EP1492953B1 - Combined fuel injection valve/ignition plug - Google Patents

Combined fuel injection valve/ignition plug Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1492953B1
EP1492953B1 EP20030745245 EP03745245A EP1492953B1 EP 1492953 B1 EP1492953 B1 EP 1492953B1 EP 20030745245 EP20030745245 EP 20030745245 EP 03745245 A EP03745245 A EP 03745245A EP 1492953 B1 EP1492953 B1 EP 1492953B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
fuel injection
injection valve
spark plug
electrodes
spark
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
EP20030745245
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1492953A1 (en
Inventor
Manfred Vogel
Werner Herden
Rainer Ecker
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Robert Bosch GmbH
Original Assignee
Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE2002114167 priority Critical patent/DE10214167A1/en
Priority to DE10214167 priority
Application filed by Robert Bosch GmbH filed Critical Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority to PCT/DE2003/000232 priority patent/WO2003083284A1/en
Publication of EP1492953A1 publication Critical patent/EP1492953A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1492953B1 publication Critical patent/EP1492953B1/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01TSPARK GAPS; OVERVOLTAGE ARRESTERS USING SPARK GAPS; SPARKING PLUGS; CORONA DEVICES; GENERATING IONS TO BE INTRODUCED INTO NON-ENCLOSED GASES
    • H01T13/00Sparking plugs
    • H01T13/20Sparking plugs characterised by features of the electrodes or insulation
    • H01T13/22Sparking plugs characterised by features of the electrodes or insulation having two or more electrodes embedded in insulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M57/00Fuel-injectors combined or associated with other devices
    • F02M57/06Fuel-injectors combined or associated with other devices the devices being sparking plugs

Abstract

The invention relates to a fuel injection valve (1) with integrated ignition plug (2), which comprises a fuel injection valve (1) for directly injecting fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and an ignition plug (2) for igniting the fuel present in the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine. Said ignition plug comprises a spark plug insulator (9) with a first electrode (10) and a second electrode (12) that is spaced from the first electrode (10) by a spark gap (13). The fuel injection valve (1) and the spark plug insulator (9) of the ignition plug (2) are disposed in a common housing (11). The spark gap (13) has a width of 50 to 300 µm and is disposed at a distance of 3 to 10 mm upstream of the fuel injection valve (1).

Description

    State of the art
  • The invention relates to a fuel injection valve with integrated spark plug (fuel injector spark plug combination) according to the preamble of the main claim.
  • From the EP 0 661 446 A1 a fuel injector with an integrated spark plug is known. The fuel injector with integrated spark plug is used for direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine and for igniting the fuel injected into the combustion chamber. The compact integration of a fuel injection valve with a spark plug installation space can be saved on the cylinder head of the engine. The known fuel injection valve with integrated spark plug has a valve body which, together with an actuatable by means of a valve needle valve closing body forms a sealing seat, which is adjoined by an opening facing the combustion chamber end face of the valve body ejection opening. The valve body is high-voltage resistant isolated by a ceramic insulating body of a screwed into the cylinder head of the internal combustion engine housing body. On the housing body is a ground electrode to a counter potential to the high voltage applied to form valve body. When the valve body is acted upon with a sufficient high voltage, a sparkover occurs between the valve body and the ground electrode connected to the housing body.
  • In the known fuel injection valve with integrated spark plug, however, it is disadvantageous that the position of the flashover with respect to the ejected from the ejection port fuel jet is not defined, since the flashover can take place at an almost arbitrary position in the lateral region of a projection of the valve body. A reliable ignition of the so-called jet root of the ejected from the spray discharge fuel jet is not possible in this known construction with the necessary security. However, a safe and timely exactly defined ignition of the fuel jet is absolutely necessary for reducing pollutants. Furthermore, at the outlet opening of the fuel jet, a steadily progressing fouling or coking can occur, which affects the ejected jet shape. In addition, it is disadvantageous that the ceramic injection of the fuel injection valve is relatively expensive.
  • Another disadvantage is that the operating voltage, which is needed to generate a spark, is usually up to 25 kV, which on the one hand, the components that are required for voltage generation or - transformation, costly and space consuming and on the other hand due to the high voltages heavily loaded and therefore of low life.
  • Furthermore, from the summary of JP 57 000 361 A a combination of fuel injection valve and spark plug for an internal combustion engine known. Via a nozzle, a fuel is sprayed from the fuel injection valve into the combustion chamber. This mixture spreads tapered from the point of injection and surrounds the spark gap located under the nozzle.
  • Advantages of the invention
  • The fuel injector spark plug combination according to the invention with the characterizing features of the main claim has the advantage that the spark gap of the spark plug is so short that even low voltages sufficient to generate a spark. The
  • Width of the spark gap is between 50 and 300 microns in an axial distance of 3 to 15 mm in front of the injection opening. It is likewise advantageous that the parts of the electrodes running parallel to an end face of the housing have the same length, which simplifies their manufacture.
  • The measures listed in the dependent claims advantageous refinements and improvements of the main claim fuel injector spark plug combination are possible.
  • In particular, it is advantageous that the electrodes can be formed almost arbitrarily, so that each installation and injection situation can be taken into account. The electrodes can be bent in a right-angle or part-circular manner both in the radial and in the axial direction.
  • Advantageously, the ends of the electrodes are chamfered or conically tapered to facilitate flashover.
  • drawing
  • Embodiments of the invention are shown in simplified form in the drawing and explained in more detail in the following description. Show it:
  • Fig. 1
    a schematic section through the discharge-side end of a first embodiment of a fuel injection valve spark plug combination according to the invention;
    Fig. 2A-B
    schematic plan views against the Abspritzrichtung on two possible arrangements of the electrodes of the spark plug; Fig. 2B is not the subject of the invention.
    Fig. 3A-B
    schematic plan views against the Abspritzrichtung on two possible arrangements of the spark gap; Fig. 3B is not the subject of the invention.
    Fig. 4A-C
    schematic representations of different shapes of the electrodes; Fig.C is not the subject of the invention.
    Fig. 5A-B
    various views of the discharge end of a known fuel injector spark plug combination; and
    Fig. 6A-D
    Diagrams of the injection and Zündverlaufs in various operating conditions of an equipped with the invention inventively designed fuel injection valve spark plug combinations engine.
    Description of the embodiments
  • In Fig. 1 is a schematic partial longitudinal section of the discharge end of a fuel injection valve 1 with integrated spark plug 2 (fuel injector spark plug combination) for direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber of a mixture-compression, spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for igniting the fuel injected into the combustion chamber.
  • The fuel injection valve 1 in this case has a nozzle body 3 and a valve seat body 4. In the valve seat body 4 more, in the present embodiment, for example, five spray openings 5 are arranged. The fuel injection valve 1 has a valve needle 6, which is arranged in the nozzle body 3. The valve needle 6 has at its discharge end a valve closing body 7, which with a formed on the valve seat body 4 valve seat surface. 8 forms a sealing seat. According to the invention it is an inwardly opening fuel injection valve. 1
  • The fuel injection valve 1 can be embodied as an electromagnetically operable fuel injection valve 1 or also have a piezoelectric or magnetostrictive actuator for actuation.
  • The spark plug 2 consists of a candle block 9, which preferably consists of a ceramic material, as well as a first electrode 10 disposed therein. The first electrode 10 is electrically contacted by a not further illustrated ignition device. The spark plug 2 and the fuel injection valve 1 are arranged in a common housing 11. At least one second electrode 12 is fixed to the common housing 11 so that a spark gap 13 is formed between the electrodes 10 and 12. By installing the spark plug 2 and the fuel injection valve 1 in the common housing 11, the installation space, which otherwise must be expended for a separately arranged spark plug 2, can be saved.
  • According to the invention, the spark gap 13 has a very small width, which is only 50 to 300 μm, and is 3 to 15 mm away from the spray-discharge openings 5 of the fuel injection valve 1. The small width of the spark gap 13 is advantageous in that the ignition voltage, which is required to generate a spark between the electrodes 10 and 12, considerably lower than in conventional spark plugs. It varies between 5 and 8 kV, while the ignition voltage requirement for conventional spark plugs is around 25 kV.
  • This has the advantage that the ignition voltage providing components must be designed less powerful, making the production is cheaper. In addition, the load on the electrical components is lower, resulting in longer lifetimes.
  • The electrodes 10 and 12 are also protected, since the electrode erosion can be greatly reduced by capacitive discharge, since this depends on the square of the voltage.
  • The FIGS. 2A and 2B show two embodiments of a corresponding arrangement of the electrodes 10 and 12 according to the in Fig. 1 illustrated embodiment of an inventively designed fuel injector 1 with integrated spark plug 2. The embodiment in FIG. 2B is not the subject of the invention. The viewing direction is directed in each case against the direction of discharge of the fuel -on the valve seat body 4 of the fuel injection valve 1.
  • In Fig. 2A the electrodes 10 and 12 are linear and are diametrically opposed to each other. This has the advantage of particularly easy manufacturability, since the electrodes only at right angles, as in Fig. 1 displayed, bent and otherwise do not need to be further processed.
  • In the Fig. 2B illustrated electrodes 10 and 12 are made bent, so that the second electrode 12 is not the first electrode 10, as in Fig. 2A represented, diametrically opposed, but together with this at least partially forms a circle. This has the advantage that the common housing 11 of the fuel injection valve 1 and the spark plug 2 can be made considerably slimmer and as a result, the required installation space in the cylinder head can be reduced.
  • As already from the Fig. 1, 2A To recognize us 2B, the electrodes 10 and 12 are arranged so that the spark gap 13 is always disposed within the sprayed through the spray orifices 5 mixture cloud. This has the advantage that the mixture cloud through the ever-present Mixture flow and the resulting spark excursion can safely ignite. The spark gap 13 can, as in Fig. 3A represented axially on a longitudinal axis of the fuel injection valve 1 centered on the concentric rings of injection openings 5 of the fuel injection valve 1 may be arranged, whereby the mixture cloud is ignited in the center. Thereafter, the mixture cloud can burn through very quickly, since the flame paths in the outer regions of the mixture cloud only about half as long as in a marginal arrangement of the spark plug 2, which flames the mixture cloud first in a peripheral region.
  • Fig. 3B shows a further possibility of the arrangement of the spark gap 13 relative to the ejection openings 5. The possibility is not the subject of the invention. By a suitable placement of the spark gap 13 can be avoided, for example, that the electrodes 10 and 12 are injected too much directly, which would increase the coking of the electrodes 10 and 12 and thus malfunction and resulting misfires. On the other hand, however, the most central possible arrangement of the spark gap 13 is maintained in order to exploit the short flame paths can.
  • The FIGS. 4A to 4C show possible forms of the electrodes 10 and 12, which can be advantageously used in the inventively designed fuel injector 1 with integrated spark plug 2.
  • Fig. 4A shows electrodes 10 and 12, which are inclined at right angles to each other, with ends 14 of the electrodes 10, 12 bevelled or even conically shaped to promote the flashover. The perpendicular bent electrodes extend parallel to an end face of the housing 11.
  • In the Fig. 4B illustrated embodiment, the ends 14 of the electrodes 10, 12 aufzubiegen again at right angles, so that they are parallel to each other again.
  • This has the advantage that the spark gap 13 undergoes a certain shielding against the mixture flow, so that the risk of coking and subsequent misfiring is reduced.
  • In Fig. 4C The electrodes 10 and 12 tilt towards each other to an angle, whereby the arrangement is particularly easy to produce. This embodiment is not the subject of the invention. Again, it should be noted that the ends 14 of the electrodes 10, 12 are at least bevelled or even tapered to promote the flashover.
  • Figs. 5A and 5B show a known example of a fuel injection valve 1 with integrated spark plug 2, wherein the fuel injection valve 1 in contrast to that in the Fig. 1 to 3 shown fuel injector 1 is designed as an outwardly opening fuel injector 1.
  • Fig. 5A shows a highly schematic side view of the discharge end of the fuel injection valve 1 and the integrated spark plug 2. The fuel injection valve 1 has, as in the previous embodiment, a nozzle body 3, in which a valve needle 6 is guided. The valve needle 6 has at its discharge end a valve closing body 7, which forms a sealing seat with a formed on a valve seat body 4 valve seat surface 8. Due to the conical shape of the valve closing body 7, the fuel injection valve 1 sprays off a cone-shaped mixture cloud 15.
  • How out Fig. 5A can be seen, the axial length of the electrodes 10, 12 is dimensioned so that the mixture cloud 15, the electrodes 10, 12 and the intervening spark gap 13 is not completely enveloped, but tangentially brushes. This is also in Fig. 5B illustrates which a plan view of the discharge-side end of the fuel injection valve 1 and the spark plug 2 against the Abspritzrichtung shows. The axial height above the exit region of the fuel is about 5mm. It can be seen that the opening angle of the cone-shaped mixture cloud 15 is just so far that the spark gap 13 is in the range of the stoichiometric mixture, without being injected directly. This is for the life of the spark plug 2 is advantageous because the thermal shock load is not so strong and the electrodes 10, 12 less prone to electrode erosion.
  • For the in Figs. 5A and 5B shown known fuel injector 1 with integrated spark plug 2 are in particular also in the FIGS. 4A to 4C illustrated embodiments of electrodes 10, 12 usable.
  • To clarify the constructive features of the invention serve in the FIGS. 6A to 6D shown diagrams of the injection and ignition process in different load conditions of the internal combustion engine.
  • Fig. 6A shows schematically a simplified representation of the curve of the load M as a function of the speed n of the internal combustion engine. Operating states within the horizontally hatched area are referred to as stratified charge mode or partial load mode, while operating states within the vertically shaded area are referred to as homogeneous, homogeneous lean or full load. The FIGS. 6B and 6D refer to an operating state from the area of the stratified charge mode, while Fig. 6C represents an operating state from the range of the homogeneous operation.
  • Fig. 6B represents a possible injection and ignition process, which shows an injection phase over a time t i over a crankshaft angle range ° KW. Ignition occurs shortly after the beginning of injection before top dead center.
  • Alternatively, the in Fig. 6D illustrated injection and ignition possible, in which after the actual injection, a very small injection for ignition takes place.
  • This is under the proviso that between main injection and small injection quantity is a larger crankshaft angle range, also possible for the homogeneous operation, as in Fig. 6C shown.
  • The invention is not limited to the illustrated embodiments and is applicable to any construction of fuel injection valves 1 and spark plugs 2 as defined in the appended claims.

Claims (9)

  1. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug, having a fuel injection valve (1) for directly injecting fuel through at least one ejection opening (5) into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and having a spark plug (2) for igniting the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, said spark plug having a spark plug insulating body (9) which has a first electrode (10) and having a second electrode (12) which is spaced apart from the first electrode (10) by a spark path (13),
    the fuel injection valve (1) and the spark plug insulating body (9) of the spark plug (2) being arranged in a common housing (11),
    characterized
    in that the spark path (13) has a width of 50 to 300 µm and is arranged a distance of 3 to 15 mm in front of the ejection opening (5),
    in that the fuel injection valve (1) is designed as an inwardly opening fuel injection valve (1) with a plurality of ejection openings, and
    in that those parts of the electrodes (10; 12) which run parallel to an end side of the housing (11) are of equal length.
  2. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to Claim 1,
    characterized
    in that the second electrode (12) is fixed to the common housing (11).
  3. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to Claim 1 or 2,
    characterized
    in that the electrodes (10; 12) are of rectilinear design and are situated diametrically opposite one another.
  4. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to Claim 1 or 2,
    characterized
    in that the electrodes (10; 12) are bent into the shape of a circular segment.
  5. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to one of Claims 1 to 4,
    characterized
    in that the electrodes (10; 12) are bevelled or taper conically at their ends (14) facing towards one another.
  6. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to one of Claims 1 to 5,
    characterized
    in that the electrodes (10; 12) are arranged parallel to a longitudinal axis of the fuel injection valve (1) in the housing (11) and in the spark plug (2), and are bent at right angles to form the spark path (13).
  7. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to one of Claims 1, 2, 4 and 5,
    characterized
    in that the electrodes (10; 12) are bent towards one another in a curved manner to form the spark path (13).
  8. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to one of Claims 1 to 7,
    characterized
    in that the ends (14) of the electrodes (10; 12) are bent up at right angles so as to run parallel to one another.
  9. Combined fuel injection valve/spark plug according to Claim 1,
    characterized
    in that the spark path (13) is arranged in the axial elongation of a longitudinal axis of the fuel injection valve (1).
EP20030745245 2002-03-28 2003-01-29 Combined fuel injection valve/ignition plug Expired - Fee Related EP1492953B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2002114167 DE10214167A1 (en) 2002-03-28 2002-03-28 The fuel injector-spark plug combination
DE10214167 2002-03-28
PCT/DE2003/000232 WO2003083284A1 (en) 2002-03-28 2003-01-29 Combined fuel injection valve/ignition plug

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1492953A1 EP1492953A1 (en) 2005-01-05
EP1492953B1 true EP1492953B1 (en) 2011-05-18

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20030745245 Expired - Fee Related EP1492953B1 (en) 2002-03-28 2003-01-29 Combined fuel injection valve/ignition plug

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US7077100B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1492953B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4268885B2 (en)
KR (1) KR20040093178A (en)
DE (1) DE10214167A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2003083284A1 (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2003083284A1 (en) 2003-10-09
US20050224043A1 (en) 2005-10-13
EP1492953A1 (en) 2005-01-05
KR20040093178A (en) 2004-11-04
JP4268885B2 (en) 2009-05-27
US7077100B2 (en) 2006-07-18
DE10214167A1 (en) 2003-10-09
JP2005521829A (en) 2005-07-21

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