; (b) a device for taking an image of the body; (c) the device rigidly attached to the device. A second receiver of said electromagnetic radiation forming a fixed reference frame with respect to; a device for guiding a probe in the body.
42. Further,   (D) the electromagnetic radiation transmitter; 42. The device of claim 41, comprising:
43. The apparatus according to claim 41, further comprising: (d) a mechanism for displaying a display of the probe overlaid on at least a part of the image.
44. The apparatus of claim 41, wherein the image is selected from the group of CT, MRI, ultrasound and fluoroscopy modalities.
45. (a) providing a device for taking an image of the body; (b) simultaneously: (i) taking an image of the body: (ii) determining the position and orientation of the probe with respect to the image. And (c) displaying the image of the body on which the display of the probe is superimposed according to the position and the direction, the method of guiding the probe in the body.
46. The apparatus according to claim 45, wherein the image is selected from the group of modalities of CT, MRI, ultrasound and fluoroscopy.
47. The determination of the position and the direction includes: (A) transmitting electromagnetic radiation using a transmitter; and (B) using the first receiver located inside the probe to detect the electromagnetic radiation. 46. Receiving radiation and generating a signal corresponding to the electromagnetic radiation; (C) inferring the position and the direction from the signal; The method described in.
48. The method of claim 47, wherein the transmitter includes at least one antenna rigidly attached to the device to form a fixed reference frame with respect to the device. the method of.
49. The step of determining the position and the orientation includes: (D) forming a fixed reference frame relative to the device using a second receiver rigidly attached to the device. 48. The method of claim 47, wherein the method is performed by including receiving the electromagnetic radiation.
50. A device for detecting an electromagnetic field at a point, comprising at least four detection elements, at least two of said detection elements being arranged eccentrically to the point.
51. The detection element of claim 5, wherein the detection element includes a coil.
0. The device according to 0.
52. The pair of at least two eccentrically arranged detection elements are arranged symmetrically with respect to the point, each of the at least pairs detecting another component of the electromagnetic field. 51. The device of claim 50, characterized.
53. The sensing elements of the pair are coils.
53. The device of claim 52.
54. The apparatus of claim 53, wherein the coils are parallel for each of the pairs.
55. (a) Providing three independent sensors for electromagnetic radiation on an object; (b) Providing three independent transmitting antennas for electromagnetic radiation,
Each of the transmitting antennas has a fixed position in a reference frame, and at least one of the transmitting antennas is spatially extended; (c) using the transmitting antenna to emit the electromagnetic radiation. In the transmitting step, a first transmitting antenna of the transmitting antennas transmits electromagnetic radiation of a first spectrum, and a second transmitting antenna of the transmitting antennas transmits the electromagnetic radiation of the first spectrum. Transmits the electromagnetic radiation having a different second spectrum, and a third transmitting antenna of the transmitting antennas transmits the electromagnetic radiation having a third spectrum different from the first spectrum. And (d) receiving a signal corresponding to the electromagnetic radiation a plurality of times in all three of the sensors in synchronization with transmission of the electromagnetic radiation. (E) establishing an overdetermined set of linear equations relating the signal to a set of amplitudes, ie, each of the sensors and one of the amplitudes for each of the transmit antennas; and (f) of the linear equations. And a step of solving the set to obtain the amplitude, and a method of determining the position and direction of the object with respect to the reference frame.
56. (a) providing a device for taking an image of the body; (b) simultaneously (i) taking an image of the body: (ii) determining the position and orientation of the body with respect to the image. And (c) determining the position and direction of the probe with respect to the body; and (d) displaying the image of the body on which the display of the probe is overlaid, by the position and the direction. A method of inducing a probe in the body.
57. The apparatus of claim 56, wherein the image is selected from the group of CT, MRI, ultrasound and fluoroscopy modalities.
58. Determining the position and orientation of the body relative to the image; (A) transmitting electromagnetic radiation using a transmitter; and (B) a first receiver rigidly attached to the body. Receiving the electromagnetic radiation and generating a signal corresponding to the electromagnetic radiation; and (C) inferring the position and the direction of the body relative to the image from the signal. 57. The method of claim 56, characterized in that:
59. The method of claim 58, wherein the transmitter includes at least one antenna rigidly attached to the device to form a fixed reference frame with respect to the device. the method of.
60. Determining the position and orientation of the body with respect to the image: (D) receiving the electromagnetic radiation using a second receiver rigidly attached to the device, 59. A method according to claim 58, characterized in that it is carried out by a process comprising forming a fixed reference frame for the device.
61. Determining the position and orientation of the probe includes: (i) transmitting electromagnetic radiation using a transmitter; and (ii) using a first receiver rigidly attached to the body. Receiving electromagnetic radiation and generating a signal representative of the position and orientation of the body with respect to the transmitter; (iii) using a second receiver located within the probe to receive the electromagnetic radiation and to Generating a signal representative of position and orientation relative to the transmitter; (iv) determining the position and orientation of the probe relative to the body, the position of the body relative to the transmitter and the orientation, and the position of the probe relative to the transmitter and the orientation 57. The method according to claim 56, characterized in that it is carried out by a step comprising inferring from the direction.
62. (a) a first lead wire and a second lead wire,
Two sensing elements whose leads are connected to each other and to ground; (b) a differential amplifier, wherein the second lead is electrically connected to different input terminals of the differential amplifier. A device for detecting an electromagnetic field at a single point, comprising: a differential amplifier characterized by;
63. The device of claim 62, wherein each of the sensing elements comprises a coil.
64. The device according to claim 63, characterized in that the coils are geometrically parallel.
65. Apparatus according to claim 62, characterized in that the sensing element is arranged eccentrically to that point.
66. (a) an outer sleeve having one end; (b) an inner sleeve having one end slidably mounted within the outer sleeve; (c) the end of the outer sleeve. A first flexible member connecting the end portion of the inner sleeve to the first flexible member; and (d) a first coil attached to the first flexible member.
67. The first flexible member has a first lateral edge, the catheter further comprising: (e) connecting the end of the outer sleeve to the end of the inner sleeve. And including a second flexible member having a first lateral edge, the first coil mounted on the first lateral edge of the first and second flexible members. 67. The catheter of claim 66, wherein the catheter is
68. The catheter of claim 67, wherein the inner sleeve is interposed between the flexible members.
69. The first and second flexible members each have a second lateral edge, and (f) at the second lateral edge of the flexible member. 68. The catheter of claim 67, including an attached second coil.
70. (f) a third flexible member connecting the end of the outer sleeve and the end of the inner sleeve and having a lateral edge; (g) the outer A fourth flexible member connecting the end of the sleeve to the end of the inner sleeve and having a lateral edge; (h) the lateral direction of the third and fourth flexible members. 68. The catheter of claim 67, comprising a second coil attached to the rim.
71. The catheter of claim 70, wherein the inner sleeve is interposed between the third and fourth flexible members.
72. Further,   (F) comprising a second coil located within the inner sleeve,   68. The catheter of claim 67.
73. (g) A third coil is provided in the inner sleeve, and the second and third coils are eccentrically attached to a point inside the inner sleeve, The inner sleeve functionally alternates between an expanded position relative to the outer sleeve and a retracted position relative to the outer sleeve;
73. The catheter of claim 72, wherein the point is located approximately midway between the end of the outer sleeve and the end of the inner sleeve when the inner sleeve is in the retracted position.
74. The catheter of claim 73, wherein the flexible member bends into an arc shape concentric with the point when the inner sleeve is in the retracted position.
75. The catheter of claim 66, wherein the first flexible member includes an outer surface and the first coil is mounted on the outer surface.
76. The catheter of claim 75, further comprising (e) a second coil mounted on the outer surface of the first flexible member parallel to the first coil. .
77. The catheter of claim 76, wherein the inner sleeve is interposed between the first and second coils.
78. Further,   (E) A second coil is provided in the inner sleeve,   The catheter of claim 75.
79. (f) A third coil is provided in the inner sleeve, and the second and third coils are eccentrically mounted with respect to a point inside the inner sleeve. , The inner sleeve functionally alternates between an expanded position relative to the outer sleeve and a retracted position relative to the outer sleeve,
79. The catheter of claim 78, wherein the point is approximately midway between the end of the outer sleeve and the end of the inner sleeve when the inner sleeve is in the retracted position.
80. The method of claim 79, wherein the first flexible member is substantially spherical and eccentric to the point when the inner sleeve is in the retracted position. The described catheter.
81. The catheter of claim 66, further comprising (e) an electrode attached to the end of the inner sleeve.
82. The catheter of claim 66, further comprising (e) an electrode mounted on the first flexible member.
83. (a) at least one transmitting antenna for transmitting an electromagnetic field; and (b) two sensing elements associated with the object and responsive to a first component of the transmitted electromagnetic field. A first electromagnetic field sensor comprising: said sensing elements,
A first electromagnetic field sensor, including a first lead wire and a second lead wire, wherein the first lead wire is electrically connected to each other and grounded; ) A first differential amplifier, wherein the second lead wires are electrically connected to different input terminals of the first differential amplifier, respectively; An apparatus for determining the position and orientation of an object comprising.
84. The device of claim 83, wherein the sensing elements each include a coil.
85. A device according to claim 84, characterized in that the coils are geometrically parallel.
86. The device according to claim 83, characterized in that the sensing element is arranged eccentrically to the point.
87. Further comprising: (d) two sensing elements associated with the object and responsive to a second component of the transmitted electromagnetic field that is different from the first component of the transmitted electromagnetic field. A second electromagnetic field sensor, wherein the detection elements of the second electromagnetic field sensor each include a first lead wire and a second lead wire, and the first detection element of the second electromagnetic field sensor is the first detection element. A second electromagnetic field sensor characterized in that the lead wires are electrically connected to each other and to ground; and (e) a second differential amplifier, wherein the second electromagnetic field is A second differential amplifier characterized in that the second lead wires of the detection element of the sensor are electrically connected to different input terminals of the second differential amplifier, respectively. Item 83. The apparatus according to Item 83.
88. (a) a conductive surface; (b) a magnetic permeability compensator; (c) fixing the compensator to the surface to substantially eliminate distortion of an external electromagnetic field caused by the surface. An imaging device comprising: a suppressing mechanism;
89. The imaging device of claim 88, wherein the compensator comprises a Mu alloy.
90. The imaging device according to claim 88, wherein the mechanism is integrally incorporated in the compensator.
91. (d) A substantially cylindrical machine casing having an outer surface, wherein the conductive surface is located at one end of the machine casing. 91. The imaging device according to claim 90, wherein the compensator has a ring shape slidably attached to the outer surface, and is fixed to the machine frame by friction.
92. (a) a machine frame including diametrically opposed holes of the first pair; (b) a first core mounted in the first pair of holes; (c) of the core. A first coil of electrically conductive wire wrapped around; a device for detecting an electromagnetic field.
93. The machine casing further comprises a second pair of diametrically opposed holes longitudinally and azimuthally displaced from the first pair, the apparatus comprising: And (d) a second core attached to the second pair of holes; and (e) a second coil of electrically conductive wire wrapped around the core. 93. The device of claim 92.
94. The device of claim 93, wherein the pair of holes are perpendicular to each other.
95. The apparatus of claim 92, wherein the chassis comprises metal.
96. The device of claim 95, wherein the metal is selected from the group comprising Nitinol, Titanium, Iconel, Finox, or stainless steel.
97. (a) A substantially cylindrical catheter; (b) a satellite; (c) a fixed position of the satellite relative to the catheter after the catheter and the satellite have been inserted into a body cavity. And a mechanism for reversibly fixing in a direction, the probe interacting with a body cavity.
98. The mechanism comprises: (i) a tether for inserting the catheter and the satellite into the body cavity and then withdrawing the satellite with respect to the catheter; (ii) firmly fixed to the tether; 98. A probe according to claim 97, including a sleeve configured to slide along a catheter.
99. The mechanism further comprises: (iii) a flexible pocket rigidly attached to the catheter and configured to receive the satellite when the satellite is withdrawn with respect to the catheter. The probe according to claim 98, characterized in that it is provided.
JP2000565784A 1998-08-02 1999-07-07 Medical guidance device Pending JP2003524443A (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
IL12562698A IL125626D0 (en) 1998-08-02 1998-08-02 Intrabody navigation system for medical applications
IL125626 1998-08-02
IL126814 1998-10-29
IL12681498A IL126814D0 (en) 1998-10-29 1998-10-29 Intrabody navigation system for medical applications
PCT/IL1999/000371 WO2000010456A1 (en) 1998-08-02 1999-07-07 Intrabody navigation system for medical applications

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JP2000565784A Pending JP2003524443A (en) 1998-08-02 1999-07-07 Medical guidance device
JP2005001768A Granted JP2005161076A (en) 1998-08-02 2005-01-06 Device for determining position and orientation of object
JP2005001769A Granted JP2005161077A (en) 1998-08-02 2005-01-06 Device for detecting electromagnetic field
JP2005001767A Granted JP2005185845A (en) 1998-08-02 2005-01-06 Method to determine position and orientation of matter against reference frame
JP2005001770A Granted JP2005128035A (en) 1998-08-02 2005-01-06 Electromagnetic field detecting device

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JP2005001769A Granted JP2005161077A (en) 1998-08-02 2005-01-06 Device for detecting electromagnetic field
JP2005001767A Granted JP2005185845A (en) 1998-08-02 2005-01-06 Method to determine position and orientation of matter against reference frame
JP2005001770A Granted JP2005128035A (en) 1998-08-02 2005-01-06 Electromagnetic field detecting device

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