EP0511456A1 - Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme - Google Patents

Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme Download PDF

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EP0511456A1
EP0511456A1 EP19910870072 EP91870072A EP0511456A1 EP 0511456 A1 EP0511456 A1 EP 0511456A1 EP 19910870072 EP19910870072 EP 19910870072 EP 91870072 A EP91870072 A EP 91870072A EP 0511456 A1 EP0511456 A1 EP 0511456A1
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Prior art keywords
preferably
liquid detergent
detergent composition
alkyl
composition according
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German (de)
French (fr)
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Pierre Marie Alain Lenoir
Christiaan Arthur Jacques Kamiel Thoen
Rajan Keshav Panandiker
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Procter and Gamble Co
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Procter and Gamble Co
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Priority to EP19910870072 priority Critical patent/EP0511456A1/en
Priority claimed from US08/137,206 external-priority patent/US5422030A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES OR WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D3/00Other compounding ingredients of detergent compositions covered in group C11D1/00
    • C11D3/16Organic compounds
    • C11D3/38Products with no well-defined composition, e.g. natural products
    • C11D3/386Preparations containing enzymes, e.g. protease, amylase
    • C11D3/38663Stabilised liquid enzyme compositions

Abstract

Included are liquid detergent compositions comprising anionic and/or nonionic surfactant, proteolytic enzyme, second enzyme, and an aromatic borate ester.

Description

    Field of the Invention
  • This invention relates to liquid detergent compositions comprising anionic or nonionic surfactant, proteolytic enzyme, second enzyme, and an aromatic borate ester.
  • Background of the invention
  • A commonly encountered problem with protease-containing liquid detergents is the degradation of second enzymes in the composition by the proteolytic enzyme. The stability of the second enzyme upon storage in product and its effect on cleaning are impaired by the proteolytic enzyme.
  • Boric acid and boronic acids are known to reversibly inhibit proteolytic enzymes. A discussion of the inhibition of one serine protease, subtilisin, by boronic acid is provided in Philipp, M. and Bender, M.L., "Kinetics of Subtilisin and Thiosubtilisin", Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 51, pp. 5-32 (1983).
  • One type of boronic acid, peptide boronic acid, is discussed as an inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, especially in pharmaceuticals, in European Patent Application 0 293 881, Kettner et al., published December 7, 1988.
  • German Patent 3 918 761, published June 28, 1990 discloses liquid enzyme concentrate which is said to be usable as a raw material solution for making liquid detergents and the like. The concentrate contains hydrolase, propylene glycol and boric acid or its salt.
  • U.S. Patent 4,537,707, issued August 27, 1985 describes heavy duty liquid detergents containing anionic surfactants, fatty acid, builder, proteolytic enzyme, boric acid, calcium ions and sodium formate. The combination of boric acid and sodium formate is claimed to provide improved proteolytic enzyme stability in this composition, especially in the presence of a polyol. These compositions are free of lipase.
  • European Patent Application 0 080 223, published June 1, 1983 describes detergent compositions containing a polyfunctional amino compound or a polyol together with a reducing alkali metal salt.
  • Similarly in GB 2 079 305, published January 20, 1982, it is disclosed that enhanced enzyme stability can be obtained in a built liquid detergent by inclusion of boric acid, a polyol in the ratio of polyol to boric acid more than 1:1, and a cross-linked polyacrylate polymer. These compositions contain no lipase.
  • In European Application 0 381 262, Aronson et al., published August 8, 1990, mixtures of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes in a liquid medium have been disclosed. The stability of lipase is claimed to be improved by the addition of boron compound and a polyol having vicinal hydroxyl groups.
  • It has now been found that certain aromatic borate esters are especially effective in reversibly inhibiting protease, in a HDL which also comprises detergency ingredients and a second enzyme.
  • Upon dilution, such as under typical wash conditions, the proteolytic enzyme is no longer inhibited and can function (e.g. to remove protease-sensitive stains from fabrics in the wash).
  • Summary of the invention
  • The present invention relates to a liquid detergent composition containing :
    • a. an aromatic borate ester formed by the complexation of boric acid with an aromatic reagent of the structure:
      Figure imgb0001
      Wherein:
      • X is OH, SH, or NH₂;
      • Y is CO₂H, substituted or unsubstituted CH₂OH, CH₂SH, CH₂NH₂ or
        Figure imgb0002
      • each Z is H or a substituted or unsubstituted C₁-C₆ alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or an aryl chain, OH or -O-R, wherein R is a C₁-C₆ alkyl chain, or an electron withdrawing group such as CN, NO₂ CHO, SO₃H, COOR wherein R is H or a C₁-C₆ alkyl chain;
      • i is an integer of from 1 to 4,
    • b. from about 0.0001 to 1 % of active proteolytic enzyme;
    • c. a performance-enhancing amount of a detergent-compatible second enzyme;
    • d. from about 1 to 80 weight % of anionic or nonionic surfactant.
    Description of the invention
  • The present liquid detergent compositions contain certain essential ingredients : (a) an aromatic borate ester formed by the complexation of an aromatic reagent described herein after with boric acid or its derivatives; (b) proteolytic enzyme; (c) detergent-compatible second enzyme; (d) anionic and/or nonionic detersive surfactant.
  • These compositions will most commonly be used for cleaning of laundry, fabrics, textiles, fibers, and hard surfaces. Heavy duty liquid laundry detergents are the preferred liquid detergent compositions herein.
  • (a) Aromatic borate ester
  • The present liquid detergent compositions contain an aromatic borate ester formed by the complexation of an aromatic reagent such as described herein after with boric acid or its derivatives.
  • The aromatic borate ester can either be formed prior to incorporation in the detergent composition, or it can be formed in situ, by simply adding boric acid and the aromatic reagent in the detergent composition at any stage in its manufacturing process, or on top of the finished product.
  • From about 0.1 to 20 %, preferably about 0.2 to 10% weight % of the aromatic borate ester can be used in the liquid detergent composition. The molar ratio of boric acid or its derivatives to aromatic reagent is preferably between about 20:1 and 1:20, more preferably between about 10:1 and 1:10, most preferably between 5:1 and 1:5.
  • The aromatic reagent
  • The aromatic reagent has the following structure:
    Figure imgb0003

    Wherein:
    • X is OH, SH, or NH₂;
    • Y is CO₂H, substituted or unsubstituted CH₂OH, CH₂SH, CH₂NH₂ or
      Figure imgb0004
    • each Z is H or a substituted or unsubstituted C₁-C₆ alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or an aryl chain, OH or -O-R wherein R is a C₁-C₆ alkyl chain, or an electron withdrawing group such as CN, CHO, SO₃H, NO₂ or COOR wherein R is H or a C₁-C₆ alkyl chain,
    • i is an integer of from 1 to 4; i.e there can be up to four substituents per aromatic ring.
  • Preferably, there will be one substituent per aromatic ring (i.e. i=1) ; preferably, this substituent will be an electron withdrawing group, as defined hereinabove; preferably this electron withdrawing group will be in para position vs the X substituent.
  • Preferred aromatic reagents according to the invention are substituted or unsubstituted 2-hydroxybenzylalcohol or 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, more preferably 2-hydroxybenzylalcohol, 2,6-dihydroxybenzylalcohol, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid.
  • From about 0.05 to about 20%, most preferably about 0.2 to 10% weight % of aromatic reagent is preferred in the present liquid detergent compositions.
  • Boric Acid
  • The boric acid or its derivatives used in the mixture can be boric acid, borax, boric oxide, polyborates, orthoborates, pyroborates, metaborates, or mixtures thereof. Boric acid salts are of course included.
  • In the present liquid detergent compositions, from about 0.001 to 20, more preferably about 0.02 to 10, most preferably 0.05 to 5, weight % of boric acid or derivatives is incorporated.
  • B. Proteolytic Enzyme
  • A second essential ingredient in the present liquid detergent compositions is from about 0.0001 to 1.0, preferably about 0.0005 to 0.5, most preferably about 0.002 to 0.1, weight % of active proteolytic enzyme. Mixtures of proteolytic enzyme are also included. The proteolytic enzyme can be of animal, vegetable or microorganism (preferred) origin. More preferred is serine proteolytic enzyme of bacterial origin. Purified or nonpurified forms of this enzyme may be used. Proteolytic enzymes produced by chemically or genetically modified mutants are included. Particularly preferred is bacterial serine proteolytic enzyme obtained from Bacillus Subtillis and/or Bacillus Licheniformis.
  • Suitable proteolytic enzymes include AlcalaseR, EsperaseR , SavinaseR (preferred); MaxataseR, MaxacalR (preferred), and Maxapem 15R (protein engineered MaxacalR); and subtilisin BPN and BPN'(preferred); which are commercially available. Preferred proteolytic enzymes are also modified bacterial serine proteases, such as those described in European Patent Application Serial Number 87303761.8, published April 28, 1987(particularly pages 19, 24 and 98), and which is called herein "Protease B", and in European Patent Application 199,404, Venegas, published October 29, 1986, which refers to a modified bacterial serine proteolytic enzyme which is called "Protease A" herein. Preferred proteolytic enzymes, then, are selected from the group consisting of SavinaseR, MaxacalR, BPN', Protease A and Protease B, and mixtures thereof. Protease B is most preferred.
  • C. Second Enzyme
  • The third essential ingredient in the present liquid compositions is a performance-enhancing amount of a detergent-compatible second enzyme. By "detergent-compatible" is meant compatibility with the other ingredients of a liquid detergent composition, such as detersive surfactant and detergency builder. These second enzymes are preferably selected from the group consisting of lipase, amylase, cellulase, and mixtures thereof. The term "second enzyme" excludes the proteolytic enzymes discussed above, so each composition herein contains at least two kinds of enzyme, including at least one proteolytic enzyme.
  • The amount of second enzyme used in the composition varies according to the type of enzyme and the use intended. In general, from about 0.0001 to 1.0, more preferably 0.001 to 0.5, weight % on an active basis of these second enzymes are preferably used.
  • Mixtures of enzymes from the same class (e.g. lipase) or two or more classes (e.g. cellulase and lipase) may be used. Purified or non-purified forms of the enzyme may be used.
  • Any lipase suitable for use in a liquid detergent composition can be used herein. Suitable lipases for use herein include those of bacterial and fungal origin. Second enzymes from chemically or genetically modified mutants are included.
  • Suitable bacterial lipases include those produced by Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 19.154, as disclosed in British Patent 1,372,034, incorporated herein by reference. Suitable lipases include those which show a positive immunological cross-reaction with the antibody of the lipase produced by the microorganism Pseudomonas fluorescens IAM 1057. This lipase and a method for its purification have been described in Japanese Patent Application 53-20487, laid open on February 24, 1978, which is incorporated herein by reference. This lipase is available under the trade name Lipase P "Amano," hereinafter referred to as "Amano-P." Such lipases should show a positive immunological cross reaction with the Amano-P antibody, using the standard and well-known immunodiffusion procedure according to Ouchterlony (Acta. Med. Scan., 133, pages 76-79 (1950)). These lipases, and a method for their immunological cross-reaction with Amano-P, are also described in U.S. Patent 4,707,291, Thom et al., issued November 17, 1987, incorporated herein by reference. Typical examples thereof are the Amano-P lipase, the lipase ex Pseudomonas fragi FERM P 1339 (available under the trade name Amano-B), lipase ex Psuedomonas nitroreducens var. lipolyticum FERM P 1338 (available under the trade name Amano-CES), lipases ex Chromobacter viscosum, e.g. Chromobacter viscosum var. lipolyticum NRRLB 3673, and further Chromobacter viscosum lipases, and lipases ex Pseudomonas gladioli. Other lipases of interest are Amano AKG and Bacillis Sp lipase (ex. Solvay enzyme).
  • Suitable fungal lipases include those producible by Humicola lanuginosa and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Most preferred is lipase obtained by cloning the gene from Humicola lanuginosa and expressing the gene in Aspergillus oryzae as described in European Patent Application 0 258 068, incorporated herein by reference, commercially available under the trade name LipolaseR.
  • From about 2 to 20,000, preferably about 10 to 6,000, lipase units of lipase per gram (LU/g) of product can be used in these compositions. A lipase unit is that amount of lipase which produces 1 µmol of titratable butyric acid per minute in a pH stat, where pH is 9.0, temperature is 30°C, and substrate is an emulsion of 3.3wt % of tributyrin and 3.3% of gum arabic, in the presence of 2.2 µmol/l Ca⁺⁺ and 50µmol/l NaCl in 5µmol/l phosphate.
  • Any cellulase suitable for use in a liquid detergent composition can be used in these compositions. Suitable cellulase enzymes for use herein include those of bacterial and fungal origins. Preferably, they will have a pH optimum of between 5 and 9.5. From about 0.0001 to 1.0, preferably 0.001 to 0.5, weight % on an active enzyme basis of cellulase can be used.
  • Suitable cellulases are disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,435,307, Barbesgaard et al., issued March 6, 1984, incorporated herein by reference, which discloses fungal cellulase produced from Humicola insolens. Suitable cellulases are also disclosed in GB-A-2.075.028, GB-A-2.095.275 and DE-OS-2.247.832.
  • Examples of such cellulases are cellulases produced by a strain of Humicola insolens (Humicola grisea var. thermoidea), particularly the Humicola strain DSM 1800, and cellulases produced by a fungus of Bacillus N or a cellulase 212-producing fungus belonging to the genus Aeromonas, and cellulase extracted from the hepatopancreas of a marine mollusc (Dolabella Auricula Solander).
  • Any amylase suitable for use in a liquid detergent composition can be used in these compositions. Amylases include, for example, α-amylases obtained from a special strain of B.licheniforms, described in more detail in British Patent Specification No. 1,296,839. Amylolytic proteins include, for example, Rapidase™, Maxamyl™ and Termamyl™.
  • From about 0.0001% to 1.0, preferably 0.0005 to 0.5, weight % on an active enzyme basis of amylase can be used.
  • D. Detersive Surfactant
  • From about 1 to 80, preferably about 5 to 50, most preferably about 10 to 30, weight % of detersive surfactant is the fourth essential ingredient in the present invention. The detersive surfactant can be selected from the group consisting of anionics, nonionics, cationics, ampholytics, zwitterionics, and mixtures thereof. Anionic and nonionic surfactants are preferred.
  • Heavy duty liquid laundry detergents are the preferred liquid detergent compositions herein. The particular surfactants used can vary widely depending upon the particular end-use envisioned. These compositions will most commonly be used for cleaning of laundry, fabrics, textiles, fibers, and hard surfaces.
  • The benefits of the present invention are especially pronounced in compositions containing ingredients that are harsh to enzymes such as certain detergency builders and surfactants. Preferably the anionic surfactant comprises C₁₂to c₂₀ alkyl ether sulfate and C₉ to C₂₀ linear alkylbenzene sulfonate. Suitable surfactants are described below.
  • Anionic Surfactants
  • One type of anionic surfactant which can be utilized is alkyl ester sulfonates. These are desirable because they can be made with renewable, non-petroleum resources. Preparation of the alkyl ester sulfonate surfactant component is according to known methods disclosed in the technical literature. For instance, linear esters of C₈-C₂₀ carboxylic acids can be sulfonated with gaseous SO₃ according to "The Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society," 52 (1975), pp. 323-329. Suitable starting materials would include natural fatty substances as derived from tallow, palm, and coconut oils, etc.
  • The preferred alkyl ester sulfonate surfactant, especially for laundry applications, comprises alkyl ester sulfonate surfactants of the structural formula:
    Figure imgb0005

    wherein R³ is a C₈-C₂₀ hydrocarbyl, preferably an alkyl, or combination thereof, R⁴ is a C₁-C₆ hydrocarbyl, preferably an alkyl, or combination thereof, and M is a soluble salt-forming cation. Suitable salts include metal salts such as sodium, potassium, and lithium salts, and substituted or unsubstituted ammonium salts, such as methyl-, dimethyl, -trimethyl, and quaternary ammonium cations, e.g. tetramethyl-ammonium and dimethyl piperydinium, and cations derived from alkanolamines, e.g. monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine.
    Preferably, R³ is C₁₀-C₁₆ alkyl, and R⁴ is methyl, ethyl or isopropyl. Especially preferred are the methyl ester sulfonates wherein R³ is C₁₄-C₁₆ alkyl.
  • Alkyl sulfate surfactants are another type of anionic surfactant of importance for use herein. In addition to providing excellent overall cleaning ability when used in combination with polyhydroxy fatty acid amides (see below), including good grease/oil cleaning over a wide range of temperatures, wash concentrations, and wash times, dissolution of alkyl sulfates can be obtained, as well as improved formulability in liquid detergent formulations are water soluble salts or acids of the formula ROSO₃M wherein R preferably is a C₁₀-C₂₄ hydrocarbyl, preferably an alkyl or hydroxyalkyl having a C₁₀-C₂₀ alkyl component, more preferably a C₁₂-C₁₈ alkyl or hydroxyalkyl, and M is H or a cation, e.g., an alkali metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium), substituted or unsubstituted ammonium cations such as methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl ammonium and quaternary ammonium cations, e.g., tetramethyl-ammonium and dimethyl piperdinium, and cations derived from alkanolamines such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and mixtures thereof, and the like. Typically, alkyl chains of C₁₂₋₁₆ are preferred for lower wash temperatures (e.g., below about 50°C) and C₁₆₋₁₈ alkyl chains are preferred for higher wash temperatures (e.g., above about 50°C).
  • Alkyl alkoxylated sulfate surfactants are another category of useful anionic surfactant. These surfactants are water soluble salts or acids typically of the formula RO(A)mSO₃M wherein R is an unsubstituted C₁₀-C₂₄ alkyl or hydroxyalkyl group having a C₁₀-C₂₄ alkyl component, preferably a C₁₂-C₂₀ alkyl or hydroxyalkyl, more preferably C₁₂-C₁₈ alkyl or hydroxyalkyl, A is an ethoxy or propoxy unit, m is greater than zero, typically between about 0.5 and about 6, more preferably between about 0.5 and about 3, and M is H or a cation which can be, for example, a metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, etc.), ammonium or substituted-ammonium cation. Alkyl ethoxylated sulfates as well as alkyl propoxylated sulfates are contemplated herein. Specific examples of substituted ammonium cations include methyl-, dimethyl-, trimethyl-ammonium and quaternary ammonium cations, such as tetramethyl-ammonium, dimethyl piperdinium and cations derived from alkanolamines, e.g. monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine, and mixtures thereof. Exemplary surfactants are C₁₂-C₁₈ alkyl polyethoxylate (1.0) sulfate, C₁₂-C₁₈ alkyl polyethoxylate (2.25) sulfate, C₁₂-C₁₈ alkyl polyethoxylate (3.0) sulfate, and C₁₂-C₁₈ alkyl polyethoxylate (4.0) sulfate wherein M is conveniently selected from sodium and potassium.
  • Other Anionic Surfactants
  • Other anionic surfactants useful for detersive purposes can also be included in the compositions hereof. These can include salts (including, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, and substituted ammonium salts such as mono-, di- and triethanolamine salts) of soap, C₉-C₂₀ linear alkylbenzenesulphonates, C₈-C₂₂ primary or secondary alkanesulphonates, C₈-C₂₄ olefinsulphonates, sulphonated polycarboxylic acids prepared by sulphonation of the pyrolyzed product of alkaline earth metal citrates, e.g., as described in British Patent Specification No. 1,082,179, alkyl glycerol sulfonates, fatty acyl glycerol sulfonates, fatty oleyl glycerol sulfates, alkyl phenol ethylene oxide ether sulfates, paraffin sulfonates, alkyl phosphates, isethionates such as the acyl isethionates, N-acyl taurates, fatty acid amides of methyl tauride, alkyl succinamates and sulfosuccinates, monoesters of sulfosuccinate (especially saturated and unsaturated C₁₂-C₁₈ monoesters) diesters of sulfosuccinate (especially saturated and unsaturated C₆-C₁₄ diesters), N-acyl sarcosinates, sulfates of alkylpolysaccharides such as the sulfates of alkylpolyglucoside (the nonionic nonsulfated compounds being described below), branched primary alkyl sulfates, alkyl polyethoxy carboxylates such as those of the formula RO(CH₂CH₂O)kCH₂COO-M⁺ wherein R is a C₈-C₂₂ alkyl, k is an integer from 0 to 10, and M is a soluble salt-forming cation, and fatty acids esterified with isethionic acid and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. Resin acids and hydrogenated resin acids are also suitable, such as rosin, hydrogenated rosin, and resin acids and hydrogenated resin acids present in or derived from tall oil. Further examples are given in "Surface Active Agents and Detergents" (Vol. I and II by Schwartz, Perry and Berch). A variety of such surfactants are also generally disclosed in U.S. Patent 3,929,678, issued December 30, 1975 to Laughlin, et al. at Column 23, line 58 through Column 29, line 23 (herein incorporated by reference).
  • Nonionic Detergent Surfactants
  • Suitable nonionic detergent surfactants are generally disclosed in U.S. Patent 3,929,678, Laughlin et al., issued December 30, 1975, at column 13, line 14 through column 16, line 6, incorporated herein by reference. Exemplary, non-limiting classes of useful nonionic surfactants are listed below.
    • 1. The polyethylene, polypropylene, and polybutylene oxide condensates of alkyl phenols. In general, the polyethylene oxide condensates are preferred. These compounds include the condensation products of alkyl phenols having an alkyl group containing from about 6 to about 12 carbon atoms in either a straight chain or branched chain configuration with the alkylene oxide. In a preferred embodiment, the ethylene oxide is present in an amount equal to from about 5 to about 25 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of alkyl phenol. Commercially available nonionic surfactants of this type include Igepal™ CO-630, marketed by the GAF Corporation; and Triton™ X-45, X-114, X-100, and X-102, all marketed by the Rohm & Haas Company. These compounds are commonly referred to as alkyl phenol alkoxylates, (e.g., alkyl phenol ethoxylates).
    • 2. The condensation products of aliphatic alcohols with from about 1 to about 25 moles of ethylene oxide. The alkyl chain of the aliphatic alcohol can either be straight or branched, primary or secondary, and generally contains from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms. Particularly preferred are the condensation products of alcohols having an alkyl group containing from about 10 to about 20 carbon atoms with from about 2 to about 18 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of alcohol. Examples of commercially available nonionic surfactants of this type include Tergitol™ 15-S-9 (the condensation product of C₁₁-C₁₅ linear secondary alcohol with 9 moles ethylene oxide), Tergitol™ 24-L-6 NMW (the condensation product of C₁₂-C₁₄ primary alcohol with 6 moles ethylene oxide with a narrow molecular weight distribution), both marketed by Union Carbide Corporation; Neodol™ 45-9 (the condensation product of C₁₄-C₁₅ linear alcohol with 9 moles of ethylene oxide), Neodol™ 23-6.5 (the condensation product of C₁₂-C₁₃ linear alcohol with 6.5 moles of ethylene oxide), Neodol™ 45-7 (the condensation product of C₁₄-C₁₅ linear alcohol with 7 moles of ethylene oxide), Neodol™ 45-4 (the condensation product of C₁₄-C₁₅ linear alcohol with 4 moles of ethylene oxide), marketed by Shell Chemical Company, and Kyro™ EOB (the condensation product of C₁₃-C₁₅ alcohol with 9 moles ethylene oxide), marketed by The Procter & Gamble Company. This category of nonionic surfactant is referred to generally as "alkyl ethoxylates."
    • 3. The condensation products of ethylene oxide with a hydrophobic base formed by the condensation of propylene oxide with propylene glycol. The hydrophobic portion of these compounds preferably has a molecular weight of from about 1500 to about 1800 and exhibits water insolubility. The addition of polyoxyethylene moieties to this hydrophobic portion tends to increase the water solubility of the molecule as a whole, and the liquid character of the product is retained up to the point where the polyoxyethylene content is about 50% of the total weight of the condensation product, which corresponds to condensation with up to about 40 moles of ethylene oxide. Examples of compounds of this type include certain of the commercially-available Pluronic™ surfactants, marketed by BASF.
    • 4. The condensation products of ethylene oxide with the product resulting from the reaction of propylene oxide and ethylenediamine. The hydrophobic moiety of these products consists of the reaction product of ethylenediamine and excess propylene oxide, and generally has a molecular weight of from about 2500 to about 3000. This hydrophobic moiety is condensed with ethylene oxide to the extent that the condensation product contains from about 40% to about 80% by weight of polyoxyethylene and has a molecular weight of from about 5,000 to about 11,000. Examples of this type of nonionic surfactant include certain of the commercially available Tetronic™ compounds, marketed by BASF.
    • 5. Semi-polar nonionic surfactants are a special category of nonionic surfactants which include water-soluble amine oxides containing one alkyl moiety of from about 10 to about 18 carbon atoms and 2 moieties selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups and hydroxyalkyl groups containing from about 1 to about 3 carbon atoms; water-soluble phosphine oxides containing one alkyl moiety of from about 10 to about 18 carbon atoms and 2 moieties selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups and hydroxyalkyl groups containing from about 1 to about 3 carbon atoms; and water-soluble sulfoxides containing one alkyl moiety of from about 10 to about 18 carbon atoms and a moiety selected from the group consisting of alkyl and hydroxyalkyl moieties of from about 1 to about 3 carbon atoms.
      Semi-polar nonionic detergent surfactants include the amine oxide surfactants having the formula
      Figure imgb0006
      wherein R³ is an alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, or alkyl phenyl group or mixtures thereof containing from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms; R⁴ is an alkylene or hydroxyalkylene group containing from about 2 to about 3 carbon atoms or mixtures thereof; x is from 0 to about 3; and each R⁵ is an alkyl or hydroxyalkyl group containing from about 1 to about 3 carbon atoms or a polyethylene oxide group containing from about 1 to about 3 ethylene oxide groups. The R⁵ groups can be attached to each other, e.g., through an oxygen or nitrogen atom, to form a ring structure.
      These amine oxide surfactants in particular include C₁₀-C₁₈ alkyl dimethyl amine oxides and C₈-C₁₂ alkoxy ethyl dihydroxy ethyl amine oxides.
    • 6. Alkylpolysaccharides disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,565,647, Llenado, issued January 21, 1986, having a hydrophobic group containing from about 6 to about 30 carbon atoms, preferably from about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms and a polysaccharide, e.g., a polyglycoside, hydrophilic group containing from about 1.3 to about 10, preferably from about 1.3 to about 3, most preferably from about 1.3 to about 2.7 saccharide units. Any reducing saccharide containing 5 or 6 carbon atoms can be used, e.g., glucose, galactose and galactosyl moieties can be substituted for the glucosyl moieties. (Optionally the hydrophobic group is attached at the 2-, 3-, 4-, etc. positions thus giving a glucose or galactose as opposed to a glucoside or galactoside.) The intersaccharide bonds can be, e.g., between the one position of the additional saccharide units and the 2-, 3-, 4-, and/or 6-positions on the preceding saccharide units.
      Optionally, and less desirably, there can be a polyalkyleneoxide chain joining the hydrophobic moiety and the polysaccharide moiety. The preferred alkyleneoxide is ethylene oxide. Typical hydrophobic groups include alkyl groups, either saturated or unsaturated, branched or unbranched containing from about 8 to about 18, preferably from about 10 to about 16, carbon atoms. Preferably, the alkyl group is a straight chain saturated alkyl group. The alkyl group can contain up to about 3 hydroxy groups and/or the polyalkyleneoxide chain can contain up to about 10, preferably less than 5, alkyleneoxide moieties. Suitable alkyl polysaccharides are octyl, nonyldecyl, undecyldodecyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, pentadecyl, hexadecyl, heptadecyl, and octadecyl, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaglucosides, galactosides, lactosides, glucoses, fructosides, fructoses and/or galactoses. Suitable mixtures include coconut alkyl, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentaglucosides and tallow alkyl tetra-, penta-, and hexaglucosides.
      The preferred alkylpolyglycosides have the formula



              R²O(CnH2nO)t(glycosyl)x



      wherein R² is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkylphenyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkylphenyl, and mixtures thereof in which the alkyl groups contain from about 10 to about 18, preferably from about 12 to about 14, carbon atoms; n is 2 or 3, preferably 2; t is from 0 to about 10, preferably 0; and x is from about 1.3 to about 10, preferably from about 1.3 to about 3, most preferably from about 1.3 to about 2.7. The glycosyl is preferably derived from glucose. To prepare these compounds, the alcohol or alkylpolyethoxy alcohol is formed first and then reacted with glucose, or a source of glucose, to form the glucoside (attachment at the 1-position). The additional glycosyl units can then be attached between their 1-position and the preceding glycosyl units 2-, 3-, 4- and/or 6-position, preferably predominately the 2-position.
    • 7. Fatty acid amide surfactants having the formula:
      Figure imgb0007
      wherein R⁶ is an alkyl group containing from about 7 to about 21 (preferably from about 9 to about 17) carbon atoms and each R⁷ is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C₁-C₄ alkyl, C₁-C₄ hydroxyalkyl, and -(C₂H₄O)xH where x varies from about 1 to about 3.
      Preferred amides are C₈-C₂₀ ammonia amides, monoethanolamides, diethanolamides, and isopropanolamides.
    Cationic Surfactants
  • Cationic detersive surfactants can also be included in detergent compositions of the present invention. Cationic surfactants include the ammonium surfactants such as alkyldimethylammonium halogenides, and those surfactants having the formula:



            [R²(OR³)y][R⁴(OR³)y]₂R⁵N⁺X⁻



    wherein R² is an alkyl or alkyl benzyl group having from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain, each R³ is selected from the group consisting of -CH₂CH₂-, -CH₂CH(CH₃)-, -CH₂CH(CH₂OH)-, -CH₂CH₂CH₂-, and mixtures thereof; each R⁴ is selected from the group consisting of C₁-C₄ alkyl, C₁-C₄ hydroxyalkyl, benzyl, ring structures formed by joining the two R⁴ groups, -CH₂CHOH-CHOHCOR⁶CHOHCH₂OH wherein R⁶ is any hexose or hexose polymer having a molecular weight less than about 1000, and hydrogen when y is not O; R⁵ is the same as R⁴ or is an alkyl chain wherein the total number of carbon atoms of R² plus R⁵ is not more than about 18; each y is from 0 to about 10 and the sum of the y values is from 0 to about 15; and X is any compatible anion.
  • Other cationic surfactants useful herein are also described in U.S. Patent 4,228,044, Cambre, issued October 14, 1980, incorporated herein by reference.
  • Other Surfactants
  • Ampholytic surfactants can be incorporated into the detergent compositions hereof. These surfactants can be broadly described as aliphatic derivatives of secondary or tertiary amines, or aliphatic derivatives of heterocyclic secondary and tertiary amines in which the aliphatic radical can be straight chain or branched. One of the aliphatic substituents contains at least about 8 carbon atoms, typically from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms, and at least one contains an anionic water-solubilizing group, e.g., carboxy, sulfonate, sulfate. See U.S. Patent No. 3,929,678 to Laughlin et al., issued December 30, 1975 at column 19, lines 18-35 (herein incorporated by reference) for examples of ampholytic surfactants.
  • Zwitterionic surfactants can also be incorporated into the detergent compositions hereof. These surfactants can be broadly described as derivatives of secondary and tertiary amines, derivatives of heterocyclic secondary and tertiary amines, or derivatives of quaternary ammonium, quaternary phosphonium or tertiary sulfonium compounds. See U.S. Patent No. 3,929,678 to Laughlin et al., issued December 30, 1975 at column 19, line 38 through column 22, line 48 (herein incorporated by reference) for examples of zwitterionic surfactants.
  • Ampholytic and zwitterionic surfactants are generally used in combination with one or more anionic and/or nonionic surfactants.
  • Polyhydroxy Fatty Acid Amide Surfactant
  • The liquid detergent compositions hereof preferably contain an "enzyme performance-enhancing amount" of polyhydroxy fatty acid amide surfactant. By "enzyme-enhancing" is meant that the formulator of the composition can select an amount of polyhydroxy fatty acid amide to be incorporated into the composition that will improve enzyme cleaning performance of the detergent composition. In general, for conventional levels of enzyme, the incorporation of about 1%, by weight, polyhydroxy fatty acid amide will enhance enzyme performance.
  • The detergent compositions hereof will typically comprise at least about 1 weight % polyhydroxy fatty acid amide surfactant and preferably will comprise from about 3% to 50%, most preferably from about 3% to 30%, of the polyhydroxy fatty acid amide.
  • The polyhydroxy fatty acid amide surfactant component comprises compounds of the structural formula:
    Figure imgb0008

    wherein: R¹ is H, C₁-C₄ hydrocarbyl, 2-hydroxy ethyl, 2-hydroxy propyl, or a mixture thereof, preferably C₁-C₄ alkyl, more preferably C₁ or C₂ alkyl, most preferably C₁ alkyl (i.e., methyl); and R² is a C₅-C₃₁ hydrocarbyl, preferably straight chain C₇-C₁₉ alkyl or alkenyl, more preferably straight chain C₉-C₁₇ alkyl or alkenyl, most preferably straight chain C₁₁-C₁₅ alkyl or alkenyl, or mixtures thereof; and Z is a polyhydroxyhydrocarbyl having a linear hydrocarbyl chain with at least 3 hydroxyls directly connected to the chain, or an alkoxylated derivative (preferably ethoxylated or propoxylated) thereof. Z preferably will be derived from a reducing sugar in a reductive amination reaction; more preferably Z will be a glycityl. Suitable reducing sugars include glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. As raw materials, high dextrose corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, and high maltose corn syrup can be utilized as well as the individual sugars listed above. These corn syrups may yield a mix of sugar components for Z. It should be understood that it is by no means intended to exclude other suitable raw materials. Z preferably will be selected from the group consisting of -CH₂-(CHOH)nCH₂OH -CH(CH₂OH)-(CHOH)n-1-CH₂OH, -CH₂-(CHOH)₂(CHOR')(CHOH)-CH₂OH, and alkoxylated derivatives thereof, where n is an integer from 3 to 5, inclusive, and R' is H or a cyclic or aliphatic monosaccharide. Most preferred are glycityls wherein n is 4, particularly -CH₂--(CHOH)₄-CH₂OH.
  • In Formula (I), R' can be, for example, N-methyl, N-ethyl, N-propyl, N-isopropyl, N-butyl, N-2-hydroxy ethyl, or N-2-hydroxy propyl.
  • R2-CO-N< can be, for example, cocamide, stearamide, oleamide, lauramide, myristamide, capricamide, palmitamide, tallowamide, etc.
  • Z can be 1-deoxyglucityl, 2-deoxyfructityl, 1-deoxymaltityl, 1-deoxylactityl, 1-deoxygalactityl, 1-deoxymannityl, 1-deoxymaltotriotityl, etc.
  • Methods for making polyhydroxy fatty acid amides are known in the art. In general, they can be made by reacting an alkyl amine with a reducing sugar in a reductive amination reaction to form a corresponding N-alkyl polyhydroxyamine, and then reacting the N-alkyl polyhydroxyamine with a fatty aliphatic ester or triglyceride in a condensation/amidation step to form the N-alkyl, N-polyhydroxy fatty acid amide product. Processes for making compositions containing polyhydroxy fatty acid amides are disclosed, for example, in G.B. Patent Specification 809,060, published February 18, 1959, U.S. Patent 2,965,576, issued December 20, 1960 to E. R. Wilson, and U.S. Patent 2,703,798, Anthony M. Schwartz, issued March 8, 1955, and U.S. Patent 1,985,424, issued December 25, 1934 to Piggott, each of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • E. Optional Ingredients Detergency Builders
  • From 0 to about 50, preferably about 3 to 30, more preferably about 5 to 20, weight % detergency builder can be included herein. Inorganic as well as organic builders can be used.
  • Inorganic detergency builders include, but are not limited to, the alkali metal, ammonium and alkanolammonium salts of polyphosphates (exemplified by the tripolyphosphates, pyrophosphates, and glassy polymeric meta-phosphates), phosphonates, phytic acid, silicates, carbonates (including bicarbonates and sesquicarbonates), sulphates, and aluminosilicates. Borate builders, as well as builders containing borate-forming materials that can produce borate under detergent storage or wash conditions (hereinafter, collectively "borate builders"), can also be used. Preferably, non-borate builders are used in the compositions of the invention intended for use at wash conditions less than about 50°C, especially less than about 40°C.
  • Examples of silicate builders are the alkali metal silicates, particularly those having a SiO₂:Na₂O ratio in the range 1.6:1 to 3.2:1 and layered silicates, such as the layered sodium silicates described in U.S. Patent 4,664,839, issued May 12, 1987 to H. P. Rieck, incorporated herein by reference. However, other silicates may also be useful such as for example magnesium silicate, which can serve as a crispening agent in granular formulations, as a stabilizing agent for oxygen bleaches, and as a component of suds control systems.
  • Examples of carbonate builders are the alkaline earth and alkali metal carbonates, including sodium carbonate and sesquicarbonate and mixtures thereof with ultra-fine calcium carbonate as disclosed in German Patent Application No. 2,321,001 published on November 15, 1973, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • Aluminosilicate builders are useful in the present invention. Aluminosilicate builders are of great importance in most currently marketed heavy duty granular detergent compositions, and can also be a significant builder ingredient in liquid detergent formulations. Aluminosilicate builders include those having the empirical formula:



            Mz(zAlO₂:ySiO₂)



    wherein M is sodium, potassium, ammonium or substituted ammonium, z is from about 0.5 to about 2; and y is 1; this material having a magnesium ion exchange capacity of at least about 50 milligram equivalents of CaCO₃ hardness per gram of anhydrous aluminosilicate. Preferred aluminosilicates are zeolite builders which have the formula:



            Naz[(AlO₂)z (SiO₂)y]·xH₂O



    wherein z and y are integers of at least 6, the molar ratio of z to y is in the range from 1.0 to about 0.5, and x is an integer from about 15 to about 264.
  • Useful aluminosilicate ion exchange materials are commercially available. These aluminosilicates can be crystalline or amorphous in structure and can be naturally-occurring aluminosilicates or synthetically derived. A method for producing aluminosilicate ion exchange materials is disclosed in U.S. Patent 3,985,669, Krummel, et al., issued October 12, 1976, incorporated herein by reference. Preferred synthetic crystalline aluminosilicate ion exchange materials useful herein are available under the designations Zeolite A, Zeolite P (B), and Zeolite X. In an especially preferred embodiment, the crystalline aluminosilicate ion exchange material has the formula:



            Na₁₂[(AlO₂)₁₂(SiO₂)₁₂] xH₂O



    wherein x is from about 20 to about 30, especially about 27. This material is known as Zeolite A. Preferably, the aluminosilicate has a particle size of about 0.1-10 microns in diameter.
  • Specific examples of polyphosphates are the alkali metal tripolyphosphates, sodium, potassium and ammonium pyrophosphate, sodium and potassium and ammonium pyrophosphate, sodium and potassium orthophosphate, sodium polymeta phosphate in which the degree of polymerization ranges from about 6 to about 21, and salts of phytic acid.
  • Examples of phosphonate builder salts are the water-soluble salts of ethane 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate particularly the sodium and potassium salts, the water-soluble salts of methylene diphosphonic acid e.g. the trisodium and tripotassium salts and the water-soluble salts of substituted methylene diphosphonic acids, such as the trisodium and tripotassium ethylidene, isopyropylidene benzylmethylidene and halo methylidene phosphonates. Phosphonate builder salts of the aforementioned types are disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 3,159,581 and 3,213,030 issued December 1, 1964 and October 19, 1965, to Diehl; U.S. Patent No. 3,422,021 issued January 14, 1969, to Roy; and U.S. Patent Nos. 3,400,148 and 3,422,137 issued September 3, 1968, and January 14, 1969 to Quimby, said disclosures being incorporated herein by reference.
  • Organic detergent builders preferred for the purposes of the present invention include a wide variety of polycarboxylate compounds. As used herein, "polycarboxylate" refers to compounds having a plurality of carboxylate groups, preferably at least 3 carboxylates.
  • Polycarboxylate builder can generally be added to the composition in acid form, but can also be added in the form of a neutralized salt. When utilized in salt form, alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium, and lithium, or alkanolammonium salts are preferred.
  • Included among the polycarboxylate builders are a variety of categories of useful materials. One important category of polycarboxylate builders encompasses the ether polycarboxylates. A number of ether polycarboxylates have been disclosed for use as detergent builders. Examples of useful ether polycarboxylates include oxydisuccinate, as disclosed in Berg, U.S. Patent 3,128,287, issued April 7, 1964, and Lamberti et al., U.S. Patent 3,635,830, issued January 18, 1972, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • A specific type of ether polycarboxylates useful as builders in the present invention also include those having the general formula:



            CH(A)(COOX)-CH(COOX)-O-CH(COOX)-CH(COOX)(B)



    wherein A is H or OH; B is H or -O-CH(COOX)-CH₂(COOX); and X is H or a salt-forming cation. For example, if in the above general formula A and B are both H, then the compound is oxydissuccinic acid and its water-soluble salts. If A is OH and B is H, then the compound is tartrate monosuccinic acid (TMS) and its water-soluble salts. If A is H and B is -O-CH(COOX)-CH₂(COOX), then the compound is tartrate disuccinic acid (TDS) and its water-soluble salts. Mixtures of these builders are especially preferred for use herein. Particularly preferred are mixtures of TMS and TDS in a weight ratio of TMS to TDS of from about 97:3 to about 20:80. These builders are disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,663,071, issued to Bush et al., on May 5, 1987.
  • Suitable ether polycarboxylates also include cyclic compounds, particularly alicyclic compounds, such as those described in U.S. Patents 3,923,679; 3,835,163; 4,158,635; 4,120,874 and 4,102,903, all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • Other useful detergency builders include the ether hydroxypolycarboxylates represented by the structure:



            HO-[C(R)(COOM)-C(R)(COOM)-O]n-H



    wherein M is hydrogen or a cation wherein the resultant salt is water-soluble, preferably an alkali metal, ammonium or substituted ammonium cation, n is from about 2 to about 15 (preferably n is from about 2 to about 10, more preferably n averages from about 2 to about 4) and each R is the same or different and selected from hydrogen, C₁₋₄ alkyl or C₁₋₄ substituted alkyl (preferably R is hydrogen).
  • Still other ether polycarboxylates include copolymers of maleic anhydride with ethylene or vinyl methyl ether, 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy benzene-2, 4, 6-trisulphonic acid, and carboxymethyloxysuccinic acid.
  • Organic polycarboxylate builders also include the various alkali metal, ammonium and substituted ammonium salts of polyacetic acids. Examples include the sodium, potassium, lithium, ammonium and substituted ammonium salts of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid.
  • Also included are polycarboxylates such as mellitic acid, succinic acid, oxydisuccinic acid, polymaleic acid, benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, and carboxymethyloxysuccinic acid, and soluble salts thereof.
  • Citrate builders, e.g., citric acid and soluble salts thereof (particularly sodium salt), are polycarboxylate builders of particular importance for heavy duty liquid detergent formulations, but can also be used in granular compositions.
  • Other carboxylate builders include the carboxylated carbohydrates disclosed in U.S. Patent 3,723,322, Diehl, issued March 28, 1973, incorporated herein by reference.
  • Also suitable in the detergent compositions of the present invention are the 3,3-dicarboxy-4-oxa-1,6-hexanedioates and the related compounds disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,566,984, Bush, issued January 28, 1986, incorporated herein by reference. Useful succinic acid builders include the C₅-C₂₀ alkyl succinic acids and salts thereof. A particularly preferred compound of this type is dodecenylsuccinic acid. Alkyl succinic acids typically are of the general formula R-CH(COOH)CH₂(COOH) i.e., derivatives of succinic acid, wherein R is hydrocarbon, e.g., C₁₀-C₂₀ alkyl or alkenyl, preferably C₁₂-C₁₆ or wherein R may be substituted with hydroxyl, sulfo, sulfoxy or sulfone substituents, all as described in the above-mentioned patents.
  • The succinate builders are preferably used in the form of their water-soluble salts, including the sodium, potassium, ammonium and alkanolammonium salts.
  • Specific examples of succinate builders include: laurylsuccinate, myristylsuccinate, palmitylsuccinate, 2-dodecenylsuccinate (preferred), 2-pentadecenylsuccinate, and the like. Laurylsuccinates are the preferred builders of this group, and are described in European Patent Application 86200690.5/0,200,263, published November 5, 1986.
  • Examples of useful builders also include sodium and potassium carboxymethyloxymalonate, carboxymethyloxysuccinate, cis-cyclohexane-hexacarboxylate, cis-cyclopentane-tetracarboxylate, water-soluble polyacrylates (these polyacrylates having molecular weights to above about 2,000 can also be effectively utilized as dispersants), and the copolymers of maleic anhydride with vinyl methyl ether or ethylene.
  • Other suitable polycarboxylates are the polyacetal carboxylates disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,144,226, Crutchfield et al., issued March 13, 1979, incorporated herein by reference. These polyacetal carboxylates can be prepared by bringing together, under polymerization conditions, an ester of glyoxylic acid and a polymerization initiator. The resulting polyacetal carboxylate ester is then attached to chemically stable end groups to stabilize the polyacetal carboxylate against rapid depolymerization in alkaline solution, converted to the corresponding salt, and added to a surfactant.
  • Polycarboxylate builders are also disclosed in U.S. Patent 3,308,067, Diehl, issued March 7, 1967, incorporated herein by reference. Such materials include the water-soluble salts of homo- and copolymers of aliphatic carboxylic acids such as maleic acid, itaconic acid, mesaconic acid, fumaric acid, aconitic acid, citraconic acid and methylenemalonic acid.
  • Other organic builders known in the art can also be used. For example, monocarboxylic acids, and soluble salts thereof, having long chain hydrocarbyls can be utilized. These would include materials generally referred to as "soaps." Chain lengths of C₁₀-C₂₀ are typically utilized. The hydrocarbyls can be saturated or unsaturated.
  • Soil Release Agent
  • Any soil release agents known to those skilled in the art can be employed in the practice of this invention. Preferred polymeric soil release agents are characterized by having both hydrophilic segments, to hydrophilize the surface of hydrophobic fibers, such as polyester and nylon, and hydrophobic segments, to deposit upon hydrophobic fibers and remain adhered thereto through completion of washing and rinsing cycles and, thus, serve as an anchor for the hydrophilic segments. This can enable stains occurring subsequent to treatment with the soil release agent to be more easily cleaned in later washing procedures.
  • Whereas it can be beneficial to utilize polymeric soil release agents in any of the detergent compositions hereof, especially those compositions utilized for laundry or other applications wherein removal of grease and oil from hydrophobic surfaces is needed, the presence of polyhydroxy fatty acid amide in detergent compositions also containing anionic surfactants can enhance performance of many of the more commonly utilized types of polymeric soil release agents. Anionic surfactants interfere with the ability of certain soil release agents to deposit upon and adhere to hydrophobic surfaces. These polymeric soil release agents have nonionic hydrophile segments or hydrophobe segments which are anionic surfactant-interactive.
  • One type of preferred soil release agent is a copolymer having random blocks of ethylene terephthalate and polyethylene oxide (PEO) terephthalate. More specifically, these polymers are comprised of repeating units of ethylene terephthalate and PEO terephthalate in a mole ratio of ethylene terephthalate units to PEO terephthalate units of from about 25:75 to about 35:65, said PEO terephthalate units containing polyethylene oxide having molecular weights of from about 300 to about 2000. The molecular weight of this polymeric soil release agent is in the range of from about 25,000 to about 55,000. See U.S. Patent 3,959,230 to Hays, issued May 25, 1976, which is incorporated by reference. See also U.S. Patent 3,893,929 to Basadur issued July 8, 1975 (incorporated by reference) which discloses similar copolymers.
  • Another preferred polymeric soil release agent is a polyester with repeat units of ethylene terephthalate units containing 10-15% by weight of ethylene terephthalate units together with 90-80% by weight of polyoxyethlyene terephthalate units, derived from a polyoxyethylene glycol of average molecular weight 300-5,000, and the mole ratio of ethylene terephthalate units to polyoxyethylene terephthalate units in the polymeric compound is between 2:1 and 6:1. Examples of this polymer include the commercially available material ZelconR 5126 (from Dupont) and Milease R T (from ICI). These polymers and methods of their preparation are more fully described in U.S. Patent 4,702,857, issued October 27, 1987, to Gosselink, which is incorporated herein.
  • Other suitable polymeric soil release agents include the ethyl or methyl-capped 1,2-propylene terephthalate-polyoxyethylene terephthalate polyesters of U.S. Patent 4,711,730, issued December 8, 1987, to Gosselink et al., the anionic end-capped oligomeric esters of U.S. Patent 4,721,580, issued January 26, 1988, to Gosselink, wherein the anionic end-caps comprise sulfopolyethoxy groups derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG), the block polyester oligomeric compounds of U.S. Patent 4,702,857, issued October 27, 1987 to Gosselink, having polyethoxy end-caps of the formula X-(OCH₂CH₂)n- wherein n is from 12 to about 43 and X is a C₁-C₄ alkyl, or preferably methyl, all of these patents being incorporated herein by reference.
  • Additional polymeric soil release agents include the soil release agents of U.S. Patent 4,877,896, issued October 31, 1989 to Maldonado et al., which discloses anionic especially sulfoaroyl, end-capped terepthalate esters, said patent being incorporated herein by reference. The terephthalate esters contain unsymmetrically substituted oxy-1,2-alkyleneoxy untis. Included among the soil release polymers of U.S. Patent 4,877.896 are materials with polyoxyethylene hydrophile components or C₃ oxyalkylene terephthalate (propylene terephthalate) repeat units within the scope of the hydrophobe components of (b)(i) above. It is the polymeric soil release agents characterized by either, or both, of these criteria that particularly benefit from the inclusion of the polyhydroxy fatty acid amides hereof, in the presence of anionic surfactants.
  • If utilized, soil release agents will generally comprise from about 0.01% to about 10.0%, by weight, of the detergent compositions herein, typically from about 0.1% to about 5%, preferably from about 0.2% to about 3.0%.
  • Useful soil release polymers are described in U.S. Patent 4,000,093, issued December 28, 1976 to Nicol et al., European Patent Application 0 219 048, published April 22, 1987 by Kud et al. U.S. Patent 3,959,230 to Hays, issued May 25, 1976, U.S. Patent 3,893,929 to Basadur issued July 8, 1975, U.S. Patent 4,702,857, issued October 27, 1987 to Gosselink, U.S. Patent 4,711,730, issued December 8, 1987 to Gosselink et al., U.S. Patent 4,721,580, issued January 26, 1988 to Gosselink, U.S. Patent 4,702,857, issued October 27, 1987 to Gosselink, U.S. Patent 4,877,896, issued October 31, 1989 to Maldonado et al. All of these patents are incorporated herein by reference.
  • If utilized, soil release agents will generally comprise from about 0.01% to about 10.0%, by weight, of the detergent compositions herein, typically from about 0.1% to about 5%, preferably from about 0.2% to about 3.0%.
  • Chelating Agents
  • The detergent compositions herein may also optionally contain one or more iron and manganese chelating agents as a builder adjunct material. Such chelating agents can be selected from the group consisting of amino carboxylates, amino phosphonates, polyfunctionally-substituted aromatic chelating agents and mixtures thereof, all as hereinafter defined. Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the benefit of these materials is due in part to their exceptional ability to remove iron and manganese ions from washing solutions by formation of soluble chelates.
  • Amino carboxylates useful as optional chelating agents in compositions of the invention can have one or more, preferably at least two, units of the substructure
    Figure imgb0009

    wherein M is hydrogen, alkali metal, ammonium or substituted ammonium (e.g. ethanolamine) and x is from 1 to about 3, preferably 1. Preferably, these amino carboxylates do not contain alkyl or alkenyl groups with more than about 6 carbon atoms. Operable amine carboxylates include ethylenediaminetetraacetates, N-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetates, nitrilotriacetates, ethylenediamine tetraproprionates, triethylenetetraaminehexaacetates, diethylenetriaminepentaacetates, and ethanoldiglycines, alkali metal, ammonium, and substituted ammonium salts thereof and mixtures thereof.
  • Amino phosphonates are also suitable for use as chelating agents in the compositions of the invention when at least low levels of total phosphorus are permitted in detergent compositions. Compounds with one or more, preferably at least two, units of the substructure
    Figure imgb0010

    wherein M is hydrogen, alkali metal, ammonium or substituted ammonium and x is from 1 to about 3, preferably 1, are useful and include ethylenediaminetetrakis (methylenephosphonates), nitrilotris (methylenephosphonates) and diethylenetriaminepentakis (methylenephosphonates). Preferably, these amino phosphonates do not contain alkyl or alkenyl groups with more than about 6 carbon atoms. Alkylene groups can be shared by substructures.
  • Polyfunctionally - substituted aromatic chelating agents are also useful in the compositions herein. These materials can comprise compounds having the general formula
    Figure imgb0011

    wherein at least one R is -SO₃H or -COOH or soluble salts thereof and mixtures thereof. U.S. Patent 3,812,044, issued May 21, 1974, to Connor et al., incorporated herein by reference, discloses polyfunctionally - substituted aromatic chelating and sequestering agents. Preferred compounds of this type in acid form are dihydroxydisulfobenzenes such as 1,2-dihydroxy -3,5-disulfobenzene. Alkaline detergent compositions can contain these materials in the form of alkali metal, ammonium or substituted ammonium (e.g. mono-or triethanol-amine) salts.
  • If utilized, these chelating agents will generally comprise from about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of the detergent compositions herein. More preferably chelating agents will comprise from about 0.1% to about 3.0% by weight of such compositions.
  • Clay Soil Removal/Anti-redeposition Agents
  • The compositions of the present invention can also optionally contain water-soluble ethoxylated amines having clay soil removal and anti-redeposition properties. Liquid detergent compositions which contain these compounds typically contain from about 0.01% to 5%.
  • The most preferred soil release and anti-redeposition agent is ethoxylated tetraethylenepentamine. Exemplary ethoxylated amines are further described in U.S. Patent 4,597,898, VanderMeer, issued July 1, 1986, incorporated herein by reference. Another group of preferred clay soil removal/anti-redeposition agents are the cationic compounds disclosed in European Patent Application 111,965, Oh and Gosselink, published June 27, 1984, incorporated herein by reference. Other clay soil removal/anti-redeposition agents which can be used include the ethoxylated amine polymers disclosed in European Patent Application 111,984, Gosselink, published June 27, 1984; the zwitterionic polymers disclosed in European Patent Application 112,592, Gosselink, published July 4, 1984; and the amine oxides disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,548,744, Connor, issued October 22, 1985, all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • Other clay soil removal and/or anti-redeposition agents known in the art can also be utilized in the compositions hereof. Another type of preferred anti-redeposition agent includes the carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) materials. These materials are well known in the art.
  • Polymeric Dispersing Agents
  • Polymeric dispersing agents can advantageously be utilized in the compositions hereof. These materials can aid in calcium and magnesium hardness control. Suitable polymeric dispersing agents include polymeric polycarboxylates and polyethylene glycols, although others known in the art can also be used.
  • Suitable polymeric dispersing agents for use herein are described in U.S. Patent 3,308,067, Diehl, issued March 7, 1967, and European Patent Application No. 66915, published December 15, 1982, both incorporated herein by reference.
  • Brightener
  • Any suitable optical brighteners or other brightening or whitening agents known in the art can be incorporated into the detergent compositions hereof.
  • Commercial optical brighteners which may be useful in the present invention can be classified into subgroups which include, but are not necessarily limited to, derivatives of stilbene, pyrazoline, coumarin, carboxylic acid, methinecyanines, dibenzothiphene-5,5-dioxide, azoles, 5- and 6-membered-ring heterocycles, and other miscellaneous agents. Examples of such brighteners are disclosed in "The Production and Application of Fluorescent Brightening Agents", M. Zahradnik, Published by John Wiley & Sons, New York (1982), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • Suds Suppressors
  • Compounds known, or which become known, for reducing or suppressing the formation of suds can be incorporated into the compositions of the present invention. Suitable suds suppressors are described in Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Third Edition, Volume 7, pages 430-447 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1979), U.S. Patent 2,954,347, issued September 27, 1960 to St. John, U.S. Patent 4,265,779, issued May 5, 1981 to Gandolfo et al., U.S. Patent 4,265,779, issued May 5, 1981 to Gandolfo et al. and European Patent Application No. 89307851.9, published February 7, 1990, U.S. Patent 3,455,839, German Patent Application DOS 2,124,526, U.S. Patent 3,933,672, Bartolotta et al., and U.S. Patent 4,652,392, Baginski et al., issued March 24, 1987. All are incorporated herein by reference.
  • The compositions hereof will generally comprise from 0% to about 5% of suds suppressor.
  • Other Ingredients
  • A wide variety of other ingredients useful in detergent compositions can be included in the compositions hereof, including other active ingredients, carriers, hydrotropes, processing aids, dyes or pigments, solvents for liquid formulations, bleaches, bleach activators, etc.
  • Liquid detergent compositions can contain water and other solvents as carriers. Low molecular weight primary or secondary alcohols exemplified by methanol, ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol are suitable. Monohydric alcohols are preferred for solubilizing surfactant, but polyols such as those containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms and from 2 to about 6 hydroxy groups (e.g., propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, glycerine, and 1,2-propanediol) can also be used.
  • Liquid Compositions
  • Preferred heavy duty liquid laundry detergent compositions hereof will preferably be formulated such that during use in aqueous cleaning operations, the wash water will have a pH of between about 6.5 and 11.0, preferably between about 7.0 and 9.0, most preferably between 7.5 and 8.0. The compositions herein preferably have a pH in a 10% solution in water at 20°C of between about 7.0 to 11.0, preferably 7.0 to 8.5. Techniques for controlling pH at recommended usage levels include the use of buffers, alkalis, acids, etc., and are well known to those skilled in the art.
  • This invention further provides a method for cleaning substrate, such as fibers, fabrics, hard surfaces, skin, etc., by contacting said substrate, with a liquid detergent composition comprising detersive surfactant, proteolytic enzyme, a detergent-compatible second enzyme, and the aryl boronic acids described above. Agitation is preferably provided for enhancing cleaning. Suitable means for providing agitation include rubbing by hand or preferably with use of a brush, sponge, cloth, mop, or other cleaning device, automatic laundry washing machines, automatic dishwashers, etc.
  • Preferred herein are concentrated liquid detergent compositions. By "concentrated" is meant that these compositions will deliver to the wash the same amount of active detersive ingredients at a reduced dosage. Typical regular dosage of heavy duty liquids is 118 milliliters in the U.S. (about 1/2 cup) and 180 milliliters in Europe.
  • Concentrated heavy duty liquids herein contain about 10 to 100 weight % more active detersive ingredients than regular heavy duty liquids, and are dosed at less than 1/2 cup depending upon their active levels. This invention becomes even more useful in concentrated formulations because there are more actives to interfere with enzyme performance. Preferred are heavy duty liquid laundry detergent compositions with from about 30 to 90, preferably 40 to 80, most preferably 50 to 60, weight % of active detersive ingredients.
  • The following examples illustrate the compositions of the present invention. All parts, percentages and ratios used herein are by weight unless otherwise specified.
  • EXAMPLES
  • I II III
    Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate 12 9 12
    Sodium C12-15 alkyl sulfate 2 2 2
    C14-15 alkyl 2.5 times ethoxylated sulfate 0 0 2
    C12 glucose amide 0 0 6
    C12-15 alcohol 7 times ethoxylated 8 0 1
    C12-15 alcohol 5 times ethoxylated 0 6 0
    Oleic acid 2 0 0
    Citric acid 3 8 8.5
    C12-14 alkenyl substituted succinic acid 10 6 8.5
    Ethanol 4 4 8
    1,2-propanediol 2 2 2
    NaOH 6 7 9
    diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid) 0.5 0.7 1
    Amylase (143KNU/g) 0.1 0.1 0.1
    LipolaseR(100KLU/g commercial solution) 0.2 0.2 0.3
    Protease B (34mg/g commercial solution) 0.3 0.3 0.5
    Soil release polymer 0.5 0 0
    2,6-dihydroxybenzylalcohol 1 0.3 1
    CaCl2 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Na metaborate 2.2 3.5 4
    Water and Minors Balance to 100%
    IV V VI
    Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate 12 9 12
    Sodium C12-15 alkyl sulfate 2 2 2
    C14-15 alkyl 2.5 times ethoxylated sulfate 0 0 2
    C12 glucose amide 0 0 6
    C12-15 alcohol 7 times ethoxylated 8 0 1
    C12-15 alcohol 5 times ethoxylated 0 6 0
    Oleic acid 2 0 0
    Citric acid 3 5 7
    C12-14 alkenyl substituted succinic acid 10 5 9
    Ethanol 4 4 8
    1,2-propanediol 2 2 2
    NaOH 6 7 9
    diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid) 0.5 0.7 1
    Amylase (143KNU/g) 0.1 0.1 0.1
    LipolaseR(100KLU/g commercial solution) 0.2 0.2 0.3
    Protease B (34mg/g commercial solution) 0.3 0.3 0.5
    Soil release polymer 0.5 0 0
    2-hydroxybenzylalcohol 0.75 0.5 2
    CaCl2 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Na metaborate 2.2 3.5 4
    Water and Minors Balance to 100%
    VII VIII IX
    Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate 6 10 12
    Sodium C12-15 alkyl sulfate 10 3 6
    C14-15 alkyl 2.5 times ethoxylated sulfate 0 0 2
    C12 glucose amide 0 0 8
    C12-15 alcohol 7 times ethoxylated 8 0 1
    C12-15 alcohol 5 times ethoxylated 0 6 0
    Oleic acid 2 0 0
    Citric acid 6 8 8.5
    C12-14 alkenyl substituted succinic acid 6 6 8.5
    Ethanol 4 4 8
    1,2-propanediol 2 2 2
    NaOH 6 7 9
    diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid) 0.5 0.7 1
    Amylase (143KNU/g) 0.1 0.1 0.1
    LipolaseR(100KLU/g commercial solution) 0.2 0.2 0.3
    Protease B (34mg/g commercial solution) 0.3 0.3 0.5
    Soil release polymer 0.5 0 0
    2-hydroxybenzoic acid 1 1 2
    CaCl2 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Na metaborate 2.2 3.5 4
    Water and Minors Balance to 100%
    X XI XII
    Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate 5 9 0
    Sodium C12-15 alkyl sulfate 12 2 12
    C14-15 alkyl 2.5 times ethoxylated sulfate 0 0 4
    C12 glucose amide 0 0 6
    C12-15 alcohol 7 times ethoxylated 8 0 1
    C12-15 alcohol 5 times ethoxylated 0 6 0
    Oleic acid 2 0 0
    Citric acid 3 8 7
    C12-14 alkenyl substituted succinic acid 10 6 7.5
    Ethanol 4 4 8
    1,2-propanediol 2 2 2
    NaOH 6 7 9
    diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid) 0.5 0.7 1
    Amylase (143KNU/g) 0.1 0.1 0.1
    LipolaseR(100KLU/g commercial solution) 0.2 0.2 0.3
    Protease B (34mg/g commercial solution) 0.3 0.3 0.5
    Soil release polymer 0.5 0 0
    2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid 2 0.5 2
    CaCl2 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Na metaborate 2.2 3.5 4
    Water and Minors Balance to 100%

Claims (13)

  1. A liquid detergent composition comprising :
    a. an aromatic borate ester formed by the complexation of boric acid with an aromatic reagent of the structure:
    Figure imgb0012
    wherein:
    - X is OH, SH, or NH₂;
    - Y is CO₂H, substituted or unsubstituted CH₂OH, CH₂SH, CH₂NH₂ or
    Figure imgb0013
    - each Z is H or a substituted or unsubstituted C₁-C₆ alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or an aryl chain, OH or -O-R wherein R is a C₁-C₆ alkyl chain, or an electron withdrawing group such as CN, NO₂ CHO, SO₃H, COOR wherein R is H or a C₁-C₆ alkyl chain;
    - i is an integer of from 1 to 4,
    b. from about 0.0001 to 1 % of active proteolytic enzyme;
    c. a performance-enhancing amount of a detergent-compatible second enzyme;
    d. from about 1 to 80 weight % of anionic or nonionic surfactant;
  2. A liquid detergent composition according to claim 1, wherein i is 1, and Z is CN, NO₂, CHO, SO3H or COOR, wherein R is H or a C₁-C₆ alkyl chain; in para position vs X;
  3. A liquid detergent composition according to claim 1, wherein X is OH.
  4. A liquid detergent composition according to the preceding claims, wherein the aromatic reagent is a substituted or unsubstituted 2-hydroxybenzylalcohol or 2-hydroxybenzoic acid.
  5. A liquid detergent composition according to claim 4, wherein the aromatic reagent is selected from the group of 2-hydroxybenzylalcohol, 2,6-dihydroxybenzylalcohol, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid.
  6. A liquid detergent composition according to the preceding claims which comprises from 0.1 to 20%, preferably from 0.2 to 10% to of said aromatic borate ester.
  7. A liquid detergent composition according to the preceding claims wherein the molar ratio of boric acid or its equivalent derivative to aromatic reagent is between 20:1 and 1:20, preferably 10:1 to 1:10, most preferably 5:1 to 1:5.
  8. A liquid detergent composition according to the preceding claims wherein the proteolytic enzyme is a serine protease, preferably Savinase R, Maxacal R Maxapem 15 R, Protease A, ProteaseB, any chemically or genetically modified mutant thereof, and mixtures thereof.
  9. A liquid detergent composition according to the preceding claims which comprises from about 0.0005 to 0.5% by weight of active proteolytic enzyme, preferably from 0.002 to 0.1% by weight.
  10. A liquid detergent composition according to the preceding claims wherein said second enzyme is selected from the group consisting of lipase, amylase, cellulase, and mixtures thereof.
  11. A liquid detergent composition according to claim 10 wherein said second enzyme is a lipase.
  12. A liquid detergent composition according to claim 11 comprising from about 2 to 20000, preferably 10 to 6000 lipase units per gram of detergent of said lipase product obtained by cloning the gene from Humicola lanuginosa and expressing the gene in Aspergillus oryzae.
  13. A liquid detergent composition according to the preceding claims wherein said surfactant comprises an enzyme performance-enhancing amount of polyhydroxy fatty acid amine surfactant.
EP19910870072 1991-04-30 1991-04-30 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme Withdrawn EP0511456A1 (en)

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EP19910870072 EP0511456A1 (en) 1991-04-30 1991-04-30 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme
JP51192092A JPH06507199A (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-24
PCT/US1992/003373 WO1992019708A1 (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-24 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme
CA 2109525 CA2109525C (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-24 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme
US08/137,206 US5422030A (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-24 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme
AU20043/92A AU2004392A (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-24 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme
PH44277A PH31243A (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-28 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme.
NZ24253892A NZ242538A (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-29 Liquid detergent containing an aromatic borate ester, active proteolytic enzyme, and a performance-enhancing second enzyme
CN 92104294 CN1067264A (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-30 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate to inhibit proteolytic enzyme
MX9202071A MX9202071A (en) 1991-04-30 1992-04-30 Liquid detergents with aromatic borate ester to inhibit proteolytic enzyme.
TW81105198A TW237477B (en) 1991-04-30 1992-06-30

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JPH06507199A (en) 1994-08-11
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WO1992019708A1 (en) 1992-11-12
TW237477B (en) 1995-01-01

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