EP0162238B1 - Axial piston machine, especially a pump of the inclined plate type - Google Patents

Axial piston machine, especially a pump of the inclined plate type Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0162238B1
EP0162238B1 EP19850103801 EP85103801A EP0162238B1 EP 0162238 B1 EP0162238 B1 EP 0162238B1 EP 19850103801 EP19850103801 EP 19850103801 EP 85103801 A EP85103801 A EP 85103801A EP 0162238 B1 EP0162238 B1 EP 0162238B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
control
cylinder
loading
force
pistons
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
EP19850103801
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0162238A1 (en
Inventor
Ludwig Wagenseil
Manfred Lotter
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Hydromatik GmbH
Original Assignee
Hydromatik GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE3413059 priority Critical
Priority to DE19843413059 priority patent/DE3413059C1/en
Application filed by Hydromatik GmbH filed Critical Hydromatik GmbH
Publication of EP0162238A1 publication Critical patent/EP0162238A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0162238B1 publication Critical patent/EP0162238B1/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B1/00Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders
    • F04B1/12Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis
    • F04B1/20Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis having rotary cylinder block
    • F04B1/2007Arrangements for pressing the cylinder barrel against the valve plate, e.g. by fluid pressure
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B1/00Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders
    • F04B1/12Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis
    • F04B1/20Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis having rotary cylinder block
    • F04B1/2014Details or component parts
    • F04B1/2042Valves
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B1/00Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders
    • F04B1/12Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis
    • F04B1/20Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis having rotary cylinder block
    • F04B1/2014Details or component parts
    • F04B1/2064Housings
    • F04B1/2071Bearings for cylinder barrels

Description

  • The invention relates to an axial piston machine according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • In axial piston machines of this type, a smooth running and a satisfactory sealing of the cylinder receiving the pistons on the control surface is only possible if the forces acting on the cylinder during operation are dimensioned such that on the one hand even a partial lifting of the cylinder from the control surface is prevented and on the other hand there is a pressure of the cylinder on the control surface, in which an oil film preventing increased wear can form on the control surface. In the present context, the forces that act on the cylinder in the axial direction should first be taken into account. On the one hand, it is a so-called control surface force that tries to lift the cylinder from the control surface during operation. The control surface force is the sum of the partial pressures and area over the entire pressure field and possible gap pressures. Therefore, the control surface force is represented by a resulting force that is perpendicular to the control surface.
  • An axial piston machine of the type described at the outset is described and shown in GB-A-311 938. In this known embodiment, the cylinder rests with a flat end face on a flat control surface, the piston bores opening on the end face without narrowing in cross section. To compensate for the control surface force, load cylinders are arranged on the circumference of the cylinder, which are connected to the piston bores and can thus be acted upon by the working pressure and act on the cylinder against the control surface.
  • From DE-OS 2 250 510 it is also known to counteract the control surface force by an opposing loading force which acts on the cylinder against the control surface. This is achieved through several measures. On the one hand, the piston bores have a shoulder formed by a reduction in cross section, on which part of the loading forces is effective. Another part of the load forces is generated by load pistons distributed over the circumference, which are supported on the machine housing and can be acted upon by the working pressure either by spring pressure or as hydraulic pistons and load the cylinder in the direction of the control surface. There is also a central spring that biases the cylinder against the control surface.
  • In the prior art which can be gathered from DE-OS 2 250 510, the cylinder is mounted on the drive shaft of a swash plate axial piston machine in the sense of a so-called kinematic guide. This means that the cylinder can adapt itself to the control surface, but in principle tilting movements of the cylinder are also possible, which - as already described at the beginning - lead to the cylinder being lifted off the control surface.
  • A prior art comparable to the previously described prior art can also be found in DE-PS 941 343. With this type of construction, the effectiveness of the load or compensating cylinders depends on the pressure condition in the piston bores. For this purpose, each loading cylinder is connected by a connecting channel to a piston bore located in its vicinity. The cylinder is supported by a roller bearing, which prevents an automatic gap adjustment.
  • In the known designs described above, in which the cross-sectional constrictions of the piston bores form flow bottlenecks, the respective flow of the hydraulic medium is impaired. In addition, the requirements described at the outset are not met, which ensure that the cylinder is properly guided on the control surface. In the design according to DE-PS 941 343, a harmful pressure of the cylinder against the control surface does not seem to be possible because the cylinder is supported on the end face against an axial pressure bearing.
  • It is known from DE-C-910 239 to provide a convex control surface for supporting the cylinder, the radius of the control surface being dimensioned so large that the intersection of the control surface force directed perpendicular to the control surface and the loading force in a plane running transversely to the axis of rotation lies, which is arranged in the region of a support bearing provided on the cylinder circumference. In this embodiment, however, no load cylinders are provided, but only cross-sectional constrictions of the piston bores, which are offset radially inward and are therefore arranged on a relatively small pitch circle.
  • The invention has for its object to design an axial piston machine of the type mentioned in such a way that axially and radially balanced guidance of the cylinder is possible with maximum utilization of the piston powers.
  • This object is solved by the features of claim 1.
  • In the case of the spherical curvature of the control surface, the partial forces of the control surface force caused on the control surface due to the pressure field and the gap pressures are directed perpendicular to the control surface, and therefore the components of these partial forces directed parallel to the pistons are lower. This is a favorable effect, because when designing the loading force only the component of the control surface force directed parallel to the piston is added
  • is considered. A spherical control surface leads to a radial force component, but the radial force component is harmless in the embodiment according to the invention because it acts in a transverse plane of the axial piston machine, in which the cylinder is supported radially and thus cannot exert a tilting moment on the cylinder.
  • In the embodiment according to the invention, the cylinder is freed of significant damaging forces both axially and radially. This leads to an optimal contact of the cylinder on the spherical control surface, whereby an effective oil film can form between the control surface and the cylinder due to the balance of the control surface force and the load force, whereby friction and wear are minimized.
  • It should be borne in mind that both the loading force and the control surface force can consist of several partial forces, e.g. B. the frictional forces acting in the displacement of the pistons in both axial directions also influence both the control surface force and the loading force.
  • In addition, the cylinder by a central spring force, for. B. in the form of a compression spring, constantly applied against the pressure surface, as is the case with the prior art according to DE-OS 22 50 510. The partial force generated by the spring is part of the loading force.
  • The embodiment according to claim 2 is advantageous for two reasons. On the one hand, due to the piston path tapering conically to the control surface, there is a smaller radius for the control openings in the control surface. As a result, due to a relatively small pressure field and the shorter lever arm, the partial forces of the control surface force caused are lower, which enables smaller loading cylinders. On the other hand, space is gained for the loading cylinders due to this configuration.
  • In an embodiment according to claim 3 it is ensured that the pistons of the loading cylinder are constantly in contact with their active surface and therefore the cylinder is also in contact with the control surface even in the depressurized state. Another advantage of the spring preload for the pistons of the loading cylinders is that the spring force in the loading cylinders is very effective due to the relatively large distance between the axes of rotation against tilting moments effective radially on the cylinder, which can be caused, for example, by turbulence in the medium flow or mass forces. As a comparison, it should be mentioned here that conventional axial spring forces are less effective for the purpose of pressing the cylinder onto the control surface in the area of the drive shaft, because the effective distance that is predetermined for them is small. It is advantageous both for cost reasons and for reasons of the size to provide the design according to claim 4, it being advisable to pierce the pistons of the loading cylinders for the purpose of automatic lubrication of the plain bearing according to claim 5.
  • According to claim 6, a load cylinder is assigned to each piston, wherein there is a line connection between the associated piston bores and load cylinders.
  • The embodiment according to claim 7 leads to an adaptation of the balancing force generated by the loading cylinder to the actual pressure profile in the piston chambers, which is due to structural and natural law conditions relative to the cylinder in the circumferential direction, so to speak, out of phase.
  • Below are four
  • Embodiments of the invention described with reference to a simplified drawing. Show it:
    • 1 shows an axial piston machine designed according to the invention in axial section as a first exemplary embodiment;
    • 2 shows an axial piston machine designed according to the invention in axial section as a second exemplary embodiment;
    • 3 shows an axial piston machine designed according to the invention in axial section as a third exemplary embodiment;
    • Fig. 4 shows a section through the
      1 along the line IV-IV in Figure 1, but which is rotated 90 ° clockwise.
    • Fig. 5 is a section corresponding to FIG. 4 of a fourth embodiment, which is, however, rotated counterclockwise by 90 °.
  • The axial piston machine, generally designated 1 in FIG. 1, which can be operated as a pump and as a motor, consists of a housing generally designated 2, a drive shaft 4, which is rotatably mounted therein about an axis of rotation 3, a so-called swash plate 5, on which by means of sliding shoes 6 and a pressure plate 7, pistons 8 are held distributed on a pitch circle, a cylinder 9 rotatable by the drive shaft 4 about the axis of rotation 3, in which the pistons 8 are displaceably guided in axially extending piston bores 11 and a control plate 12 immovably attached to the housing 2 , whose spherically convexly curved control surface 13 has kidney-shaped control openings 14 which, during the rotation of the cylinder 9, come into or out of overlap with the piston bores 11 and thus control the pumping operation or motor operation of the axial piston machine 1 in the sense of valves.
  • The pistons 8 are driven by the swash plate 5, on which the pistons 8 are only held axially. That is, while the cylinder 9 is rotating, the sliding shoes 6 slide circumferentially on the swash plate 5, whereby the axial movement of the pistons 8 is generated.
  • The end face of the cylinder 9 facing the control surface 13 is spherically concave in accordance with the curvature of the control surface 13 and lies sealingly against the control surface 13.
  • The cylinder 9 has a bore 15 in which it is penetrated by the drive shaft 4 with play, which is supported in the region of its ends by means of roller bearings 16 and 17. The cylinder 9 is supported only on its end facing away from the control surface 13 by a radially effective support bearing 18 on the drive shaft 4. Between the drive shaft 4 and the support bearing 18 there is a rotary driving connection 19 in the form of a keyway connection which is effective in the circumferential direction. The cylinder 9 is biased by one or more compression springs 21 against the control surface 13, which act against the end face of the cylinder 9 facing away from the control surface 13 and are supported on a spherical bearing part 22 which, on the one hand, engages around the cylinder 9 with a cylindrical bore and on whose outer spherical surface slidably slides the pressure plate 7.
  • The support bearing 18 is arranged in the area of a plane denoted by A, which is also the central swivel plane of the swash plate 5.
  • During operation of the axial piston machine 1, a control surface force, generally designated F s , which acts perpendicular to the control surface 13 and attempts to lift the cylinder 9 from the control surface 13, acts on the cylinder 9, and an axially directed, resulting load force, generally designated F ER , which Cylinder 9 acted against the control surface 13. The control surface force F s results essentially as the sum of the partial pressures over the entire pressure field and possible gap pressures which are able to build up between the control surface 13 and the end face 23 of the cylinder 9 sliding thereon and which attempt to lift the cylinder 9 off the control surface 13 . On the control surface force F s , several partial forces have an influence, e.g. B. the frictional forces which are effective in both axial directions due to the displacement of the pistons 8 and due to the flow on the walls of the piston bores 11. For reasons of simplification, a further description of these partial forces is to be dispensed with. The resulting loading force F ER likewise comprises several partial forces and in particular a loading force F E with which loading cylinders 24 distributed over the circumference act on the cylinder 9 in the direction of the control surface 13. The resulting loading force F ER also generally includes piston forces denoted by F K , which, as in the explanation of the control surface force Fs, will not be discussed further. The force, not specified, generated by the compression springs 21 also influences the resulting loading force F ER .
  • The pistons of the loading cylinder 24 are designated 25 and the associated work spaces 26. As clearly shown in FIG. 4, a load cylinder 24 is assigned to each piston 8, the piston bores 11 being connected to the associated working spaces 26 of the load cylinders 24 by radial channels 27. The loading pistons 25 are supported on the housing 2 by means of a slide ring 28. They are pierced at 31 for the purpose of automatic lubrication of the sliding surface 29. While the slide ring 28 is fixedly attached to the housing 2, the loading pistons 25 take part in the rotary movement of the cylinder 9. The cylinder 9 has a flange 32 for receiving the loading cylinders 24.
  • Both the control surface force F s and the loading force F E generated by the loading cylinders 24 are pulsating forces. This results from the pressure build-up or drop in the piston bores 11.
  • Since the control surface force F s is not directed parallel to the axis of rotation 3, its control surface force component F SK directed parallel to the axis of rotation 3 is lower.
  • According to the invention it is provided that the forces acting in opposite directions on the cylinder 9 are in equilibrium. If one takes into account that the control surface force component F SK has a smaller distance a from the axis of rotation 3 than the resulting load force F ER , the distance of which from the axis of rotation 3 is denoted by b, then the result is a relatively smaller size in comparison with the control surface force component F SK Load force F ER to create a balance of forces. In order to achieve this balance of forces, the working surfaces (diameter d) of the loading cylinder 24 are designed accordingly.
  • Since the control surface force F s is directed obliquely, a radially directed force component F R results which radially loads the cylinder 9. In order to render this radial force component F R harmless, according to the invention the radius R of the control surface 13 is dimensioned so large that the lines of force of the control surface force F s and the resulting loading force F ER intersect at a point S which lies on the transverse plane A in which the cylinder 9 is supported radially. Due to this configuration, the radial force component F R is unable to exert a tilting moment on the cylinder 9.
  • The embodiment of the second exemplary embodiment according to FIG. 2 differs from the first exemplary embodiment only in that the axes of the pistons 8 converge in the direction of the control surface 13. As a result, the pistons 8 are rotated on a path which tapers conically towards the control surface 13. In such an embodiment, the size of the pressure field is compared to the first embodiment
  • and thus also reduces the control surface force F s , which is also due to a relatively small, effective distance a. In this embodiment, the loading force F ER is directed somewhat obliquely in contrast to the first embodiment. In principle, the same force relationships as in the first exemplary embodiment result in the second exemplary embodiment.
  • The third exemplary embodiment according to FIG. 3 differs from the second exemplary embodiment essentially in that no compression springs are provided which act on the cylinder 9 in the direction of the control surface 13 and which are designated 21 in FIG. 1. Instead, corresponding springs 21 are provided in the load cylinders, where they both cause the pistons 24 to lift up in the unpressurized state and also cause the cylinder 9 to effectively rest against the spherical control surface. A certain investment power is not harmful if it is low.
  • 4 and 5 show a cross-section rotated by 90 ° alternately through the axial piston machine according to FIG. 1 along the line IV-IV or in the plane of the connecting channels 27. It should be taken into account that FIG. 5 is a relative to the Fig. 4 shows a modified embodiment as a fourth embodiment. The control surface 13 is indicated by dashed lines. The kidney shape of the control openings 14, also shown with dashed lines, is clearly recognizable.
  • The fourth exemplary embodiment according to FIG. 5 differs from the first exemplary embodiment according to FIG. 4 in that the pressure field 33 of the control surface 13 indicated with cross hatching is rotated by a certain angle w against the dead center axis 34. The loading cylinders 24 are prematurely rotated in the same circumferential direction (see direction of rotation 35) by an angle w 1 . As a result, the loading force F E also has a leading effect in adaptation to the pressure build-up or reduction in the piston chambers 11.

Claims (7)

1. An axial piston machine (1) of the inclined disc type, in particular an axial piston pump,
- having a cylinder (9) which can rotate about an axis of rotation, in which, on a pitch circle, several pistons (8) are movably guided in piston bores (11) extending substantially along the axis of rotation (3) by means of an inclined disc (5),
- the piston bores (11) opening at the face (23) of the cylinder (9) which is remote from the inclined disc (5),
- the face (23) resting against a control surface (13 in which there are arranged control openings (14), positioned on the pitch circle of the pistons (8) which, in set positions of rotation of the cylinder (9), are covered by the openings of the piston bores (11),
- wherein the piston bores (11) open at the face (23) without reduction in cross-section,
- and loading cylinders (24) being distributed on the periphery which, when the axial piston machine (1) is in operation, load the cylinder (9) against the control surface (13) for the purpose of compensating an engaging control surface force (FSK) which tries to lift the cylinder (9) from the control surface (13),
- and its working chambers are each connected to a piston bore (11) by way of connecting channels (27),
- and wherein the cylinder (9) is supported radially on the shaft by a support bearing (18), characterised in that
- the face (23) is spherically concave and the control surface (13) is correspondingly spherically convex;
-the radius (R) of the control surface (13) is such that the intersecting point (S) of the control surface force (Fs) perpendicular to the control surface (13) and of the loading force (FER) lies in a plane (A) which extends transversely to the axis of rotation (3) and which is arranged in the region of the support bearing (18) of the cylinder (9),
- and said plane (A) and the swash plane (B) of the inclined disc (5) intersect in the axis of rotation (3).
2. An axial piston machine according to claim 1, characterised in that the axes of the pistons (8) and of the piston bores (11) converge conically towards the control surface (13).
3. An axial piston machine according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterised in that in at least some of the loading cylinders (24) springs (21) are evenly distributed around the circumference which load the cylinder (9) in the direction of the control surface (13).
4. An axial piston machine according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterised in that the loading pistons (25) of the loading cylinders (24) are supported against the housing (2) by means of a sliding ring (28).
5. An axial piston machine according to claim 4, characterised in that the loading pistons (25) are bored axially.
6. An axial piston machine according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterised in that there is a respective loading cylinder (24) for each piston (8).
7. An axial piston machine according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the loading cylinders (24) are offset by an angle (Wi), relative to the pistons (8) and the piston bores (11), in the direction of rotation (35).
EP19850103801 1984-04-06 1985-03-29 Axial piston machine, especially a pump of the inclined plate type Expired EP0162238B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE3413059 1984-04-06
DE19843413059 DE3413059C1 (en) 1984-04-06 1984-04-06 Axial piston machine, in particular pump of the swashplate or bevel axis type

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0162238A1 EP0162238A1 (en) 1985-11-27
EP0162238B1 true EP0162238B1 (en) 1988-11-02

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ID=6232903

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19850103801 Expired EP0162238B1 (en) 1984-04-06 1985-03-29 Axial piston machine, especially a pump of the inclined plate type

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US4602554A (en)
EP (1) EP0162238B1 (en)
JP (1) JPS60230570A (en)
DE (1) DE3413059C1 (en)

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DE19706263C1 (en) * 1997-02-18 1998-07-23 Brueninghaus Hydromatik Gmbh Axial piston machine

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DE19706263C1 (en) * 1997-02-18 1998-07-23 Brueninghaus Hydromatik Gmbh Axial piston machine
US6244160B1 (en) 1997-02-18 2001-06-12 Brueninghaus Hydromatik Gmbh Axial piston machine with RMP-dependent pressure acting against the cylinder drum

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPS60230570A (en) 1985-11-16
EP0162238A1 (en) 1985-11-27
US4602554A (en) 1986-07-29
DE3413059C1 (en) 1985-07-11

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