Small-sized fishing port and channel revetment structure
The utility model relates to the shore protection field in fishing port and river course, particularly relates to small-sized fishing port and channel revetment structure under a kind of excavating condition.
Small-sized fishing port embankment and riverbank are subject to current, morning and evening tides, wind wave action, constantly washed away, corrode, and for avoiding above-mentioned factor to affect embankment stability and safety, need take shore protection measure.Current known shore protection measure technology can, with reference to the listed shore protection measure of version national standard < < Code for design of levee projects > > (GB 50286-2013) in 2013, comprise: slope formula shore protection, Gravity Retaining Wall shore protection, Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls shore protection, stake formula shore protection, caisson shore protection etc.Above-mentioned measure respectively has its suitability and limitations.
(1) slope formula shore protection: it adopts gentle slope in conjunction with ground surface protection structure form, effluent bed progressively rises to design embankment crest level; Protective slope structure comprises dry stone wall, stone masonry, prefabricated section, mold-bagged concrete etc.This measure adopts gentle slope mode, and the shore protection gradient is less than levee body soil body angle of repose, has utilized soil body self-stability, has advantages of the soil-baffling structure of saving; But slope formula shore protection has the wide ranges of occupation of land, excavates or fill the shortcoming that volume of earthwork is large, thereby can raise construction land and ground works expense, in addition, also exist fluctuation band scope wide, increase the problem of cleaning work amount, thereby, the in the situation that at land used, nervous and cubic metre of earth haul distance being large, be all difficult to be suitable for.
(2) Gravity Retaining Wall shore protection: its vertical type, abrupt slope formula form of structure of adopting more, wall construction material is stone masonry, gabion etc., wherein stone masonry, gabion wall are gravity structure, by the overturning or slip resistance analysis of body of wall self gravitation, slide, although construction technical requirement is low, in traditional bank protection structure, adopt in a large number, but have the shortcomings such as wall-retaining structure is more thick and heavy, bearing capacity of foundation soil requirement is high, disposal cost is high, open excavation amount is large.
(3) Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls shore protection: its vertical type, abrupt slope formula form of structure of adopting, wall construction material is steel concrete more.Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls mostly is L shaped retaining wall, counterfort retaining wall, there is upright panel and horizonal base plate, utilize the soil body ballast on base plate top, panel rear side vertical reinforcement or counterfort side of body plate diagonal reinforcement tension, soil body lateral pressure with the upright panel rear side of balance, although structural volume is light compared with gravity retaining walls such as stone masonries, good integrity, but the load that exists steel concrete to add the soil body on upper plate causes greatly bearing capacity of foundation soil to require height, ground disposal cost high, base plate is wide causes the shortcomings such as digging up and filling in amount is large, therefore, its cost is higher.
(4) stake formula shore protection: it adopts vertical type deposited reinforced concrete pile structure, although structure itself to bearing capacity of foundation soil without specific (special) requirements, general to stratum wide adaptability, excavated volume is very little, but for ensureing monolithic stability and the overturning or slip resistance analysis safety of stake, need larger building-in depth, cause pile body longer, simultaneously high owing to boring (punching) pore-forming cost, in addition the advantage that foundation pile vertical bearing capacity is high is almost difficult to utilize, what utilize is but the horizontal bearing capacity of its cantilever position, and uneconomical, the unit price of its reinforced concrete structure is higher than aforementioned Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls, thereby its cost is very high, be only applicable to construction working face narrow, the shore protection section of restriction excavation.In addition, stake formula shore protection, owing to there being gap between stake, constantly washing in a pan under erosion of wave, often easily causes Lou native hidden danger, has increased detection and reinforcement cost.
(5) caisson shore protection: caisset comes from bunder, has advantages of lifting construction after its miniaturization, adopts gradually in small-sized fishing port and channel revetment structure.Caisson shore protection adopts open-topped reinforced concrete box precast construction, at precasting yard, produce in batches, by water transport to job site, be lifted into again on the riprap foundation of processed leveling, then Cast-in-situ Piles in Sand-filling building stones in caisson and after caisson, by the soil body lateral pressure thereafter of sand material gravitational equilibrium in caisson self and case.Therefore, structure collectivity weight is large, and bearing capacity of foundation soil requires high, and disposal cost is high, and caisset cost is high in addition, and therefore, the total cost of shore protection is very high.
Utility model content
In order to overcome above-mentioned technical problem, the purpose of this utility model is to provide a kind of safe and reliable small-sized fishing port and channel revetment structure, is particularly useful for excavating condition.
The technical scheme that the utility model adopts is:
A kind of small-sized fishing port and channel revetment structure, comprise retaining panel, described retaining panel is for facing upward inclined, and it comprises the face near water of front end and the gear of rear end butt soil body soil face, on the native face of described gear, be fixedly connected to anchor pole, in described anchor rod anchored rock-soil layer after retaining panel.
As the further improvement of technique scheme, described anchor pole comprises the dowel being cast in retaining panel, and described dowel is parallel to retaining panel, forms anchor pole and is connected with the firm of retaining panel.
As the further improvement of technique scheme, described anchor pole is positioned 2/3 place of retaining panel height, and horizontal by 15～23o angle.It is high that rock-bolt length L gets 2.5 times of retaining panels, depending on soil condition, and the desirable 2.5～3.5m of each anchor pole spacing d.
As the further improvement of technique scheme, the place ahead of described retaining panel bottom is connected to base plate, and described base plate comprises the front toe of the intensification of stretching under front end, in the soil body before described intensification at the bottom of toe embedding riverbed or basin.By deepening the design of front toe, effectively prevent that retaining panel is to the horizontal sliding in basin and river course.
As the further improvement of technique scheme, the angle that described retaining panel and base plate surround is cast with concrete intensive aspect.Except anchor rod anchored reinforcement effect, between retaining panel and base plate, the intensive aspect that is triangular shape of angle setting can be strengthened both structural globalities greatly, reduces retaining panel distortion
As the further improvement of technique scheme, before described intensification, the front end of toe is connected to jackstone spats, concordant base plate upper surface, described jackstone spats upper surface, and jackstone spats surface flattens.Jackstone spats digs in the bottom, to deepening front toe, forms jackstone band resistance, can further prevent that retaining panel and base plate are to the horizontal sliding in basin and river course.
As the further improvement of technique scheme, the rear on described retaining panel top is connected to landing slab, and described landing slab comprises the hallux that rear end is recessed, and described hallux embeds in the soil body at anchor pole place.The effect that acts on the front toe of intensification of this hallux is similar, further prevents the horizontal sliding of retaining panel, base plate and landing slab by embedding the soil body.
As the further improvement of technique scheme, described landing slab end is provided with lattice bank protecting component, and described lattice bank protecting component rises to slope crest level along slope.
As the further improvement of technique scheme, described lattice bank protecting component is steel bar concrete lattice and lattice inter-planting grass bank protection, wherein designs between the lattice below crest level and adopts and fill the Reynolds mat protection of grass planting again of cobble plug soil.
Further improvement as technique scheme, describedly in retaining panel forward position, be provided with into water step at regular intervals, described in enter water step and enter water along face near water, it is consistent that whole and retaining panel are faced upward tilted direction, and be directly pressed in retaining panel, form gravity retaining wall with retaining panel.
The beneficial effects of the utility model are: the utility model adopts retaining panel shore protection gear soil, the panel of retaining panel near water face adopts the oblique formula of facing upward, both saved occupation of land, reduce to a great extent again retaining panel and born soil body lateral pressure, adopt simultaneously and take anchor rod anchored panel gear soil as main, reach shore protection overturning or slip resistance analysis, the stable essential safety requirements of slide, by the utility model, can reach many-sided effects such as safe and reliable, wide adaptability, cost economic, soil disturbance are little, constructability.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below in conjunction with drawings and embodiments, the utility model is further illustrated.
Fig. 1 is cross-sectional drawing of the present utility model;
Fig. 2 is the cross-sectional drawing that the utility model enters water step section.
The specific embodiment
Small-sized fishing port and channel revetment structure as shown in Figure 1, comprise retaining panel 1, retaining panel 1 is 1:0.2～0.3 faces upward inclined, and it comprises the face near water of front end and the gear of rear end butt soil body soil face, keep off on native face and be fixedly connected to anchor pole 2, anchor pole 2 is anchored in the soil body.
Preferably, anchor pole 2 comprises the dowel 3 being cast in retaining panel 1, and dowel 3 is parallel to retaining panel 1, forms anchor pole 2 and is connected with the firm of retaining panel 1.
Preferably, anchor pole 2 is positioned 2/3 place of retaining panel 1 height, and horizontal by 15～23 ° of angles.Anchor pole 2 length L are got 2.5 times of retaining panel 1 height, depending on soil condition, and the desirable 2.5～3.5m of each anchor pole 2 spacing d.
Preferably, the place ahead of retaining panel 1 bottom is connected to base plate 4, and base plate 4 comprises the front toe 5 of the intensification of stretching under front end, in the soil body before deepening at the bottom of toe 5 embedding riverbeds or basin.By deepening the design of front toe 5, effectively prevent that retaining panel 1 is to the horizontal sliding in basin and river course.
Preferably, retaining panel 1 is cast with concrete intensive aspect 6 with the angle that base plate 4 surrounds.Except the reinforcement effect of anchor pole 2 anchorings, the intensive aspect 6 of retaining panel 1 and 4 angle settings of base plate can be strengthened both structural globalities greatly, reduces retaining panel 1 distortion
Preferably, before deepening, the front end of toe 5 is connected to jackstone spats 7, jackstone spats 7 concordant base plate 4 upper surfaces, upper surface, and jackstone surface flattens.Jackstone spats 7 digs in the bottom, to deepening front toe 5, forms jackstone band resistance, can further prevent that retaining panel 1 and base plate 4 are to the horizontal sliding in basin and river course.
Preferably, the rear on retaining panel 1 top is connected to landing slab 8, and landing slab 8 comprises the recessed hallux in rear end 9, and hallux 9 embeds in the soil body at anchor pole 2 places.The effect that acts on the front toe 5 of intensification of this hallux 9 is similar, prevents the horizontal sliding of retaining panel 1, base plate 4 and landing slab 8, and further strengthen the overturning or slip resistance analysis safety of retaining panel 1 on the oblique basis of slightly swinging back by embedding the soil body.
Preferably, landing slab 8 ends are provided with lattice bank protecting component, and lattice bank protecting component rises to slope crest level along slope.
Preferably, each structure bank protecting component is steel bar concrete lattice and lattice inter-planting grass bank protection, wherein designs between the lattice below crest level and adopts and fill Reynolds mat 10 protection of grass planting again of cobble plug soil.
Preferably, as shown in Figure 2, be provided with into water step 14 at regular intervals in retaining panel 1 forward position, enter water step 14 and enter water along face near water, it is consistent that whole and retaining panel 1 are faced upward tilted direction, and be directly pressed in retaining panel 1, with retaining panel 1 formation gravity retaining wall.
The utility model adopts following scheme implementation.
Step 1: soil excavation and anchor pole 2 constructions.
First excavate the interim slight slope of shore protection (as for filling embankment, need first layering to ram compacting and fill cohesive soil, then be shaped by cross dimensions excavation), during excavation, need stablize under the condition allowing in soil property temporarily, by the native side size excavation of retaining panel 1 gear, minimizing is backbreak as much as possible.When wherein soil excavation is to anchor pole 2 opening absolute altitude, the anchor pole 2 of can constructing, reserved anchor pole 2 dowels 3 stretch into retaining panel 1 position.After anchor pole 2 has been constructed, continue earth excavation at the bottom of basin or bed level of the river.
Step 2: toe 5,7 constructions of jackstone spats before base plate 4 and intensification.
Hand excavation is to 11 end of bottom cushion elevation, and the basis of falling plain concrete cushion layer, pricks base plate 4 and deepen front toe 5 reinforcing bars, bottom board 4 concrete.After front toe 5 moulding of base plate 4 and intensification, hand excavation's jackstone band soil body forms jackstone spats 7, and jackstone face needs leveling, and boulder burnishing surface upward, gap rubble stuff up a crack between boulder, with reduce with jackstone wedge angle to small boat at the bottom of and scratch at the bottom of river maintenance facility.By toe 5 before base plate 4 and intensification thereof, before deepening, jackstone band resistance and the axis force of anchor of toe 5 front sides, can effectively prevent that soil-baffling structure is to the horizontal sliding in basin and river course in addition.
Step 3: intensive aspect 6, retaining panel 1 and anchor pole 2 link.
Prick intensive aspect 6 reinforcing bars, retaining panel 1 reinforcing bar, and layering is poured into a mould; Retaining panel 1 is established spilled water hole 12, and spilled water hole 12 inner sides are wrapped geotextiles and stop up thereafter anti-filter packaging material material; Dowel 3 is parallel to retaining panel 1, and need be cast in retaining panel 1, forms retaining panel 1 and is connected with the firm of anchor pole 2.Anchor pole 2 is positioned the following free face discrepancy in elevation of the high platform height of distance (landing slab 8 is poor with elevation at the bottom of design port) 1/3rd places, also be 2/3 place of retaining panel 1 height in the present embodiment, horizontal by 15～23o angle, be anchored in the rear soil body of retaining panel 1 under oblique; Anchor pole 2 length L are 2.5 times of free face discrepancy in elevation; Depending on soil condition, the desirable 2.5～3.5m of each anchor pole 2 spacing d.Except the reinforcement effect of anchoring, the intensive aspect 6 that retaining panel 1 and base plate are 4, can strengthen both structural globalities greatly, reduces retaining panel 1 distortion.
Step 4: reinforced concrete platform plate 8 and hallux 9 constructions.
After retaining panel 1 moulding, adopt reinforced concrete platform plate 8 to bind, form mask top panel and People's Bank of China's platform, landing slab 8 slope aspect waters sides, be beneficial to and drain rapidly structure end face rainwater, prevent that rainwater from directly infiltrating the rear soil body of retaining panel 1 by top, increase panel lateral pressure; Platform faces sky side and establishes penetrating safety barrier 13; After platform, establish hallux 9, embed in the soil body, further strengthen the overturning or slip resistance analysis safety of retaining panel 1.
Step 5: the ecological protection against erosion slope protection construction of Reynolds mat 10 fillings between lattice.
For landing slab 8, not yet reach the operating mode of top, slope (levee crown) elevation, adopt lattice bank protection pattern to rise to this elevation, wherein crest level needs below to need to adopt Reynolds mat 10 to fill cobble plug soil between lattice and replants careless ecological protection against erosion bank protection, to prevent that wave is to domatic naughty erosion.
Step 6: enter 14 constructions of water step.
Owing to falling on little fishing port personnel and the littoral maintenance requirement in river course, need to be arranged into water step 14, for reducing step, put slope width, enter water step 14 and longitudinally arrange along retaining panel 1, can be by landing slab 8 height down to design river bed, port along retaining panel 1 along step.Enter the rubble concrete structure that water step 14 adopts gravity, face upward tilted direction consistent with retaining panel 1, structure is directly pressed on retaining panel 1 and base plate 4, forms a stifled gravity retaining wall with retaining panel 1.Thereby the suitable bearing capacity of foundation soil that is arranged on base plate 4 is high, and after panel, soil property is poor, the bank section that soil body lateral pressure is large.
The present embodiment adopts retaining panel 1 shore protection gear soil, and oblique formula is faced upward in retaining panel 1 face employing near water, has both saved occupation of land, has reduced to a great extent again retaining panel 1 soil body lateral pressure of bearing; Adopt simultaneously and take anchor pole 2 anchorings, retaining panel 1 gear soil as main, dual-purpose base plate 4, the front toe 5 of intensification, jackstone spats 7, intensive aspect 6 and landing slab 8 add the aggregate measures such as hallux 9 and reach shore protection overturning or slip resistance analysis, the stable essential safety requirements of slide.The scheme bank protection structure occupation of land width of the present embodiment is little, and open excavation amount is little, and soil disturbance is little, and plate thickness is little, and structure reinforcing bars concrete cumulative volume is little, good to engineering geological conditions compliance, without ground, process, and cost economic, speed of application is fast.
The above be the utility model preferred embodiment, it does not form the restriction to the utility model protection domain.